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Sample records for region shanxi province

  1. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  2. [Survey on a new case of visceral leishmaniasis in Shanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui-Xia; Zuo, Su-Jun; Xu, Wen-Xing; Wu, Wei-Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2012-06-30

    A new case of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) was reported by Changzhi CDC of Shanxi Province in September 2011. The case was investigated clinically and epidemiologically. The patient was a two-year-old boy who lived in Huangnian Town of Changzhi County in Shanxi Province. Clinical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly, consistent decrease of blood cells and Leishman-Donovan body in the bone marrow smear. The rK39 immune diagnosis test showed strongly positive. The case was diagnosed as kala-azar. After one course treatment of sodium stibogluconate, the patient's condition improved markedly. There were no cases of kala-azar in this region historically. Blood samples of 17 individuals and 5 domestic animals including 3 dogs were all negative in the rK39 immunodiagnostic test. It is speculated that the potential risk of kala-azar transmission exists in this region.

  3. [Genetic Characteristics of Type 2 Vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shanxi Province (China) in 2014].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongrei; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianfang; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Zhang, Chuangye; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China.

  4. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    PubMed

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence.

  6. Mine Land Reclamation and Eco-Reconstruction in Shanxi Province I: Mine Land Reclamation Model

    PubMed Central

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of “green mining industry” is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  7. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of aeolian desertification from 1975 to 2010 and its causes in northwest Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhanjin; Qin, Zuodong; Li, Hongjian; Ding, Guangwei; Meng, Xianwen

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to control aeolian desertification in China have focused on the arid and semiarid regions. However, the direct dust emission rates, sediment characteristics and local-scale controls, as well as the measures needed to combat desertification, remain poorly understood in northwest Shanxi Province. Aeolian desertification is regarded as an obstacle to local sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper investigated changes in aeolian desertification between 1975 and 2010 on the northwestern Shanxi Plateau. In this study, remote sensing images were used to classify land suffering from aeolian desertification into four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. To evaluate the evolution and status of aeolian desertification as well as its causes, we interpreted and analyzed Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) image (acquired in 1975) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (acquired in 1991, 2000, 2006, and 2010) as well as meteorological and socioeconomic data. Results revealed 11,866 km2, 13,362 km2, 14,051 km2, 13,613 km2, and 12,318 km2 of aeolian desertified land (ADL) in the above 5 periods, respectively. The spatial dynamics and patterns showed two stages: expansion during 1975-2000 at a rate of 87.37 km2 a- 1, and spatial transfer of affected areas during 2000-2010 with a net decrease of 173.27 km2 a- 1. During the evolution of aeolian desertification, areas of moderate ADL had the greatest dynamic response (11.45%). The factors controlling ADL dynamics were analyzed from the perspectives of two groups of factors: natural factors and human activities. Our results indicated that the climate-dominated natural factors contribute greatly to the occurrence and development of ADL. However, they are not the fundamental causes of its development. The human factors are the primary and direct driving forces responsible for the increase in ADL area. More thorough quantitative analysis, with more frequent remotely sensed data is needed to assess

  9. Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Ying; HU, Nan; HAN, Xiao You; DING, Ti; GIFFEN, Carol; GOLDSTEIN, Alisa M; TAYLOR, Philip R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smoking and alcohol consumption explain little of the risk for upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in China, where over half of all cases in the world occur. Methods We evaluated questionnaire-based risk factors for UGI cancers in a case-control study from Shanxi Province, China, including 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), 599 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA), 316 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), and 1514 age- and gender-matched controls. Results Ever smoking and ever use of any alcohol were not associated with risk of UGI cancer; only modest associations were observed between ESCC risk and highest cumulative smoking exposure, as well as GNCA risk and beer drinking. While several associations were noted for socioeconomic and some dietary variables with one or two UGI cancers, the strongest and most consistent relations for all three individual UGI cancers were observed for consumption of scalding hot foods (risk increased 150% to 219% for daily vs never users) and fresh vegetables and fruits (risk decreased 48% to 70% for vegetables and 46% to 68% for fruits, respectively, for high vs low quartiles). Conclusion This study confirms the minor role of tobacco and alcohol in UGI cancers in this region, and highlights thermal damage as a leading etiologic factor. PMID:21846596

  10. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  11. Epidemic characteristics, high-risk townships and space-time clusters of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province of China, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiulan; Lai, Shengjie; Yin, Wenwu; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong

    2016-12-19

    Brucellosis, one of the world's most important zoonosis, has been re-emerging in China. Shanxi Province, located in northern China, where husbandry development has been accelerated in recent years, has a rather high incidence of human brucellosis but drew little attention from the researchers. This study aimed to describe the changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2005 to 2014 and explore high-risk towns and space-time clusters for elucidating the necessity of decentralizing disease control resource to township level in epidemic regions, particularly in hotspot areas. We extracted data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System to describe the incidence and spatiotemporal distribution of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province. Geographic information system was used to identify townships at high risk for the disease. Space-Time Scan Statistic was applied to detect the space-time clusters of human brucellosis during the past decade. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 50,002 cases of human brucellosis were recorded in Shanxi, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1. The reported incidence rate increased dramatically from 7.0/100,000 in 2005 to 23.5/100,000 in 2014, with an average annual increase of 14.5%. There were still 33.8% cases delaying diagnosis in 2014. The proportion of the affected towns increased from 31.5% in 2005 to 82.5% in 2014. High-risk towns spread from the north to the center and then south of Shanxi Province, which were basins and adjacent highlands suitable for livestock cultivation. During the past decade, there were 55 space-time clusters of human brucellosis detected in high risk towns; the clusters could happen in any season. Some clusters' location maintained stable over time. During the last decade, Shanxi province's human brucellosis epidemic had been aggravated and high-risk areas concentrated in some towns located in basins and adjacent highlands. Space-time clusters existed and some

  12. Community physicians' knowledge of secondary prevention after ischemic stroke: a questionnaire survey in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Qiao, Xiaoyuan; Kang, Huijie; Ding, Ling; Bai, Lixia; Wang, Jintao

    2015-11-03

    This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, conducted in Shanxi Province, China, evaluated the knowledge of community physicians of secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). A total of 1910 physicians practicing at 832 community-based clinics, hospitals and other care centers in 11 prefectures of Shanxi Province completed the questionnaires between 1 July and 30 September 2013. Over 90 % of participants were aware of the most common risk factors for stroke, but lifestyle-related factors were seen as of low or medium importance for secondary prevention. Only about 50 % of physicians were aware of the existence of commonly used stroke scales, and fewer said that they would use those scales in their clinical practice. There were slight differences in the responses to some of the questions on risk factors and stroke scales were associated with the physicians' gender, academic qualifications, practice duration and location. Less than half of the participants were aware of the secondary prevention recommendations included in the most recent guidelines. The survey revealed a huge gap in knowledge of current guidelines for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and TIA among the physicians surveyed. Continuing education and training of community physicians, administered as a public health program, is needed to improve the healthcare of ischemic stroke and TIA patients.

  13. Coupling predicted model of arsenic in groundwater with endemic arsenism occurrence in Shanxi Province, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Rodriguez-Lado, Luis; Liu, Juan; Johnson, C Annette; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2013-11-15

    Statistical modeling has been used to predict high risk area of arsenic (As) hazard, but information about its application on endemic arsenism is limited. In this study, we aim to link the prediction model with population census data and endemic arsenicosis in Shanxi Province, Northern China. 23 explanatory variables from different sources were compiled in the format of grid at 1km resolution in a GIS environment. Logistic regression was applied to describe the relationship between binary-coded As concentrations data and the auxiliary predictors. 61 endemic arsenism villages were geo-located and combined with output maps of the prediction model. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship between arsenicosis occurrence rate and predictive As probability at village level. Our results show that 6 explanatory environmental variables were significantly contributed to the final model. Area of 3000 km(2) was found to have high risk of As concentrations above 50 μg L(-1). The linear regression indicates that 13% of the variation in arsenicosis occurrence rate can be predicted using predictive probability of As concentration above 50 μg L(-1) in Shanxi Province. These results suggest that As prediction model may be helpful for identifying As-contaminated area and endemic arsenism village. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Land Use on Soil Quality on the Loessplateau in North-West Shanxi Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Li; Ji, Ruirui; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Jianjie

    Northwest Shanxi is located at the eastern border of the Loess Plateau. In order to guard against wind, to conserve water and soil, to fix sand, a large area of Caragana microphylla was planted in the hilly loess plateau in the north-west soil properties and ultimately soil quality, a case study was conducted in Wuzhai (North-west Shanxi Province). Soil samples were collected from adjacent Caragana microphylla land, farm land, poplar forests, fallow land and mixed plantations of Caragana microphylla and poplar. Initially, soil properties under the five land-uses were studied separately. Then an evaluation indicator system was developed according to the principle of evaluation indicator selection. Subsequently, the method of multivariate analysis was used to carry through a complete scientific evaluation. Results showed a highest under the mixed plantation and, compared with the mixed plantation,the SQI of farmland decreased greatly. The SQI of fallow land was the lowest, but considering the soil nutrient content, land fallowing improved soil fertility to some extent. It was further shown that growing Caragana microphylla and mixed polar and Caragana microphylla plantation was the most sustainable ways of developing the loess plateau.

  15. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity <3/60 and <6/18, respectively, in the better-seeing eye. Standardized ophthalmologic examinations were administered to participants aged 0-80 years in 2006. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  16. Availability and quality of emergency obstetric care in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) received by women in a rural Chinese province. The study was conducted in 7 rural counties and townships in Shanxi Province, China. Data sources included interviews with 7 hospital leaders, 5 maternal and child health workers, and 7 obstetricians; 118 records of complicated delivery were audited, 21 Maternal and Child Health Annual Reports analyzed, and observations conducted of facilities and advanced labor care. The number of comprehensive EmOC facilities was adequate in all counties. Three counties had fewer basic EmOC facilities than recommended and only 4 counties reached the recommended level. Most of the existing township hospitals did not provide birthing services. All the county hospitals could perform cesarean deliveries with rates from 6.8%-40.8%. The management of complications was not evidence-based. For example, women with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were given too little magnesium sulfate; women were not closely monitored for hemorrhage after birth and the partograph was used incorrectly with consequences for obstructed labor. Basic EmOC facilities are not adequate and township hospitals should be upgraded to provide birthing services. The quality of EmOC is poor and needs improvement. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world’s highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China’s government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world’s average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. Methods In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley’s k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. Results In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on

  18. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  19. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  20. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, and the surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Xu, Weijin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mengtan

    2017-07-01

    Taiyuan is a city in Shanxi Province, China, and possesses serious seismic hazard. In this study, we constructed a time-dependent seismic hazard model for Taiyuan and the surrounding area based on several major-earthquake seismogenic structures for which historical and paleoseismic event data were available. With the time-dependent model, we calculated the distribution of peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years in Taiyuan and the surrounding area, and compared the results with those calculated using the time-independent model. The results showed that the entire area around Taiyuan has a higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. The Jiaocheng and Hengshan faults have much higher seismic hazard. Applying the model only to Taiyuan showed that the city has higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. In particular, in the western part of Taiyuan, the seismic hazard is quite high because of the proximity of the area to the Jiaocheng Fault.

  1. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives.

  2. [An epidemiologic study of restless leg syndrome among retired military elders in Shanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luqing; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-02-03

    To explore the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of restless leg syndrome (RLS) among military elders. A cross-sectional study was conducted among retired military elders in Shanxi Province from 2010 to 2011. According to age, they were divided into 4 groups to compare the prevalence of RLS and evaluate the severity of symptoms as "mild, moderate and severe". And the compositions of symptom severity were compared among different age groups. Also the rate of correct diagnosis of RLS was examined. Univariate analyses were conducted with SPSS 13. 0. There were 559 RLS patients in 3 472 elder subjects. The prevalence of RLS was 16. 1% and 15. 8% in male elders. The prevalence of RLS in male elders increased significantly with advancing age (P <0. 05). No significant difference existed in the compositions of symptom severity among different age groups of RLS patients (P > 0. 05). Only 3. 22% RLS patients were previously diagnosed and none received a proper therapy. The prevalence of RLS among military elders is higher than that of their foreign counterparts. The prevalence of RLS in male elders increases significantly with advancing age. Symptom severity of RLS has no obvious relationship with advancing age. Since the rate of correct diagnosis and therapy is rather low for RLS elders in China, we should pay greater attention to the knowledge of RLS.

  3. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, and the surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Xu, Weijin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mengtan

    2017-03-01

    Taiyuan is a city in Shanxi Province, China, and possesses serious seismic hazard. In this study, we constructed a time-dependent seismic hazard model for Taiyuan and the surrounding area based on several major-earthquake seismogenic structures for which historical and paleoseismic event data were available. With the time-dependent model, we calculated the distribution of peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years in Taiyuan and the surrounding area, and compared the results with those calculated using the time-independent model. The results showed that the entire area around Taiyuan has a higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. The Jiaocheng and Hengshan faults have much higher seismic hazard. Applying the model only to Taiyuan showed that the city has higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. In particular, in the western part of Taiyuan, the seismic hazard is quite high because of the proximity of the area to the Jiaocheng Fault.

  4. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  5. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  6. Responses of tree-ring growth and crop yield to drought indices in the Shanxi province, North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Liu, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationships among the tree-ring chronology, meteorological drought (precipitation), agricultural drought (Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI), hydrological drought (runoff), and agricultural data in the Shanxi province of North China. Correlation analyses indicate that the tree-ring chronology is significantly correlated with all of the drought indices during the main growing season from March to July. Sign test analyses further indicate that the tree-ring chronology shows variation similar to that of the drought indices in both high and low frequencies. Comparisons of the years with narrow tree rings to the severe droughts reflected in all three indices from 1957 to 2008 reveal that the radial growth of the trees in the study region can accurately record the severe drought for which all three indices were in agreement (1972, 1999, 2000, and 2001). Comparisons with the dryness/wetness index indicate that tree-ring growth can properly record the severe droughts in the history. Correlation analyses among agricultural data, tree-ring chronology, and drought indices indicate that the per-unit yield of summer crops is relatively well correlated with the agricultural drought, as indicated by the PDSI. The PDSI is the climatic factor that significantly influences both tree growth and per-unit yield of summer crops in the study region. These results indicate that the PDSI and tree-ring chronology have the potential to be used to monitor and predict the yield of summer crops. Tree-ring chronology is an important tool for drought research and for wider applications in agricultural and hydrological research.

  7. [Association of folate metabolism genes MTRR and MTHFR with complex congenital abnormalities among Chinese population in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Bai, Bao-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Miao, Chun-Yue; Li, Hui-Li

    2014-08-01

    To explore the association of polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, with complex congenital abnormalities and to further investigate its association with complex congenital abnormalities derived from three germ layers. A total of 250 cases of birth defects (with complex congenital abnormalities including congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, and craniofacial anomalies) in Shanxi Province, China were included in the study. MTRR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1801394) and MTHFR SNP (rs1801133) were genotyped by the SNaPshot method, and the genotyping results were compared with those of controls (n=420). SNPs rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. For the recessive model, individuals with GG genotype at rs1801394 and CC genotype at rs1801133 had a relatively low risk of developing birth defects, so the two genotypes were protective factors against birth defects. The homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801133, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities, while the homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801394, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm-, mesoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities. Among the Chinese population in Shanxi Province, the SNPs in folate metabolism genes (MTRR and MTHFR) are associated with complex congenital abnormalities and related to ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm development.

  8. Heavy metals in soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China: Levels, sources and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xian-liang; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg in 128 surface soil samples from Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, China were measured. The concentrations of these eight heavy metals were lower than the critical values in the national soil quality standard. However, these concentrations were found to be slightly higher than their background values in soils in Shanxi Province, indicating enrichment of these metals in soils in Xiangfen County, especially for Hg and Cd. Principal component analysis coupled with cluster analysis was used to analyze the data and identify possible sources of these heavy metals; the results showed that the eight heavy metals in soils from Xiangfen County came from three different sources. Lead, Cd, Cu and Zn mainly arose from agricultural practices and vehicle emissions. Arsenic and Ni arose mainly from parent materials. Industrial practices were the main sources of Cr and Hg. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals varied greatly, and was closely correlated to local anthropogenic activities. This study will be helpful not only for improving local soil environmental quality but will also provide a basis for effectively targeting policies to protect soils from long-term heavy metal accumulation.

  9. [HIV/AIDS related mortality in southern Shanxi province and its risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ning, Shaoping; Xue, Zidong; Wei, Jun; Mu, Shengcai; Xu, Yajuan; Jia, Shaoxian; Qiu, Chao; Xu, Jianqing

    2015-03-01

    To explore factors influencing mortality rate of HIV/AIDS and to improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). By means of retrospective cohort study and the AIDS control information system, HIV/AIDS case reports and antiviral treatment information of 4 cities in southern Shanxi province up to end of December 2012 were selected, to calculate the mortality rate and treatment coverage based on further data collected, along with analysis using the Cox proportional hazards survival regression. 4 040 cases confirmed of HIV/AIDS were included in this study. The average age was (36.0 ± 12.9) years, with 65.3% being male, 56.5% being married, 73.5% having junior high school education or lower, 58.4% being peasants, 54.3% with sexually transmitted infection (40.1% were heterosexual, 14.2% were homosexual), and 38.9% were infected via blood transmission (20.2% were former plasma donors, 16.2% blood transfusion or products recipients, 2.4% were injection drug users). Overall mortality decreased from 40.2 per 100 person/year in 2004 to 6.3 per 100 person/year in 2012, with treatment coverage concomitantly increasing from almost 14.8% to 63.4%. Cox proportional hazards survival regression was used on 4 040 qualified cases, demonstrating the top mortality risk factor was without antiretroviral therapy (RR = 14.9, 95% CI: 12.7-17.4). Cox proportional hazards survival regression was made on 1 938 cases of antiviral treatment, demonstrating that the mortality risk of underweight or obese before treatment was higher than those of normal and overweight cases (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5), and the mortality of those having a CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≤ 50 cells per µl before treatment was more than 50 cases (RR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.5); Cox proportional hazards survival regression was made on 2 102 cases of untreated cases, demonstrating the mortality risk of those initially diagnosed as AIDS was higher than those initially diagnosed as HIV (RR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2

  10. [Epidemiological investigation on thyroid disease among fertile women in different iodine intake areas of Shanxi province].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanting; Jia, Qingzhen; Zhang, Xiangdong; Guo, Baisuo; Wen, Xinping; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Juanjuan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the prevalence of thyroid diseases and its influencing factors of iodine on thyroid gland function and autoimmune among fertile women in different iodine intake areas. Cross-sectional method was used for descriptive epidemiology. 236 women aged 19 to 45 years were sampled in 2011, in Shanxi province. Questionnaire was used to include general data on place, name, age etc. Sample of water from home, one time random urine sample and venous blood were collected to test the iodine contents using arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometric methods. Finally, in blood, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyrotrophin (TSH) in blood were tested under auto-CLIA and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) through radio-immunological methods. 1)The urine iodine's medians were 486.9 µg/L for fertile women in high iodine areas, and 192.6 µg/L in low iodine areas, with difference on urine iodine level statistically significant (Z = -10.676, P = 0.000). 2) Levels of blood FT3 and FT4 in women from high iodine areas were obviously lower than those from proper iodine areas(t = -2.884, P = 0.004; t = -2.862, P = 0.005), but the level of TSH in high iodine areas was higher than that of proper iodine areas(t = 2.332, P = 0.021). 3) In both areas, the rate of the thyroid dysfunction with positive antibodies was obviously higher than those with negative antibodies (χ² = 20.941, P = 0.000;χ² = 5.596, P = 0.018), while the rate of the thyroid dysfunction with positive antibodies and the level of TSH in the blood for high iodine women higher than those in women with proper iodine level(χ² = 5.708, P = 0.37;t = -2.177, P = 0.031). 4)The morbidity rate of inferior clinical hyperthyroidism for women in high iodine areas was obviously higher than those in proper iodine areas(χ² = 9.542, P = 0.003), while the morbidity rate of inferior clinical hypothyroidism for women with positive antibodies in two areas obviously higher than

  11. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-08-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of meteorological variables on the transmission of hand, foot and mouth disease in four major cities of shanxi province, China: a time series data analysis (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Phil; Bi, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Increased incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as a critical challenge to communicable disease control and public health response. This study aimed to quantify the association between climate variation and notified cases of HFMD in selected cities of Shanxi Province, and to provide evidence for disease control and prevention. Meteorological variables and HFMD cases data in 4 major cities (Datong, Taiyuan, Changzhi and Yuncheng) of Shanxi province, China, were obtained from the China Meteorology Administration and China CDC respectively over the period 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. Correlations analyses and Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models were used to identify and quantify the relationship between the meteorological variables and HFMD. HFMD incidence varied seasonally with the majority of cases in the 4 cities occurring from May to July. Temperatures could play important roles in the incidence of HFMD in these regions. The SARIMA models indicate that a 1° C rise in average, maximum and minimum temperatures may lead to a similar relative increase in the number of cases in the 4 cities. The lag times for the effects of temperatures were identified in Taiyuan, Changzhi and Yuncheng. The numbers of cases were positively associated with average and minimum temperatures at a lag of 1 week in Taiyuan, Changzhi and Yuncheng, and with maximum temperature at a lag of 2 weeks in Yuncheng. Positive association between the temperature and HFMD has been identified from the 4 cities in Shanxi Province, although the role of weather variables on the transmission of HFMD varied in the 4 cities. Relevant prevention measures and public health action are required to reduce future risks of climate change with consideration of local climatic conditions.

  13. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    PubMed

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ(2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher (χ(2)=6.386, P<0.05). Among the 20-34, 35-49, 50 and above year-old groups, the rates were 68.8%, 58.7%, 49.5%, respectively. Results from the χ(2) test showed that gender, age and body mass index were the influencing factors on dislipidemia (χ(2)=7.117, P<0.01; χ(2)=37.135, P<0.01; χ(2)=7.009, P<0.05), while logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, body mass index level, systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with dislipidemia (P<0.05). Male miners appeared 1.501 times (OR=1.501, 95%CI: 1.895-2.516) higher than female miners in suffering from the risk of dyslipidemia. In different age groups, risks of dyslipidemia in the 35-49, 20-34 year-old groups were 1.672 (OR=1.672, 95%CI: 1.501-2.392) and 2.369 times (OR= 2.369, 95% CI: 1.275-3.469) higher than the 50 year-old. Group that with high BMI, the risk of dyslipidemia was 1.443 times (OR=1.443, 95%CI: 1.139-1.828) higher than the normal BMI group. Group with abnormal systolic pressure was 1.829 times (OR=1.829, 95%CI: 1.152-2.906) higher than normal systolic pressure group. However, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, and electrocardiogram findings did not seem to show statistically significant meanings on dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers

  14. The Impact of Climate Change on Infectious Disease Transmission: Perceptions of CDC Health Professionals in Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change. PMID:25285440

  15. Relationship Between Physical Activity Patterns and Metabolic Syndrome Among Male Coal Miners of Shanxi Province in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Xu, Shu-Hong; Guan, Hongwei; Wang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China. The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 3076 males aged 18-65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633-0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516-0.762). Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.

  16. Risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in Chinese women: large study in Jiexiu, Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhilian; Wang, Jintao; Fan, Jinrong; Zhao, Weihong; Yang, Xin; Wu, Lingmei; Li, Dongyan; Ding, ling; Wang, Wei; Xu, Junjie; Stram, Michelle; Zhao, Chengquan; Hao, Min

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiexiu, Shanxi Province, China. Twenty thousand eligible married women (age: 18-65 years) were administered with a questionnaire on potential risk factors for CIN and underwent liquid based Pap test. All women with abnormal cytological results underwent colposcopy with biopsy. Based on the biopsy pathology results, women were then assigned to either study group (with CIN) or control group (negative for histological results and volunteered to participate in the follow up study). The women in both study group and control group underwent vaginal microflora detection and dietary survey. The potential risk factors were analyzed by using ordinal logistic regression. Among the 20,000 women ne 1,438 women (7.19%) had cytologic abnormalities and 410 (2.05%) women were diagnosed histologically with CIN lesions, including 317 (1.58%) with CIN1, 93 (0.50%) with CIN2/3and 11 (55/100,000) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The average daily dietary folate intake was significantly lower in the study group (344.61±153.07μg) than in the control group (371.50±166.58μg; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age of 56-65 years, farming as the husband's occupation, unwashing the vulva after sexual intercourse, and low self-reported folate intake were positively associated with CIN development and might have contribution to the increased CIN incidence in this population. These findings may provide help to develop the strategies to reduce the risk of cervical cancer in China. PMID:28529603

  17. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  18. The impact of climate change on infectious disease transmission: perceptions of CDC health professionals in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.

  19. Risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in Chinese women: large study in Jiexiu, Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilian; Wang, Jintao; Fan, Jinrong; Zhao, Weihong; Yang, Xin; Wu, Lingmei; Li, Dongyan; Ding, Ling; Wang, Wei; Xu, Junjie; Stram, Michelle; Zhao, Chengquan; Hao, Min

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiexiu, Shanxi Province, China. Twenty thousand eligible married women (age: 18-65 years) were administered with a questionnaire on potential risk factors for CIN and underwent liquid based Pap test. All women with abnormal cytological results underwent colposcopy with biopsy. Based on the biopsy pathology results, women were then assigned to either study group (with CIN) or control group (negative for histological results and volunteered to participate in the follow up study). The women in both study group and control group underwent vaginal microflora detection and dietary survey. The potential risk factors were analyzed by using ordinal logistic regression. Among the 20,000 women ne 1,438 women (7.19%) had cytologic abnormalities and 410 (2.05%) women were diagnosed histologically with CIN lesions, including 317 (1.58%) with CIN1, 93 (0.50%) with CIN2/3and 11 (55/100,000) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The average daily dietary folate intake was significantly lower in the study group (344.61±153.07μg) than in the control group (371.50±166.58μg; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age of 56-65 years, farming as the husband's occupation, unwashing the vulva after sexual intercourse, and low self-reported folate intake were positively associated with CIN development and might have contribution to the increased CIN incidence in this population. These findings may provide help to develop the strategies to reduce the risk of cervical cancer in China.

  20. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  1. A research of some problems of the exploration and exploitation of gas-bearing coal seam in Shanxi Province

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.Y.; Liu Kai

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the author explores the problems concerning the formation of the Shanxi gas-bearing coal bed, its long-range analyses and the exploration and exploitation of the gas-bearing coal bed there. In the section about the formation of Shanxi gas-bearing coal bed and its long-range analyses the authors explain the following problems: coal seam thickness, the permeability of the gas-bearing coal bed, overburden, the structure fracture, the seam mechanism of shear, the geological structure location, etc. The authors point out that the middle section of Hedong Coal Field (HCF), Qingsui Coal Field (QCF) and Xishan Coal Field (XCF) are the most favorable areas. In the section on the exploration and its exploitation the authors point out the chief works in each work stage and the application of the means of exploration and the layout method of the exploration project, thus providing a reliable foundation for the reference of the gas-bearing exploration.

  2. [Drought-resistance of local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China: a comprehensive evaluation by using GGE biplot and subordinate function].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-wen; Zhu, Jun-gang; Wang, Shu-guang; Sun, Dai-zhen; ShiI, Yu-gang; Chen, Wei-guo

    2013-04-01

    Taking 7 local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China and two other control varieties as test materials, this paper studied their morphological and physiological traits under normal and water stress field conditions. The drought-resistance coefficient of each index of the traits was calculated. On the basis of principal component analysis, the correlations between the drought-resistance indices and their relationships with the drought-resistance of different varieties were analyzed by GGE biplot, and the drought resistance of the wheat varieties was comprehensively evaluated with the combination of subordinate function and drought resistance index analysis. The main morphological and physiological factors affecting the drought-resistance of the wheat varieties were uppermost internode length, plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf POD and SOD activities, and leaf relative water content and relative electric conductivity. There existed different degrees of correlation between these indices, and each index had different effects on the drought resistance of the varieties, being the main cause for the different drought resistance of the wheat varieties. Based on the drought-resistance, the test varieties could be classified into three groups, i. e. , drought-resistance group, intermediate group, and sensitive group. Two highly drought-resistance cultivars, Baiheshangtou and Zhuganqing, whose drought-resistance was similar to that of drought-resistant Jinmai 47, could be used as the parent materials for breeding drought-resistance wheat.

  3. Indoor air pollution from coal combustion and the risk of neural tube defects in a rural population in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Ye, Rongwei; Pei, Lijun; Liu, Jianmeng; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ren, Aiguo

    2011-08-15

    The authors evaluated indoor air pollution from coal combustion (IAPCC) as a potential risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs) in a rural population in Shanxi Province, China. The studied rural population has both high IAPCC exposure and a high prevalence of NTDs. A population-based case-control study was used to identify 610 NTD cases and 837 normal controls between November 2002 and December 2007. Information was collected within 1 week following delivery or pregnancy termination due to prenatal NTD diagnosis. The authors derived an exposure index by integrating a series of IAPCC-related characteristics concerning dwelling and lifestyle. Compared with women with no IAPCC exposure, women with any exposure at all had a 60% increased risk of having a child with an NTD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1). An increased NTD risk was linked to both residential heating (adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) and cooking (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1). The risk increased with increases in the exposure index, showing a dose-response trend (P < 0.001). This is the first known study to link IAPCC to NTDs. Additional studies are needed to confirm the link between IAPCC and NTDs.

  4. [Dynamics of forest community structure and complexity in the process of secondary succession in bedrock area of west Shanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lin-Shui; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Jin-Xing; Song, Ai-Yun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, four plots representing the typical secondary succession stages of forest community were selected at the shady slope of bedrock area in Zhongyang County of West Shanxi, aimed to study the variation patterns of the structure and complexity of forest community in the process of secondary succession. The results showed that in the succession process of the community, there was an evident regularity in the variation of height and diameter class structure. The proportion of high and big individuals in the community increased gradually, while that of low and small ones increased first but decreased then. From the viewpoint of height class structure, the compositional complexity of tree species H (X), structural complexity of tree species H (Y/X), and complexity of whole community H (X,Y) all increased first, but decreased then with the succession. At the early, middle and arbor stages of succession, the H(X) value was 2.96, 3.85 and 3.75, while H (Y/X) value was 1.27, 1.66 and 1.37, respectively.

  5. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  6. [Population-based study of human papillomavirus infection in high-risk area for cervical cancer in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan-hong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Man-ni; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xi-xia; Zhao, Fang-hui; Li, Shu-min; Li, Nan; Wu, Ling-ying; Rong, Shou-de; Zhang, Wen-hua; Ren, Sheng-da; Huang, Rui-de; Qiao, You-lin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oncogenic type of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and identify the high risk population for conducting immuno/chemoprevention of cervical cancer. All married women aged 30 to 50 with no history of hysterectomy, pelvic radiation and non-pregnant from certain villages of Xiangyuan and Yangcheng County were invited. This study was conducted through two phases. In phase one, subjects sampled the vaginal secretions using the collectors after signing the informed consent. And physicians sampled exfoliated cells from cervix in the phase two. All the specimens were tested with the Hybrid Capture 2 test. The data was managed and analyzed by VFP and SPSS software. There were 9,683 women participated in this study. Local women welcomed this study and population compliance rate was 75.4%. In tested population, we found 2,666 subjects of HPV DNA positive and HPV prevalence was 27.5%. The rates of different age group were 24.5% (30-34 yrs), 27.4% (35-39 yrs), 28.2% (40-44 yrs), 27.4% (45-50 yrs) respectively and had no significant differences (P = 0.604). The rates were slightly increased with the higher education level and had no differences (P = 0.106). The rate in mountain areas was higher than that in half-mountain areas (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection is indeed high in this region. Local women and health professionals welcome the activities of cervical cancer screening and prevention. It is an emergent task to improve their sanitary condition and prevent them from cervical cancer in these women. A women health cohort is established successfully among high HPV exposed women in rural China. The extensive biologic specimen repository has been successfully established to simultaneously study the etiology, early detection, and immuno/chemoprevention of cervical cancer.

  7. Normal faulting in the northern Shanxi Grabens, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Tim; Walker, Richard; Parsons, Barry; Wang, Weitao; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Sherlock, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    The Ordos Plateau forms a piece of non-deforming continental lithosphere in northeastern China. Despite being thousands of kilometres from the nearest plate boundary, numerous devastating earthquakes have been recorded around the margins of the plateau over the past 2000 years. Continental deformation in this part of Asia is believed to be caused by the ongoing collision of India with Eurasia; India is currently moving northwards at 40 mm/a. The rate of deformation around the Ordos Plateau, however, is significantly less; typical slip rates for faults bordering the plateau are of the order of 1 mm/a. This deformation is nonetheless important because the adjacent North China Plain is one of the most densely populated regions on Earth. The combined population of Beijing, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces is in excess of 125 million people-all potentially at risk from future earthquakes. Assessing the seismic hazard is clearly of vital societal importance. The plateau is surrounded by extensional rift systems on all sides, except for the Liupanshan in the southwestern corner, where thrust faulting is dominant. The Hetao Graben lies to the north of the plateau, the Yinchuan Graben to the west, the Weihe Graben to the south and the Shanxi Grabens to the east, where they form an S-shaped series of en-echelon basins some 1200 km long. The northern portion of the Shanxi Grabens is characterised by east-northeast striking normal faults and asymmetric half-grabens with footwall blocks tilted to the south-southeast. GPS measurements in this region are sparse, but the existing data suggests a rate of extension across the northern Shanxi grabens of anywhere between 0 mm/a and 4 mm/a. We have used optically stimulated luminescence dating of sedimentary quartz grains and Ar-Ar dating of basaltic lavas to determine ages for features which have been offset by the faulting. Combined with scarp heights and field measurements of fault dip, this data suggest a total extension rate across the

  8. [Investigation of the Campaign of"Eliminating the Four Pests and Paying Attention to Hygiene"in Shanxi province in the 1950s, with special reference to technological innovation].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Y

    2016-07-28

    In order to improve the level of people's living and health standard, increase the output of cereal crops, achieve the country's economic recovery and development, and consolidate the new state power, a Campaign of"Eliminating the Four Pests and Paying Attention to Hygiene"in the field of health was launched by the Central Government in the 1950s. In response to the call of government, Shanxi province actively organized the people to participate in this Campaign. For improving the efficiency of Eliminating the Four Pests, people widely carried out technological innovation, with constant creation and invented advanced tools, and gained fruitful technological achievements. Through technological innovation, the working efficiency and quality were enhanced. More importantly, the interaction between the national and local authorities was promoted. In other words, there was a formation of national political domination and power over the local authority, as well as the"owner"awareness and the formation of the state conception.

  9. Evaluation research on natural resource supply index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Huang, Li-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Promoting the development of the central region has become a basic national policy of China. Based on the data in 2015, this article has used factor analytic method to compare and evaluate the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China. The results show that Jiangxi province has the highest index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Hubei. However, Shanxi province has the lowest index.

  10. Estimation of the costs of cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in rural Shanxi Province, China: a micro-costing study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ju-Fang; Chen, Jun-Feng; Canfell, Karen; Feng, Xiang-Xian; Ma, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Li, Rong; Ma, Li; Li, Zhi-Fang; Lew, Jie-Bin; Ning, Yan; Qiao, You-Lin

    2012-05-24

    Cost estimation is a central feature of health economic analyses. The aim of this study was to use a micro-costing approach and a societal perspective to estimate aggregated costs associated with cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in rural China. We assumed that future screening programs will be organized at a county level (population ~250,000), and related treatments will be performed at county or prefecture hospitals; therefore, this study was conducted in a county and a prefecture hospital in Shanxi during 2008-9. Direct medical costs were estimated by gathering information on quantities and prices of drugs, supplies, equipment and labour. Direct non-medical costs were estimated via structured patient interviews and expert opinion. Under the base case assumption of a high-volume screening initiative (11,475 women screened annually per county), the aggregated direct medical costs of visual inspection, self-sampled careHPV (Qiagen USA) screening, clinician-sampled careHPV, colposcopy and biopsy were estimated as US$2.64,$7.49,$7.95,$3.90 and $5.76, respectively. Screening costs were robust to screening volume (<5% variation if 2,000 women screened annually), but costs of colposcopy/biopsy tripled at the lower volume. Direct medical costs of Loop Excision, Cold-Knife Conization and Simple and Radical Hysterectomy varied from $61-544, depending on the procedure and whether conducted at county or prefecture level. Direct non-medical expenditure varied from $0.68-$3.09 for screening/diagnosis and $83-$494 for pre-cancer/cancer treatment. Diagnostic costs were comparable to screening costs for high-volume screening but were greatly increased in lower-volume situations, which is a key consideration for the scale-up phase of new programs. The study's findings will facilitate cost-effectiveness evaluation and budget planning for cervical cancer prevention initiatives in China.

  11. Estimation of the costs of cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in rural Shanxi Province, China: a micro-costing study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost estimation is a central feature of health economic analyses. The aim of this study was to use a micro-costing approach and a societal perspective to estimate aggregated costs associated with cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in rural China. Methods We assumed that future screening programs will be organized at a county level (population ~250,000), and related treatments will be performed at county or prefecture hospitals; therefore, this study was conducted in a county and a prefecture hospital in Shanxi during 2008–9. Direct medical costs were estimated by gathering information on quantities and prices of drugs, supplies, equipment and labour. Direct non-medical costs were estimated via structured patient interviews and expert opinion. Results Under the base case assumption of a high-volume screening initiative (11,475 women screened annually per county), the aggregated direct medical costs of visual inspection, self-sampled careHPV (Qiagen USA) screening, clinician-sampled careHPV, colposcopy and biopsy were estimated as US$2.64,$7.49,$7.95,$3.90 and $5.76, respectively. Screening costs were robust to screening volume (<5% variation if 2,000 women screened annually), but costs of colposcopy/biopsy tripled at the lower volume. Direct medical costs of Loop Excision, Cold-Knife Conization and Simple and Radical Hysterectomy varied from $61–544, depending on the procedure and whether conducted at county or prefecture level. Direct non-medical expenditure varied from $0.68–$3.09 for screening/diagnosis and $83–$494 for pre-cancer/cancer treatment. Conclusions Diagnostic costs were comparable to screening costs for high-volume screening but were greatly increased in lower-volume situations, which is a key consideration for the scale-up phase of new programs. The study’s findings will facilitate cost-effectiveness evaluation and budget planning for cervical cancer prevention initiatives in China. PMID:22624619

  12. [Effects of forest floor litter and nitrogen addition on soil microbial biomass C and N and microbial activity in a mixed Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus liaotungensis forest stand in Shanxi Province of China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yu; You, Ye-Ming; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2012-09-01

    From September 2010 to October 2011, a field experiment with randomized block design was conducted in a mixed Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus liaotungensis forest stand in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province to study the effects of forest floor litter and nitrogen addition on the soil microbial carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and microbial activity (MR). The litter treatments included complete litter removal, doubling of leaf litter (L), doubling of woody litter (B), and doubling of mixed leaf and woody litter (LB), and the nitrogen addition rates were 0 (N0), 5 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) (N1), and 10 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) (N2). Except that the treatment of complete litter removal without nitrogen addition decreased the soil organic carbon content significantly, all the other treatments had no significant differences in the effects on soil organic carbon. The soil MBC, MBN, and MR varied in the ranges of 262.42-873.16 mg x kg(-1), 73.55-173.85 mg x kg(-1), and 2.38-3.68 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively, and the MBC and MBN had significant positive correlations with the MR. Nitrogen addition did not show any effect on the MBC, MBN, and MR, whereas litter treatments affected the MR significantly, with the highest MR in treatment LB, followed by treatments L and B, and the lowest in treatment of complete litter removal. There were no interactive effects between litter and nitrogen addition treatments on any of the variables studied. It was suggested that short-term nitrogen addition and forest floor litter change could have limited effects on soil microbial processes.

  13. [Calculation of regional carbon emission: a case of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shi-Yan; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Rui; Liu, Chang-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Bin

    2011-06-01

    By using IPCC carbon emission calculation formula (2006 edition), economy-carbon emission dynamic model, and cement carbon emission model, a regional carbon emission calculation framework was established, and, taking Guangdong Province as a case, its energy consumption carbon emission, cement production CO2 emission, and forest carbon sink values in 2008-2050 were predicted, based on the socio-economic statistical data, energy consumption data, cement production data, and forest carbon sink data of the Province. In 2008-2050, the cement production CO2 emission in the Province would be basically stable, with an annual carbon emission being 10-15 Mt C, the energy consumption carbon emission and the total carbon emission would be in inverse U-shape, with the peaks occurred in 2035 and 2036, respectively, and the carbon emission intensity would be decreased constantly while the forest carbon sink would have a fluctuated decline. It was feasible and reasonable to use the regional carbon emission calculation framework established in this paper to calculate the carbon emission in Guangdong Province.

  14. Hydrology of area 25, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    The eastern region of the Interior Coal Province has been divided into 11 hydrologic study areas. Area 25, located in west-central Illinois, includes the Spoon River and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Pennsylvanian age rocks underlie most of the study area. Illinois, with the largest reserves of bituminous coal, is second only to Montana in total coal reserves. Loess soils cover most of the study area. Agriculture is the dominant land use. Surface water provides 97% of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches. Water-quality data has been collected at over 31 sites. Analysis for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, iron, manganese, sulfate and many trace elements and other water-quality constituents have been completed. These data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). (USGS)

  15. Regional geomorphology and history of Titan's Xanadu province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wall, S.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R M.C.; Valora, P.; Farr, T.G.; Hayes, A.; Stiles, B.; Mitri, G.; Zebker, H.; Janssen, M.; Wye, L.; LeGall, A.; Mitchell, K.L.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.D.; Schaller, E.L.; ,

    2011-01-01

    Titan's enigmatic Xanadu province has been seen in some detail with instruments from the Cassini spacecraft. The region contains some of the most rugged, mountainous terrain on Titan, with relief over 2000 m. Xanadu contains evolved and integrated river channels, impact craters, and dry basins filled with smooth, radar-dark material, perhaps sediments from past lake beds. Arcuate and aligned mountain chains give evidence of compressional tectonism, yet the overall elevation of Xanadu is puzzlingly low compared to surrounding sand seas. Lineations associated with mountain fronts and valley floors give evidence of extension that probably contributed to this regional lowering. Several locations on Xanadu's western and southern margins contain flow-like features that may be cryovolcanic in origin, perhaps ascended from lithospheric faults related to regional downdropping late in its history. Radiometry and scatterometry observations are consistent with a water–ice or water–ammonia–ice composition to its exposed, eroded, fractured bedrock; both microwave and visible to near-infrared (v-nIR) data indicate a thin overcoating of organics, likely derived from the atmosphere. We suggest Xanadu is one of the oldest terrains on Titan and that its origin and evolution have been controlled and shaped by compressional and then extensional tectonism in the icy crust and ongoing erosion by methane rainfall.

  16. Development of a single-level optimization model for energy planning - A case study of Shanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, He; Chen, Yizhong

    2017-01-01

    Energy planning plays an important role for national and/or regional sustainable development, it can help to tackle with problems such as electricity demand, air-pollution control and various uncertain factor interrelationships in the process. In this paper, a single-level optimization program (SLOM) integrating regional energy planning and air pollution control is developed. SLOM is a combined simulation model incorporating ordered weighted averaging operator (IOWA) and interval linear programming (ILP). The proposed approach can deal with the uncertain information expressed as intervals. Meanwhile, a single-objective program (SOOM) will be employed to analyze the performance of SLOM. The result shows that SLOM can better balance the contradiction between the system cost and the pollutant emission problems at the same time, moreover, the most reasonable solutions are obtained under scenario SLOM rather than SOOM. The above SLOM was tested with regional scale in Shanxi Province, the numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  17. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  18. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  19. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  20. Regional analysis of divorce in China since 1980.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y; Wu, D

    2000-05-01

    This paper estimates and discusses divorce measures in China and its 30 provinces since 1980. The propensity for divorce in China increased 42% between 1982 and 1990. Substantial increases in divorce were observed in all provinces except Xinjiang and Shanxi. We found a fairly strong regional pattern of divorce in China: Divorce rates were lowest on the east coast and in eastern areas, highest in the northwest and the northeast, and moderate in the middle and southern parts of the country. Descriptive explanations of trends and regional variations are presented.

  1. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  2. Rheumatology Resources in a Region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fara, Nauan; Sequeira, Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the available rheumatology workforce and their working conditions results in better care for patients with rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the rheumatology resources and their distribution within district V of the College of Physicians (COLMED5) of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. All the registered rheumatologists and all the registered public and private institutions within COLMED5 were identified. Aside from these data, phone calls, letters, Internet-derived information, and databases from public and private health insurance providers and the Argentine Society of Rheumatology were included as well. Rheumatologists' per-capita rates were built for both the whole district and every town. A rate of at least 1 rheumatologist per 50,000 people was deemed an optimal resource. Thirty-six rheumatologists were identified; the calculated rate was 1 rheumatologist per 68,403 people; 44% of the health care institutions had a rheumatologist; 33% of them were public institutions. Only 25.5% of COLMED5 total population had optimal rheumatology resources in their town, 70.3% did not reach the optimal resource level but at least had a rheumatologist in their town, and 4.2% had no resources whatsoever; 49% of the total population lacked public health care facilities with inpatient settings and rheumatologists in their town. Although COLMED5 has 72% of the optimal number of rheumatologists, because of their uneven distribution, only 25.5% of the district's total population has the optimal rheumatology resources in their town. Nearly half COLMED5 total population lacks public health care facilities with inpatient settings and rheumatologists in their town, and 4.2% has no available rheumatology resource at all.

  3. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  4. Analysis on the forms and regional characteristics of the traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiyong; Hu, Haiyan; Miao, Lei; Zhou, Bo

    2017-08-01

    The traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province show rich historic cultural deposits and distinctive regional characteristics under the influence of the geographic environment, resource endowment and historic culture. Research was done on the main construction patterns of the traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province, as well as relevant data and techniques, revealing the symbiotic interdependence between the traditional dwellings and nature in different natural and humanistic environments, providing a certain theoretical reference for the diversified conservation and heritage of the traditional dwellings.

  5. [Equity of Health Resources Allocation in Minority Regions of Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Tang, Wen; Liang, Zhi; Zou, Bo; Li, Xiao-song

    2016-03-01

    To determine equity of health resources allocation in minority regions of Sichuan province from 2009 to 2013. Health resources distribution equity among populations and across geographic catchments were measured using coefficients of Inter-Individual differences and Individual-Mean differences. Health resources, especially human resources, in minority regions increased slowly over the years. Poorer allocation equity was found in nursing resources compared with doctors and hospital beds. Better distribution equity was found among populations than across geographic catchments. High levels of equity in resource distributions among populations and across geographic catchments were found in Aba. In Liangshan, more equitable distributions were found in doctors and hospital beds compared with nurses. The rest of minority regions had poor absolute allocation equity in doctors and hospital beds among populations. Appropriate allocation of health resources can promote health development. Health resources allocation in minority regions of Sichuan province is unreasonable. The government and relevant departments should take actions to optimize health resources allocations.

  6. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A regional model of the hydrological drought severity for Tehran Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiee, M.

    2003-04-01

    Prolonged streamflow droughts can imply high economic or even human loss where rivers act as water supply systems or as inflows to hydropower ,and fauna habits can be damaged ,specially in areas where rivers are used as sewage recipients. The primary purpose of this study is to develop regional models of the hydrological drought severity at ungaged sites in Tehran province. Because of the close relationship between drought severity and hydrogeological features, The model development first involved delimiting homogeneous hydrological regions by using two step cluster analysis. A model of completely describing and analyzing the stochastic process of stream drought has been recommended. A run analysis of drought seventies with the different return periods of 12 stations in Tehran province in Iran was estimated from watershed and climatic parameters. The study results reveals that the regional regression models developed in this study could be applied reasonably at ungaged sites. Key word: Hydrological drought, severity, run analysis, Analysis, ungaged sites.

  8. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  9. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  11. Regional disparities in the distribution of healthcare workers: evidence from Iran, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province.

    PubMed

    Ezati Asar, Mohamad; Varehzardi, Ramin; Rajabi Vasokolaei, Ghasem; Haghi, Mehdi; Fazelipor, Morteza

    2015-02-09

    A health care service is a prerequisite for sustainable development. This requires access to balanced health workers in different geographic areas. The first step is to identify inequality in access to health workers in different areas. This study is a descriptive study was carried out on the cities in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. TOPSIS technique was used to rank the cities in terms of regional disparities in the distribution of health workers. The findings revealed that distinct disparities in the distribution of healthcare workers across Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Shahrekord and Ardal cities were classified as 1st and 7th respectively. Policy makers should consider priority (regional planning, budget and resources allocation) according to the distribution of healthcare workers.

  12. [Survival and reproduction of Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni in water network regions in Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chong-Feng; Zou, Jie-Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang; Zhou, Xian-Min

    2011-04-01

    To understand the possibility of the survival and reproduction of Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails in water network regions in Hubei Province, as well as their expected lifespan after leaving the original propagating environment, so as to provide the basic data and precondition for reducing the infection rates of O. h. hupensis in the lake regions. The O. h. robertsoni snails, smooth-shell, were collected from Danling County, Sichuan Province,and raised in the cages in Baimasi Town of Jiangling County, Hubei Province. The survival and reproduction abilities of the snails were observed on regular time. The O. h. hupensis from Jiangling County, Hubei Province was studied as a control group. The expected lifespan of snails was calculated by using the animal life table. After 3-, 6-month, the survival rates of O. h. robertsoni were maintained more than 75% in the homogeneous and mixed living conditions, still above 20% after 9-month. Compared with the control group, there was a statistically significant difference in the 3-month group (Chi2 three months = 38.641, P < 0.05), there was a significant difference between the homogeneous and mixed groups for the female snail survival rates (Chi2af = 13.255, P < 0.05, Chi2cg = 4.882, P < 0.05), but not in the 6-, 9-month groups (Chi2 six months = 3.253, P > 0.05; Chi2 nine months = 5.017, P > 0.05). Filial generation snails were found after nine months in each group. The expected lifespan of 0. h. hupensis was 41.16 d and that of O. h. robertsoni was 35.84 d in the laboratory. The O. h. robertsoni snails from foreign lands can continually survive and reproduce in water network regions in Hubei. O. h. robertsoni snails have enough survival time to passive remote diffusion after leaving the original propagating environments.

  13. Toward a sustainable regional electricity system: The case of Kangwaon Province in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Inwhan

    Korea's exceptional economic growth for the last three decades has been accompanied by a rapid growth in commercial energy use. While the world increased its total primary energy consumption by 1.7 percent annually during the period between 1971 and 1994, Korea expanded its consumption level by 8.5 percent during the same period. The first quarter of the twenty-first century will be a period when energy consumption in Korea escalates even further, particularly in electricity consumption. This projection raises potential conflicts between Korea's economic growth and Korea's participation in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Noh, 1991). A sustainable energy system is likely to promote sustainable development. However, Korea's current electricity system mainly comprised of fossil fuels and nuclear power is unsustainable in the context of energy, environment, and economy (E3). As a means of addressing the problem, this study introduces the country's electricity system shaped by the actions of local regions. How a local region, such as Kangwon Province in Korea, might take steps to mitigate the problems associated with Korea's current electricity system? Reducing regional electricity requirements through end-use efficiency improvements in electric appliances, buildings, and industrial processes is fundamentally important. Decentralized and renewable-oriented electricity supply options are also important to the success of region-based sustainable electricity systems. This dissertation compares environmental and economic benefits between the conventional and sustainable electricity systems to meet electricity requirements in Kangwon Province in the year 2010. The results clearly indicate that the region-based sustainable electricity system gives significant benefits to the Province in terms of energy, economy, and environment. In the final chapter, policy guidelines are developed to implement region-based sustainable electricity plans.

  14. [Evaluation on sustainability of forest resources in Bailong River forest region, Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenggang; Cheng, Guodong; Wu, Bingli; Chen, Yuqi; Sun, Xuegang

    2003-09-01

    Based on the theories of sustainable development of forest resources, this paper constructed an index system for the integrative evaluation on the sustainability of forest resources in Bailon River forest region of Gansu Province. After calculated the index values of five strategic levels and twenty measure levels, the degree of harmony (DH) was obtained, with which, the sustainability of test forest resources could be evaluated. The DH value was 0.5320 in 1996 and 0.6100 in 2000, which was smaller than the theoretic value of 0.7000, and hence, this forest region belonged to non-sustainable development, but made some progress for its sustainability.

  15. Surveillance of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Domestic Ruminants in the Dongting Lake Region, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinming; Zhu, Chunxia; Shi, Yaojun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lanpin; Qin, Shangtian; Kang, Saie; Huang, Yanpin; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is prevalent in Asian countries and it remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the marsh and lake regions of southern China, particularly the Dongting Lake region bordering Hunan and Hubei provinces, and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province. Domestic ruminants, especially bovines, have long been considered to play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. Methods and Findings A miracidial hatching technique was used to investigate the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in domestic ruminants and field feces collected from two towns located to the south and east of Dongting Lake, Hunan province, between 2005 and 2010. The overall prevalence of infection was not significantly reduced from 4.93% in 2005 to 3.64% in 2008, after which it was maintained at this level. Bovines comprised 23.5–58.2% of the total infected ruminants, while goats comprised 41.8–76.5%. Infection rates in cattle and goats were significantly higher than those found in buffalo in most study years. The prevalence in buffalo younger than three years was significantly higher than that in those aged over three years. All the positive field samples of feces were derived from bovines in Nandashan. In Matang Town, 61.22% of the positive field feces were from bovines, while the rest were from goats. The positive rates for field feces were approximately the same in April and November/October. Conclusions The present study found that bovines and goats are major sources of S. japonicum infection in the Dongting lake region and there was age-related resistance in buffalo. Both bovines and goats should be treated equally when controlling S. japonicum infections in the Dongting lake region. It is essential to conduct an additional mass treatment in late March or early April, in addition to the original treatment scheme. PMID:22359638

  16. Assessing the regional ecological security: methodology and a case study for the western Jilin Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xue, Linfu; Wang, Xikui

    2008-10-01

    Ecological security can be investigated in both broad sense and narrow sense. Because of the wide area and regional discrepancy in influencing factors and ecological background, the investigation on regional environment hasn't been done systematically. Assessment on regional security in fragile region is important content of sustainable development. The western Jilin Province lines in the semi-arid agro-pastoral interweaving belt (APIB),within which agriculture and animal husbandry interplay or frequently alternate with each other. Study on the regional ecological security of this region offer the scientific support for protecting the regional environment and sustainability. This article set up the Pressure-State-Response model according to the interaction between human and environmental system, and assessed the ecological safety degree in the western part of Jilin Province in year 2000, using compound model and Grid method based on GIS and RS. The Ecological Security Index (ESI) was calculated by multilayer synthesis with liner weighting function method, which divided the area into the following five different conditions: highly damaged, moderately damaged, early stages of damage, relative safely, and safety, regarding change of environmental key point as the threshold value that varied under the stress of human activity. The results show that eco-environment in study area is at medial level. The early stage of damage and relative safely level occupies the largest area proportion accounting for 68.61%. Furthermore, the condition in the eastern part is better than that of the western part and the most serious degradation is found in the middle part of the study area. When talking about the ten counties in the region, highly damaged area accounts for a very small percentage. The county that has the widest area of relatively secured area is Qian'an, and that of the smallest is Da'an. The areas of highly damaged area in Tongyu, Zhenlai and Da'an have exceeded 10% and

  17. [Obstacles for natural regeneration of Larix olgensis plantations in montane regions of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao-jun; Liu, Zu-gen; Wang, He-xin

    2008-04-01

    Based on the field investigations about the seed bank, seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling survival and growth in the Larix olgensis plantations with different thinning intensities and various ground preparations in the montane regions of eastern Liaoning Province, the main factors affecting the natural regeneration of L. olgensis were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that in the seed rain of 40 years old L. olgensis plantation, 30% of the seeds had viability, which could meet the needs of natural regeneration. The seeds in soil seed bank mainly distributed in litter layer, and the seedlings younger than one-year old emerged in April and reached the peak in June. The accumulative emergence rate of the seedlings had no significant correlation with thinning intensities, but was affected by ground preparations. The average survival rate of appeared seedlings increased with increasing thinning intensities, but the seedling growth was generally slow in the plantation stands, e.g., the seedling height was less than 6 cm, and most of the seedlings disappeared in September. In the plantation stands, it was difficult to find the L. olgensis seedlings elder than one-year; but in the clear-cut area with enough light and less ground cover, more seedlings could survive and grew well. Based on the above mentioned results, it was concluded that the main obstacles for the natural regeneration of L. olgensis plantations in montane regions of eastern Liaoning Province could be light intensity and ground cover.

  18. Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Kun; Yao, Shang-Man; Xu, Yi-Ran; Niu, Run-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data. Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisherandapos;s exact test. Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk. Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the

  19. An epidemiologic study of mitochondrial membrane transporter protein gene polymorphism and risk factors for neural tube defects in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhizhen; Xie, Jun; Luo, Tian'e; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Hong; Li, Peizhen

    2012-02-25

    The present study involved a questionnaire survey of 156 mothers that gave birth to children with neural tube defects or had a history of pregnancy resulting in children with neural tube defects (case group) and 156 control mothers with concurrent healthy children (control group) as well as detection of mitochondrial membrane transporter protein gene [uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)] polymorphism. The maternal UCP2 3' untranslated region (UTR) D/D genotype and D allele frequency were significantly higher in the case group compared with the control group (odds ratio (OR) 3.233; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.103-9.476; P = 0.040; OR: 3.484; 95% CI: for neural tube defects 2.109-5.753; P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of risk factors for neural tube defects showed that a maternal UCP2 3' UTR D/D genotype was negatively interacted with the mothers' consumption of frequent fresh fruit and vegetables (S = 0.007), positively interacted with the mothers' frequency of germinated potato consumption (S = 2.15) and positively interacted with the mothers' body mass index (S = 3.50). These findings suggest that maternal UCP2 3' UTR gene polymorphism, pregnancy time, consumption of germinated potatoes and body mass index are associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects in children from mothers living in Shanxi province, China. Moreover, there is an apparent gene-environment interaction involved in the development of neural tube defects in offspring.

  20. [Enterobius vermicularis infection status among children in 9 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Dan; Wang, Ju-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Zang, Wei; Qian, Men-Bao; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Chang-Hai; Wang, Guo-Fei; Xu, Long-Qi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/A/M) of China, and analyze its risk factors. From April to December 2011, one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city, district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui and Guizhou, respectively. Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube. Information of children's family condition, health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing. 14 964 children were examined, and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected. The total prevalence was 17.8% (2 659/14 964). Of the 9 P/A/M, the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%, 869/1 701) and lowest in Anhui Province (0.8%, 13/1 589). The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%, 552/7 581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%, 2 107/7 383) (chi2 = 1156.73, P < 0.01). The highest prevalence in urban and rural areas was found in Haikou City(38.0%, 322/847) and Wanning City (64.1%, 547/854) of Hainan Province. The prevalence rate in males and females was 17.4% (1 410/8 128) and 18.3% (1249/6 834), respectively (chi2 = 2.192, P > 0.05). The highest prevalence in males (61.2%, 300/490) and females (67.9%, 247/364) was found in children of Wanning City. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence, education level of parents, occupation of parents, nail biting, types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E. vermicularis infection. The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China, and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.

  1. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  2. Correlation of Tectonic Provinces of South America and the Caribbean Region with MAGSAT Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Hinze, W. J.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Intensities of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data correlate with the main tectonic provinces of South America and the Caribbean region. Magnetic anomalies of the continents generally have higher amplitudes than oceanic anomalies. This is particularly evident in Central America and in the shield areas of South America. The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico are underlain by prominent magnetic minima. Within these oceanic areas, linear magnetic highs correlate with topographic ridges which separate the Gulf of Mexico, the Colombian Basin, and the Venezuelan Basin. The boundaries of the Caribbean plate occur along magnetic gradients which are particularly sharp along the northern and western margins of the plate, but gradational along the southern margin where they merge with the Andean Cordillera. The anomalies along the western margin of the South American plate are also distinct and appear to be separate from those of the adjacent ocean basin. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend into the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  4. Mössbauer studies of impactites from Huamalies province in Huanuco Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Espinoza, S.; Morales, G.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    This report is about the X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer studies of three impactite samples denominated PMe-8, PMe-9 and PMe-11 from Huamalies Province in Huánuco Region, Peru. When terrestrial rocks are submitted to pressures higher than 60 GP, the majority is completely melted, forming a kind of glass called impactites. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of quartz as the principal mineralogical phase in all samples. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectra at room temperature of samples PMe-8 and PMe-9 show broadened spectra that were fitted using a distribution model. The most probable field of the magnetic component is 34 T, corresponding to the presence of small particles of goethite, confirmed by the 4.2 K spectrum. For the sample PMe-11, the MS showed the presence of well crystallized hematite.

  5. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  6. Models to Predict Flowering Time in the Main Saffron Production Regions of Khorasan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behdani, M. A.; Koocheki, A.; Nassiri, M.; Rezvani, P.

    The objective of this study was to develop a thermal model that can be used for prediction of saffron flowering time. For this purpose, existing data on saffron flower emergence time were collected in a wide range of temperature regimes over the saffron production regions of Khorasan province, Iran. Linear second-order polynomial and 5-parameter beta models were used and statistically compared for their ability in predicting saffron flowering time as a function of temperature. The results showed a significant delay in flowering date across the temperature gradient. While beta model had a better statistical performance but the simple linear model also showed a good predicting ability and therefore, can be used as a reliable model.

  7. Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

    1997-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals.

  8. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  9. Human Trypanosomiasis in the Eastern Region of the Panama Province: New Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, José E.; Pineda, Vanesa; Garisto, Juan D.; Samudio, Franklyn; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Saldaña, Azael

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of Chagas disease was studied in five rural communities located in the eastern region of the Panama Province. Serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 5.88% (12/204). Hemocultures coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.88% (12/204). An overall trypanosome infection index of 11.76% (24/204) was detected in this population. A total of 121 triatomine specimens were collected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Rhodnius pallescens was confirmed as the predominant species. Molecular analysis showed that 17.8% (13/73) of the examined insects were positive for T. cruzi, 17.8% (13/73) for T. rangeli, and 35.6% (26/73) presented mixed infections. Among 73 R. pallescens evaluated, 16.4% (12/73) contained opossum blood meals. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20348502

  10. [Regional land main-function division of Guangdong Province based on gravity center and central place theory].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-Qing; Ye, Da-Qing

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, the regional land main-function division of Guangdong Province was studied, based on the statistical indices of 21 cities in the Province in 2008 and the central place theory, and by the methods of spatial gravity center and fuzzy clustering. In 2008, cities Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shantou, Foshan, Dongguan, and Chaozhou were the prior developed zones, lying in gravity center region and well exerted their radiating role in developed economy, being the central region for the development of economy in the Province. Cities Heyuan, Shanwei, Jiangmen, Yangjiang, Zhanjiang, Maoming, and Zhaoqing were the restrictively developed zones. These cities had lower centrality index and worse economic base, and thereby, their ecological restoration and protection should be strengthened to make these cities be established into an eco-benefit ensured region. Cities Zhuhai, Shaoguan, Meizhou, Huizhou, Zhongshan, Qingyuan, Jieyang and Yunfu were the key developed zones, which should undertake the transfer of the industries from prior developed zones of Guangdong and limit the transfer of population from restrictively developed zones of the Province, gradually becoming the main supporting region for the economic development and population agglomeration of Guangdong.

  11. Regional correlation of deposition sequences in the southern Mesozoic marine province, northwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, J.I.; Oldow, J.S. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Mesozoic marine province of a northwestern Nevada, deposited in subaerial to deep marine environment in a backarc basin, underwent severe deformation during the late Mesozoic. Restoration of stratigraphic relations among constituent volcanic, volcanogenic, carbonate, and continentally-derived siliciclastic rocks has been hampered by sparse biostratigraphic age control. Regional correlation of coeval facies is made possible by coupling depositional sequences with biostratigraphic control in the southwestern Gabbs Valley Range, the southern Shoshone Mountains, and the southern Clan Alpine Mountains, which serve as reference sections for Late Triassic and Early Jurassic ammonite zonation of western North America. Differentiation between regionally significant sequence boundaries and those of limited areal extent is possible only by linking the biostratigraphy and physical stratigraphic relations, such as abrupt vertical transitions in lithology corresponding to large facies changes. Physical stratigraphic relations alone are not adequate for correlation ad indicated by the diachronous initiation of Early to Middle( ) Jurassic deposition in half-graben basins (Dunlap Formation) which locally cloaks eustatically( ) controlled depositional sequences. Within these limitations, three regionally extensive sequences are recognized in the reference sections and have lower boundaries at the base of Upper Triassic shallow marine to deltaic carbonate-clastic rocks (Luning Formation) and at the base and within subtidal to offshore-marine carbonate and clastic rocks (Triassic and Jurassic Volcano Peak Group).

  12. [Mortality excess analysis for year 2015 in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Pinzone, Filippo; Cusimano, Rosanna; Casuccio, Nicolò; Mancuso, Adriana; Pitarresi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    a death number increment compared to the previous years was observed in Italy for the year 2015; its causes are under study. to verify if the mortality occurred in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) for the year 2015 was greater than the one observed in the previous period (years 2009-2014) and to find which death causes it would be attributable to. observed number of deaths in 2015 were compared with expected numbers calculated with the traditional analysis of direct adjusted rates, and with a 90% predictive interval estimated fitting a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), via a quasi-Poisson distribution of the observed deaths in the period 2009-2014; various measures of the environmental temperature were used as regressor. The latter method was used also to analyse causes of death. all deaths occurred in residents in Palermo Province in the years 2009-2015. for each population subgroup based on sex and residence, direct adjusted rates for 2015 were lower than those observed in the previous period, but for women resident in towns outside Palermo (observed/estimated ratio: 1.04; 95%IC 1.00-1.08). GAM analysis shows mortality excesses only in men aged more than 64 years; in Palermo residents, excesses were shown in the 2nd week of December; in residents in towns of the Province excesses were shown in the 2nd and 3rd week of February and in the 1st and 2nd week of August. In the death causes analysis, mortality excesses were shown for pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia in the 1st and 2nd weeks of January; 3rd week of February; in the 1st, 2nd and 4th week of August; and in the 1st week of October. For infectious diseases, these excesses were observed in the 1st week of March. it is plausible that in some weeks of the year 2015 there have been a mortality excess; however, as all-year mortality is lower or equal to that of the previous periods, the Authors believe that there is an harvesting effect, that is a mortality displacement that does not affect total

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  14. Current forest conditions of older stands of the mixed mesophytic forest region on the Appalachian Plateaus Province of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James F. Jr. Rosson

    2008-01-01

    E. Lucy Braun coined the term "mixed mesophytic forest" in 1916. These forests are structurally complex and occur extensively across the Appalachian Plateaus Province. This region is considered the epicenter of highest development of the eastern deciduous forest. I used U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to study current forest...

  15. [Investigation on infection sources of schistosomiasis in mountainous regions, Nanjian County, Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Shao, Zong-Ti; Feng, Xi-Guang; Xiong, Meng-Tao; Wu, Ming-Shou; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Meng-Xian; Zuo, Ji-Mao; Shen, Mei-Fen; Sun, Jia-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yi, Chun-Yuan; Dong, Xing-Qi

    2013-12-01

    To understand the types of schisotsome infection sources and their roles in schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous endemic regions in Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for implementing the comprehensive control measures based on infection source control. Two villages of typical mountainous regions in Nanjian County were chosen for field investigation. The Oncomelania hupensis snail status was surveyed by the methods of systematic and environmental sampling. The infections of schistosomiasis were surveyed in residents with the indirect haemagglutination and the hatching method, in livestock with the hatching method and in wild animals with the anatomical method and the hatching method. The distribution and pollution status of wild faeces were investigated in the snail environments nearby villages or with livestock frequent activities. The positives of schistosomiasis in wild faeces were tested with the hatching method. The pollution index of wild feces was calculated. A total of 533.56 hm2 were investigated in two villages, and the area with snails was 16.52 hm2. The rate of frame with snails was 1.03%, the average density of snails was 0.07 snails/0.1 m2, and no positive snails were found. The positive rate of blood examinations of population was 1.61%, but no persons were positive with the hatching method. The infection rates were 0.90%, and 0.62% in cattle and equus, respectively, and there were no positives in other livestock. Totally 472 piles of wild feces of 6 species (human, cattle, equus, goat, pig and dog) distributed in the investigation areas, and among them, the densities of wild feces of cattle, equus, and dog were 7.2, 4.3 piles/hm2, and 2.1 piles/hm2 respectively, being relatively higher than others. The hatching positive rates of wild faeces of cattle, equus, and dog were 2.27% (3/132), 2.63% (2/76), and 3.70% (1/27), respectively. The relative pollution indexes of wild faeces of cattle, equus, and dog were 80.68%, 15.89%, and 3

  16. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  17. Extension rates across the northern Shanxi Grabens, China, from Quaternary geology, seismicity and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Timothy A.; Elliott, John R.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Sherlock, Sarah; Walker, Richard T.; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between geological, seismic and geodetic rates of strain can indicate that rates of crustal deformation, and hence seismic hazard, are varying through time. Previous studies in the northern Shanxi Grabens, at the northeastern corner of the Ordos Plateau in northern China, have found extension rates of anywhere between 0 and 6 mm/a at an azimuth of between 95 and 180 °. In this paper we determine extension rates across the northern Shanxi Grabens from: offset geomorphological features and a variety of Quaternary dating techniques (including new IRSL and Ar-Ar ages); a Kostrov summation using a 700 year catalogue of historical earthquakes; and recent campaign GPS measurements. We observe good agreement between Quaternary, seismic and geodetic rates of strain, and we find that the northern Shanxi Grabens are extending at around 1 to 2 mm/a at an azimuth of ≈ 151 °. The azimuth of extension is particularly well constrained and can be reliably inferred from catalogues of small earthquakes. We do not find evidence for any substantial variations in extension rate through time, though there is a notable seismic moment rate deficit since 1750. This deficit could indicate complex fault interactions across large regions, aseismic accommodation of deformation, or that we are quite late in the earthquake cycle with the potential for larger earthquakes in the relatively near future.

  18. Extension rates across the northern Shanxi Grabens, China, from Quaternary geology, seismicity and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Timothy A.; Elliott, John R.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Sherlock, Sarah; Walker, Richard T.; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhou, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Discrepancies between geological, seismic and geodetic rates of strain can indicate that rates of crustal deformation, and hence seismic hazard, are varying through time. Previous studies in the northern Shanxi Grabens, at the northeastern corner of the Ordos Plateau in northern China, have found extension rates of anywhere between 0 and 6 mm a-1 at an azimuth of between 95° and 180°. In this paper we determine extension rates across the northern Shanxi Grabens from offset geomorphological features and a variety of Quaternary dating techniques (including new IRSL and Ar-Ar ages), a Kostrov summation using a 700 yr catalogue of historical earthquakes, and recent campaign GPS measurements. We observe good agreement between Quaternary, seismic and geodetic rates of strain, and we find that the northern Shanxi Grabens are extending at around 1-2 mm a-1 at an azimuth of ≈151°. The azimuth of extension is particularly well constrained and can be reliably inferred from catalogues of small earthquakes. We do not find evidence for any substantial variations in extension rate through time, though there is a notable seismic moment rate deficit since 1750. This deficit could indicate complex fault interactions across large regions, aseismic accommodation of deformation, or that we are quite late in the earthquake cycle with the potential for larger earthquakes in the relatively near future.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco.

    PubMed

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Ajebli, Mohammed; Hebi, Morad

    2017-02-23

    and other regions of Morocco, the province of Tata seems to be the most similar to Tafilalet (JI=42.97), while M'sila (Algeria) was the most similar to Tafilalet among areas in neighboring countries (JI=13.00). Despite the richness which characterizes Tafilalet regarding diversity and effectiveness of medicinal plants as well as the largest culture and knowledge related to the popular phytotherapy among local people in this region, several procedures must be realized to protect and to valorize this interesting inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south. PMID:27698577

  1. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  2. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  3. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  4. [Characteristics of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations among patients with phenylketonuria from Linyi region of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Huafeng; Li, Yongli; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-10

    To explore the characteristics of (PAH) gene mutations among patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from Linyi area of Shandong Province. For 51 children affected with PKU and their parents, the 13 exons and their flanking intronic sequences of the PAH gene were directly sequenced with Sanger method. PAH gene mutations were detected in all of the 102 alleles of the patients, which included 31 types of mutations. Common mutations included R243Q (17/102, 16.67%), IVS4-1G to A (9/102, 8.82%), R241C (8/102, 7.84%), R111X (8/102, 7.84%), and V399V (8/102, 7.84%). In addition, two novel mutations, D101N, 345-347del, have been detected. The 31 types of mutations included missense, nonsense, deletion, and splicing mutations, which were mainly located in exons 7 (29, 28.43%), 11 (18, 17.65%), 3 (16, 15.69%) and 12 (13, 12.75%). Mutations of the PAH gene in Linyi region mainly distributed in exons 7, 11, and 3, and the most common mutation were R243Q. Two novel mutations, D101N and 345-347del, have been detected.

  5. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management.

  6. Exploration of the Faroes Region: Seismic images beneath a basalt province

    SciTech Connect

    Boldreel, L.O. ); Keser Neish, J. ); Ziska, H. )

    1996-01-01

    The Faroes Region, located between Iceland and Scotland, represent one of the significant Tertiary Igneous provinces of Western Europe. During the Paleocene and Eocene, vast amounts of basaltic material was extruded and therefore superimposed upon the pre-existing structural and stratigraphic fabric of the area. This basalt cover presents a substantial barrier to exploration in the area, and has not been penetrated by drilling to date. However, recent advances in geophysical data acquisition and processing resulted in the acquisition of state of the art data sets in 1994 and 1995. This seismic data demonstrates imaging capability both within and beneath the basalt, allowing definition of intra and sub basalt units in the more basinal areas. Seismic studies carried out within the basalt units give valuable information concerning the paleogeography and subsidence behaviour of the area. Shot records from these surveys have been analyzed for their wide angle reflection and refraction information in order to constrain the velocity model for the overlying Tertiary section and to study the velocity behaviour of the basalt units themselves. Application of this analysis has resulted in the derivation of substantially more accurate depth estimates for the underlying units. This study demonstrates that penetration of the basalt and resolution of the underlying features is possible, making petroleum exploration in the Faroese offshore area viable.

  7. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  8. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health.

  9. [Regionalization of perinatal health care in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Simioni, Alberto Tomás; Llanos, Oraldo; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina; Brizuela, Vanessa; Abalos, Edgardo

    2017-05-25

    Improve the performance of the regionalization policy in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, as a strategy to improve perinatal health care by analyzing implementation processes and building consensus among decision makers and stakeholders around an action plan. Implementation research was conducted using mixed methodology. A needs assessment established tracer indicators to measure adherence to the components of the policy. Actors were studied to identify the barriers and facilitators of implementation. Training was provided on the development of consensus- and evidence-based policies, through workshops in which policy briefs were prepared and through a deliberative dialogue. There were improvements in the number of births in appropriate hospitals and in the number of births in maternity hospitals with Essential Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CONE). Barriers were identified in the referral systems and in communication on policy, which resulted in an initial agreement on the need for guidelines and specific technical training on the transfer of babies and mothers. The participation of health workers in identifying barriers and strategies to overcome them, and the use of tools to report this to management, permit the adoption of consensus- and evidence-based strategies to improve policy implementation.

  10. Strategic environmental assessment of energy planning tools. A study of Italian regions and provinces

    SciTech Connect

    De Montis, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    SEA has been applied in different ways in EU energy and environmental planning instruments, because different member states have interpreted European Directive 2001/42/CE in a variety of ways. Italy, for example, has only recently completed the integration of the directive into its legislation, through a number of decrees which were approved between 2006 and 2010. As a result SEA practice in Italy is very fragmented, particularly with respect to energy planning, and needs to be steered towards homogeneous quality objectives. The aim of this paper is to study the quality of the SEA reports on the energy and environmental planning tools used by Italian regions and provinces. We study nine cases and use the methodology suggested by Fisher (2010) in his review of the quality of SEA. To be more precise, we integrate the views of external evaluators with those of a selection of the personnel directly involved in preparing the plans. Our results show that there are some differences in the quality scores given by the outsiders and insiders, although the two groups identified similar strengths and weaknesses in implementing SEA. - Highlights: • This is a comparative study on SEA report quality within Italian energy planning tools. • In Italy, the level of SEA implementation on energy planning is still poor. • External academic experts and internal officers assessed SEA reports' quality. • Outsiders and insiders unveil a similar judgement. • Most critical remarks concern consultation, monitoring measures, and follow-up.

  11. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  12. Traditional pig farming practices and productivity in the Jayawijaya region, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current survey was to provide an update on pig farming practices in the Jayawijaya region, Papua Province, Indonesia. A structured semi-close-ended questionnaire was used to interview 367 farmers across the Jayawijaya region. Results showed that farms, on average, comprised of 8.8 pigs (CI 8.5-9.1). The average litter size was 6.0 (CI 5.7-6.3) piglets, the farrowing frequency was once a year, and the annual mortality rate was 50.2% (CI 48.4-51.9). On average, 43.4% farms (CI 36.4-50.7) allowed pigs to roam freely during daylight hours. Farmers used pigs for their own consumption (62.4%, CI 57.4-67.4), as a gift (56.6%, CI 51.5-61.7), or for sale (50.7%, CI 45.6-55.8). Veterinary services were used intensively by just 11.7% of farmers (CI 8.2-16.5). Furthermore, 34.2% (CI 29.3-39) of farmers would sell sick pigs, and 63.1% (CI 58.2-68.1) would slaughter and consume them. It was also recorded that 68.6% of farmers (CI 63.7-73.4) would eat sick pigs that had died naturally. These findings suggest that traditional pig farms in Jayawijaya are of low productivity. Moreover, the free roaming of pigs and the sale and consumption of sick pigs have the potential to allow pathogens to circulate between pig and human populations.

  13. [Retrospective demographic study in a small mountainous region of the province of Rome].

    PubMed

    Fasiolo, P; Percoco, M; Lupi, R; Callari, L; Antonelli, A

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective study takes into consideration demographic and epidemiological data relative to the population of Arcinazzo Romano, a little village on the mountains situated at 831 m. above sea level in the province of Rome. The socio-economic structure of the village is mainly agropastoral, though, in the last decades, 50% of the ground has been left uncultivated due to emigration and commuting. ISTAT data relative to population censuses of 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981 have been used to study the population natural movement from 1943 to 1987. The active/passive rate and the population ageing index have also been considered. Whenever possible local population data have been compared with similar data on a provincial, regional and national level. From 1943 (1697 inhabitants according to the archives of the Civil Status Office) the population of Arcinazzo R. has been increasing until 1955 (1903 inhabitants). Afterwards, there has been a slow, but constant, decrement till 1987 (1435 inhabitants). The reason for this is undoubtedly the migration movement (mainly towards Rome) due to the scarcity of job possibilities in the zone. This has resulted in a decrease in both active population and agricultural manpower. From 1943 to 1987 there has been a continuous decrease in birth-rate. Starting from 33.5 in 1943, the lowest value (4.6) is reached in 1981; in the last decade the index has settled on average values (11.22) which are slightly higher than national and regional averages (10.2 and 9.7 respectively). The general death-rate has its highest value in 1944 (19.3) and its lowest value in 1958 (4.8). From this date on, the index settles on an average of 12.0, which is slightly higher than national and regional averages (9.5 and 8.4 respectively). The infant death-rate starts from a value of 228/1000 in 1943 to decrease in following years. Keeping into account that the number of children born each year in Arcinazzo R. is very small, a comparison with national or

  14. Geochemistry of the hydrothermal systems in the Jujuy Province, Argentina, and relationship with the regional geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta Arnold, Yesica; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Caffe, Pablo; Vaselli, Orlando

    2016-04-01

    The western sector of the Jujuy province (22°-24° S), Argentina, basically consisting of the Puna region (from 3,500 to 4,700 m a.s.l.) that borders the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), is characterized by sub-meridional ridges that alternate with elongated basins and by extremely voluminous intermediate and silicic ignimbrite deposits, the latter being related to late miocenic and pliocenic calderas and central volcanic edifices. In this region, several hydrothermal discharges with outlet temperatures up to 62°C occur. Among them, the Coranzulí and Pairique thermal emissions show a spatial relationship with miocenic volcanic complexes, whereas other thermal manifestations (Queñual, Orosmayo, Pirquitas, Arizutar, Cono Panizo and Rachaite) are clearly controlled by the local structural setting. Most of these thermal waters have relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS up to 46,500 mg/L), an alkaline-chloride composition and significant concentrations of B, NH4 and SiO2, i.e. they show the typical geochemical features of geothermal brine. Exceptions are the Coranzulí, Orosmayo and Rachaite springs, mainly fed by a shallow Na(Ca)-bicarbonate aquifer. The eastern sector of the province consists of the Eastern Cordillera, composed of a proterozoic basement constituted by the sedimentary sequences of the Puncoviscana Fm, and the Subandean Range, which shows wide east-vergence anticlines whose detachment levels are Silurian-Devonian shales. Both regions are separated by a major thrust that rises the Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic sequences over the Subandean System. The thermal waters in the Eastern Cordillera, namely Termas de Reyes, are characterized by alkaline-sulfate composition, temperature of ≈50°C and neutral pH. In contrast, in the Subandean Ranges, which is separated from the Eastern Cordillera by a thrust rising Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic sequences over the Subandean System, the Aguas Calientes springs are characterized by low temperature (from 21°C to

  15. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  16. A regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo Alvarez, Vincenzo; Dunlop, David J.

    1998-04-01

    We have made a regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt of the Grenville Province in Ontario along ten N-S and E-W traverses up to 200 km in length. Although originally intended to clarify the tectonic mechanism by which these exotic terranes were assembled and welded to the Archean Superior craton during the ˜1150-Ma Grenvillian orogeny, we actually learned much more about the timing of post-orogenic uplift of the various domains around 1000-900 Ma as they stabilized and became part of the Rodinia supercontinent. The normal (N) and reverse (R) natural remanent magnetizations (NRMs) of all domains, as well as those of reactivated regions flanking the Grenville Front (GF, the Superior-Grenville boundary) to the north and south, have paleomagnetic poles falling on the 980-920-Ma ( 40Ar/ 39Ar calibrated) portion of the Grenville apparent polar wander track for Laurentia. There is a general tendency for paleopoles to young with increasing distance of domains from the GF, implying that more southerly domains were uplifted and magnetized later, but two of the domains do not fit this pattern. Previously reported younging trends away from the GF, based on K/Ar thermochron maps and paleomagnetic 'zone poles', are untrustworthy because of hydrothermal alteration, which causes chemical remagnetization and anomalously old K/Ar ages near the GF. Another trend in our data is a regular increase in the R/N ratio with increasing distance south of the GF. In the reactivated zones flanking the GF, NRMs are overwhelmingly of N polarity, whereas well away from the GF, R/N is close to 50:50. Also, NRM intensities and susceptibility values increase 100-fold away from the GF, peaking ≈10 km south of the front, with a pulse-like pattern similar to that documented in anomalously high 40Ar/ 39Ar dates in the same region. Both the magnetic and Ar/Ar results are likely due to a 'wave' of hydrothermal alteration and remagnetization during which fluids

  17. [Hantavirus infection: two case reports from a province in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Kaya, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Erensoy, Sükrü; Yağçı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Köksal, Iftihar

    2010-07-01

    Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results

  18. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  19. Sinop Province, Şahintepesi Region, Bayraktepe Tumulus' Display With Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Şahin; Ahmet Yüksel, Fethi; Avcı, Kerim; Ziya Görücü, Mahmut

    2017-04-01

    Paphlagonia is located on the Boztepe Foreland (Sinop Foreland) and its peninsula, which extends northwards along the coastal lane of the Black Sea. Sinop is at the northernmost tip of Turkey, in the middle of the Black Sea region. Archaeological excavations of the entire Sinop province have uncovered artifacts from the Bronze Age dating back to 3000 BC. Most ancient sources indicate that Mithridates is buried in Sinop. It is alleged that the Tumuli on the crest of the historical peninsula, called Boztepe in Sinop, could be the resting spot of Mithridates. There are three tumuli in this area known as Şahin Tepesi Mevkii (Şahin Hill Site). In order to determine the location of the burial chamber of the tomb, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurement methods were used, which is a geophysical method capable of three dimensional (3D) measurement and evaluation. In the area of the tumulus, measurements were made in a 57 electrode array using a 42 x 36 m (total 1512 m2) spread electrode pattern with 6m spacing. In the study, an AGI brand SuperString R1 Resistivity device and equipment were used. Resistivity data were interpreted using AGI Earthimag 3D software. From the geoelectric resistivity data, 2D and 3D images were obtained as a result of data processing. In the tumulus area smooth geometrical forms and individual high-amplitude anomalies were visualized, that could be attributed to structural remains and the presence of archaeological materials. These anomalies were plotted on the gridded location plan of the excavation area. Within the artificial hill forming the tumulus, with regards to the natural geological units, anomalies such as very high resistivity, linear elongations, angular rotations, curves, etc. (stone wall, hollow room) that are caused by architectural elements were observed. These geometrically shaped, very highly resistive, anomalies should be checked. Keywords: Sinope, Tumulus, Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Archaeo-geophysics

  20. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  2. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among farmers, veterinarians and control subjects in Jilin province, Shandong province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan-Huan; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    China is commonly considered to be a HEV-endemic region but limited epidemiological data for HEV among farmers and veterinarians are available. Thus, a case-control study was carried out to detect the seroprevalence and assess potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by farmers and veterinarians in China from July 2013 to May 2015. Three hundred veterinarians and 600 farmers recruited from Jilin province, Shandong province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and 600 control subjects matched by gender, age, and residence were detected for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme immunoassays. The seroprevalences of HEV infection in farmers, veterinarians, and control subjects were 34.8%, 26.7%, and 20.2%, respectively. Farmers (P < 0.001) and veterinarians (P = 0.027) have significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects. The highest seroprevalence of HEV infection was detected in swine farmers (49.1%) and the lowest seroprevalence was found in cattle farmers (26.5%). In veterinarians, farm animal veterinarians have a higher seroprevalence than pet veterinarians, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Residence area, contact with swine and exposure with soil were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study farmers; contact with swine and source of drinking water were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study veterinarians. These results implied the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the dissemination of HEV infection in farmers and veterinarians in China. J. Med. Virol. 89:872-877, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  4. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  5. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet] and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini)

    PubMed Central

    Kataev, Boris M.; Liang, Hongbin; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: Chydaeus fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province), Chydaeus gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province), and Chydaeus baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province). Taxonomic and faunistic notes on eleven other species occurring in Xizang and Yunnan are also provided. Chydaeus shunichii Ito, 2006 is re-described, based on specimens from Lushui County, Yunnan. Chydaeus kumei Ito, 1992 is treated as a subspecies of Chydaeus andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 [NEW STATUS]. The taxonomic status of Chydaeus guangxiensis Ito, 2006 is discussed. The following taxa are recorded from China for the first time: Chydaeus obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus malaisei Kataev & Schmidt, 2006 (Yunnan), Chydaeus semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899) (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi kumei Ito (Yunnan), Chydaeus bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Xizang), and Chydaeus bedeli vietnamensis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Yunnan). PMID:22423195

  6. Stress pattern of the Shanxi rift system, North China, inferred from the inversion of new focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Atakan, Kuvvet; Sørensen, Mathilde Bøttger; Havskov, Jens

    2015-05-01

    Earthquake focal mechanisms of the Shanxi rift system, North China, are investigated for the time period 1965-April 2014. A total of 143 focal mechanisms of ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes were compiled. Among them, 105 solutions are newly determined in this study by combining the P-wave first motions and full waveform inversion, and 38 solutions are from available published data. Stress tensor inversion was then performed based on the new database. The results show that most solutions in the Shanxi rift system exhibit normal or strike-slip faulting, and the regional stress field is transtensional and dominated by NNW-SSE extension. This correlates well with results from GPS data, geological field observations and levelling measurements across the faults. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for five subzones. While the minimum stress axis (σ3) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations, especially the plunges, of the maximum and intermediate stresses (σ1 and σ2) vary significantly along the strike of the different subzones. Based on our results and combining multidisciplinary observations from geological surveys, GPS and cross-fault monitoring, a kinematic model is proposed for the Shanxi rift system, in which the rift is situated between two opposite rotating crustal blocks, exhibiting a transtensional stress regimes. This model illustrates the present-day stress field and its correlation to the regional tectonics, as well as the current crustal deformation of the Shanxi rift system. Results obtained in this study, may help to understand the geodynamics, neotectonic activity, active seismicity and potential seismic hazard in this region.

  7. Regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces in China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Xing, Ying; Gao, Bin; Yang, Chunbao; Ji, Qiuhe; Chen, Gang

    2013-04-04

    Most studies on diabetes prevalence and awareness in China are regional or about a single province, and differences between coastal and interior provinces have not been discussed even in the nation-based studies. The aim of this study was to determine regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces, and to identify the factors associated with diabetes prevalence and awareness. Provinces Fujian and Shaanxi were chosen to represent the coastal and interior provinces, respectively. The data of two provinces were from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study 2007-08. A total of 5926 people (Fujian 2672 and Shaanxi 3254) aged above 20 years were included as participants in the study. Age-standardized prevalence and awareness were compared between provinces. Logistic regression analysis was performed not only to examine risk factors of diabetes prevalence and awareness, but also to examine the association between regional difference and diabetes prevalence and awareness. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in Fujian was higher than that in Shaanxi among total (11.5% vs. 8.0%), male (13.6% vs. 8.9%) and female (10.8% vs. 7.4%) populations. Diabetes awareness for total and male population in Fujian was higher than that in Shaanxi (42.3% vs. 34.9% and 46.8% vs. 35.2%, respectively). Age, sex, central obesity, family history of diabetes, and metabolic risk factors were all significantly associated with diabetes prevalence in both provinces. However, cigarette smoking was significantly associated with prevalence in Fujian and physical activity was significantly associated with the prevalence in Shaanxi. Family history of diabetes was the only independent risk factor of diabetes awareness in both provinces. After being adjusted for all listed risk factors, the regional difference of diabetes prevalence was still significant, but that of diabetes awareness lost significance. Both diabetes prevalence and

  8. Socioeconomic change in planning provinces of the Northwest Forest Plan region.

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Donoghue; N. Lynnae Sutton

    2006-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan's 1994 Record of Decision (ROD) established a framework for a new ecosystem approach to federal land management across 24 million acres of the Pacific Northwest. One strategy outlined in the ROD combined ecosystem management and civic involvement in the creation of planning provinces, consisting of 12 contiguous multi-ownership areas...

  9. Primary syphilis cases in Guangdong Province 1995-2008: Opportunities for linking syphilis control and regional development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Syphilis cases have risen in many parts of China, with developed regions reporting the greatest share of cases. Since syphilis increases in these areas are likely driven by both increased screening and changes in sexual behaviours, distinguishing between these two factors is important. Examining municipal-level primary syphilis cases with spatial analysis allows a more direct understanding of changing sexual behaviours at a more policy-relevant level. Methods In this study we examined all reported primary syphilis cases from Guangdong Province, a southern province in China, since the disease was first incorporated into the mandatory reporting system in 1995. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were used to correlate municipal-level clustering of reported primary syphilis cases and gross domestic product (GDP). Results A total of 52,036 primary syphilis cases were reported over the period 1995-2008, and the primary syphilis cases increased from 0.88 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 7.61 per 100,000 in 2008. The Pearl River Delta region has a disproportionate share (44.7%) of syphilis cases compared to other regions. Syphilis cases were spatially clustered (p = 0.01) and Moran's I analysis found that syphilis cases were clustered in municipalities with higher GDP (p = 0.004). Conclusions Primary syphilis cases continue to increase in Guangdong Province, especially in the Pearl River Delta region. Considering the economic impact of syphilis and its tendency to spatially cluster, expanded syphilis testing in specific municipalities and further investigating the costs and benefits of syphilis screening are critical next steps. PMID:21192782

  10. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  11. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  12. Regional uplift associated with continental large igneous provinces: The roles of mantle plumes and the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, A.D.; Jones, S.M.; Morgan, L.A.; Pierce, K.L.; Widdowson, M.; Xu, Y.G.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and duration of surface uplift associated with large igneous provinces provide important constraints on mantle convection processes. Here we review geological indicators of surface uplift associated with five continent-based magmatic provinces: Emeishan Traps (260??million years ago: Ma), Siberian Traps (251??Ma), Deccan Traps (65??Ma), North Atlantic (Phase 1, 61??Ma and Phase 2, 55??Ma), and Yellowstone (16??Ma to recent). All five magmatic provinces were associated with surface uplift. Surface uplift can be measured directly from sedimentary indicators of sea-level in the North Atlantic and from geomorpholocial indicators of relative uplift and tilting in Yellowstone. In the other provinces, surface uplift is inferred from the record of erosion. In the Deccan, North Atlantic and Emeishan provinces, transient uplift that results from variations in thermal structure of the lithosphere and underlying mantle can be distinguished from permanent uplift that results from the extraction and emplacement of magma. Transient surface uplift is more useful in constraining mantle convection since models of melt generation and emplacement are not required for its interpretation. Observations of the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, rifting and magmatism are also important in constraining models of LIP formation. Onset of surface uplift preceded magmatism in all five of the provinces. Biostratigraphic constraints on timing of uplift and erosion are best for the North Atlantic and Emeishan Provinces, where the time interval between significant uplift and first magmatism is less than 1??million years and 2.5??million years respectively. Rifting post-dates the earliest magmatism in the case of the North Atlantic Phase 1 and possibly in the case of Siberia. The relative age of onset of offshore rifting is not well constrained for the Deccan and the importance of rifting in controlling magmatism is disputed in the Emeishan and Yellowstone

  13. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  14. [Mortality from respiratory diseases in the provinces of Apulia Region (Southern Italy) from 1933 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare l'andamento temporale della mortalità per patologie respiratorie nelle province pugliesi utilizzando dati omogenei per fonte e metodologia di calcolo. DISEGNO: analisi ecologica storica degli andamenti temporali di mortalità per tumori e patologie dell'apparato respiratorio nelle province pugliesi, in Puglia e nelle ripartizioni geografiche italiane dal 1933 al 2010. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: i dati di mortalità e le popolazioni residenti sono di fonte Istat. Sono state esaminate tutte le cause di decesso, il tumore della laringe, il tumore del polmone, l'insieme dei tumori respiratori, la bronchite, la polmonite e la broncopolmonite considerate congiuntamente, e l'insieme delle patologie respiratorie. Le analisi sono disaggregate per sesso dal 1969. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: rapporti standardizzati di mortalità (SMR%) in riferimento all'Italia, con intervalli di confidenza al 95%, e tassi di mortalità standardizzati col metodo diretto (TSD ) in riferimento alla popolazione standard europea. RISULTATI: dal 1933 al 2010, i TSD per tumori respiratori e per bronchiti diminuiscono in tutte le aree analizzate. Tuttavia, nelle province di Taranto, Brindisi e Lecce, l'SMR% per tumori respiratori, inferiore al riferimento nazionale fino agli anni Sessanta, si allinea (a Brindisi) e supera (a Lecce e Taranto) il riferimento negli anni successivi. Nelle province di Foggia e Bari il numero dei decessi per tumore del polmone è costantemente inferiore all'atteso. CONCLUSIONI: la ricostruzione storica e l'analisi dei trend temporali di mortalità dal 1933 al 2010 mostrano alcune criticità sanitarie in periodi specifici. L'elaborazione dei dati di mortalità per un arco temporale di circa 80 anni ha messo in evidenza la maggiore rilevanza di queste criticità con l'avvio dello sviluppo industriale.

  15. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  16. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  17. [Food consumption trend of Chinese adults in nine provinces (autonomous region) from 1989 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hui-Jun; DU, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Su, Chang; Ma, Yu-Xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the trends of food consumption among Chinese residents aged from 18 to 59 years old in 9 provinces (autonomous region) from 1989 to 2006. The paper was based on data collected in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey of Chinese residents of 24 h in three consecutive day dietary recall data. The healthy residents aged 18 - 59 years with twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were selected as study subjects. The sample sizes of these seven surveys were 5766, 7296, 7019, 7599, 8143, 7168 and 6827, respectively. The trends of their food consumption in each year were analyzed through Kruskal-wallis method. The intake of cereals decreased significantly from (528.5 ± 192.9) g/d in 1989 to (427.7 ± 173.8) g/d in 2006 (χ(2) = 2833.13, P < 0.01). The minor variation of soybean food intake was observed. The average intake was (22.3 ± 39.4) g/d in 1989 and (18.9 ± 30.5) g/d in 2006 which was still at a low level. The trend of vegetables intake showed a small decrease. It was (374.5 ± 205.9) g/d in males and (346.4 ± 187.6) g/d in females in 2006, respectively. Both quantity and rate of fruits consumption showed an increase trend. Its consumption rate reached at 22.5% (741/3296) in males and 27.7% (1004/3619) in females in 2006, respectively. The average intake increased from (122.4 ± 126.9) g/d in 1989 to (228.5 ± 267.3) g/d in 2006 (χ(2) = 539.66, P < 0.01). At the same time, the daily intake of meat and egg showed a large increase, the average meat intake increased from (97.0 ± 111.5) g/d in males and (80.2 ± 97.0) g/d in females in 1989 to (141.5 ± 125.2) g/d in males and (118.4 ± 111.8) g/d in females in 2006, respectively. The oil consumption showed a significant increase. The average intake increased from (30.4 ± 37.9) g/d in 1989 to (42.8 ± 32.3) g/d in 2006 (χ(2) = 1646.94, P < 0.01). There have been noticeable changes in the Chinese dietary pattern in the past 17 years. Some changes would be helpful for

  18. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gene Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia in Dai Ethinic Population of Two Border Region in Chinese Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; He, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Su, Jie; Chen, Hong; Xu, Yong-Mei; Pu, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the gene mutation spectrum of β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of 2 border region in Chinese Yunnan Province. The patients with β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of Dehong and Xishuangbanna autonamic prefecture were screened by using blood routine detection and capillary electrophoresis. The β-globin gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia were detected by using PCR reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-RDB), the constitutive rate of gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia of Dai ethnic population in two border regions was analyzed and compared. A total of 186 patients with gene mutation of β-thalassemia were confirmed. Among them, 10 gene mutation were found, and the 5 main gene mutations were CD26 (62.56%), CD41-42 (18.97%), CD17 (14.36%), CD71-72 (2.05%) and IVS-II-654 (1.54%). Among Dai ethinic population in Dehong region, 4 gene mutations were found including CD26 (80.31%), CD17 (11.02%), CD41-42 (6.30%) and CD71-72 (2.36%). Among Dai ethinic population in Xishuangbanna region, 6 gene mutations were found, out of them the more common gene mutations were CD41-42 (42.64%), CD26 (29.41%) and CD17 (20.59%). The gene mutations of β-thalassemia in Dai ethinic population of Yunnan province has been confirmed to be more genetic heterogenicity, the spectrums of β-thalassemia mutations in Dai ethinic population of different regions were significant different.

  20. Forest recovery and river discharge at the regional scale of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Wei, Xiaohua; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Mingfang; Li, Yuelin; Qiao, Yuna; Liu, Haigui; Wang, Chunlin

    2010-09-01

    Information on how large-scale forest changes affect water resources is important in China as country-wide reforestation programs are being implemented and concerns have arisen over possible water reduction. In this study, water budget analysis and statistical methods were used to assess the effects of significant forest recovery on river discharge at Guangdong Province based on 50 years of data. We used realized water yield (RWY) as a balance term between the outflows from and inflows to the province to represent the river discharge produced solely in Guangdong Province. The relationship between forest recovery and RWY was inferred after quantitatively examining other contributing variables including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, development of impervious areas, human water consumption, and reservoir constructions. We applied time series analysis to test the statistical relationship between forest recovery and RWYs at annual, wet season, and dry season intervals. Both approaches showed that large-scale forest recovery did not cause significant water reduction over the past 50 years. This finding is contrary to the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between carbon (reforestation) and water. There were no significant trends in precipitation or in RWY annually and in the wet season, but there was a significant increase of RWY in the dry season over the past 50 years. It is estimated that forest recovery may play a positive role in redistributing water from the wet season to the dry season and, consequently, in increasing water yield in the dry season. The implication of those research findings for future reforestation programs and water resource protection is also discussed.

  1. Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zhang; Mei, Hong; Yongsheng, Zhao; Xueyu, Lin; Xuelin, Zhang; Jun, Dong

    2003-12-01

    The west plain region of Jilin province of northeast China is one of the typical endemic fluorosis areas caused by drinking water for many years. Investigations of hydrogeological and ecoenvironmental conditions as well as endemic fluorosis were conducted in 1998. Results show that the ground water, especially, the water in the unconfined aquifer is the main source of drinking water for local residents. The fluoride concentration in groundwater in the unconfined aquifers is higher than that in the confined aquifer in the west plain of Jilin province. The fluoride concentration in the unconfined aquifer can be used to classify the plain into fluoride deficient area, optimum area and excess area, which trend from west to east. High fluoride (>1.0 mg L(-1)) in drinking water resulted in dental and skeletal fluorosis in local residents (children and pregnant women). There exists a positive correlation between fluoride concentration in the drinking water and the morbidities of endemic fluorosis disease (r1 = 0.781, r2 = 0.872). Health risks associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water are assessed. It has been determined that fluoride concentration in excess of 1.0 mg L(-1) exposes residents to high health risks based on risk identification. The study area is classified into five health risk classes as shown in Figure 4. The risk indexes of this area more than 1.0 are accounted for 68% of the total west plain region.

  2. Magmatism evolution in the Nori'lsk region (Siberian trap province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda

    2010-05-01

    The NW Siberian trap province is very important for our understanding of evolution of huge magmatic system (T1) and origin unique Pt-Cu-Ni deposits. To solve these genetic problems (including correlation between effusive and intrusive rocks) it is necessary to get accurate information about magmatism migration in space and in time inside different tectonic structures in the Noril'sk region. Thed latter takes outstanding place on the Siberian platform due to its geological features. It consists of two main areas covered by volcanic rocks: I. Kharaelakhsky trough (on West) and II. plateau Putorana (on East) are subdivided by carbonate-terrigenouse rocks (C-P2) of Khantaisko-Rybninsky swell . These two zones differ one from another by thickness of basalts and their composition.The fist zone extents along the Khatanga fault and contains all suits, including three lowest ones - ivakinsky (Iv), syverminsky (Sv), gudchikhinsky (Gd). II zone essentially consists of the middle and upper suits - hakanchansky (Hk), tuklonsky (Tk), nadezhdinsky (Nd), morongovsky (Mr), mokulaevsky (Mk), kharaekakhsky (Kh), kumginsky (Km) and samoedsky (Sm). Usually it is constructed the complete section of the Noril'sk volcanites from rocks of two zones. But every suit has its own areal extent., which to contour it not so easy because volcanic rocks represent very similar tholeiitic basalts ( in term of texture and petrochemistry). Their differentiation is just possible using rare elements and isotopes contents in the rocks [1]. We have studied a lot of basalt sections based on their outcrops and cores of drill holes (4 570 m) and intrusive bodies graduated in mineralization (internal structure, geochemistry, mineralogy, isotopes composition). According new data areoles of the lowers and the upper suits separate in space. The thicknesses Iv and Sv suits (TiO2=2-4 mas. %; Gg/Yb = 2.2.) decreases synchronously from NW Kharaelakh and the towards Putorana at 30%. Gd suit (TiO2=1-2 mas.% and Gd

  3. Impact of the June 2013 Riau province Sumatera smoke haze event on regional air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi Ayu Kusumaningtyas, Sheila; Aldrian, Edvin

    2016-07-01

    Forest and land fires in Riau province of Sumatera increase along with the rapid deforestation, land clearing, and are induced by dry climate. Forest and land fires, which occur routinely every year, cause trans-boundary air pollution up to Singapore. Economic losses were felt by Indonesia and Singapore as the affected country thus creates tensions among neighboring countries. A high concentration of aerosols are emitted from fire which degrade the local air quality and reduce visibility. This study aimed to analyze the impact of the June 2013 smoke haze event on the environment and air quality both in Riau and Singapore as well as to characterize the aerosol properties in Singapore during the fire period. Air quality parameters combine with aerosols from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data and some environmental parameters, i.e. rainfall, visibility, and hotspot numbers are investigated. There are significant relationships between aerosol and environmental parameters both in Riau and Singapore. From Hysplit modeling and a day lag correlation, smoke haze in Singapore is traced back to fire locations in Riau province after propagated one day. Aerosol characterization through aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångstrom parameter and particle size distribution indicate the presence of fine aerosols in a great number in Singapore, which is characteristic of biomass burning aerosols. Fire and smoke haze even impaired economic activity both in Riau and Singapore, thus leaving some accounted economic losses as reported by some agencies.

  4. Gravity map of Brazil: 2. Regional and residual isostatic anomalies and their correlation with major tectonic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ussami, Naomi; de Sá, Nelsi Côgo; Molina, Eder Cassola

    1993-02-01

    An isostatic residual gravity map of Brazil has been computed by removing from a 0.5° × 0.5° Bouguer anomaly grid a regional gravity field calculated for compensating masses of surface topography. The coherence function, a statistical measure of the correlation between Bouguer anomaly and topography, was first computed in order to constrain the compensation mechanism within Brazil. Similar to results for North America and Australia, the coherence function of South America has a broad transition between high and low coherence values, suggesting a combination of tectonic provinces with different flexural rigidities and/or loading processes. In view of this result, we have considered, as a first approximation, a model in which the surface topography is the only load acting on a nonrigid lithosphere. A regional gravity field has been computed assuming Airy-Heiskanen isostasy with compensation at the crust-mantle boundary. The residual gravity map, which was obtained by removing the computed regional gravity field from the observed Bouguer anomaly, shows a long-wavelength N-S trending negative anomaly over most of Brazil. This gravity feature of approximately 3000 km width is the southern continuation of the western North Atlantic negative geoid/gravity anomaly and reaches at least ˜15 mGal in the northern portion of Brazil. Using the upward continued isostatic residual gravity field at 300 km, this long-wavelength component, which may be dynamically induced, has been removed to first approximation. The final isostatic residual gravity anomaly map depicts anomalies with wavelengths between 100 and 1000 km which correlate with major tectonic provinces. Negative anomalies occur mainly over Paleozoic intracratonic and Cretaceous rift-type sedimentary basins, and granitic intrusions and along Proterozoic thrust belts. Positive residual anomalies are generally observed over regions affected by igneous activity and volcanism such as in the Amazon basin and the Paran

  5. Geochemical evidence concerning the nature of the source region to the Middle Proterozoic Granite-Rhyolite Province

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, R.D. . Dept. Geography Mueller, P.A.; Heatherington, A.L. . Dept. Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The mostly buried 1.5--1.3 Ga old Granite-Rhyolite Province of the midcontinent of North America, is characterized by extensive, undeformed silicic volcanic rocks and related epizonal granitic plutons. Thirty-three previously dated samples from a wide geographic range (Michigan to Colorado) have been analyzed to determine their chemical and Nd and Pb isotopic compositions in order to constrain source regions and processes involved in the formation of these rocks. Major and trace element analyses of these rocks indicate their anorogenic nature, with relatively high Ce/Nb and Y/Nb ratios, as well as relatively high Ga/Al ratios. Geochemically, these rocks are similar to the A2 granites of Eby (1992), which are thought to be generated from the melting of crust which has experienced at least one cycle of subduction-related magmatism. Rare earth element and Pb isotopic data suggest melting at middle to shallow depths. The isotopic data (Nd and Pb) indicate little to no contribution of Archean crust to the source of these rocks. Initial Pb isotopic ratios (208Pb/204Pb) suggest a low Th/U ratio in the source, which contrasts strongly with high Th/U ratios of the Wyoming Province. The Pb isotopic ratios for these rocks are variable, but cluster about the orogene plumbotectonics curve. The variability in the data suggest sources which are variable in their U/Pb ratios and/or ages. The isotopic data are consistent with the existence of a proposed lithospheric boundary which trend NE-SW through the Granite-Rhyolite Province and separates 1.65 Ga old lithosphere (to the NW) from 1.5 Ga old lithosphere (to the SE). Samples analyzed from either side of this boundary have different isotopic signatures. Many of the samples appear to be derived from sources which are only slightly older than the crystallization ages of the granites themselves.

  6. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  7. Assessing the disparity in spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Pan, Jay

    2016-08-17

    There is a great disparity in spatial accessibility to hospital care between ethnic minority and non-minority regions in China. Being one of the basic social demands, spatial access to hospital care in minority regions draws increasing attention in China in recent years. We performed this study to have a better understanding of spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in China, and to guide the allocation of government investment in the future. Sichuan Province, southwest of China was selected as a sample to examine the difference in hospital access between ethnic minority and non-minority region in China. We applied the shortest path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method under ArcGIS 9.3 environment. In Sichuan, healthcare access in ethnic minority region is worse than in non-minority region in terms of time to hospital and the value of spatial accessibility. There is relatively greater inequality in access to doctors and health professionals than in access to hospital beds. In ethnic minority region, the balance between primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, as well as between public and private hospitals, is less even, compared with the non-minority region. The disparity within ethnic minority region is larger than in non-minority region. The combination of shortest path analysis and E2SFCA method is superior to the traditional county ratio method in assessing spatial access to healthcare. Compared to the non-minority region, ethnic minority region rely more heavily on government investment to provide healthcare. In ethnic minority region, the current distribution of primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals is inappropriate, and there is an urgent shortage of healthcare personnel. We therefore recommend that the government use preferential policies to encourage more social capital investment in ethnic minority region, use government investment as a supplement to build a more equitable healthcare market

  8. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  9. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  10. Regional Curves of Bankfull Channel Geometry for Non-Urban Streams in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lotspeich, R. Russell

    2009-01-01

    Natural-channel design involves constructing a stream channel with the dimensions, slope, and plan-view pattern that would be expected to transport water and sediment and yet maintain habitat and aesthetics consistent with unimpaired stream segments, or reaches. Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area, referred to as 'regional curves,' are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, and bankfull slope to drainage area were developed on the basis of data collected at 17 streamflow-gaging stations in rural areas with less than 20 percent urban land cover within the basin area (non-urban areas) of the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Virginia. These regional curves can be used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull channel geometry when the drainage area of a watershed is known. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood-plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined, and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Field data were analyzed to determine bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, bankfull discharge, bankfull channel slope, and D50 and D84 particle sizes at each site. The bankfull geometry from the 17 sites surveyed during this study represents the average of two riffle cross sections for each site. Regional curves developed for the 17 sites had coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.950 for bankfull cross-sectional area, 0.913 for bankfull width, 0.915 for bankfull mean depth, 0.949 for bankfull discharge, and 0.497 for bankfull channel slope. The regional curves represent conditions for streams with defined channels and bankfull

  11. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress Pattern of the Shanxi Rift System, North China, Inferred from the Inversion of New Focal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Sørensen, Mathilde; Atakan, Kuvvet; Havskov, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The Shanxi rift system is one of the most outstanding intra-plate transtensional fault zones in the North China block. Earthquake focal mechanisms of the rift system are investigated for the time period 1965 - Apr. 2014. A total of 143 focal mechanisms of ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes were compiled. Among them, 105 solutions are newly determined by combining the P-wave first motions and full waveform inversion, and 38 solutions are from available published data. Stress tensor inversion was then performed based on the new database. The results show that most solutions exhibit normal or strike-slip faulting, and the regional stress field is transtensional and dominated by NNW-SSE extension. This correlates well with results from GPS data, geological field observations and leveling measurements across the faults. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for five subzones. While the minimum stress axis (σ3) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations, especially the plunges, of the maximum and intermediate stresses (σ1 and σ2) vary significantly among the different subzones. Based on our results and combining multidisciplinary observations from geological surveys, GPS and cross-fault monitoring, a kinematic model is proposed, in which the Shanxi rift system is situated between two opposite rotating blocks, exhibiting a transtensional stress regime. This model illustrates the present-day stress field and its correlation with the regional tectonics, as well as the current crustal deformation of the Shanxi rift system. Results obtained in this study, may help to understand the geodynamics, neotectonic activity, active seismicity and potential seismic hazard in this region of North China.

  13. Investigation flora and life form of plants in protected region Sarigol (North Khorasan Province, Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, S M

    2011-01-01

    Apart Flora, life form and chorotype of plants in protected region Sarigol was investigated in this study. It's located at the 57 degrees 47' to 57 degrees 76' Eastern latitude and 37 degrees 55' to 37 degrees 80' Northern longitude. A part plant of this area was collected in this region by classical method of regional floristic studies. The results of field investigation were identification of 78 plant species belong to 66 genera and 25 families. Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae were the most dominant families analysis of life form has shown proportion hemicryptophytes 39.74, followed by therophytes 21.79%, chamaephytes 19.23%, cryptophytes 11.53% and phanerophytes 7.69%. phytogeographical data has indicated that the most plants belong to the Irano-Turanian floral elements 75.64%.

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations, Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast Region, Louisiana and Texas, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20.8 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 0.60 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast Region, Louisiana and Texas.

  15. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity of the endangered species Sinopodophyllum hexandrum in the Tibetan region of Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Li, Qun; Guo, Liang; Luo, Tong; Duan, Wen-Xia; He, Wen-Xing; Wang, Li; Chen, Fang

    2006-02-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of seven wild populations of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying from the Tibetan region of Sichuan Province, China. Six primer combinations generated a total of 428 discernible DNA fragments, of which 111 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 25.93 at the species level, and PPB within population ranged from 4.91 to 12.38%. Genetic diversity (H(E)) within populations varied from 0.01 to 0.04, averaging 0.05 at the species level. As revealed by the results of AMOVA analysis, 58.8% of the genetic differentiation occurred between populations, and 41.2% within populations. The genetic differentiation was, perhaps, due to the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.43) of the species. The correlation coefficient (r) between genetic and geographical distance using Mantel's test for all populations was 0.698 (P = 0.014). The UPGMA cluster analysis revealed a similar result in that the genetic distances among the populations show, to a certain extent, a spatial pattern corresponding to their geographic locations. On the basis of the genetic and ecological information, we propose some appropriate strategies for conserving the endangered S. hexandrum in this region.

  16. Crustal structure beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai Sea and its adjacent region in China based on ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guang-hua; Feng, Ji-Kun; Lin, Jun

    2017-03-01

    The velocity structure of the crust beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai sea in China was imaged using ambient seismic noise recorded by 73 regional broadband stations. All available three-component time series from the 12-month span between January and December 2013 were cross-correlated to yield empirical Green's functions for Rayleigh and Love waves. Phase-velocity dispersion curves for the Rayleigh waves and the Love waves were measured by applying the frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave were then utilized to construct 2D phase-velocity maps for the Rayleigh wave at 8-35 s periods and the Love wave at 9-32 s periods, respectively. Both Rayleigh and Love phase-velocity maps show significant lateral variations that are correlated well with known geological features and tectonics units in the study region. Next, phase dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave extracted from each cell of the 2D Rayleigh wave and Love wave phase-velocity maps, respectively, were inverted simultaneously to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures. The horizontal shear wave velocity images clearly and intuitively exhibit that the earthquake swarms in the Haicheng region and the Tangshan region are mainly clustered in the transition zone between the low- and high-velocity zones in the upper crust, coinciding with fault zones, and their distribution is very closely associated with these faults. The vertical shear wave velocity image reveals that the lower crust downward to the uppermost mantle is featured by distinctly high velocities, with even a high-velocity thinner layer existing at the bottom of the lower crust near Moho in central and northern the Bohai sea along the Tanlu fault, and these phenomena could be caused by the intrusion of mantle material, indicating the Tanlu fault could be just as the uprising channel of deep materials.

  17. Seismotectonic study of Kishtwar region of Jammu Province using local broadband seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shiv Jyoti; Bhat, G. M.; Puri, Shveta; Raina, Neha; Singh, Yudhbir; Pandita, S. K.; Verma, Mithila; Bansal, B. K.; Sutar, Anup

    2016-10-01

    Two moderate earthquakes of Mw 5.7 on the first of May and Mw 5.2 on the second of August occurred in the Kishtwar region in the year 2013. Our broadband seismic observatories located in the region recorded these events and the aftershocks. We analyzed these data to understand the seismotectonics of this region. Most of the events were located between 33.03° to 33.29° N latitude and 75.40° to 76.07° E longitude. Focal depths of these shallow earthquakes range from 7 to 12 km and are confined between Panjal Thrust (PT) and Kishtwar Window (KW). Spectral analysis of these events reveals that stress drop, source radius, corner frequency, and moment magnitude varied between 3.3 and 70.1 bars, 0.121 and 3.55 km, 0.397 and 6.06 Hz, and Mw 2.2 and Mw 5.7, respectively. The low stress drop of small-magnitude earthquakes reveals the brittle nature of the upper crust which is coincident with the field observations. The variation of stress drop with magnitude shows positive correlation whereas no such relation was observed between stress drop and depth of focus. The b value calculated (0.83) for the area reveals high stress accumulation within the incompetent rock zones in the area.

  18. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  19. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average air temperature is higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use the finite-element method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, colored lights, climatic conditions, etc. for sustainable development of the ice cave as a tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers have installed airtight doors at these ice caves' entrances with the intention of "protecting" these caves, but this in fact prevents cooling in winter and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  20. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average temperature in higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively explain the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use Finite Element Method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside, very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, etc. for sustainable development of ice cave as tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers installed air-tight doors at these ice caves entrance intending to "protect" these caves, but this prevent cooling down these caves in winters and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  1. [Trends of the dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in nine provinces (autonomous region) from 1989 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Bing; DU, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Su, Chang; Ma, Yu-Xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the status and trend of dietary fiber intake and its food sources among Chinese residents aged 18 - 45 years old in 9 provinces (autonomous region), from 1989 to 2006. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of three consecutive days from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) were used. And the 18 - 45 years old subjects with complete information on dietary survey were included. The sample size of these 7 surveys were 5597, 5596, 5323, 5485, 5308, 4144 and 3889, respectively. The trends of dietary fiber intake and food sources by time and sex were studied. From 1989 to 2000, the total of daily dietary fiber intake of 18 - 45 years old healthy residents decreased from 15.1 g/d to 11.6 g/d, insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased from 22.6 g/d to 17.8 g/d. In villages, from 1989 to 2000, the insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased 5.1 g/d in males and 5.2 g/d in females(13.2, 11.8 g in 2000, respectively;18.3, 17.0 g in 1989, respectively). In 2006, the insoluble dietary intake was 12.6 g/d in males and 11.2 g/d in females in villages. In cities, from 1989 to 2006, the insoluble dietary fiber intake was 9.4 - 11.8 g/d in males and 8.3 - 10.8 g/d in females. The total dietary fiber intake was 15.7 - 17.6 g/d in males and 13.5 - 16.4 g/d in females. The difference of insoluble and total dietary fiber intake between city and village was decreasing. In 2006, 70.6% (8.4/11.9) insoluble dietary fiber came from vegetables ((4.1 ± 3.1) g/d), wheat flour and its products ((2.6 ± 3.6) g/d), rice and its products ((1.7 ± 1.3) g/d). Dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in 9 provinces (autonomous region) decreased from 1989 to 2006. Vegetables, wheat flour, rice and their products were the major food sources of insoluble dietary fiber.

  2. Stress Pattern of the Shanxi Rift System, North China, Inferred from the Inversion of New Focal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Atakan, K.; Sorensen, M. B.; Havskov, J.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake focal mechanisms of the Shanxi rift system, North China, are investigated for the time period 1965 - Apr. 2014. A total of 143 focal mechanisms of ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes were compiled. Among them, 105 solutions are newly determined by combining the P-wave first motions and full waveform inversion, and 38 solutions are from available published data. Stress tensor inversion was then performed based on the new database. The results show that most solutions exhibit normal or strike-slip faulting, and the regional stress field is characterized by a stable, dominating NNW-SSE extension and an ENE-WSW compression. This correlates well with results from GPS data, geological field observations and leveling measurements across the faults. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for five subzones. While the minimum stress axis (σ3) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations, especially the plunges, of the maximum and intermediate stresses (σ1 and σ2) vary significantly among the different subzones. Based on our results and combining multidisciplinary observations from geological surveys, GPS and cross-fault monitoring, a kinematic model is proposed, to illustrate the present-day stress field and its correlation with the regional tectonics, as well as the current crustal deformation of the Shanxi rift system. Results obtained in this study, may help to understand the geodynamics, neotectonic activity, active seismicity and potential seismic hazard in this region of North China.

  3. [Breeding sites of horseflies (Tabanidae) in the southern and central regions of Tomsk Province].

    PubMed

    Fominykh, V G; Eremina, L G

    1984-01-01

    Breeding places of 10 species of tabanids from southern and central regions of the Tomsk district were studied. They are connected with the Ob river, its tributaries Tom and Chulym, with the Baksa, Kirgizka, Chernaja and Ushaika rivers, flood-plain waterbodies, meadow lowlands, forest bogged up areas and with water bodies near animal breeding farms. The average density of larvae is 7.3 spec./m2. Most abundant were members of the genus Hybomitra (54.4%) and Tabanus (38.4%). The density of larvae depends on the time of their collection and their generic belonging.

  4. Relationship between geohydrology and Upper Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the eastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capítulo, Leandro Rodrigues; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-07-01

    The Upper Pleistocene-Holocene geological evolution, which is characterized by its landscape-forming energy and is related to geological and geomorphological complexity, has an impact on the groundwater dynamics of coastal aquifers. The geological configuration of a sector of the east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires was analyzed, as well as its connection with the geological and geomorphological history of the region during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, and its influence on the regional and local geohydrological behaviour. This analysis was based on the application of the concept of hydrofacies. Boreholes were drilled and sampled (with depths of up to 40 m), and vertical electrical sounding, electrical tomography and pumping tests were undertaken. The description of the cutting samples by means of a stereo microscope, the interpretation of satellite images, and the construction of lithological and hydrogeological profiles and flow charts were carried out in the laboratory, and then integrated in a GIS. The identification of the lithological units and their distribution in the area allowed the construction of an evolutionary geological model for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Three aquifer units can be recognized: one of Late Pleistocene age (hydrofacies E) and the other two of Holocene age (hydrofacies A and C); their hydraulic connection depends on the occurrence and thickness variation of the aquitard units (hydrofacies B and D). The approach adopted allows the examination of the possibilities for groundwater exploitation and constitutes an applied conceptual framework to be taken into consideration when developing conceptual and numerical models at the local and regional scales.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting humans in the provinces of Kelkit Valley, a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever endemic region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Tekin, Saban

    2013-04-01

    Ticks are mandatory blood feeding ectoparasites leading transmission of various tick-borne pathogens to human and animals. Since 2002, thousands of human tick bites and numerous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever cases have been reported in several provinces in the Kelkit Valley region in Turkey. Despite increased cases of tick bites and tick-borne diseases, no taxonomic information is available about the tick species infesting humans in the region. In the present study, a tick survey on humans was performed to determine the species composition of ticks infesting humans in several provinces of Kelkit Valley. In the survey, 1,460 ticks (721 males, 516 females and 223 nymphs) were collected from tick-infested humans. A total of 19 tick species have been found on humans in the region, including 7 Hyalomma, 2 Argas, 2 Haemaphysalis, 2 Ixodes, Dermacentor and 3 Rhipicephalus species. Infestation of Dermacentor reticulatus on humans was documented for the first time in Turkey.

  6. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific.

  7. [Water and soil conservation function of typical plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Guo, Fang; Luo, Yue-Chu; Wei, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Gang

    2007-12-01

    From the aspects of surface runoff and soil erosion, this paper quantitatively studied the water and soil conservation function of five plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province. The results showed that various types of test plantation forest ecosystems were all able to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion effectively. In June - September, the monthly mean surface runoff coefficient of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ecosystem, P. tabulaeformis - Hippophae rhamnoides forest ecosystem, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem, P. simonii forest ecosystem, and P. simonii - H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem was 10.1%, 6.5%, 2.3%, 8.6% and 5.3% of that of barren hill, respectively, and the soil erosion quantity was 2.65%, 0.96%, 0.15%, 2.32% and 0.69% of that of barren hill, respectively. Among the five forest ecosystems, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem had the least surface runoff and soil erosion, being the best in water and soil conservation function.

  8. Mössbauer study of contaminated soils by industrial activity in Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Angel; Fabián, Julio; De Los Santos, Luis; Barnes, C. H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    In this work we characterize soils from the Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces in Peru, which are contaminated by residual chemicals (Br, As and Sr) from sugar and paper industry in the city. Four samples were collected, labelled as S1, S2, S3 and S4 and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. For all the samples, the chemical analysis by EDXRF revealed the presence of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, K, Br, Sr. The XRD detected the presence of quartz as principal phase and copper sulfide and potassium magnesium as secondary phases. The Mössbauer spectra at room temperature (RT) for all the samples exhibit sextets which reveal the presence of an iron oxide or hydroxide. The fitting Mössbauer for both samples S1 and S4 have three doublets corresponding to iron in paramagnetic phases and a magnetic component of around 35.50 T corresponding to goethite, α-FeOOH. Sample S2 have two magnetic phases with internal fields of 37 T and 34.6 T which correspond to the goethite and other incorporated element in the structure. The sample S3 have three magnetic fields of H1 = 36.8 T, H2 = 33.6 T and H3 = 34.8 T which correspond to hydroxide iron, pyrrhotite and goethite respectively.

  9. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  10. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Schoolchildren and in Pregnant Women from an Amazonian Region in Orellana Province, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Caty Carrera; Narváez, Alberto Orlando; Aroca, Jenny Muzzio; Shiguango, Gonzalo; Robles, Luiggi Martini; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and about 230,000 persons are estimated to be infected in Ecuador. However, limited studies have been performed in the Amazon region, on the eastern side of the country. We evaluated here the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 12 rural villages of the Loreto canton, Orellana Province in schoolchildren aged 5–15 years and in pregnant women. A total of 1,649 blood samples were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemaglutination, and discordant samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We detected a seroprevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies of 1.3% in schoolchildren aged 5–15 years, indicating the persistence of a constant and active vectorial transmission in the Loreto County and confirming the need of the implementation of nonconventional vector control. We also observed a seroprevalence of 3.8% in pregnant women, indicating a clear risk of congenital transmission. Further studies should help define this risk more precisely and implement current international guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and care of these cases. PMID:26283751

  11. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Schoolchildren and in Pregnant Women from an Amazonian Region in Orellana Province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carrera Vargas, Caty; Narváez, Alberto Orlando; Muzzio Aroca, Jenny; Shiguango, Gonzalo; Robles, Luiggi Martini; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and about 230,000 persons are estimated to be infected in Ecuador. However, limited studies have been performed in the Amazon region, on the eastern side of the country. We evaluated here the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 12 rural villages of the Loreto canton, Orellana Province in schoolchildren aged 5-15 years and in pregnant women. A total of 1,649 blood samples were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemaglutination, and discordant samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We detected a seroprevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies of 1.3% in schoolchildren aged 5-15 years, indicating the persistence of a constant and active vectorial transmission in the Loreto County and confirming the need of the implementation of nonconventional vector control. We also observed a seroprevalence of 3.8% in pregnant women, indicating a clear risk of congenital transmission. Further studies should help define this risk more precisely and implement current international guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and care of these cases.

  12. HCV 6a Prevalence in Guangdong Province Had the Origin from Vietnam and Recent Dissemination to Other Regions of China: Phylogeographic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hong; Xu, Ru; Tan, Yi; Lu, Teng; Wang, Hongren; Tong, Wangxia; Rong, Xia; Li, Gang; Yuan, Manqiong; Li, Chunhua; Abe, Kenji; Lu, Ling; Chen, Guihua

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently in China, HCV 6a infection has shown a fast increase among patients and blood donors, possibly due to IDU linked transmission. Methodology/Findings We recruited 210 drug users in Shanwei city, Guangdong province. Among them, HCV RNA was detected in 150 (71.4%), both E1 and NS5B genes were sequenced in 136, and 6a genotyped in 70. Of the 6a sequences, most were grouped into three clusters while 23% represent emerging strains. For coalescent analysis, additional 6a sequences were determined among 21 blood donors from Vietnam, 22 donors from 12 provinces of China, and 36 IDUs from Liuzhou City in Guangxi Province. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that Vietnam could be the origin of 6a in China. The Guangxi Province, which borders Vietnam, could be the first region to accept 6a for circulation. Migration from Yunnan, which also borders Vietnam, might be equally important, but it was only detected among IDUs in limited regions. From Guangxi, 6a could have further spread to Guangdong, Yunnan, Hainan, and Hubei provinces. However, evidence showed that only in Guangdong has 6a become a local epidemic, making Guangdong the second source region to disseminate 6a to the other 12 provinces. With a rate of 2.737×10−3 (95% CI: 1.792×10−3 to 3.745×10−3), a Bayesian Skyline Plot was portrayed. It revealed an exponential 6a growth during 1994–1998, while before and after 1994–1998 slow 6a growths were maintained. Concurrently, 1994–1998 corresponded to a period when contaminated blood transfusion was common, which caused many people being infected with HIV and HCV, until the Chinese government outlawed the use of paid blood donations in 1998. Conclusions/Significance With an origin from Vietnam, 6a has become a local epidemic in Guangdong Province, where an increasing prevalence has subsequently led to 6a spread to many other regions of China. PMID:22253686

  13. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  15. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  16. Temporal and spatial changes of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province in recent 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiangsheng; Yin, Yanyu; Yue, Yaojie

    2012-09-01

    It is very important to understand the temporal and spatial changes of residential land for the improvement of human settlement environment. Based on the three TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2005 and other assistant maps, the temporal and spatial characteristics of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province of China were analyzed by using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. Some important conclusions were obtained, which mainly contained four aspects as follows. 1) The area of residential land in the Yuyang desert region increased 956.07 hm2 in total, and the changes of residential land among the townships were different with four various change trends. The expansion speeds in the Yuyang Township and Qinhe Township were the biggest from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2005, respectively. The expansion intensities in other townships were below 0.1%, except the Yuyang Township. 2) The number of residential land patches increased 2847, while the average area and perimeter of residential land patches decreased 0.304 hm2 and 60.78 m during 1986-2005, respectively. The residential land patches also displayed four different changes from 1986 to 2005 among the townships. 3) The residential land mainly distributed in the middle of Yuyang Township and Mahe Township, and the interface of Jinjitan Township and Mengjiawan Township. The total spatial pattern of residential land was relative stability, but the significant changes of residential land were found in the Yuyang Township and its vicinities during 1986-2005. 4) Three distribution patterns of residential land at the micro scale were categorized from the 100 typical villages in the study area. The number of villages in the pattern 1 increased, while the pattern 2 and pattern 3 decreased in recent 20 years, which implicated the adaptation of humans to the habitation environment. This research would provide scientific references for harmonizing the human

  17. Development and analysis of regional curves for streams in the non-urban valley and ridge physiographic province, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keaton, Jefferson N.; Messinger, Terence; Doheny, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area (often called 'regional curves') are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. Bankfull stream characteristics were assessed for stream reaches at 41 streamflow-gaging stations in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Regional curves were developed for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge with R2 values of 0.95, 0.89, 0.87, and 0.91, respectively. Examination of the regional curves residuals indicates that there is more variability in bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge for smaller streams than for larger streams. In contrast, there is more variability for bankfull mean depth for larger streams than for smaller streams. Geographic analysis of regional curve residuals indicated that there were no further subdivisions within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the three-state study area for which individual sets of regional curves should be developed. In addition, two separate sets of regional curves were developed with data from the 41 sites to examine potential differences in the relations between the southern (n = 9) and central (n = 32) sections of the province. There were differences in slope and intercept between the two bankfull discharge test relations and a difference in intercept for the width test relations at the 95-percent confidence level. However, the results of this analysis were inconclusive and therefore one set of regional curves for the study area is presented in this report. The regional curves were compared to regression models developed from

  18. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  19. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  20. [Effects of cutting intensity on spatial heterogeneity of topsoil temperature in secondary forest in Maoershan region of Heilongjian Province].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiacun; Wang, Zhengquan; Han, Youzhi; Wang, Xiangrong; Mei, Li; Zhang, Xiujuan; Cheng, Yunhuan

    2006-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of different cutting intensity on the spatial heterogeneity of topsoil (3 - 5 cm) temperature in the secondary forest in Maoershan region of Heilongjiang Province. Three treatments were installed, i.e., no cutting (treatment A), 50% of randomly cutting (treatment B), and clear cutting (treatment C). Based on the requirements of geostatistic analysis, there were 160, 154 and 154 sampling points with a spatial distance of 0.5 - 56 m in the treatments A, B and C, respectively. Topsoil temperature was measured by thermometer in spring and summer during the two years after cutting, and the spatial heterogeneity of the temperature was analyzed by semivariogram and Kriging arithmetic. The results showed that after cutting, the mean value of topsoil temperature had an increase of 0.6 - 4.2 degrees C (P < 0.001), and correlated positively with cutting intensity. The spatial heterogeneity and variation degree of topsoil temperature also increased with the increasing intensity of cutting. As for the small scale spatial heterogeneity of topsoil temperature, it was also increased after cutting, but the scale was mainly within the range of < 20 m and the composition of spatial heterogeneity was slightly affected. The comparison of Kriging maps suggested that in treatments B and C, the spatial pattern strength of topsoil temperature was enhanced, and the difference between treatments B and C and treatment A was larger in spring than in summer. In treatments B and C, topsoil temperature fluctuated and had similar distribution patterns in the same seasons; while in treatment A, the temperature had a relatively even distribution within the year.

  1. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J.; Imbellone, P.; Rivas, P. C.; Desimoni, J.

    2011-11-01

    The activity concentrations of both natural (238U and 232Th chains and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Mössbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe3+ paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the α-Fe2O3 contribution is lower, Fe3O4 was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe3+ paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of 40K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by 238U (60-92 Bq/kg) and 232Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of 235U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (LD = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was 137Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Mössbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the 137Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe3O4 or with other iron species.

  2. A New Endemic Focus of Chagas Disease in the Northern Region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Pineda, Vanessa; Martinez, Inri; Santamaria, Giovanna; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Miranda, Aracelis; Calzada, Jose E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 – July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis) and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens), where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens). In one small sub-region (El Macho), 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161) had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138) of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136), with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136) and 50.7% (69/136) were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056) was found in this population. Conclusions This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama. PMID:22558095

  3. Gross regional domestic product estimation: Application of two-way unbalanced panel data models to economic growth in East Nusa Tenggara province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Wahyu; Sinu, Elisabeth B.; Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    The condition of East Nusa Tenggara Province which recently developed new districts can affect the number of information or data collected become unbalanced. One of the consequences of ignoring the data incompleteness is the estimator become not valid. Therefore, the analysis of unbalanced panel data is very crucial.The aim of this paper is to find the estimation of Gross Regional Domestic Product in East Nusa Tenggara Province using unbalanced panel data regression model for two-way error component which assume random effect model (REM). In this research, we employ Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) as regression coefficients estimation method. Since variance of the model is unknown, ANOVA method is considered to obtain the variance components in order to construct the variance-covariance matrix. The data used in this research is secondary data taken from Central Bureau of Statistics of East Nusa Tenggara Province in 21 districts period 2004-2013. The predictors are the number of labor over 15 years old (X1), electrification ratios (X2), and local revenues (X3) while Gross Regional Domestic Product based on constant price 2000 is the response (Y). The FGLS estimation result shows that the value of R2 is 80,539% and all the predictors chosen are significantly affect (α = 5%) the Gross Regional Domestic Product in all district of East Nusa Tenggara Province. Those variables are the number of labor over 15 years old (X1), electrification ratios (X2), and local revenues (X3) with 0,22986, 0,090476, and 0,14749 of elasticities, respectively.

  4. Re-examination of models for the origin of granite-rhyolite provinces in the midcontinent region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Schmus, W.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    New isotopic data for the 1.47 Ga Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province and the 1.37 Ga Southern Granite-Rhyolite Province require re-examination of models for the origin of these suites of rock. For the most part, eNd(t) values for the granite-rhyolite provinces and A-type plutons intrusive into adjacent Early proterozoic basement are compatible with origin through melting of 1.8 Ga continental crust. However, new data shows that southeastern parts of the granite-rhyolite provinces yield positive [var epsilon]Nd(t) data is an E-W trending belt of intermediate values in northern Oklahoma; [var epsilon]Nd(t) data south of this belt, in s. Oklahoma, are equivalent to that in Kansas and Nebraska, reflecting cal 1.8 Ga lower crust. The granite-rhyolite provinces are not related to any well defined tectonic event, and they have commonly been referred to as anorogenic. The thermal event responsible for producing the silicic melts may have been associated with an extensional regime, in view of the a-type character of the granites.

  5. Jizzax Province, Uzbekistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-10

    This image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Jizzax Province in eastern Uzbekistan, one of the main agricultural regions of the country. Uzbekistan is the world sixth largest producer and second-largest exporter of cotton.

  6. Assessing environmental factors associated with regional schistosomiasis prevalence in Anhui Province, Peoples' Republic of China using a geographical detector method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xia, Congcong; Li, Shizhu; Ward, Michael P; Luo, Can; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-04-17

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease caused by trematode worms belonging to genus Schistosoma, which is prevalent most of the developing world. Transmission of the disease is usually associated with multiple biological characteristics and social factors but also factors can play a role. Few studies have assessed the exact and interactive influence of each factor promoting schistosomiasis transmission. We used a series of different detectors (i.e., specific detector, risk detector, ecological detector and interaction detector) to evaluate separate and interactive effects of the environmental factors on schistosomiasis prevalence. Specifically, (i) specific detector quantifies the impact of a risk factor on an observed spatial disease pattern, which were ranked statistically by a value of Power of Determinate (PD) calculation; (ii) risk detector detects high risk areas of a disease on the condition that the study area is stratified by a potential risk factor; (iii) ecological detector explores whether a risk factor is more significant than another in controlling the spatial pattern of a disease; (iv) interaction detector probes whether two risk factors when taken together weaken or enhance one another, or whether they are independent in developing a disease. Infection data of schistosomiasis based on conventional surveys were obtained at the county level from the health authorities in Anhui Province, China and used in combination with information from Chinese weather stations and internationally available environmental data. The specific detector identified various factors of potential importance as follows: Proximity to Yangtze River (0.322) > Land cover (0.285) > sunshine hours (0.256) > population density (0.109) > altitude (0.090) > the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) (0.077) > land surface temperature at daytime (LSTday) (0.007). The risk detector indicated that areas of schistosomiasis high risk were located within a

  7. [Current situation of pediatric emergency in tertiary and teaching hospitals in 15 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China Mainland].

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Pre-hospital care, emergency department and critical care medicine are the key components of emergency medical service system. Two investigations about the pediatric critical care medicine in China mainland showed great progress. In recent years, most hospitals in China mainland have established emergency department, hardware configuration and staff status were gradually standardized. But most of the emergency departments mainly provide service to adult patients and pediatric emergency medicine lags behind. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the current situation and main problems of pediatric emergency in China mainland. A questionnaire developed by the Subspecialty Group of Pediatrics, Chinese Society of Emergency Medicine and the Subspecialty Group of Emergency Medicine, Chinese Society of Pediatrics was e-mailed to the members of the above-mentioned two subspecialty groups. The contents of the questionnaire included 46 items which were divided into 5 categories: the general situation of the hospital, the pediatric emergency setting and composition, key equipments and techniques, staff status, training program and running data from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-three questionnaires were delivered and 27 (42.9%) hospitals responded which located in 15 different provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Among the 27 hospitals, 10 (37.0%) had no pediatric resuscitation room; 25 (92.6%) had no equipments for cardiac output monitor and gastric lavage; 13 (48.1%) had no bedside fibrolaryngoscope or fiberbronchoscope; 5 (18.5%) had no blood gas analyzer; 4 (14.8%) without respirator, defibrillator, bedside radiography or ultrasonic equipment; 2 (7.4%) had no neonatal incubator; 9 (33.3%) could not do intraossous infusion. The average ratio of professional emergency pediatricians to all physicians was 43.5%. Twenty hospitals incompletely filled in the pediatric emergency running data. The main problems existing in pediatric emergency include: imperfect

  8. [Dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorus and potassium release in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hait-tao; Yu, Gui-rui; Li, Jia-yong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Yong-rui

    2007-02-01

    By using litter bag method, a 2-year experiment was made to study the dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorous and potassium release of Castanopsis eyrei-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), Pinus taiwanensis, Cyclobalanopsis nubium and Castanopsisfabri coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBF) , and Rhododendron simiarum-dominated mountainous dwarf forest (MDF) in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China. In each forest, litter bags were placed on soil surface (aboveground treatment, AG) and at the depth of 10 cm (below-ground treatment, BG). An inverse exponential relationship was found between litter decay rate and time for each of the three forests. The average value of the litter mass loss of AG and BG was 50.6% for EBF, 41. 7% for CBF, and 40. 13% for MDF by the end of first year, and 60.95% for EBF, 57. 06% for CBF, and 56. 60% for MDF by the end of second year, indicating that the litter decomposition of the forests was faster in first year than in second year. The annual litter loss decreased in the order of EBF > CBF > MDF, and that of AG was significantly higher than that of BG in first year but no significant difference was found in second year. According to the model simulation by Olson' s exponential function, it might take 6. 8-9. 9 years to reach 95% of decay (t095) for the forests investigated, compared with 8-17 years for warm temperate forests and 2 -8 years for south subtropical forests. The t0.95 value of the three test forests increased in the order of EBF < CBF < MDF. A net phospbhorus (P) immobilization was observed in the process of litter decomposition, with the intensity decreased in the order of MDF > CBF > EBF, which was related to the initial P content and C/P ratio of the litter. As for potassium ( K) , it was net release in most cases. By the end of the experiment, the release rate of P had little difference between AG and BG, while that of K was significantly higher in AG than in BG.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype. PMID:25356548

  10. Genetic diversity of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations from different geographic regions in China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype.

  11. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  12. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Evaluation of the regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Six regions in the Basin and Range province, ranging in size from 21,600 to 80,000 square kilometers, were evaluated to identify prospective hydrogeologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Prospective hydrogeologic environments were evaluated on the basis of the surface distribution of potential host rocks, late Cenozoic tectonic activity, hydrogeologic characteristics, and mineral and energy resources. These regions were selected as prospective for this study from a screening of the Basin and Range province. The six regions have certain characteristics that appear favorable for isolation of radioactive waste. The scant precipitation and great potential for water loss by evaporation and transpiration results in little surface runoff and ground-water recharge. This, combined with other hydrogeologic factors, results in areas within the regions that have thick unsaturated zones and long ground-water flow paths and traveltimes. Potential host media in the unsaturated zone include crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, and basin fill. Potential host media in the saturated zone are predominantly crystalline igneous rocks but also include argillaceous rocks, evaporitic rocks, intracaldera tuffs, and laharic breccias.

  13. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  14. Regional characteristics of land use in Northeast and Southern Blue Ridge Province: Associations with acid rain effects on surface-water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liegel, Leon; Cassell, David; Stevens, Donald; Shaffer, Paul; Church, Robbins

    1991-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) is one of several studies being conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to assess risk to surface waters from acidic deposition in the eastern United States. In one phase of DDRP, land use, wetland, and forest cover data were collected for statistical samples of 145 Northeast lake and 35 Southern Blue Ridge Province stream watersheds in the United States. Land-use and other data then were extrapolated from individual to target watershed populations. Project statistical design allows summarization of results for various subsets of the target population. This article discusses results and implications of the land-use and land-cover characterization for both regions. Forest cover was the primary land use in both regions. In the Northeast, developed (agriculture and urban) land was positively associated with surface-water chemistry values for acid neutralizing capacity, Ca plus Mg, pH, and sulfate in the Pocono/Catskill subregion. Extensive wetlands and beaver activity occur in parts of the Northeast region, whereas topography limits wetland and riparian development in the Southern Blue Ridge Province. Northeast soils have low sulfate adsorption capacity, most watersheds are near sulfur steady state, and lake sulfate concentrations are controlled principally by levels of sulfur deposition. Net annual sulfur retention in Northeast watersheds is positively correlated with occurrence of wetlands and beaver impoundments. In contrast, most Southern Blue Ridge Province soils have high sulfate adsorption capacities, resulting in high net watershed sulfur retention. At the present time, stream sulfate concentrations and percent sulfur retention are controlled principally by soil chemical properties related to adsorption rather than atmospheric deposition and land use.

  15. Documentation of model input and output values for simulation of regional ground-water flow, carbonate-rock province, Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Donald H.

    1993-01-01

    Documentation of model input values and sample output used during a conceptual evaluation of the regional ground-water flow in the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin, Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states, was revised from previously published Open-File Report 91-479. The documentation, consisting of a listing of input values and sample output, is contained on a 5-1/4-inch diskette in files presented in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. These files require approximately 740,000 bytes of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  16. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  17. Coke workers' exposure to volatile organic compounds in northern China: a case study in Shanxi Province.

    PubMed

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-06-01

    China is the largest coke producer and exporter in the world, and it has been a major concern that large populations of coke workers are exposed to the associated air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aimed to preliminarily quantify the potential exposure to VOCs emitted from two representative coking plants and assess the potential health risks. Air samples from various stages of coking were collected from the topside of coke ovens and various plant areas and then analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were used to quantify the coke oven emission (COE). The TWA concentrations for benzene were 705.6 and 290.4 μg m(-3) in plant A and plant B, respectively, which showed a higher exposure level than those reported in other countries. COE varied on the topside of coke ovens during charging and pushing processes, from 268.3 to 1197.7 μg m(-3) in plant A and 85.4-489.7 μg m(-3) in plant B. Our results indicate that benzene exposure from the diffusion of tar distillation also exerts significant health risks and thus should also be concerned. Charging and pushing activities accounted for nearly 70 % of benzene dose at the topside, and the benzene exposure risks to the coke oven workers in China were higher than those reported by US EPA. Compared to the reported emission sources, the weight-based ratios of average benzene to toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in different COE air samples showed unique characteristic profiles. Based on the B/T ratios from this work and from literatures on several major cities in northern China, it was evident that COE contributes significantly to the severe pollution of VOCs in the air of northern China. Future more rigorous studies are warranted to characterize VOC emission profiles in the stack gas of the coking processes in China.

  18. Evaluation of the genetic parameters for 10 common and five new ESS core autosomal STR loci in seven major geographic regions and the largest metropolitan province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canturk, Kemal Murat; Gurkan, Cemal; Sevay, Huseyin; Emre, Ramazan

    2017-03-01

    Situated at the crossroads of Asia, Middle East and Europe, Turkey has an ethnically diverse population of over 78 milllion people. To investigate the population genetics and potential differences in the autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms across all the major geographic regions and largest metropolitan province of Turkey within the context of the Near Eastern/European genetic landscape. Samples from a total of 5299 unrelated individuals were analysed at 10 common [D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, TH01, vWA] and five new European Standard Set (ESS) core autosomal STR loci [D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391, D22S1045]. Allele frequencies, statistical parameters of forensic interest and population differentiation tests were calculated for nine population datasets corresponding to the seven major geographic regions, the largest metropolitan province, and a combined dataset for the entire country. Cumulative results confirmed the presence of significant differences among these nine autosomal datasets themselves and with those from the nearby populations, therefore justifying the differential use of these separate datasets on a case-by-case basis in forensic investigations. This collection of autosomal STR population datasets comprises the largest and most comprehensive of its kind from Turkey so far.

  19. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  20. Experimental attrition rates of bed-material sediment from geologic provinces of Western Oregon and their application to regional sediment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, J.; O'Connor, J. E.; Jones, K. L.; Wallick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Many topographic, hydrologic, and land use variables affect the supply and transport of bed-material in rivers, but the underlying geology is a key factor controlling both the volume of introduced material and the attrition of bed-material as it moves downstream. Recent and ongoing USGS river studies in Western Oregon document strong links between geologic province and bed-material transport. Rivers originating in the Mesozoic metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks of the Klamath terranes of southwestern Oregon have the greatest gravel transport rates (and channel and valley-bottom morphologies reflecting high bed-material fluxes), whereas the generally lesser amounts of gravel in streams that drain Oregon's Coast Range and western Cascade Range owes in large part to Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units underlying most of these basins. Aspects of these differences are controlled by supply as well as clast attrition. Here we aim to quantify bed-material attrition rates associated with the five main geologic provinces of Western Oregon: the Klamath terranes, Western Cascades, High Cascades, Coast Range sedimentary rocks, and Coast Range volcanic rocks. Bed-material samples were collected throughout the region from streams that drain a single geologic province and tumbled with a lapidary tumbler to determine relative attrition rates. Two kilograms of each sample were sorted into an initial distribution of clast sizes (from 16 to 64mm) and tumbled, with periodic breaks to reweigh and sieve the sample. Results show marked differences in attrition rates, with the sedimentary rocks of the Coast Range having weight loss coefficients between 1.206 and 0.211/km, orders of magnitude greater than all of the other sampled provinces. For comparison, bed material from the Klamath terranes have weight loss coefficients ranging from 0.013 to 0.005/km, and a control sample of quartzite clasts (from the Klamath terranes) has a weight loss coefficient of 0.001/km. These results

  1. Several problems on a rational structure for agricultural production and the agro-ecology of the Tai region of Tiangsu province

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiangyong

    1983-08-01

    This article presents a method of determining whether the output value structure, the soil structure, and the labor force structure are relatively balanced in an agricultural region of a Chinese province. Topics covered include several rational agricultural production structures for different types of soil, and several problems in setting up a rational agricultural production structure. A rational agricultural production structure is a consequence of the integrated development of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline occupations, fisheries, and industry. The Tai Region has nine distinct types of soil. It is indicated that the level of grain production directly bears on the size and speed of development of economic diversification. Tables are presented on the output value structure of several representative communes and brigades, and soil nutrient content.

  2. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  3. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-12-11

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index I(geo) and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. I(geo) classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  4. [Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Respiration in a Planted Larch Forest in Shanxi Plateau].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun-xia; Li, Hong-jian; Li, Jun-jian; Wu, Jiang-xing

    2015-05-01

    Based on the data from a planted larch forest in Panquangou Natural Reserve of Shanxi Province, at three sampling scales (4, 2, and 1 m, respectively), soil respiration (Rs) and its affecting factors including soil temperature at 5 cm (T5), 10 cm (T10), and 15 cm (T15) depths, soil water content (Ws), litter mass (Lw), litter moisture (Lm), soil total carbon (C), and soil total nitrogen ( N) were determined. The spatial heterogeneities of Rs and the environmental factors were further analyzed and their intrinsic correlations were established. The results of traditional statistics showed that the spatial variations of Rs and the all measured factors were in the middle range; Rs were highly significantly positively correlated with T10, T15, and N (P < 0.01); significantly positively correlated with Lm (P < 0.05); highly significantly negatively correlated with C/N ratio (P < 0.01); and not significantly correlated with T5, Ws, Lw and C (P > 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the four factors of Lm, T10, N, and Ws together accounted for 36% of Rs heterogeneity. The results of geo-statistical analysis demonstrated that Rs was in a medium spatial autocorrelation; random and structural factors accounted for 39.5% and 60.5% of Rs heterogeneity, respectively. And the factors such as climate, landform, and soil played a leading role. The results also illustrated that the ranges for soil factors were different and the range for both Rs and T10 was 25 meters. The fractal dimension of the soil index was in the following order: Lw and C/N ratio (1.95) > N (1.91) > C (1.89) > Rs (1.78) > Lm (1.77 ) > Ws (1.69) > T10 (1.42). The spatial distribution of Rs was in consistent agreement with those of T10, Lm, C, and N; but different with those of Ws and C/N ratio. With a fixed cofidence level and certain estimated accuracy, the required sampling number of each item differed, corresponding to its spatial variation degree.

  5. [Regional scale remote sensing-based yield estimation of winter wheat by using MODIS-NDVI data: a case study of Jining City in Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianqiang; Chen, Zhongxin; Tang, Huajun

    2006-12-01

    Taking Jining City of Shandong Province, one of the most important winter wheat production regions in Huanghuaihai Plain as an example, the winter wheat yield was estimated by using the 250 m MODIS-NDVI data smoothed by Savitzky-Golay filter. The NDVI values between 0. 20 and 0. 80 were selected, and the sum of NDVI value for each county was calculated to build its relation with winter wheat yield. By using stepwise regression method, the linear regression model between NDVI and winter wheat yield was established, with the precision validated by the ground survey data. The results showed that the relative error of predicted yield was between -3.6% and 3.9%, suggesting that the method was relatively accurate and feasible.

  6. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  7. Application of hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing: data taken in the Baixianishan region of Gansu Province as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sun; Zhao, Yingjun; Zhang, Donghui; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing, featured by integrated images and spectra, is now a frontier of the remote sensing. Using meticulous spectra, hyperspectral remote sensing technology can depict spectral features of objects in detail and are capable of identifying objects rather than simply discriminating them. This study took the Baixianishan region in Gansu Province as an example, and CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data were utilized to extract and map alteration minerals by MTMF mapping method. Six hydrothermal alteration minerals were mapped, which contained limonite, sericite and epidote. In addition, we analyzed the types, combinations and distribution of the alteration minerals and divided three stages of hydrothermal activity. It is considered that the favorable ore-forming elements for gold deposits are middle Hercynian porphyraceous granite, fracture and veined distribution of sericite and limonite. The application of CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in the Baixianishan area has achieved ideal results, indicative of their wide application potential in the geological research.

  8. Regional soil-gas helium distribution of the Ely and Delta 1° x 2° quadrangles, Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance soil-gas helium survey was made in the Ely, Nevada and Delta, Utah 1° × 2° quadrangles in the Basin and Range Province. Helium concentrations in 510 samples ranged from −147 to 441 ppb He with respect to ambient air. The median helium value for the study area was 36 ppb. Concentrations of more than 100 ppb He and less than −20 ppb He occur more commonly in the Ely quadrangle and are especially numerous in the western one-half of this quadrangle. Interpretation of the data reveals that the helium concentrations reflect the rock type, particularly the silicic volcanic occurrences, and the geological structure of the area created by crustal extension. The regional soil-gas helium distribution is important information to consider when interpreting anomalies from detailed surveys.

  9. Regional stratigraphy and distribution of epigenetic stratabound celestine, fluorite, barite and Pb-Zn deposits in the MVT province of northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sánchez, Francisco; Camprubí, Antoni; González-Partida, Eduardo; Puente-Solís, Rafael; Canet, Carles; Centeno-García, Elena; Atudorei, Viorel

    2009-04-01

    Northeastern Mexico hosts numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted low-temperature hydrothermal deposits of celestine, fluorite, barite and zinc-lead, which formed by replacement of Mesozoic evaporites or carbonate rocks. Such deposits can be permissively catalogued as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The deposits studied in the state of Coahuila are associated with granitic and metasedimentary basement highs (horsts) marginal or central to the Mesozoic Sabinas Basin. These horsts controlled the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic basins and subsequently influenced the Laramide structural pattern. The Sabinas Basin consists of ~6,000-m-thick Jurassic to Cretaceous siliciclastic, carbonate and evaporitic series. The MVT deposits are mostly in Barremian and in Aptian-Albian to Cenomanian formations and likely formed from basinal brines that were mobilized during the Laramide orogeny, although earlier diagenetic replacement of evaporite layers (barite and celestine deposits) and lining of paleokarstic cavities in reef carbonates (Zn-Pb deposits) is observed. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and isotopic studies suggest ore formation due to mixing of basinal brines and meteoric water. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 45°C to 210°C; salinities range from 0 to 26 wt.% NaCl equiv., and some inclusions contain hydrocarbons or bitumen. Sulfur isotope data suggest that most of the sulfur in barite and celestine is derived from Barremian to Cenomanian evaporites. Regional geology and a compilation of metallogenic features define the new MVT province of northeastern Mexico, which comprises most of the state of Coahuila and portions of the neighboring states of Nuevo León, Durango and, perhaps extends into Zacatecas and southern Texas. This province exhibits a regional metal zonation, with celestine deposits to the south, fluorite deposits to the north and barite and Zn-Pb deposits mostly in the central part.

  10. [Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

    2012-01-01

    By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town.

  11. Analysis of HIV Correlated Factors in Chinese and Vietnamese Female Sex Workers in Hekou, Yunnan Province, a Chinese Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Ding, Guowei; Zhu, Zhibin; Zhou, Chunlian; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and correlated factors of HIV-1 among Chinese and Vietnamese female sex workers (FSW) in the border county of Hekou, Yunnan province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted collecting information on demographics, sexual behavior, medical history, and drug use. Blood samples were obtained to test for HIV/STIs. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine associations between factors and HIV-1 infection. Results Of 345 FSWs who participated in this study, 112 (32.5%) were Chinese and 233 (67.5) were Vietnamese. Vietnamese FSWs were significantly more likely to be HIV-1 positive (7.7%) compared with Chinese FSWs (0.9%) (p = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, sexual debut at age≤16 (OR 3.8: 95% CI: 1.4, 10.6), last client’s payment <150 RMB ($22 USD) (OR: 5.2, 95% CI; 1.7, 16.6), and HSV-2 (OR: 12.3; 95% CI: 1.6, 94.8) were significant for HIV-1 infection. Conclusions Differences in HIV prevalence in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs may be indicative of differential risk. It is important to characterize the nature of trans-border transmission in order to gain a better understanding of the potential impact on the international HIV epidemic. Understanding the correlated factors for HIV in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs is important for designing interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:26053040

  12. Coulomb stress evolution in the Shanxi rift system, North China, since 1303 associated with coseismic, post-seismic and interseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Sørensen, Mathilde Bøttger; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    The Shanxi rift system is one of the most active intraplate tectonic zones in the North China Block, resulting in devastating seismicity. Since 1303, the rift has experienced fifteen Ms ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Aiming at a better understanding of Coulomb stress evolution and its relationship with the seismicity in the rift system, we investigated the Coulomb stress changes due to coseismic slip and post-seismic relaxation processes following strong earthquakes as well as the interseismic tectonic loading since the 1303 Hongdong Ms = 8.0 earthquake. Our calculation applies a specified regional medium model, takes the gravity effect into account and uses the fault geometry of the next event as the receiver fault in a given calculation. Our results show that nine out of 12 Ms ≥ 6.5 earthquakes since the 1303 Hongdong earthquake and more than 82 per cent of small-medium instrumental events after the 1989 Datong-Yanggao Ms = 6.1 earthquake fall into the total stress increased areas. Our results also reveal the different roles of the coseismic, post-seismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes in the earthquake triggering process in the Shanxi rift system. In a short period after a strong event, the stress field changes are dominated by coseismic Coulomb stress due to sudden slip of the ruptured fault, while in the long term, the stress field is mainly dominated by the accumulation of interseismic tectonic loading. Post-seismic stress changes play an important role by further modifying the distribution of stress and therefore cannot be ignored. Based on the current stress status in the Shanxi rift system, the Linfen basin, southern and northern Taiyuan basin, Xinding basin and the north part of the rift system are identified as the most likely locations of large events in the future. The results of this study can provide important clues for the further understanding of seismic hazard in the Shanxi rift system and thus help guiding earthquake risk mitigation efforts in

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  14. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  15. Towards Building Direct Educational Partnership: The Foundation of Shanxi University in 1902

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Aisi

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of Shanxi University is a prime example of the collaborative efforts in higher education between the Chinese and British in late Qing China (1842-1912). Both sides made compromises, with the Chinese adapting their ideas of educational sovereignty, and the British agreeing to work under the supervision of the local government. Such a…

  16. The prognostic value of regional lymph node metastases in patients of Guangdong Province, China with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin-yun; Wang, Wei-wei; Ibrahima, Balde Alpha; Han, Shuai; Li, Zhou; Cai, Zhai; Chen, Miao-liang; Chen, Bao-zhu; Tan, Hui-shi; Zeng, Hai-shan; Dai, Xiao-li; Zhou, Min-wei; Zhang, Gang-qing; Li, Guo-xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the prognostic value of nodal metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial, it is of interest to evaluate and understand the different characteristics of predictive outcomes. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 215 untreated patients with differentiated thyroid cancer from July 1997 to July 2015 in 4 medical centers of Guangdong Province. A total of 107 patients with nodal metastases (group A) were compared to 108 patients without metastases (group B). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and postoperative complications in both groups were calculated. Variables predictive of DFS and OS were evaluated in group A. The group A had lower 5-year DFS (69.16%, 11 months) and shorter median time of recurrence than those in group B (87.96%, 8.5 months, respectively, P < 0.001). The incidence of temporary hypoparathyroidism in group A is lower; whereas higher incidence of temporary unilateral vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, permanent unilateral vocal cord palsy, and bilateral vocal cord palsy in group A were observed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses in group A revealed that age, pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM) stage, and histology were related to DFS (P < 0.05); while pTNM stage and histology were related to OS only in univariate analyses. Positive nodal metastases have significant prognostic value in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Guangdong, China and primarily reduce DFS. Moreover, patients with positive nodal metastases who are >45 years and have higher pTNM stage or follicular histology tend to have poor prognosis. Selective lymph node dissection with appropriate postoperative treatment and frequent follow-up should be accorded to these vulnerable groups of patients. PMID:27741112

  17. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  18. [Change trends of summer fire danger in great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Shu, Li-Fu; Di, Xue-Ying

    2012-11-01

    By using Delta and WGEN downscaling methods and Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index, this paper analyzed the variation characteristics of summer fire in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province in 1966-2010, estimated the change trends of the summer fire danger in 2010-2099, compared the differences of the forest fire in summer, spring, and autumn, and proposed the prevention and control strategies of the summer fire based on the fire environment. Under the background of climate warming, the summer forest fire in the region in 2000-2010 showed a high incidence trend. In foreseeable future, the summer forest fire across the region in 2010-2099, as compared to that in the baseline period 1961-1990, would be increased by 34%, and the increment would be obviously greater than that of spring and autumn fire. Relative to that in 1961-1990, the summer fire in 2010-2099 under both SRES A2a and SRES B2a scenarios would have an increasing trend, and, with the lapse of time, the trend would be more evident, and the area with high summer fire would become wider and wider. Under the scenario of SRES A2a, the summer fire by the end of the 21st century would be doubled, as compared to that in 1961-1990, and the area with high summer fire would be across the region. In the characteristics of fire source, attributes of forest fuel, and fire weather conditions, the summer forest fire was different from the spring and autumn forest fire, and thus, the management of fire source and forest fuel load as well as the forest fire forecast (mid-long term forecast in particular) in the region should be strengthened to control the summer forest fire.

  19. An epidemiological survey of children's iodine nutrition and goitre status in regions with mildly excessive iodine in drinking water in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shengmin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Dong; Chong, Zhenshui; Chong, Zhengshui; Jia, Lihui; Du, Yonggui; Ma, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon

    2012-07-01

    To identify children's iodine nutrition and goitre status in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey. Probability proportional to size sampling was employed to randomly select children from thirty townships where the median iodine content in drinking water ranged from 150 to 300 μg/l; their urinary iodine concentrations were determined and their thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound. Drinking water samples and salt samples from the villages where the children lived were collected using a systematic sampling method. Hebei Province of China. A total of 1259 children aged 8-10 years (621 boys and 638 girls). Children's median urinary iodine concentration was found to be 418·8 μg/l, and the iodine concentration was >300 μg/l for 68·3 % (248/363) of the urine samples. Children's median urinary iodine concentration in villages with median salt iodine >10 mg/kg was significantly higher than that in villages with median salt iodine <5 mg/kg (442·9 μg/l v. 305·4 μg/l, P ≈ 0). The goitre rate of 1259 children examined by ultrasound was 10·96 %. The iodine intake of children living in areas with mildly excessive iodine in drinking water in Hebei Province was found to be excessive. The measured iodine excess in the sampled children is exacerbated by consumption of iodized salt. Goitre was identified in these areas; however, due to the limitation of the current criteria for children's thyroid volume, a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of goitre in these regions could not be made and further study is required.

  20. Sequence variation in two mitochondrial DNA regions and internal transcribed spacer among isolates of the nematode Oesophagostomum asperum originating from goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Hu, T; Duan, N C; Li, W Y; Teng, Q; Li, H; Liu, W; Liu, Y; Cheng, T Y

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad1 (pnad1) genes and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult O. asperum individuals and the representative amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA were 366 bp, 681 bp and 785 bp, respectively. The A+T contents of gene sequences were 71.5-72% for pcox1, 73.7-74.2% for pnad1 and 58-58.8% for ITS rDNA. Intra-specific sequence variations within O. asperum were 0-1.6% for pcox1, 0-1.9% for pnad1 and 0-1.7% for ITS rDNA, while inter-specific sequence differences among members of the genus Oesophagostomum were significantly higher, being 11.1-12.5%, 13.3-17.7% and 8.5-18.6% for pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of pcox1 and pnad1, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony), revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of intra-specific variation in mtDNA and rDNA sequences among O. asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China, and have implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. asperum.

  1. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Beneath Regions of Recent Volcanism in the Basin and Range Province and Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, D. W.; Rau, C. J.; Plank, T.; Gazel, E.; Bendersky, C.

    2010-12-01

    Melt in the asthenosphere may contribute strongly to the development of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in some settings. We have compiled a set of vertical shear-velocity profiles beneath centers of recent (<1.0 Ma) volcanic activity in the Basin and Range province based on Rayleigh wave tomography. The classic pattern of a high-velocity lid overlying a low-velocity zone (LVZ) is clear beneath many of the centers. Cima, for example, has a high velocity lid extending to a depth of about 60 km. Beneath Dish Hill and Amboy in the southern Mojave, the lithospheric lid extends to a depth of ~ 90 km. Minimum velocities in the LVZs beneath the higher velocity lids typically are 4.00-4.05 km/s, similar to that beneath the East Pacific Rise and too low to be caused by temperature alone without unreasonably high attenuation. Beneath other centers, like Big Pine, Lathrop Wells and Tahoe, there is no resolvable lid. The lid is either missing or too thin to resolve, but the absence of the lid/LVZ pattern seems to be due to a combination of lower velocities immediately beneath the Moho and higher velocities in the LVZ. Petrological indicators of temperature and depth of melting from basalt composition are in general agreement with the seismological observations, with the depth of last equilibration typically occurring near the top of the LVZ. Beneath Big Pine, for example, the equilibration temperatures are unusually low and the equilibration depth is 40 to 50 km, just below the Moho, in agreement with the lack of a distinct lid. Beneath Cima, equilibration depths are 60-70 km. Beneath Coso, equilibration depths are only slightly deeper than Big Pine, but the temperatures are higher, in agreement with the more pronounced LVZ and the presence of a thin lid. Beneath the Tabernacle Hill/Black Rock volcanic field in west-central Utah, there is a well-developed lid/LVZ structure, but the "high" velocity lid is only ~ 4.10 km/s while the underlying LVZ reaches as low as

  2. [Dynamics of forest fire weather indices in Tahe County of Great Xing' an Mountains region, Heilongjiang Province].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-Ying; Li, Yong-Fu; Sun, Jian; Yang, Guang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the 1974-2008 forest fire and meteorological data in Tahe County of Great Xing' an Mountains region, and with the help of Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS), this paper qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the dynamics of forest fire weather indices in the region. In 1974-2008, the mean annual fire occurrence in the region showed an increasing trend, and the increment in 2000-2008 was 72.2%, compared with that in 1974-1999. The fuel moisture codes, fire behavior indices, and fire severity indices in 1974-2008 had an overall increasing trend, which was more evident with time extended. In the future, the probability of forest fire occurrence in the region would be increasing, fuels would be getting drier, fire intensity would be increased, fire weather would be more serious, and fire control would be more difficult. Therefore, more efforts should be made to improve the capability of forest fire control, especially in summer. As a fundamental technique, prescribed burning should be applied to reduce the fuel load. From this doing, the probability of fire occurrence and the fire potential intensity could be reduced.

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region. More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies. Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface. In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  4. Mutant allele frequencies among domestic cats in some eastern areas of Canada: regional homogeneity of factors in Canadian Atlantic Provinces and the French colony of Saint Pierre.

    PubMed

    Todd, N B; Todd, L M

    1976-01-01

    Surveys to determine mutant allele frequencies in domestic cats of the Canadian Atlantic Provinces (Halifax, Nova Scotia; Fredericton, New Brunswick; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; St. John's Newfoundland) and the French colony of Saint Pierre, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, reveal a general regional homogeneity for most factors. Despite diverse historical patterns of settlement, a strong common component of origin is indicated. This is tentatively identified as late 18th and early 19th century British. One mutant, polydactyly, which is of New England origin appears to have been distributed largely by loyalist refugees from New England at the time of the American Rebellion. No elements of a specific Acadian (French) character have yet been identified. Siamese cats have been "introduced" to the region in recent years and are now so abundant that they will undoubtedly cause a significant change in some mutant allele frequencies over the next few decades. Interregional exchanges of cats no doubt are contributing to homogenizing the populations of the area, but the practice of sterilization of pets offsets this to some degree.

  5. Granites in the Sawuer region of the west Junggar, Xinjiang Province, China: Geochronological and geochemical characteristics and their geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Dayu; Cooke, David; Zhao, Guochun

    2008-12-01

    The Sawuer region is located in the west Junggar, Jimunai County of Altay district and Hefeng County of Tacheng district, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, in northwest China. In the study area granitic intrusions are widespread and can be subdivided into I-type granites (Tasite pluton, Sentasi pluton, Wokensala pluton and Kaerjia pluton) and A-type (A 2) granites (Kuoyitasi pluton and Qiaqihai pluton). The I-type granites consist of granite, adamelite, granodiorite, and the A-type granites are mainly represented by alkali granite. SHRIMP U-Pb dating results indicate that the granites in Sawuer region were formed between 337 Ma and 290.7 Ma (late Carboniferous and early Permian), with the I-type granites being formed between 337 Ma and 302.6 Ma, and the A-type between 297.9 and 290.7 Ma. From the older to the youngest granites, their composition changes from calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic, to alkali series, and from I-type to A-type, based on the characteristics of whole rock trace element and rare earth elements geochemistry. This compositional range is the result of a change in the geodynamic regime from compressional to tensional during the late Paleozoic. Strontium, Nd, Pb, O isotope systematics suggest that both the I-type and A-type granites in Sawuer were sourced from the mantle (DM), but with some crustal contamination for the Kuoyitasi pluton. The I-type granites were formed by equilibrium partial melting, while the A-type granites were formed mainly by fractional crystallization. Based on the Rb-Y + Nb and Nb-Y-Ce discrimination criteria by Eby [Eby G.N., 1992. Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20, 641-644] and Pearce [Pearce J.A., 1996. Sources and settings of granitic rocks. Episodes 19, 120-125] and comparisons with granites in other regions of northern Xinjiang, the I-type granites were emplaced during a transition from compressional to extensional settings in a post-collision regime, whereas

  6. Regional curve development and selection of a reference reach in the non-urban, lowland sections of the Piedmont physiographic province, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Kirk E.

    2001-01-01

    Stream-restoration projects utilizing naturalstream designs frequently are based on the bankfull- channel characteristics of a stream reach that is accommodating streamflow and sediment transport without excessive erosion or deposition. The bankfull channel is identified by the use of field indicators and confirmed with tools such as regional curves. Channel dimensions were surveyed at six streamflow-measurement stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Gettysburg-Newark Lowlands Section and Piedmont Lowlands Section of the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Regional curves were developed from regression analyses of the relation between drainage area and cross-sectional area, mean depth, width, and streamflow of the bankfull channel. Regional curves were used to confirm the identification of the bankfull channel at a reference reach. Stream dimensions and characteristics of the reference reach were measured for extrapolation into the design of a steam-restoration project on Bermudian Creek in Adams County, Pa. Dimensions for cross-sectional area, mean depth, width, and computed streamflow of the bankfull channel in all surveyed riffle cross sections in the reference reach were within the 95-percent confidence interval bounding the regression line representing bankfull channel geometry in the Lowland Sections of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. The average bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull mean depth, and computed bankfull discharge for riffle cross sections in the reference reach ranged from 15.4 to 16.5 percent less than estimates determined from the lowland regional curves. Average bankfull channel width was about 2 percent greater than estimates. Cross-sectional area, mean depth, and computed streamflow corresponding to the bankfull stage at the reference reach were 31.4, 44.4, and 9.6 percent less, respectively, than estimates derived from the regional curves developed by Dunne and Leopold in 1978. Average

  7. Bankfull Regional Curves for Streams in the Non-Urban, Non-Tidal Coastal Plain Physiographic Province, Virginia and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural-channel design involves constructing a stream channel with the dimensions, slope, and plan-view pattern that would be expected to transport water and sediment and yet maintain habitat and aesthetics consistent with unimpaired reaches. The adequate description of channel geometry in unimpaired reaches often is an important component of natural-channel design projects and can be facilitated through empirical regression relations, or regional curves, relating bankfull geometry to drainage area. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, and bankfull mean depth to drainage area were developed based on data collected at 20 streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia and Maryland. These regional curves can be used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull channel geometry when the drainage area of a watershed is known. Field data collected at the site for each streamflow-gaging station included one longitudinal profile of bankfull features and channel-bed slope, two riffle cross-section surveys of channel geometry, cross-section pebble counts, and one site sketch with photographs of the channel and bankfull features. The top of the bank was the bankfull feature most indicative of bankfull geometry. Field data were analyzed to determine bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, and D50- and D84-particle sizes for the two riffles at each site. The bankfull geometry from the 8 sites surveyed during this study represents the average of two riffle cross sections for each site, and the bankfull geometry from the 12 Maryland sites represents one cross section for each site. Regional curves developed for the 20 sites had coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.945, 0.890, 0.871, and 0.793 for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, mean depth, and discharge, respectively. The regional curves represent conditions for streams with defined channels and bankfull

  8. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  9. Granite fabrics and regional-scale strain partitioning in the Seridó belt (Borborema Province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archanjo, Carlos J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Bouchez, Jean Luc; Ernesto, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Fabrics of the Brasiliano-age granitoid plutons of the Seridó belt (northeastern Brazil) were organized following the partitioned regional strain field which shaped larger areas of the basement and its metapelitic cover. Nine plutons located at the central and western portions of the belt have been investigated by means of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. These plutons, emplaced between 580 and 575 Ma, are mainly potassic calk-alcalic magnetite-bearing monzogranites. The presence of primary coarse-grained magnetite as the main magnetic mineral is indicated by optical and electronic microscopy, magnetic susceptibilities, hysteresis ratios, and thermomagnetic curves. The plutons show a strong internal coherence of magnetic fabric, with foliation poles distributed around a zone axis parallel to the gently plunging mean lineation. The magnetic fabric was used to trace the strain partitioning along the belt. In the central transpressive shear belt the magnetic lineations are parallel to north trending regional stretching. On the other hand, in the western basement block a voluminous granitic magmatism was emplaced as a consequence of a transtensional/extensional deformation. Lineations in these granites trend in a NE direction, which is parallel to the transport, inferred from kinematic indicators along the shear zones. A crustal-scale east trending dextral shear zone connects both the transtensional and transpressional domains.

  10. Factors affecting summer maize yield under climate change in Shandong Province in the Huanghuaihai region of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqing; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting

    2012-07-01

    Clarification of influencing factors (cultivar planted, cultivation management, climatic conditions) affecting yields of summer maize (Zea mays L.) would provide valuable information for increasing yields further under variable climatic conditions. Here, we report actual maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region over the past 50 years (1957-2007), simulated yields of major varieties in different years (Baimaya in the 1950s, Zhengdan-2 in the 1970s, Yedan-13 in the 1990s, and Zhengdan-958 in the 2000s), and factors that influence yield. The results show that, although each variety change has played a critical role in increasing maize yields, the contribution of variety to yield increase has decreased steadily over the past 50 years (42.6%-44.3% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 34.4%-47.2% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 21.0%-37.6% from the 1990s to the 2000s). The impact of climatic conditions on maize yield has exhibited an increasing trend (0.67%-22.5% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 2.6%-27.0% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 9.1%-51.1% from the 1990s to the 2000s); however, interannual differences can be large, especially if there were large changes in temperature and rainfall. Among climatic factors, rainfall had a greater positive influence than light and temperature on yield increase. Cultivation measures could change the contribution rates of variety and climatic conditions. Overall, unless there is a major breakthrough in variety, improving cultivation measures will remain important for increasing future summer maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region.

  11. Mutations in pre-core and basic core promoter regions of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Ren, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Shao-Fang; Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency of mutations in pre-core (pre-C) and basic core promoter (BCP) regions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Shanxi Province, and the association between mutations and disease related indexes. METHODS: One hundred chronic hepatitis B patients treated at Shanxi Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were included in this study. PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR were used to detect the mutations in the HBV pre-C and BCP regions. HBV DNA content and liver function were compared between patients with mutant HBV pre-C and BCP loci and those with wild-type loci. The consistency between PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and MAMA-PCR for detecting mutations in the HBV pre-C and BCP regions was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 100 serum samples detected, 9.38% had single mutations in the pre-C region, 29.17% had single mutations in the BCP region, 41.67% had mutations in both BCP and pre-C regions, and 19.79% had wild-type loci. The rates of BCP and pre-C mutations were 65.7% and 34.3%, respectively, in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive patients, and 84.6% and 96.2%, respectively, in HBeAg negative patients. The rate of pre-C mutations was significantly higher in HBeAg negative patients than in HBeAg positive patients (χ2 = 26.62, P = 0.00), but there was no significant difference in the distribution of mutations in the BCP region between HBeAg positive and negative patients (χ2 = 2.43, P = 0.12). The presence of mutations in the pre-C (Wilcoxon W = 1802.5, P = 0.00) and BCP regions (Wilcoxon W = 2906.5, P = 0.00) was more common in patients with low HBV DNA content. Both AST and GGT were significantly higher in patients with mutant pre-C and BCP loci than in those with wild-type loci (P < 0.05). PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and MAMA-PCR for detection of mutations in the BCP and pre-C regions had good consistency, and the Kappa values obtained were 0.91 and 0.58, respectively

  12. Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).

    PubMed

    Shirvani, Edris; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Noaman, Vahid; Bahriari, Masumeh; Morovati, Hasan; Hatami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan.

  13. Insect Species Damage on Ornamental Plants and Saplings of Bartin Province and Its Vicinity in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Sönmezyildiz, Hilmi; Ülgentürk, Selma; Özdemir, Işıl

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify harmful insect species, understand their biology, assess their damage potential and target plants and define distribution areas. There are a lot of native or cultured ornamental plants in Bartın and its surrounding (Çaycuma, Zonguldak, Karabük, Mengen, Devrek). These plants are herbaceous and woody species. Specimens were collected from various cultured and non-cultured plants. A total of 34 species belonging to 20 families of 5 orders were identified. The order Hemiptera was represented by the highest number of species (19 species), followed by Coleoptera (8), Lepidoptera (4), Orthoptera (2), and Dermaptera (1). Insect samples were collected from plants by net traps, special insect aspirators, and various insect traps. The identified species have been stored in the collection room of the Forest Entomology and Protection Unit, Bartın Forestry Faculty, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Z.K.U.), Turkey. This is the first detailed study about insect species causing damage on ornamental plants and saplings of Bartın province and its vicinity, although similar studies of different regions exist. This research makes a very important contribution to the insect fauna of Bartın, its environs and Turkey. Twenty four of the identified species were new for Bartın and its vicinity, while the remainder had been previously recorded in different parts of Bartın. PMID:19325767

  14. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Cattle Farmers and Farm Residents in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Cong, Wei; Li, Mao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about Coxiella burnetii infection among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to detect the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and estimate associated risk factors among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. A cross-sectional study was designed, and sera of 362 people living or working on 106 cattle farms were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescence assay. Overall C. burnetii seroprevalence was 35.6% (129/362, 95% CI: 30.70-40.57), and 112 participants had experienced a past infection and seventeen (4.7%) had experienced a relatively recent infection. In the final combined multilevel model, the following activities were significantly associated with presence of antibodies against C. burnetii: milking cattle, providing general healthcare to cattle, providing birth assistance, contact dead-born animals, urbanization, and presence of mice and/or rats in the stable. Moreover, presence of disinfection equipment was a significant protective factor. This is the first study addressing the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. burnetii infection in cattle farmers and farm residents in three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

  15. [Physical and chemical properties of throughfall in main forest types of secondary forest ecosystem in montane regions of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Xing-jun; Yan, Qiao-ling; Yu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Jiao-jun; Zhang, Cai-hong; Zhang, Jin-xin; Liu, Chang-xia

    2009-09-01

    From July to September 2008, a measurement was made on the physical and chemical properties of bulk precipitation and throughfall in five main forest types, i.e., larch plantation (LP), Fraxinus rhynchophylla stand (FR), mixed forest stand (MF), Korean pine plantation (KP), and Mongolian oak stand (MO), of secondary forest ecosystem in montane regions of eastern Liaoning Province, China. Comparing with bulk precipitation, the throughfall in the five forest types was significantly acidified (P < 0.05), and the acidification degree was in the order of KP > LP > MF > MO > FR. The conductivity and total dissolved solids of the throughfall increased significantly (P < 0.05), and were in the sequence of MO > FR > LP > MF > KP. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the throughfall lowered significantly (P < 0.05), with the rank of KP > MF > FR > MO > LP, while the Cl- concentration increased significantly, ranked as LP > MO > MF > FR > KP. The NO3-concentrations of the throughfall in FR, MO and MF were higher, while those in LP and KP were lower than that of the bulk precipitation.

  16. Regional and local controls on mineralization and pluton emplacement in the Bondy gneiss complex, Grenville Province, Canada interpreted from aeromagnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufréchou, G.; Harris, L. B.; Corriveau, L.; Antonoff, V.

    2015-05-01

    The Bondy gneiss complex in the Grenville Province of Southwest Quebec hosts a mineralized iron oxide- and copper-rich hydrothermal system. The northern part of the complex overlies the lithospheric-scale Mont-Laurier lineament and is cut by the regional Mont-Laurier South shear zone interpreted from Bouguer gravity. A sinistral 6 km wide strike-slip corridor defined by several second-order shears (the Mont-Laurier South shear zone) in the complex was identified from geophysical data, including a new high-resolution airborne magnetic survey, and field observations. The spatial association of a metamorphosed alteration system, several pre- to post-metamorphic mineralized zones and mafic intrusions within the Mont-Laurier South shear zone suggests that (i) underlying basement structures controlled hydrothermal fluid migration during the formation of epithermal-IOCG mineralization and associated alteration system before ca. 1.2 Ga high-grade metamorphism and penetrative ductile deformation in the complex; (ii) post-metamorphic reactivation allowed magma ascent and pluton emplacement in the complex and adjacent supracrustal rocks within dilatational sites; and (iii) brittle-ductile shears that postdate high-grade metamorphism provided channel ways for fluid migration associated with magnetite-related mineralization. Although the complex does not host an economic mineral deposit, the role between structures at different levels and the combination of gravity and aeromagnetics at different scales provides an example of an approach for mineral exploration in similar high grade gneiss terrains.

  17. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  18. Chapter 1: Executive Summary - 2003 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups, Western Gulf Province, Gulf Coast Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups in the Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast region (fig. 1) as part of a national oil and gas assessment effort (USGS Navarro and Taylor Groups Assessment Team, 2004). The assessment of the petroleum potential of the Navarro and Taylor Groups was based on the general geologic elements used to define a total petroleum system (TPS), including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five assessment units (AU) in the Navarro and Taylor Groups as parts of a single TPS, the Smackover-Austin-Eagle Ford Composite TPS: Travis Volcanic Mounds Oil AU, Uvalde Volcanic Mounds Gas and Oil AU, Navarro-Taylor Updip Oil and Gas AU, Navarro-Taylor Downdip Gas and Oil AU, and Navarro-Taylor Slope-Basin Gas AU (table 1).

  19. Development of regional curves of bankfull-channel geometry and discharge for streams in the non-urban, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Stream-restoration projects utilizing natural stream designs frequently are based on the bankfull-channel characteristics of stream reaches that can accommodate streamflow and sediment transport without excessive erosion or deposition and lie within a watershed that has similar runoff characteristics. The bankfull channel at an ungaged impaired site or reference reach is identified by use of field indicators and is confirmed with tools such as regional curves. Channel dimensions were surveyed at 14 streamflow-measurement stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the Gettysburg-Newark Lowland Section, Piedmont Lowland Section, and the Piedmont Upland Section of the Piedmont Physiographic Province1 in Pennsylvania and Maryland. From the surveyed channel dimensions, regional curves were developed from regression analyses of the relations between drainage area and the cross-sectional area, mean depth, width, and streamflow of the bankfull channel at these sites. Bankfull cross-sectional area and bankfull discharge have the strongest relation to drainage area as evidenced by R2 values of 0.94 and 0.93, respectively. The relation between bankfull crosssectional area and drainage area has a p-value of less than 0.001; no p-value is presented for the relation between bankfull discharge and drainage area because of a non-normal residual distribution. The relation between bankfull width and drainage area has an R2 value of 0.80 and a p-value of less than 0.001 indicating a moderate linear relation between all stations. The relation between bankfull mean depth and drainage area, with an R2 value of 0.72 and a p-value of less than 0.001, also indicates a moderate linear relation between all stations. The concept of regional curves can be a valuable tool to support efforts in stream restoration. Practitioners of stream restoration need to recognize it as such and realize the limitations. The small number of USGS streamflow-measurement stations available for

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of University Volleyball Players and Sedentary Young People in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra Province in India.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Afshan; Mudassir, Syed; Badaam, Khaled Mohsin; Shete, A N; Khan, Shoeb

    2015-07-01

    Volleyball is considered a physically demanding athletic sport; characterized by rapid acceleration, deceleration, and sudden changes of direction. It has been highlighted that aerobic capacity (VO2 max) which indicates cardiorespiratory fitness has a significant effect on the performance of athletes and is an important element of success in sports. The objective of this study was to compare aerobic capacity of university volleyball players from the region with that of matched sedentary controls. The secondary objective was to compare the findings with the aerobic capacity data reported in literature for the volleyball players and sedentary population. Sample size was calculated for detecting a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.8) with α as 0.05 and power of study as 80% for two tailed hypothesis testing. By using Queen's college step test, VO2 max was measured in 30 male volleyball players in the age group of 20 to25 years and was compared with 30 age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle. The mean predicted VO2 max was 52.99 ± 5.13 ml/kg/min in volleyball players and 37.01 ± 3.94 ml/kg/min in controls. The difference in mean values of VO2 max (ml/kg/min) in volleyball players and controls was statistically highly significant with p-value less than 0.001. The volleyball players showed a superior aerobic capacity compared with age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle.

  1. [Residues and health risk assessment of sulfonamides in sediment and fish from typical marine aquaculture regions of Guangdong Province, China].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Ting; Wang, Qi; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Yong-Tao; Cheng, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of sulfonamides including sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidin (SM2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in sediments, muscle and liver tissues of 7 kinds of fish species collected from two marine aquaculture regions along the coast of Guangdong Provice were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a ultraviolet detector. Assessment of the health risks were conducted based on the values of maximum residue limits (MRL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results showed that sulfonamides were found in all the sediment samples. The concentrations (dry wet) ranged from 2.1 - 35.2 ng x g(-1), the detected frequency of the 3 sulfonamide antibiotics ranked as SDZ (85.7%) > SM2 (71.4%) > SMX (28.6%). The detection rate of sulfonamides in samples from Daya Bay was higher than that from Hailing Island. Higher concentrations were detected in liver tissues rather than in muscle tissues (P < 0.05). The residues of SDZ, SM2 and SMX in fish muscle tissues (wet weight) ranged from 11.6-37.9, 16.3-27.8 and 4.9-20.0 ng x g(-1), respectively. The calculated daily intakes of sulfonamides in the present study ranged from 3.37-36.72 ng x kg(-1), which accounted for 0.007% -0.073% of the ADI (50 microg x kg(-1)). Health risks to human body were negligible as the estimated intake was less than 1% ADI, therefore the security of dietary was high.

  2. Characterization of transpressive deformation in shear zones of the Archean North Caribou greenstone belt (NW Superior Province) and the relationship with regional metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Émilie; Schneider, David A.; Kalbfleisch, Tash; Habler, Gerlinde; Biczok, John

    2016-12-01

    The 2.7-3.0 Ga North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), host to the Musselwhite BIF-hosted gold deposit, possesses abundant shear zones on its northern margins, which appear to have formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Protracted deformation and regional metamorphism are coeval with widespread magmatism and accretion events during crustal amalgamation of the Western Superior Province, and are responsible for folding the ore-hosting BIF and channeling fluids. The importance of shear zones in behaving as conduits for fluids during the tectonic evolution of the NCGB is not well known and their relationship with metamorphism is equivocal, yet higher-grade, syn- to post-tectonic metamorphic minerals seem to correlate with loci of higher strain. Structural analyses support oblique transpressive collision that produced steeply-dipping planar and shallowly-plunging linear fabrics with dominant dextral kinematics, that trend broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt. Electron backscatter diffraction analyses were conducted on strategic samples across one shear zone in order to characterize crustal conditions during transpressive deformation. The Dinnick Lake shear zone cuts through mafic metavolcanics and at its core is an L-tectonite granite composed of recrystallized quartz. Whole rock geochemistry shows little variation in Ca, Na, Mg and K (often used as indicators of hydrothermal alteration) from surrounding less deformed units, suggesting deformation in a dry environment. Microstructural analysis indicates subgrain rotation recrystallization and deformation by prism a- and c-slip in quartz, as well as aligned hornblende that suggest deformation temperatures above 500 °C. Quartz in mafic rocks along the margins of the shear zone also exhibits a basal a-slip component, indicating a slight decrease in strain or temperature. Although the NCGB exhibits some first-order evidence of vertical tectonism (dome and keel geometries), the dominant strain record

  3. Prevalence of Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog-breakpoint cluster region fusions and correlation with peripheral blood parameters in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients in Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Ali Asghar; Shahsavar, Farhad; Gorji, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Kolsoum; Nazarabad, Vahideh Heydari; Bahmani, Banafsheh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic malignancy of myeloid linage associated with a significant increase in granulocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. CML diagnosis is based on detection of Philadelphia chromosome and “Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog” (ABL)-“breakpoint cluster region protein” fusions (ABL-BCR fusions). Aims: In this study, patients with CML morphology were studied according to ABL-BCR fusions and the relationship between the fusions and peripheral blood cell changes was examined. Materials and Methods: All patients suspected to chronic myeloproliferative disorders in Lorestan Province visiting subspecialist hematology clinics who were confirmed by oncologist were studied over a period of 5 years. After completing basic data questionnaire, blood samples were obtained with informed consent from the patients. Blood cell count and morphology were investigated and RNA was extracted from blood samples. cDNA was synthesized from RNA and ABL-BCR fusions including b3a2 and b2a2 (protein 210 kd or p210), e1a2 (protein 190 kdor p190), and e19a2 (protein 230 kdor p230) were studied by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) fusions was also studied. The prevalence of mutations and their correlation with the blood parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: Of 58 patients positive for ABL-BCR fusion, 18 (30.5%) had b2a2 fusion, 37 (62.71%) had b3a2 fusion and three (3.08%) had e1a2 fusion. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) was not observed. There was no significant correlation between ABL-BCR fusions and white blood cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobin concentration. Conclusions: The ABL-BCR fusions in Lorestan Province were similar to other studies in Iran, and b3a2 fusion had the highest prevalence in the studied patients studied. PMID:27857896

  4. Origin of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous peraluminous granitoids in the northeastern Hunan province (middle Yangtze region), South China: Geodynamic implications for the Paleo-Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Chu, Yang; Xue, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    The Late Mesozoic granitic belt in the northeastern Hunan province (situated in the south of the middle Yangtze region) represents the western front of the large magmatic province of SE China. In order to determine their ages and petrogenesis, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical analyses for four granitic plutons, namely Taohuashan, Dayunshan-Mufushan, Wangxiang and Lianyunshan. Our SIMS zircon U-Pb ages, together with previously published data, reveal that the magmatic activities in this area can be roughly subdivided into three phases at 151-146 Ma, 132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma, and the Dayunshan-Mufushan batholith therein is a composite pluton. These four plutons are mainly composed of weakly to strongly peraluminous biotite or two-mica monzogranites, with a minor amount of biotite granodiorites. Their geochemical features are similar to S-type as well as fractionated S-type granites, with enrichment in LREEs and negative Ba, Sr, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. All samples show negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -12.5 to -3.6, corresponding to crustal Hf model (TDMC) ages of 1.4-2.0 Ga. It is inferred that these granitoids were derived from partial melting of metasedimentary rocks analogous to the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group, predominantly with psammitic component. Fractional crystallization probably played an important role in the magma evolution, while input of mantle-derived magma was insignificant. Combined with other geological evidence, our new data allow us to propose that the Cretaceous (132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma) magmatism might be response to episodic slab rollback of the Paleo-Pacific plate, while the early-stage (151-146 Ma) magmatism that overlapped the epilogue of Jurassic magmatic flare-up and subsequent magmatic quiescence probably foreshadowed the transformation from foundering of a subducted flat-slab to slab rollback. Alternatively, slab foundering after a SE-directed intracontinental subduction in the

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of University Volleyball Players and Sedentary Young People in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra Province in India

    PubMed Central

    Kausar, Afshan; Mudassir, Syed; Shete, A.N.; Khan, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background Volleyball is considered a physically demanding athletic sport; characterized by rapid acceleration, deceleration, and sudden changes of direction. It has been highlighted that aerobic capacity (VO2 max) which indicates cardiorespiratory fitness has a significant effect on the performance of athletes and is an important element of success in sports. Aim and Objective The objective of this study was to compare aerobic capacity of university volleyball players from the region with that of matched sedentary controls. The secondary objective was to compare the findings with the aerobic capacity data reported in literature for the volleyball players and sedentary population. Materials and Methods Sample size was calculated for detecting a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.8) with α as 0.05 and power of study as 80% for two tailed hypothesis testing. By using Queen’s college step test, VO2 max was measured in 30 male volleyball players in the age group of 20 to25 years and was compared with 30 age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle. Results The mean predicted VO2 max was 52.99 ± 5.13 ml/kg/min in volleyball players and 37.01 ± 3.94 ml/kg/min in controls. The difference in mean values of VO2 max (ml/kg/min) in volleyball players and controls was statistically highly significant with p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion The volleyball players showed a superior aerobic capacity compared with age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle. PMID:26393124

  6. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2017-08-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  7. Structural evolution of the Mount Wall region in the Hamersley province, Western Australia and its control on hydrothermal alteration and formation of high-grade iron deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalstra, Hilke J.

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of two relatively small but high-grade iron ore deposits near Mt Wall, an intensely faulted part of the southwestern Hamersley province provides unique insights into the structural control on ore formation in this region. The deposits have many geological features typical of the high grade microplaty hematite group which also contains the much larger Mt Tom Price, Paraburdoo and Mt Whaleback deposits. The deposits are structurally controlled along early normal faults and contain abundant microplaty hematite and martite, and are largely confined to the Dales Gorge member of the Brockman Iron Formation. In addition to the microplaty hematite-martite ore, there are martite-goethite ores and rare magnetite-goethite or magnetite-hematite ores. Below the modern weathering surface, hydrothermally altered zones in wallrock BIF from the Lower Dales Gorge member contain magnetite, hematite and carbonate/talc bearing mineral assemblages. A staged ore genesis model involving early extension and fluid circulation along normal faults, hypogene silica leaching and carbonate alteration, followed by deep meteoric oxidation with microplaty hematite formation and finally weathering can explain most features of the Mt Wall deposits. The role of deformation was to provide pathways for mineralising fluids and initiate the seed points for the mineralised systems. High grade iron in the Wellthandalthaluna deposit is situated between the NW to NNW trending Boolgeeda Creek fault and a synthetic joining splay, the Northern fault. Both are high angle normal faults and formed during early extension in this part of the province. Faults are characterised by localised small scale deformation and brecciation, deep carbonate alteration and oxidation. Recent weathering has penetrated deeply into the fault zones, converting the carbonate-rich assemblages into goethite. Mineralisation in the Arochar deposit is situated in the overlap or relay zone between two segments of the Mt Wall

  8. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  9. Trajectories associated to regional and extra-regional pollen transport in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, Mar del Plata (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Gassmann, María I; Pérez, Claudio F

    2006-05-01

    Long range transport of airborne pollen has been seldom studied in South America. Backward trajectories of Celtis and Nothofagus pollen grains trapped over a meteorological station outside Mar del Plata City were calculated in one-hour steps using the regional hybrid model developed by the NOAA (HYSPLIT 4.5) and the data of the NCEP filed in the NOAA server. Results showed that the observed trajectories agree with the location of vegetation sources of the collected tree species. In the case of Celtis, the transport was associated to anticyclones located east of the city, generating winds with a N-NE component, which produce pollen cloud advection from the Celtis forests located some tens of kilometers to the N and NE of the city. The sources of Nothofagus pollen correspond to a narrow strip on the Andes slopes between 39 degrees and 55 degrees S, at least 1100 km to the SW of Mar del Plata. The transport was associated to eastward displacement of the troughs corresponding to the Westerlies circulation and the presence of an anticyclone system that brings back Nothofagus pollen towards Mar del Plata area.

  10. Study on the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community——A case sstudy of ccommunity rrenewal ddesign of Sihe coal mine in Jincheng, Shanxi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Minghui; Wang, Chenghao; Zhang, Shanshan

    2017-06-01

    Coal mine community is driven by the coal mine industry, and it mainly relies on coal mining enterprises to provide benefits for residents. Under the background of increasing serious global aging problem, the problems in the field of elderly people’s health, life, entertainment, communication, retirement and re-employment and other aspects become more acute and urgently to be solved. So it is necessary to make a more detailed study on how to transform the coal mine community according to the special needs of the elderly miners. This article takes renewal design of SiHe coal mine in JinCheng of ShanXi province as an example and takes the community’s “life field” as a clue, trying to put forward the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community and to come up with a method to update the community throughout the whole atmosphere to the personal space.

  11. Structural framework of the Lufilian Fold Belt in the Domes region of North Western Province, Zambia from interpretation of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. R.; Nisbet, B. W.

    2017-05-01

    The area around the Kabompo and Mwombezhi Domes in the North Western Province of Zambia is characterized by poor outcrop, and as is common with other areas in Zambia, correlation of units between isolated outcrops is complicated by the similarity of lithology in many sections of the stratigraphy. Aeromagnetic data, airborne radiometric and electromagnetic data were used to provide control on correlation between outcrops, and therefore allowed interpretation of a robust structural framework. The two domes are Paleoproterozoic basement-cored anticlines unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic Roan Group rocks of the lower Katangan Supergroup. The Katangan Supergroup was deposited in an extensional basin formed as part of the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. From the geophysical interpretation several normal faults are identified that probably formed during this stage of basin formation, and there is good evidence for at least four regional transfer zones having formed at this time. The fault architecture initiated during the Katangan extensional tectonic event is shown in this interpretation to have strongly influenced the geometry of the Lufilian Fold Belt. Evidence in the domes area suggests that salt tectonics may explain the localization of the regional décollement at the top of the Lower Roan, and provide a structural mechanism for the formation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the area. Sinistral reverse faulting and associated folding dominates the Lufilian structural fabric in the east of area, and these faults appear to sole out on the regional décollement. Sigmoidal fold profiles have developed between adjacent fault zones, with east-west oriented fold axes in more distal areas rotating into parallelism adjacent to the faults, suggesting synchronous folding and faulting during north-directed compression. In the north-western part of the study area, fold hinge orientations and basement-cover interactions, indicate north north-westerly directed

  12. Quantification of the sources of long-range transport of PM2.5 pollution in the Ordos region, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Khuzestani, Reza Bashiri; Schauer, James J; Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Lulu; Cai, Tianqi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-10-01

    The Ordos region of Inner Mongolia is rapidly developing and suffers from poor air quality and unhealthy levels of fine particulate matter. PM2.5 concentrations in the Ordos region were found to exceed 75 μg/m(3) on average, annually, with peak pollution days in excess of 350 μg/m(3), but local air pollution emissions from surrounding sources are not sufficient to drive pollution levels to these concentrations. The current study was designed to quantify sources of PM2.5 and assess the local source contributions and effects of regional transport on local pollution. The results show that the Ordos region is primarily impacted by regional long-range transport of pollutants from anthropogenic sources located outside of the Inner Mongolia in Shanxi province areas but is also largely affected by regional dust transported from the deserts located in western Inner Mongolia. The analysis proved that approximately 77% of PM2.5 mass is transported long-range from the sites exterior to the study area and contributes 59.32 μg/m(3) on average, annually, while the local sources contribute 17.41 μg/m(3) (23%) on annual average to the PM2.5 mass in the study area. High spatial correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.6) were observed for most of the factors pointing to the transport of external emissions into the area. Spatial correlation analysis, bivariate polar plots and hybrid trajectory models for industrial and secondary inorganic factors provide evidence for the impact of long-range transport from Shanxi province areas. In addition, the deserts in western Inner Mongolia were found to be the source regions for dust. Finally, our analysis shows that the source of oil combustion and mobile factors are impacted by local sources in the Ordos region; however, some regional impacts from other regions were also observed for mobile source in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Historical seismicity of the Mont Dore volcanic province (Auvergne, France) unraveled by a regional lacustrine investigation: New insights about lake sensitivity to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassiot, Léo; Chapron, Emmanuel; Di Giovanni, Christian; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Garcia, Marta; Bard, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    Lake sediments are relevant natural seismographs over long time scale. However, because tectonic events are not systematically recorded in lake sediments, one forthcoming challenge for paleoseismology is to better assess lake sensitivity to earthquakes. To this end, a limnogeological investigation, including hydroacoustic mapping techniques, core sampling and multi-proxy sediment analyses, has been conducted within four small volcanic lakes located in the Mont Dore province (Auvergne, France), an area with a moderate seismo-tectonic activity. Results show the existence of several gravity reworking processes in the lakes over the last millennium. Around AD 1300, the occurrence of synchronous events in lakes Pavin, Chauvet, Montcineyre and Guéry (100 km2 area) highlights an undocumented earthquake as a common trigger for slope failures in disconnected basins. At regional scale, the record of this tectonic event may have been favored by human-induced increase in sediment load (Chauvet and Montcineyre) and/or after an abrupt lake-level drop (Pavin) affecting the sediment stability. In addition, synchronous turbidites and mass-wasting deposits (MWD) recorded in lakes Pavin and Guéry provide evidence for a seismic activity during the XIXth century. Potential triggers are historical earthquakes that occurred either in the Mont Dore area or in the southern part of the Limagne fault at this time. Despite moderate seismic activity in this intraplate volcanic domain, these results highlight the role of tectonics as a major trigger in the sedimentary processes dominating these lacustrine infills. Within the diversity of studied sites, it appears that lake sensitivity to earthquakes was not constant over time. This sensitivity can be expressed as a combination of external factors, namely earthquake magnitude and lake-epicenter distance and internal factors such as lake morphology, nature of sediment, lake-level fluctuations and human-induced changes in catchment sedimentary

  14. [Soil microorganisms, nutrients and enzyme activity of Larix kaempferi plantation under different ages in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-yun; Sun, Xiao-mei; Chen, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Shou-gong

    2015-09-01

    We studied the community of soil microorganisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients under 11-, 20-, 34-and 47-year-old Larix kaempferi plantations in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province to discuss the soil biological properties of L. kaempferi plantations of different stand ages and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that the indexes reflecting soil micro-organisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients of L. kaempferi plantations were the highest under the 11- or 47-year-old stand and the lowest in the 20- or 34-year-old stand. Soil productivity appeared in a decline trend with the increasing stand age, and the changes of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity were responsive to soil degradation. The difference of fungi community was more noticeable than that of bacteria community among the plantations with different stand ages. The results of CCA showed soil nutrient and pH had no effect on seasonal difference of community structure, but had effects on community, structure among different stand ages. The total N, organic carbon, C/N, available nitrogen, exchangeable Mg2+ and pH had greater effects on bacteria community, while available P, total K and pH had greater effect on fungi community among different age forests. The main T-RFs of bacteria and fungi had higher correlation with N and P, and the fungi community had higher correlation with organic carbon and K than bacteria community. The microor-ganism community of the 11- and 47-year-old stands had greater correlation with soil nutrients and enzyme activity than that of 20- and 34-year-old stands. Consequently, soil organisms, in particular soil fungi, could be used to indicate soil degradation.

  15. [Effects of soil, climate, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves from high quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Peng-Fei; Peng, Xin-Hui; Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Zhou, Qing-Ming; Pu, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Yuan-Gang

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment with the soils from Yongzhou, Liuyang, and Sangzhi, the high-quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province, was conducted to study the effects of climate, soil, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves. The contents of test neutral volatile aroma components in the flue-cured tobacco leaves were of medium variation, and the variation intensity was decreased in the order of dihydroactinolide, damascenone, furfural, total megastigmatrienone, and beta-ionone. Climate, soil, and their interaction affected the neutral volatile aroma components in different degrees. The furfural content was most affected by climate, the damascenone content was most affected by climate and by soil, the total megastigmatrienone and beta-ionone contents were most affected by the interaction of soil and climate, while the dihydroactinolide content was less affected by soil, climate, and their interaction. The contribution of climate, soil, and their interaction to the contents of the five aroma components was 40.82%, 20.67%, and 38.51%, respectively. During different growth periods of tobacco, different climate factors had different effects on the neutral volatile aroma components. The rainfall, cloudiness, and mean air temperature at rooting stage, the diurnal temperature amplitude, sunshine time, and evaporation at vigorous growth stage, and the rainfall, evaporation, and mean air temperature at maturing stage were the top three climate factors affecting the contents of the neutral volatile aroma components in flue-tobacco leaves. For the soil factors, the available potassium, available phosphorus, and pH were the top three factors affecting the contents of the five components.

  16. Strategic thinking regarding the immigration issue in Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X

    1997-01-01

    "Many people have been moving to Guangdong Province from other parts of China since 1978. This paper analyzes the immigration issue in the province and suggests that the provincial government should handle this matter carefully and should give consideration to both national (Chinese) and regional (Guangdong Province) interests. The government of Guangdong Province should place priority on admitting a work force with higher education or higher work skills, which will promote the economic progress of the province."

  17. Intraplate crustal remelting as the genesis of Jurassic high-K granites in the coastal region of the Guangdong Province, SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui-Qing; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Li, Wu-Xian

    2013-09-01

    The origin and tectonic significance of high-K granites (>3 wt% K2O at 70 wt% SiO2), calc-alkaline I-type granites in particular, remain controversial. This paper takes granitic plutons distributed in the coastal region of the Guangdong Province of southeastern China as examples to explore the genesis of such rocks. SIMS zircon U-Pb geochronological data show that the granites were emplaced at 166-159 Ma. These granites can be subdivided generally into two groups on the basis of integrated mineralogical, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic and in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic studies. The group A granites (SiO2 = 64-72 wt%) are characterised by their common occurrence of amphibole (±titanite) and dominantly metaluminous feature (A/CNK = 0.85-1.03). They are high in K2O (3.5-7.0 wt%) and K2O/Na2O (>1), and have trace element concentrations (e.g., Nb, Y, Zr and Ga) similar to typical I-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. Their whole-rock ISr (0.7057-0.7077) and ɛNd(t) (-6.46 to -3.13) are less evolved than many coeval granites in this region. As in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes show little evidence of magma mixing, these granites with low zircon δ18O (6.3-7.9‰) and high ɛHf(t) (-5.9 to -0.2) could have been generated from melting of oxidised high-K basaltic rocks. The group B granites, emplaced to the east of group A granites, are dominantly weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.00-1.05). They have higher SiO2 (70-76 wt%), less common or absence of amphibole, higher zircon δ18O (6.6-9.0‰) and lower ɛHf(t) (-11.4 to -5.9) than the group A granites. Zircon Hf-O isotope data reveal that the group B granites contain higher percentage of supracrustal materials than those of the group A, but the variations of major and trace elements do not support an assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) model. Instead, the group B granites, with features transitional between typical I-type and S-type granites, were most likely formed in a region

  18. Sedimentary and hydrological studies of the Holocene palaeofloods in the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaogang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Ma, Yugai

    2015-01-01

    Holocene slackwater deposits along the river channels were used to study the magnitude and frequency of the palaeofloods that occurred prior to gauged and historical data sets all over the world. Palaeohydrological investigations along the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China, identified palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) at several sites along the cliffs bordering the river channel. The SWDs are intercalated within Holocene eolian loess-soil profiles and clastic slope deposits. The palaeoflood SWDs were differentiated from eolian loess and soil by the sedimentary criteria and analytical results including magnetic susceptibility and particle-size distribution, similar to the flood SWDs in 2012, which indicated that these well-sorted palaeoflood SWD beds were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. They have recorded the extraordinary palaeoflood events which occurred between 3200 and 3000 a BP as dated by the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with pedostratigraphic correlations with the previously studied Holocene pedo-stratigraphy in the Yellow River drainage basin. Manning slope-area calculations estimate the peak discharged for these palaeoflood events to range from 43,290 to 49,830 m3/s. The drainage area of the study site is 489,900 km2. It is 2.0-2.5 times the largest gauged flood (21,000 m3/s) that has ever occurred since 1934. These events also occurred on Yellow River tributaries, including the Weihe, Jinghe and Qishuihe Rivers. These flood events are therefore considered to be a regional expression of known climatic events in the northern hemisphere and demonstrate Holocene climatic instability. This study provides important data in understanding the interactions between regional hydro-climatic systems and global change in semiarid and subhumid regions.

  19. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu

    2012-04-01

    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P < 0.05). The vertical distribution of soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P < 0.01) for both the converted forestlands and the cultivated lands. The group number of soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P < 0.05). The biodiversity index of soil fauna was significantly higher in converted

  20. Regional Development and Vocational Training. Development of Human Resources in Regions of Economic Reconversion Benefiting from Community Financial Support. Regional Monographs (Lorraine, Northern England, Province of Limburg, South-West of Ireland, Liguria, Andalusia). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This publication contains monographs on vocational training and regional development for six regions of the European Communities. The monograph on Lorraine (France) by Gerard Calais describes basic training structures, redeployment policies, requalification of job seekers, and coordination of training efforts. Profiles of development technicians…

  1. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  2. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China. PMID:27005659

  3. Life-style and genital human papillomavirus in a cross-sectional survey in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lily; Bao, Yan-Ping; Li, Ni; Dai, Min; Ma, Cong-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Liu, Xin-Fu; Feinleib, Manning; Qiao, You-Lin

    2011-01-01

    To determine the age-stratified HPV prevalence rate and the risk factors of life-style associated with HPV infection among women in rural China. An age-stratified, cross-sectional survey of 941 women between 16-59 years old was conducted in rural China. Carcinogenic HPV infection was determined using Digene's Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA test and interviews of life-style were conducted. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from the logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with HPV. Among 941 women, 745 who had sexual intercourse underwent a cervical examination. The prevalence rate of 13 carcinogenic HPV infections among women 20-59 years old was 15.97%. the rate of HPV prevalence in the 25-34 age group was statistically lower than that in 20-24 and 35-59 age groups (X²=13.3, P=0.0013). The OR of bathing every 7-19 days, 20-180 days, less than once every 180 days vs. bathing at least once a week were 1.19, 1.83 and 2.29 respectively and they had a dose-response relationship (Trend Test: P=0.003). The OR of women aged 25-34 age group vs. 20-24 age group was 0.40 (0.16 - 0.97) and the OR of bathing once every 180 days or less vs. at least once weekly was 2.22 (1.14 - 4.33) adjusted for the other confounding factors,. The HPV prevalence rate was lowest among child bearing women aged 25-34 year. Also, personal hygiene is significantly associated with the HPV infection in this area, regardless of age.

  4. [Milk consumption and effects on dietary nutrients and growth status among Chinese children in nine provinces (autonomous region) from 1991 to 2006].

    PubMed

    DU, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Su, Chang; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-04-01

    To investigate milk consumption and effects on dietary nutrients and growth status among 7 - 17 years-old Chinese children in 9 provinces (autonomous region) from 1991 to 2006. Data was collected in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey, and 11 691 subjects aged 7 to 17 years old were included. The subjects were divided into the following groups according to milk consumption per day, 0 (no milk drinking), 1 - 99, 100 - 199, 200 - 299 and ≥ 300 g/d. Variables from different years were compared, such as milk categories, energy, protein, calcium intake, body mass index (BMI), as well as that dietary nutrients, height and weight among different milk consumption groups. From 1991 to 2006, milk drinking rate and milk consumption among Chinese children had great improvement: milk drinking rate reached to 14.1% (161/1145) in 2006, while that was 3.0% (73/2441) in 1991; milk consumption reached to (26.7 ± 85.0) g/d in 2006, which was 6.8 times of that in 1991 (3.9 ± 31.9) g/d (χ(2) = 474.5, P < 0.01). BMI increased from (17.3 ± 2.9) kg/m(2) in 1991 to (18.5 ± 6.0) kg/m(2) in 2006 (χ(2) = 123.5, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, energy intake decreased from (8653.3 ± 2789.2) kJ/d in 1991 to (8058.3 ± 2866.6) kJ/d in 2006 (χ(2) = 72.6, P < 0.01); protein intake decreased from (63.0 ± 22.8) g/d in 1991 to (57.3 ± 23.1) g/d in 2006 (χ(2) = 71.9, P < 0.01). Average height of 0 (no milk drinking), 1 - 99, 100 - 199, 200 - 299 and ≥ 300 g/d groups were (142.9 ± 16.9), (146.9 ± 18.8), (147.6 ± 16.2), (148.8 ± 16.0), (149.9 ± 15.3) cm, respectively (χ(2) = 29.4, P < 0.01); average weight were (37.1 ± 13.2), (40.3 ± 13.9), (41.3 ± 16.9), (41.7 ± 14.6), (41.4 ± 12.2) kg, respectively (χ(2) = 25.7, P < 0.01). In the period of 1991 to 2006, milk drinking rate and milk consumption has improved greatly. Main nutrient intake, height and weight increased with milk consumption.

  5. From plot to province; scaling field mensuration to stand-level lidar to public GIS data in a hierarchical approach to map regional forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C.; Colville, D.; Bourdeau, D.; Monette, S.; Fox, A.; Maher, R.

    2010-12-01

    As public energy utilities rise to the dual challenge of meeting growing energy demands while attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a clear and urgent need to inventory any ‘green’ energies that are potentially available for energy generation. In heavily forest-covered landscapes such as in the Province of Nova Scotia, forest bio-fuels potentially offer a viable source of carbon-neutral alternative energy that can be exploited with relatively minor modification of existing power generation infrastructure. However, while government GIS databases do contain extensive stand-level forest resource inventory (FRI) data covering the entire Province, the conversion of these data into meaningful estimates of available and sustainable biofuel requires calibration. At the opposite end of the scale, permanent sample plot (PSP) data collected in the field allows accurate calculation of biomass over very small areas but scaling between PSPs and FRI stands is challenged by the large within-stand heterogeneity displayed by Acadian mixed wood forests. Airborne Lidar rapidly samples the 3D structure of forest canopies over large areas at high resolutions and thus offers the perfect opportunity to scale between PSP and FRI data. In this study, approximately 100 PSPs visited within two years of a geographically coincident lidar survey between the years 2005 and 2010, were selected to train a lidar-based model of biomass, which was then used to train an FRI-based model which could be applied to the entire Province. PSP data (species, height, diameter at breast height and stem density) were used to directly quantify green, dry, woody and foliage biomass. Lidar data collected over approximately 30 different survey missions using the same airborne laser terrain mapper (ALTM) 3100 sensor were extracted for each of the PSPS. Summary statistics describing the within-plot vertical lidar frequency distributions were combined with physical lidar intensity and echo

  6. Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS for Prediction of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Protein Contents in Linfen (Shanxi), China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mei-chen; Xiao, Lu-jie; Zhang, Mei-jun; Yang, Wu-de; Ding, Guang-wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant (winter wheat) nitrogen content (PNC) and between PNC and grain protein content (GPC) were investigated using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at the different stages of winter wheat in Linfen (Shanxi, P. R. China). The anticipating model for GPC of winter wheat was also established by the approach of NDVI at the different stages of winter wheat. The results showed that the spectrum models of PNC passed F test. The NDVI4.14 regression effect of PNC model of irrigated winter wheat was the best, and that in dry land was NDVI4.30. The PNC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat were significantly (P<0.01) and positively correlated to GPC. Both of protein spectral anticipating model of irrigated and dry land winter wheat passed a significance test (P<0.01). Multiple anticipating models (MAM) were established by NDVI from two periods of irrigated and dry land winter wheat and PNC to link GPC anticipating model. The coefficient of determination R2 (R) of MAM was greater than that of the other two single-factor models. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative error (RE) of MAM were lower than those of the other two single-factor models. Therefore, test effects of multiple proteins anticipating model were better than those of single-factor models. The application of multiple anticipating models for predication of protein content (PC) of irrigated and dry land winter wheat was more accurate and reliable. The regionalization analysis of GPC was performed using inverse distance weighted function of GIS, which is likely to provide the scientific basis for the reasonable winter wheat planting in Linfen city, China. PMID:24404124

  7. Empirical research on coordination evaluation and sustainable development mechanism of regional logistics and new-type urbanization: a panel data analysis from 2000 to 2015 for Liaoning Province in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    As the largest developing country in the world, China has witnessed fast-paced urbanization over the past three decades with rapid economic growth. In fact, urbanization has been not only shown to promote economic growth and improve the livelihood of people but also can increase demands of regional logistics. Therefore, a better understanding of the relationship between urbanization and regional logistics is important for China's future sustainable development. The development of urban residential area and heterogeneous, modern society as well regional logistics are running two abreast. The regional logistics can promote the development of new-type urbanization jointly by promoting industrial concentration and logistics demand, enhancing the residents' quality of life and improving the infrastructure and logistics technology. In this paper, the index system and evaluation model for evaluating the development of regional logistics and the new-type urbanization are constructed. Further, the econometric analysis is utilized such as correlation analysis, co-integration test, and error correction model to explore relationships of the new-type urbanization development and regional logistics development in Liaoning Province. The results showed that there was a long-term stable equilibrium relationship between the new-type urbanization and regional logistics. The findings have important implications for Chinese policymakers that on the path towards a sustainable urbanization and regional reverse, this must be taken into consideration. The paper concludes providing some strategies that might be helpful to the policymakers in formulating development policies for sustainable urbanization.

  8. Assessment of radiological hazard parameters due to natural radioactivity in soils from granite-rich regions in Kütahya Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Latife; Hafızoğlu, Nurgül; Çetinkaya, Hakan; Manisa, Kaan; Bozkurt, Engin; Biçer, Ahmet

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of natural radioactivity from (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in 357 soil samples collected from the province of Kütahya was carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectroscopy system at the Nuclear Physics Research Laboratory, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey. The specific activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples were evaluated. From the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, the total absorbed outdoor gamma-ray dose rates and the corresponding annual effective dose rates were determined. The corresponding values of the external and internal hazard indices of all the soil samples were also calculated. The external gamma-ray dose rate at 1 m above the ground was directly measured at each collected soil sample location. The results obtained in this study were compared within the limits of values obtained in other cities of Turkey, those in other countries. Radiological maps of Kütahya Province were constructed from the results of this study.

  9. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region.

  10. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  11. [Soil carbon and nitrogen storage of different land use types in northwestern Shanxi Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zhong; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) storage under five different land use patterns, i. e. , poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, C. microphylla artificial shrubland, poplar plantation, bare land and cropland were studied in the hilly [ness Plateau of northwestern Shanxi. The results showed that the contents, densities and storage of SOC and TN varied remarkably under the different land-use patterns. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents and storage in the 0-20 cm soil layer were significantly higher in the 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers under each of the five land use patterns. In the same soil layer, the contents and densities of SOC and TN under the five land use patterns were in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation > C. microphylla artificial shrubland > poplar plantation > bare land > cropland. The SOC storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation (30.09 t x hm(-2)) > C. microphylla artificial shrubland (24.78 t x hm(-2)) > poplar plantation (24.14 t x hm(-2)) > bare land (22.06 t x hm(-2)) > cropland (17.59 t x hm(-2)). Soil TN storage had the same trend as SOC storage, and TN storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was the highest (4.94 t x hm(-2)) in poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, followed by C. microphylla artificial shrubland (3.53 t x hm(-2)), poplar plantation (3.51 t x hm(-2)), bare land (3.40 t x hm(-2)), and cropland (2.71 t x hm(-2)). Poplar and C. microphylla plantation and C. microphylla artificial shrubland were the good land use patterns in the process of vegetation construction and ecological restoration in the hilly Loess Plateau of northwestern Shanxi.

  12. Risk Transmission Indicator of Schistosomiasis Japonicum Considering Human Activities in Lake and Marshland Regions- A Case Study of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Tiphanie; Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; De Fraipont, Paul; Uribe, Carlos; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Lafaye, Murielle; Lai, Xijun; Desnos, Yves-Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the method used to determine the areas where schistosomiasis transmission is the higher. A primary work was necessary to this study: identification of potential presence of schistosomiasis japonicum’s vector in Poyang lakeshore area (Jiangxi Province, P.R. China). Results obtained from its first work were crossing with the most risky human activities and with villages to elaborate a level of transmission risk. The first parameter determined concern fishing, which was identified like the most risky activity for schistosomiasis transmission, and fish traps were digitalized using a very high resolution ALOS data. The second parameter is about the risky areas for buffalo grazing, and vector potential presence areas were crossed with village proximity to determine the most risky areas for human transmission. The third parameter built is a level of risk for each village digitalized around Poyang Lake, taking into account the proximity and level of potential presence of vector’s areas.

  13. Indicator Development for Potential Presence of Schistosomiasis Japonicum's Vector in Lake and Marshland Regions- A Case Study of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Tiphanie; Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; De Fraipont, Paul; Uribe, Carlos; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Lafaye, Murielle; Lai, Xijun; Desnos, Yves-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Earth observation data and bibliography on environmental parameters were used for mapping Oncomelania hupensis distribution, the Schistosomiasis japonicum’s intermediate host snail, within Poyang Lake (Jiangxi Province, P.R. China). Areas suitable for the development of O. hupensis, the vector of schistosomiasis, were derived from submersion time parameters and vegetation community indicators. ENVISAT time series data acquired from 2000 to 2009 were used for submersion times mapping, and 5 Beijing-1 data acquired during the dry season between 2006 and 2008 were used to map suitable vegetation for vector development. Yearly maps obtained indicate four principally potential endemic areas: the Gan Delta, the bank of the Fu He River, the Dalianzi Hu sector and the Poyang Lake Nature Reserve. Monthly maps from December 2005 to December 2008 show the dynamic of potential O. hupensis presence areas.

  14. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  15. Application of HEC-RAS for flood forecasting in perched river-A case study of hilly region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pingping; Wang, Shuqian; Gan, Hong; Liu, Bin; Jia, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in small and medium rivers are seriously threatening the safety of human beings’ life and property. The simulation forecasting of the river flood and bank risk in hilly region has gradually become a hotspot. At present, there are few studies on the simulation of hilly perched river, especially in the case of lacking section flow data. And the method of how to determine the position of the levee breach along the river bank is not much enough. Based on the characteristics of the sections in hilly perched river, an attempt is applied in this paper which establishes the correlation between the flow profile computed by HEC-RAS model and the river bank. A hilly perched river in Lingshi County, Shanxi Province of China, is taken as the study object, the levee breach positions along the bank are simulated under four different design storm. The results show that the flood control standard of upper reach is high, which can withstand the design storm of 100 years. The current standard of lower reach is low, which is the flooding channel with high frequency. As the standard of current channel between the 2rd and the 11th section is low, levee along that channel of the river bank is considered to be heighten and reinforced. The study results can provide some technical support for flood proofing in hilly region and some reference for the reinforcement of river bank.

  16. Bayesian adjustment for over-estimation and under-estimation of gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Abadi, Alireza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To correct the misclassification in registered gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces in cancer registry data. METHODS Gastric cancer data is extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration report 2008. A Bayesian method with beta prior is implemented to estimate the rate of misclassification in registering patient’s permanent residence in neighboring province. Each time two neighboring provinces with lower and higher than 100% expected coverage of cancer cases are selected to be entered in the model. The expected coverage of cancerous patient is reported by medical university of each province. It is assumed that some cancer cases from a province with a lower than 100% expected coverage are registered in their neighboring province with more than 100% expected coverage. RESULTS The condition was true for 21 provinces from a total of 30 provinces of Iran. It was estimated that 43% of gastric cancer cases of North and South Khorasan provinces in north-east of Iran was registered in Razavi Khorasan as the neighboring facilitate province; also 72% misclassification was estimated between Sistan and balochestan province and Razavi Khorasan. The misclassification rate was estimated to be 36% between West Azerbaijan province and East Azerbaijan province, 21% between Ardebil province and East Azerbaijan, 63% between Hormozgan province and Fars province, 8% between Chaharmahal and bakhtyari province and Isfahan province, 8% between Kogiloye and boyerahmad province and Isfahan, 43% Golestan province and Mazandaran province, 54% between Bushehr province and Khozestan province, 26% between Ilam province and Khuzestan province, 32% between Qazvin province and Tehran province (capital of Iran), 43% between Markazi province and Tehran, and 37% between Qom province and Tehran. CONCLUSION Policy makers should consider the regional misclassification in the time of programming for cancer control, prevention and resource allocation. PMID:28255430

  17. Water-use data-collection programs and regional data base of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin states and provinces; a comparison of withdrawal-data programs by water-use category and by state and province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the Great Lakes Charter (signed by Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Quebec, and Wisconsin), the Geological Survey worked with a committee of the Council of Great Lakes Governors to document the water use data collection programs in the Basin. These programs are described for public water supply; supplies for domestic, irrigation, agricultural, commercial, industrial, and mining uses; and supplies for powerplants. Frequency of collection, trigger levels, storage methods, and legislative framework are described. A regional water use data base was designed to store withdrawal, diversion, and consumptive use data on a drainage basin basis. The data base will be used to decide the advisability of proposed water diversion and consumptive use projects as part of a water management strategy. Data base formats, requirements, and methods of data transmittal from each area are described. Methods for acquiring missing data are suggested. The data base will be housed by the Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan. (USGS)

  18. Effects of Endogenous Factors on Regional Land-Use Carbon Emissions Based on the Grossman Decomposition Model: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cifang; Li, Guan; Yue, Wenze; Lu, Rucheng; Lu, Zhangwei; You, Heyuan

    2015-02-01

    The impact of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions has become a core issue in current studies on global change and carbon cycle. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of land-use changes on carbon emissions is very necessary. This paper attempted to apply the Grossman decomposition model to estimate the scale, structural, and management effects of land-use carbon emissions based on final energy consumption by establishing the relationship between the types of land use and carbon emissions in energy consumption. It was shown that land-use carbon emissions increase from 169.5624 million tons in 2000 to 637.0984 million tons in 2010, with an annual average growth rate of 14.15 %. Meanwhile, land-use carbon intensity increased from 17.59 t/ha in 2000 to 64.42 t/ha in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86 %. The results indicated that rapid industrialization and urbanization in Zhejiang Province promptly increased urban land and industrial land, which consequently affected land-use extensive emissions. The structural and management effects did not mitigate land-use carbon emissions. By contrast, both factors evidently affected the growth of carbon emissions because of the rigid demands of energy-intensive land-use types and the absence of land management. Results called for the policy implications of optimizing land-use structures and strengthening land-use management.

  19. The effects of exposure to pesticides on the fecundity status of farm workers resident in a rural region of Fars province, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Neghab, Masoud; Momenbella-Fard, Mohammadjafar; Naziaghdam, Reza; Salahshour, Narges; Kazemi, Maryam; Alipour, Hamzeh

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of fecundity and other reproductive problems among a group of farmers in Kavar district of Fars province, southern Iran. A total of 268 randomly selected married male farm workers were investigated. A questionnaire was devised and validated [Cronbach's α-coefficient (0.81)]. Subjects were directly interviewed and the questionnaire forms were completed for them. The prevalence of current primary infertility among the studied population was about 7.4% (P=0.001). Similarly, 6.3% of farm workers had offsprings with congenital malformations. Finally, 1.5% and 9% of farmers' wives had a history of stillbirth and abortion, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence of current primary infertility were higher among farm workers families than in the normal population (P<0.05). Additionally, stillbirth and spontaneous abortion were more common in the wives of farm workers than in the normal population, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. These effects are likely to be attributed to the exposure of farm workers to pesticides.

  20. Effects of endogenous factors on regional land-use carbon emissions based on the Grossman decomposition model: a case study of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Li, Guan; Yue, Wenze; Lu, Rucheng; Lu, Zhangwei; You, Heyuan

    2015-02-01

    The impact of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions has become a core issue in current studies on global change and carbon cycle. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of land-use changes on carbon emissions is very necessary. This paper attempted to apply the Grossman decomposition model to estimate the scale, structural, and management effects of land-use carbon emissions based on final energy consumption by establishing the relationship between the types of land use and carbon emissions in energy consumption. It was shown that land-use carbon emissions increase from 169.5624 million tons in 2000 to 637.0984 million tons in 2010, with an annual average growth rate of 14.15%. Meanwhile, land-use carbon intensity increased from 17.59 t/ha in 2000 to 64.42 t/ha in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86%. The results indicated that rapid industrialization and urbanization in Zhejiang Province promptly increased urban land and industrial land, which consequently affected land-use extensive emissions. The structural and management effects did not mitigate land-use carbon emissions. By contrast, both factors evidently affected the growth of carbon emissions because of the rigid demands of energy-intensive land-use types and the absence of land management. Results called for the policy implications of optimizing land-use structures and strengthening land-use management.

  1. [Soil moisture characteristics of apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhao; Yi, Huapeng; Li, Shitai

    2004-11-01

    Based on the data of regional scale and located field measurement, this paper investigated the soil moisture characteristics of the apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the soil moisture characteristics in this subarea were affected by precipitation and evapotranspiration. At regional scale, the apple-land evapotranspiration in east Weibei area was the largest, and that in tableland gully and in west Weibei area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. Soil water deficit phenomenon was observed in three type areas. In east Weibei area, the mean water deficit amount was about 390.9 mm, the maximum was 674.6 mm, and the minimum value was 186.3 mm. In tableland gully area, the average and maximum values were 264.4 and 441.2 mm, respectively, and sometimes water surplus occurred. As a whole, soil moisture in west Weibei area was deficit, but the phenomena of water surplus were more prevalent than those in tableland gully area, and the maximum value was 151.8 mm. Soil moisture storage amount existed spatial and temporal variations in 3 different areas. The value of 2 m profile in apple growth season in west Weibei area was the largest, and that in Weibei tableland gully area and in Weibei east area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. The characteristics of soil moisture storage depended mainly on precipitation and its spatial-temporal distribution, as well as its consumed amount by apple trees. Water consumption in east Weibei area was the largest, the second was in gully area, and that in west Weibei area was the smallest. During apple growth season, the water consumption in dry year was less than that in wet year. In dry year, except for available precipitation, a considerable part of water used by apple trees came from deep (exceeded 3 m) soil moisture storage, which resulted in a dried soil layer and would affected the sustainable development of fruit production.

  2. High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Jia, Xiaofang; Wu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m−3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m−3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m−3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m−3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m−3, and their contributions to PM2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season. PMID:27983711

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine MIF gene promoter region are closely associated with human susceptibility to tuberculosis in a southwestern province of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aihua; Li, Jing; Bao, Fukai; Zhu, Ziwei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Jiaru; Wang, Lin; Shi, Mei; Wen, Xia; Zhao, Hua; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2016-04-01

    The gene encoding macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been proposed as candidate tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility gene. In order to elucidate whether MIF gene variants are associated with susceptibility to retreatment cases of TB, and prevent drug-resistant TB prevalence, we conducted a study based on paired human population data. MIF -173 G/C single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs755622) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. MIF levels were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Association analysis of polymorphism to TB showed that distribution of MIF -173 genotypes (GC+CC) was significantly higher in total cases of TB than in the controls. Statistically significant differences of frequencies for MIF -173 (GG vs. GC+CC) were demonstrated when comparing total cases of TB, new cases of TB, and retreatment cases of TB to controls, respectively. In contrast, the frequencies of MIF -173 (GG vs. GC+CC) demonstrated no difference between new cases of TB and retreatment cases of TB. Association analysis of MIF protein concentrations to TB indicated that MIF concentration is significantly higher in total cases of TB, new cases of TB, and retreatment cases of TB than in controls (P<0.01). In summary, our results demonstrated that MIF gene -173 G/C single nucleotide polymorphisms implicate in genetic susceptibility to TB, and GC+CC of MIF -173 site increases the risk of TB. We also found that no correlation between -173 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism and retreatment cases of TB in Yunnan Province population of China.

  4. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  5. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  6. The Fragmented Manihiki Plateau - Key Region for Understanding the Break-up of the "Super" Large Igneous Province Ontong Java Nui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, K.; Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Werner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Manihiki Plateau of the western Pacific is one of the world - wide greatest Large Igneous Province (LIP) on oceanic crust. It is assumed that the Manihiki Plateau was emplaced as the centerpiece of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui by multiple volcanic phases during the Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Period. The subsequent break-up of Ontong Java Nui led to fragmentation of the Manihiki Plateau into three sub-plateaus, which all exhibit individual relicts of the "Super-LIP" break-up. We examine two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the Western Plateaus and the High Plateau. Modeling of P- and S-wave velocities reveals surprising differences in the crustal structure between the two sub-plateaus. Whereas the High Plateau shows a constant crustal thickness of 20 km, relicts of multiple volcanic phases and break-up features at its margins, the model of the Western Plateaus reveals a crustal thickness decreasing from 17 km to only 9 km. There is only little evidence of secondary phases of volcanic activity. The main upper crustal structure on the Western Plateaus consists of fault systems and sedimentary basins. We infer that the High Plateau experienced phases of strong secondary volcanism, and that tectonic deformation was limited to its edges. The Western Plateaus, on the contrary, were deformed by crustal stretching and underwent only little to no secondary volcanism. This indicates that the two main sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different geological history and have played their individual parts in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  7. [The drug resistance mutation detection and relevant factors analysis of HBV P region in chronic hepatitis B patients in Weifang City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianqiang; Liu, Jiafa

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mutation of HBV polymerase gene reverse transcription conserved region (P region) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 212 CHB patients who took antiretroviral treatment with nucleotide analogues were chosen. The drug resistance mutations of HBV P region and HBV genotype were detected by Pyrosequencing. Sequence analysis showed that the drug resistance sites of HBV P region located at sites 173; 180; 181; 184; 204; 236 and 250. The main site of HBV P region drug resistance was 204 and 180, accounting for 35.8% and 23.5%, respectively. There were significant differences in the mutation rate of site 180 among different age groups. There were also significant differences in the mutation rate of site 204 among younger than 30 age group, 41 to 50 age group and 51 to 60 age group. (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The mutation rate of site 180 combined with site 204 was 66.6%. The mutation rate of site 181 combined with site 236 was 23.3%. The age of C genotype infected patients was significantly older than B genotype infected patients (P < 0.01). M204V/I mutation mostly existed in the form of joint L180M mutation, the mutation rate was age-related. The detection of HBV genotypes and drug resistance sites of HBV P region have important clinical implications for the treatment and prognosis of patients with CHB.

  8. The validation of air quality during 2015 World Championships and Parade in Beijing and near region based on satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental satellite observations were used to evaluate the effect of emission control measures on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings during the 2015 World Championships and Parade (WCP) held in Beijing. Compared to the past three years (2012-2014) in the same period, nitrogen oxides (NO2) and sulfur oxides (SO2) tropospheric vertical column densities (VCD) in 2015 were found to exhibit almost significant reductions over the North China Plain, suggesting the effectiveness of the national policy on NO2 and SO2 emission reduction during the important events. During the WCP period (Aug. 20 - Sept. 4), AOD was found reduced the most in Beijing, followed by Tianjin and Hebei province. However, air quality plummeted during the after-WCP period (Sept. 5 - 20), which was largely related to the lifting of local and regional joint emission control measures. By applying correlation coefficients of NO2, SO2, AOD during August 4 to September 20 of latest two years between Beijing with surroundings (Zhangjiakou represents northwest trajectories and Chengde represents northeast trajectories, Tianjin for southeast, and Shijiazhuang for southwest), during the study period in 2015, areas impacting Beijing evidently shrank and were limited within north on Beijing, suggesting evident effects of intense emission perturbations on lowering the extent of regional transport. We also analyze the meteorological conditions. During the study period in 2015, the relative humidity is 60%-80% in Beijing, low RH lead better visibility if there is less haze. The North China Plain is near of high pressure from its north. Sea high pressure has been completely removed. Southward pressure gradient force and weak north and northeast winds blocked the pollution transport from southern and western part of industrial area Hebei, Shanxi and Shandong province). Cold air masses push southward weakly. Under this condition, it is beneficial to the removal of pollutants. Due to

  9. Distribution of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Genes and Haplotypes in the Tujia Population Living in the Wufeng Region of Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Dangxiao; Tao, Ning; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Yulin; Qiu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Background The distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes varies widely between different ethnic populations and geographic areas. Before any genetic marker can be used in a disease-associated study it is therefore essential to investigate allelic frequencies and establish a genetic database. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first report of HLA typing in the Tujia group using the Luminex HLA-SSO method HLA–A, –B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 124 unrelated healthy Tujia individuals, and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. In total 10 alleles were detected at the HLA–A locus, 21 alleles at the HLA–B locus and 14 alleles at the HLA-DRB1 locus. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA-I group were HLA–A*02 (35.48%), A*11 (28.23%), A*24 (15.73%); HLA–B*40 (25.00%), B*46 (16.13%), and B*15 (15.73%). Among HLA-DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09 (25.81%) were observed, followed by HLA-DRB1*15 (12.9%), and DRB1*12 (10.89%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were A*02–B*46A (8.47%), followed by A*11–B*40 (7.66%), A*02–B*40 (8.87%), A*11–B*15 (6.45%), A*02–B*15 (6.05%), B*40–DRB1*09 (9.27%) and B*46–DRB1*09 (6.45%). The most common three-locus haplotypes found in the Tujia population were A*02–B*46–DRB1*09 (4.84%) and A*02–B*40–DRB1*09 (4.03%). Fourteen two-loci haplotypes had significant linkage disequilibrium. Construction of a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis using the allelic frequencies at HLA-A was performed to compare the Tujia group and twelve other previously reported populations. The Tujia population in the Wufeng of Hubei Province had the closest genetic relationship with the central Han population, and then to the Shui, the Miao, the southern Han and the northern Han ethnic groups. Conclusions/Significance These results will become a valuable source of data

  10. Determination of rheological property and its effect on key aroma release of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui

    2016-08-01

    The rheological property of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) was determined by rheometer, and its effects on release in eight key aroma components of SAV was investigated by SPME-GC-MS. In order to simulate the change of rheological property of SAV, a modified SAV system was developed from a finished SAV using carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, glucose, fructose, sodium chloride and tannic acid at indicate levels. The consistency coefficients (K) of SAV ranged from 1.09e(-5) to 0.0137, which was correlated to glucose, polyphenol, acids and (o)Bx. SAV changed from shear-thickening to Newtonian fluid during long-time ageing. In the modified SAV system, the K values increased significantly, and two modified vinegar became quasi-Newtonian fluids too. Furthermore, release of the eight key aroma compounds decreased significantly and decreased was pronounced, for acetic acid, furfural and tetramethylpyrazine. The results demonstrated rheological property correlated to the concentrate of sugar, salt, polyphenol, acids and macromolecule, which significantly affected the release of major aroma compounds.

  11. A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meizhong; Zheng, Yanjie; Xiong, Cen; Li, Bifang; Chen, Sujuan; Bai, Wenliang; Zeng, Yongting; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Xieguang

    2013-01-01

    A discrimination method based on polyalcohol determination was developed for authenticity of protected geographical indication (PGI) vinegars-Shanxi extra aged vinegar (SVs) in China. Six polyalcohols in vinegars including erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, inositol, mannitol, and sorbitol were selected as the PGI discriminators. GC/MS was used to analyze the polyalcohols in the SVs, Zhenjiang vinegars (ZVs), Kazuo aged vinegars (KVs), and other non-geographical indication protected vinegars (NVs). SVs can be distinguished from KVs by the chemical markers mannitol and sorbitol, although the production processes for both types of vinegars are similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish SVs from ZVs and NVs. The differences among the three kinds of vinegars shown by PCA results may be due to the higher erythritol content in SVs, and the inositol and mannitol in ZVs. This study also found that the amount of polyalcohols in Chinese vinegars increases with the acidity value only, regardless of the aging time. The overall results indicated that the polyalcohols can be practicable discriminators for SV discrimination.

  12. The "APEC Blue" phenomenon: Regional emission control effects observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Zhang, Xingying; Lin, Yanfen

    2015-10-01

    Observations from space were used to evaluate the effect of emission control measures on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit held in Beijing. Compared to the past three years (2011-2013), NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities in 2014 were found to exhibit almost across-the-board significant reductions over the North China Plain, suggesting the effectiveness of the national policy on NOx emission reduction during China's 12th "Five-Year-Plan". During the APEC period (Nov. 3-11), AOD and AAOD were found reduced the most in Beijing, followed by Hebei province. Stringent emission control measures implemented in Beijing and the regional joint control over the surroundings especially in Hebei were responsible for the good air quality and so-called "APEC Blue". However, air quality plummeted during the post-APEC period (Nov. 12-30), which was largely related to the lifting of local and regional joint emission control measures. By applying a spatial correlation analysis method, the potential emission source regions impacting air quality of Beijing included widespread areas in Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, and Tianjin in the past three years (2011-2013). While during the study period in 2014, areas impacting Beijing evidently shrank and were limited within Hebei, suggesting evident effects of intense emission perturbations on lowering the extent of regional transport. This study indicates short-term measures did fix the air pollution problems in China but a permanent solution is still a tremendous challenge.

  13. Assessing the evolution of primary healthcare organizations and their performance (2005-2010) in two regions of Québec province: Montréal and Montérégie

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Canadian healthcare system is currently experiencing important organizational transformations through the reform of primary healthcare (PHC). These reforms vary in scope but share a common feature of proposing the transformation of PHC organizations by implementing new models of PHC organization. These models vary in their performance with respect to client affiliation, utilization of services, experience of care and perceived outcomes of care. Objectives In early 2005 we conducted a study in the two most populous regions of Quebec province (Montreal and Montérégie) which assessed the association between prevailing models of primary healthcare (PHC) and population-level experience of care. The goal of the present research project is to track the evolution of PHC organizational models and their relative performance through the reform process (from 2005 until 2010) and to assess factors at the organizational and contextual levels that are associated with the transformation of PHC organizations and their performance. Methods/Design This study will consist of three interrelated surveys, hierarchically nested. The first survey is a population-based survey of randomly-selected adults from two populous regions in the province of Quebec. This survey will assess the current affiliation of people with PHC organizations, their level of utilization of healthcare services, attributes of their experience of care, reception of preventive and curative services and perception of unmet needs for care. The second survey is an organizational survey of PHC organizations assessing aspects related to their vision, organizational structure, level of resources, and clinical practice characteristics. This information will serve to develop a taxonomy of organizations using a mixed methods approach of factorial analysis and principal component analysis. The third survey is an assessment of the organizational context in which PHC organizations are evolving. The five year

  14. Assessing the evolution of primary healthcare organizations and their performance (2005-2010) in two regions of Québec province: Montréal and Montérégie.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Pineault, Raynald; Provost, Sylvie; Tousignant, Pierre; Couture, Audrey; Da Silva, Roxane Borgès; Breton, Mylaine

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian healthcare system is currently experiencing important organizational transformations through the reform of primary healthcare (PHC). These reforms vary in scope but share a common feature of proposing the transformation of PHC organizations by implementing new models of PHC organization. These models vary in their performance with respect to client affiliation, utilization of services, experience of care and perceived outcomes of care. In early 2005 we conducted a study in the two most populous regions of Quebec province (Montreal and Montérégie) which assessed the association between prevailing models of primary healthcare (PHC) and population-level experience of care. The goal of the present research project is to track the evolution of PHC organizational models and their relative performance through the reform process (from 2005 until 2010) and to assess factors at the organizational and contextual levels that are associated with the transformation of PHC organizations and their performance. This study will consist of three interrelated surveys, hierarchically nested. The first survey is a population-based survey of randomly-selected adults from two populous regions in the province of Quebec. This survey will assess the current affiliation of people with PHC organizations, their level of utilization of healthcare services, attributes of their experience of care, reception of preventive and curative services and perception of unmet needs for care. The second survey is an organizational survey of PHC organizations assessing aspects related to their vision, organizational structure, level of resources, and clinical practice characteristics. This information will serve to develop a taxonomy of organizations using a mixed methods approach of factorial analysis and principal component analysis. The third survey is an assessment of the organizational context in which PHC organizations are evolving. The five year prospective period will serve as a natural

  15. [Effect of long-term fertilization practices on mobility of phosphorus in a Huangnitu paddy soil receiving low P input in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Pan, Genxing; Jiao, Shaojun; Li, Lianqing; Xu, Xiangdong; Qiu, Duosheng; Xu, Xiaobo; Chu, Qiuhua; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2003-05-01

    Analysis of mobile forms of phosphorus of a Huangnitu, a typical paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu was conducted. The soil has been put into a scheme of longterm fertilization treatments for 13 years. Total P content varied in arrange of 0.3-0.5 g.kg-1 under a range of total P fertilizer input of 0-53 kg/(hm2.a). As estimated from the total P pool values by mass balance principle, the soil had been subjected to water loss of P 2-8 kg/(hm2.a), with that under chemical fertilizers only being the biggest. The ratio of soluble P to the total was in a range of 0.2%-0.4%, without significant influence by the different fertilization schemes. While chemical fertilizer plus pig slurry manure applications had remarkably enhanced the resin-P pool by 20-40 mg.kg-1, P mobilization was not observed due to combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw amendments despite of the increase of the SOM. Therefore, P water loss in paddy soils might have active under continuous chemical fertilization alone in agriculture of this region and could not be accounted for by dissolution in water and subsequent runoff migration. For reducing the present prominent non point source pollution of N and P in the region, it is suggested that chemical fertilizers are applied in combination with an appropriate amount of manure or straw return for reducing soil P loss and, in turn, the non-point source pollution loading.

  16. Identification of landslide spatial distribution and susceptibility assessment in relation to topography in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianqi; Peng, Jianbing; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Tieming; Liu, Na; Li, Yazhe; Ma, Penghui

    2015-09-01

    Landslides are among the most serious of geohazards in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi, China, and are responsible for extensive human and property loss. In order to understand the distribution of landslides and assess their associated hazards in this region, we used a combination of frequency analysis, logistic analysis, and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, with consideration of the spatial distribution of landslides. Using the GIS approach, the five key factors of surface topography, including slope gradient, topographic wetness index (TWI), height difference, profile curvature and slope aspect, were considered. First, the distribution and frequency of landslides were considered in relation to all of the five factors in each of three sub-regions susceptible to landslides (Qin Mountain, Li Mountain, and Loess Tableland). Secondly, each factor's influence was determined by a logistic regression method, and the relative importance of each of these independent variables was evaluated. Finally, a landslide susceptibility map was generated using GIS tools. Locations that had recorded landslides were used to validate the results of the landslide susceptibility map and the accuracy obtained was above 84%. The validation proved that there is sufficient agreement between the susceptibility map and existing records of landslide occurrences. The logistic regression model produced acceptable results (the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve were 0.865, 0.841, and 0.924 in the Qin Mountain, Li Mountain and Loess Tableland). We are confident that the results of this study can be useful in preliminary planning for land use, particularly for construction work in high-risk areas.

  17. Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2007-09-01

    The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic

  18. Soil salinity evolution and its relationship with dynamics of groundwater in the oasis of inland river basins: case study from the Fubei region of Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Xiao, Duning; Li, Yan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2008-05-01

    Soil salinization is an important worldwide environmental problem, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Knowledge of its temporal and spatial variability is crucial for the management of oasis agriculture. The study area has experienced dramatic change in the shallow groundwater table and soil salinization during the 20th century, especially in the past two decades. Classical statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) were applied to estimate the spatial variability of the soil salt content in relation to the shallow groundwater table and land use from 1983 to 2005. Consumption of reservoir water for agricultural irrigation was the main cause of a rise in the shallow groundwater table under intense evapotranspiration conditions, and this led indirectly to soil salinization. The area of soil salt accumulation was greater in irrigated than in non-irrigated landscape types with an increasing of 40.04% from 1983 to 2005 in cropland at approximately 0.43 t ha(-1) year(-1), and an increase at approximately 0.68 t ha(-1) year(-1) in saline alkaline land. Maps of the shallow groundwater table in 1985 and 2000 were used to deduce maps for 1983 and 1999, respectively, and the registration accuracy was 99%.

  19. [Topographic distribution patterns of forest gap within an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong region of Zhejiang Province, Eastern China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Zun-Ping; Liu, He-Ming; Zheng, Ze-Mei; Xie, Yu-Bin; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xi-hua

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of multi-dimensional topographic factors on forest gap distribution, the forest gaps in a 20 hm2 dynamic monitoring plot of an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong region of Zhejiang were taken as the objects to study the distribution patterns of the gap fraction, gap density, and gap area under the effects of altitude, slope degree, slope shape, slope aspect, and slope position by using a geographic information system (GIS) software. In the plot, the gap fraction was 13.1% , gap density was 9.5 ind.hm-2, and average gap area was 137.82 m2. Because of the greater intensity of typhoon disturbance at high altitudes, the gap fraction and gap density at the high altitude (> or =500 m) sections were significantly larger than those at the medium and low altitude (<500 m) sections. The heavy precipitation produced by typhoon could easily cause small scale landslide, and thus, lead to the gap fraction and gap density being larger in valley area than in side-slope and ridge. It was suggested that typhoon and its produced heavy precipitation could be the main causes of the significant differences in the forest gaps along the gradients of altitude and slope position.

  20. [Regulation strategies of regional land use management based on ecosystem services: a case study in Wanquan Town, Zhejiang Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang

    2012-06-01

    Through the evaluation of the gains and losses of the key functions of regional ecological system under different management modes, various ecosystems functions and their spatial distribution patterns in Wanquan Town were analyzed. Based on different development needs, various scenarios were established and weighed. In 2009, the support function value supplied by the ecosystems in the Town was 58 million RMB, among which, oxygen release function ranked first (37 million RMB), and the regulation function value provided by the ecosystems was 1238 million RMB, among which, climate regulation ranked first (1127 million RMB). The total ecosystem services value was 1297 million RMB, being 1.46 times of the local GDP (888 million RMB) in the same year. Compared with that in 2002, the service function value of the ecosystems declined in 2009, with the largest decrements in climate regulation and water yield. Under policy scenario and protection scenario, the variation trends of the values of various ecosystems functions were basically the same. Except that the values of the functions oxygen release and nutrient cycling decreased, the values of the others increased obviously. Under protection scenario, the total ecosystem services value had a higher increment than that under policy scenario, especially for the water yield and carbon sequestration functions. It was suggested that protection scenario could be the optimal land use management mode for the socio-economic sustainable development of the Town.

  1. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-02-02

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition.

  2. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  3. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  4. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  5. Biogeographical regionalisation of the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J

    2015-03-19

    A biogeographic regionalisation of the Andean region is proposed as a hierarchical classification of sub-regions, provinces, sub-provinces and districts. It is based on biogeographic analyses of terrestrial plant and animal taxa, and seeks to provide universality, objectivity and stability. The Andean region is currently comprised of the Central Chilean, Subantarctic and Patagonian sub-regions and the South American transition zone, 15 provinces, five sub-provinces and 81 districts. Complete synonymies and brief descriptions of the areas are provided, as well as the endemic taxa that diagnose the provinces.

  6. Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-07

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows Heilongjiang, a province of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Farms are small and long skinny rectangles in shape, surrounding regularly spaced villages.

  7. [The casuistics of nematodiases in man in Tula Province].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T Iu; Bogachkina, S I; Oshevskaia, Z A

    1991-01-01

    Cases of human gongylonemiasis (G. pulchrum) and dirofilariasis (D. repens) in Tula Province are reported. It is assumed that the source of infection is local as the patients haven't migrated anywhere outside the region during several years.

  8. The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

  9. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of land quality basing on 3S technology and farmers' survey: A case study in Crisscross Region of Wind-drift Sand Regions along the Great Wall and Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-yu; Wang, Jing; Shi, Yan-xi; Li, Yu-huan; Lv, Chun-yan

    2005-10-01

    The Crisscross Region of Wind-drift Sand Regions along the Great Wall and Loess Plateau locates in southern Ordos Plateau and northern Chinese Loess Plateau, where wind erosion and water erosion coexist and specified environmental and socio-economic factors, especially human activities induce serious land degradation. However, there are only a few studies provide an overall assessment consequences. Integrated land quality assessment considering impacts of soil, topography, vegetation, environmental hazards, social-economic factors and land managements are imperative to the regional sustainable land managements. A pilot study was made in Hengshan County (Shanxi Province) with the objective of developing comprehensive land quality evaluation model integrating data from farmers' survey and Remote Sensing. Surveys were carried out in 107 households of study area in 2003 and 2004 to get farmers' perceptions of land quality and to collect correlative information. It was found out that farmers evaluated land quality by slope, water availability, soil texture, yields, amount of fertilizer, crop performance, sandy erosion degree and water erosion degree. Scientists' indicators which emphasize on getting information by RS technology were introduced to reflecting above indicators information for the sake of developing a rapid, efficient and local-fitted land quality assessment model including social-economic, environmental and anthropogenic factors. Data from satellite and surveys were integrated with socio-economic statistic data using geographical information system (GIS) and three indexes, namely Production Press Index (PPI), Land State Index (LSI) and Farmer Behavior Index (FBI) were proposed to measure different aspects of land quality. A model was further derived from the three indexes to explore the overall land quality of the study area. Results suggest that local land prevalently had a poor quality. This paper shows that whilst the model was competent for its work in

  11. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  12. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2011-07-01

    Huabei is a part of eastern China located between 32° N and 42° N latitude. Administratively it is a region including Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on the data from the statistical yearbooks of state and provinces as well as local districts including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and

  13. Martian Provinces From Neutron and Gamma Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, O.

    2003-12-01

    This study intends to identify and characterize the major provinces at the surface of Mars. We used the data from the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the Gamma-ray Sensor Head (GSH) aboard Mars Odyssey. NS data help to define broad provinces that should present uniform composition. GSH data can be then summed over these provinces to derive their chemical compositions with good statistics. At the present stage, we manage to conduct the first step that identifies the provinces, while the second step is still under progress to characterize them. Variations in NS epithermal and fast neutron data are largely dominated by the distribution of hydrogen and carbon at the surface or at shallow depths. Neutrons are also affected by the presence of an atmosphere. To limit these effects, we chose frost free data (i.e. measured during the summer at high-latitudes), between -60 and +60 degrees latitude, and corrected for atmospheric thickness (normalization to 16 g/cm2). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that neutron fluxes can be used as a proxy for composition: thermal neutrons are strongly attenuated by absorbing elements such as iron, titanium, chlorine, gadolinium, and samarium; on the contrary, the fast neutron flux increases in presence of high-atomic mass elements such as iron or titanium. For a dry and airless body it is known that the ratio of epithermal over fast neutron counts is correlated to the ratio of thermal over fast neutron counts. This correlation leads to a unique parameter, which characterizes the various soil compositions. A similar behaviour has been observed within our subset of NS data. Effects of hydrogen and carbon are quite obvious, allowing us to focus on secondary components, which are driven by soil composition. From there, we derived four provinces besides the poles. The first province is made of H-rich equatorial regions (Arabia Terra and south of Lucus Planum). The second and third provinces are found north and south of the crustal

  14. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  15. An isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Phillips, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism.

  16. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and chemical plants. The

  17. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring in Shanxi Province, China: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Qiu, Xinghua; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in placental tissue have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Our case-control study was performed to explore the association between maternal serum OCP concentration and NTD risk in offspring. Serum samples were collected from 117 mothers who delivered NTD infants (case group) and 121 mothers who delivered healthy infants (control group). Only three of the 25 OCPs were detected in more than half of the maternal serum samples. The median concentration of total OCPs in the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, no dose-response relationships between higher levels of any individual OCP or total OCPs and the risk of NTDs or subtypes were observed in either the unadjusted binary unconditional logistic regression model or the model adjusted by potential confounders. We conclude that no clear association between maternal serum OCP residues and NTD risk in offspring was observed in this population. PMID:24911776

  18. Land subsidence risk assessment and protection in mined-out regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, A.; Tang, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence due to underground mining is an important hazard that causes large damages and threatens to social and economic activities. The China government has started a national project to estimate the risk of land subsidence in the main coal production provinces, such as Heilongjiang, Anhui and Shanxi Provinces. Herein, the investigation methods for land subsidence identification were reported, some types of land settlement are summarized, and some successful engineering measures to mitigate the subsidence are discussed. A Geographical Information System (GIS) for land subsidence risk assessment is developed and is based on site investigations and numerrical simulation of the subsidence process. In this system, maps of mining intensity and risk ranks are developed.

  19. [Main interspecific competition and land productivity of fruit-crop intercropping in Loess Region of West Shauxi].

    PubMed

    Yun, Lei; Bi, Hua-Xing; Tian, Xiao-Ling; Cui, Zhe-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Zi; Gao, Lu-Bo; Liu, Li-Xia

    2011-05-01

    Taking the four typical fruit-crop intercropping models, i.e., walnut-peanut, walnut-soybean, apple-peanut, and apple-soybean, in the Loess Region of western Shanxi Province as the objects, this paper analyzed the crop (peanut and soybean) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), yield, and soil moisture content. Comparing with crop monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping decreased the crop PAR and P(n). The smaller the distance from tree rows, the smaller the crop PAR and P(n). There was a significantly positive correlation between the P(n) and crop yield, suggesting that illumination was one of the key factors affecting crop yield. From the whole trend, the 0-100 cm soil moisture content had no significant differences between walnut-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, but had significant differences between apple-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, indicating that the competition for soil moisture was more intense in apple-crop intercropping systems than in walnut-crop intercropping systems. Comparing with monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping increased the land use efficiency and economic benefit averagely by 70% and 14%, respectively, and walnut-crop intercropping was much better than apple-crop intercropping. To increase the crop yield in fruit-crop intercropping systems, the following strategies should be taken: strengthening the management of irrigation and fertilization, increasing the distances or setting root barriers between crop and tree rows, regularly and properly pruning, and planting shade-tolerant crops in intercropping.

  20. Quantitative geochemical mapping of martian elemental provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, Olivier; Jeffrey Taylor, G.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Dohm, James; Newsom, Horton; Forni, Olivier; Pinet, Patrick; Boynton, William V.

    2010-05-01

    We present an exploratory approach to the interpretation of the elemental maps produced by the Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). These maps benefit from a direct detection of elemental mass fractions and are used to delineate and characterize elementally homogeneous provinces in the mid-latitudinal martian surface on the basis of chemistry alone. This approach is different from assessing the elemental composition of regions previously defined by their geologic context. Multivariate statistical approaches are discussed and a combination of principal component and clustering analyses is applied on the GRS-based hydrogen, chlorine, potassium, silicon, iron, and calcium maps. At least three principal components must be considered to properly describe the compositional variability seen in the maps. The main component is likely driven by the degree of mantling through a GRS perspective, i.e. by materials enriched in mobile elements (Cl, H) and finer than 10-20 cm, at horizontal and depth scales of hundreds of kilometers and tens of centimeters, respectively. Elemental diversity is found in both mantled and less-mantled provinces, suggesting both local and regional sources for the surficial materials. The less-mantled regions appear to have compositions which include basaltic igneous rocks. Although there is an absence of obvious natural clusters in the data, a solution between five and eight elemental provinces seems optimal and is discussed (Amazonis-Tharsis and Sabaea-Arabia, Tempe and the southern highlands, Chryse and Utopia, Elysium-Tartarus, Acidalia-Arabia). Future investigation of the defined elemental provinces will involve integrating other types of data and geological information.

  1. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  2. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  3. Paleomagnetic age of the Tangxian planation surface, northwestern Zhongtiao Shan of the Shanxi Graben System, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jianguo; Li, Youli; Zhong, Yuezhi; Si, Supei; Lei, Jinghao; Xin, Weilin; Hu, Xiu; Yao, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    A numerical formation age for the Tangxian planation surface (TXPS) in North China is still controversial. The TXPS, beveled across paleoarchean basement rocks, is overlain by late Cenozoic conglomerate, aeolian red clay, and loess. The magnetostratigraphy of two late Cenozoic deposition sections is established, and two other sections are recorded and measured in this work. The magnetostratigraphy indicates six normal magnetozones (N1 to N6) and six reverse magnetozones (R1 to R6). These magnetozones are correlated to chron C1n through C2An.1r, indicating that the TXPS was formed at 3.12-3.03 Ma. The characteristics of the Zhongtiao Shan tectonic uplift and its relationship with the Tibetan Plateau and Ordos Block are discussed in terms of tectonic uplift. The TXPS formation and accumulation of the late Cenozoic sediments are mainly controlled by tectonic activities. The formation and uplift of the TXPS with a lag in the Shanxi Graben System is consistent with the activities of the Tibetan Plateau and Ordos Block, implying that the NE extension of the Tibetan Plateau epeirogenic uplift advances successively.

  4. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  5. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  6. Assessment of parameter regionalization methods for modeling flash floods in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Haijing

    2017-04-01

    Rainstorm flash floods are a common and serious phenomenon during the summer months in many hilly and mountainous regions of China. For this study, we develop a modeling strategy for simulating flood events in small river basins of four Chinese provinces (Shanxi, Henan, Beijing, Fujian). The presented research is part of preliminary investigations for the development of a national operational model for predicting and forecasting hydrological extremes in basins of size 10 - 2000 km2, whereas most of these basins are ungauged or poorly gauged. The project is supported by the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research within the framework of the national initiative for flood prediction and early warning system for mountainous regions in China (research project SHZH-IWHR-73). We use the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) as implemented in the Java modeling framework Object Modeling System (OMS). PRMS can operate at both daily and storm timescales, switching between the two using a precipitation threshold. This functionality allows the model to perform continuous simulations over several years and to switch to the storm mode to simulate storm response in greater detail. The model was set up for fifteen watersheds for which hourly precipitation and runoff data were available. First, automatic calibration based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution method was applied to different hydrological response unit (HRU) configurations. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was used as assessment criteria, whereas only runoff data from storm events were considered. HRU configurations reflect the drainage-basin characteristics and depend on assumptions regarding drainage density and minimum HRU size. We then assessed the sensitivity of optimal parameters to different HRU configurations. Finally, the transferability to other watersheds of optimal model parameters that were not sensitive to HRU configurations was evaluated. Model calibration for the 15

  7. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  8. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats in Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212

  10. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the hospitalized children in Shanxi Children's Hospital from 2012 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Ge, L L; Han, Z Y; Liu, A H; Zhu, L; Meng, J H

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To investigate the antibiotic resistance status of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from hospitalized children in Shanxi Children's Hospital. Method: E-test and Kirby-Bauer methods were applied to determine drug sensitivity of the isolates collected from the body fluid specimens of hospitalized children in Shanxi Children's Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. The antimicrobial sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the conventional antibiotics were analyzed, in order to compare the annual trends of non-invasive isolates, while the differentiation of sensitivity from specimens. The comparison of rates was performed by Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Result: A total of 671 isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained, which could be divided as non-invasive isolates(607), invasive isolates from non-cerebrospinal fluid(non-CSF)(40) and invasive isolates from cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)(24). The antimicrobial sensitivity(isolates(%)) of the 671 isolates were respectively vancomycin 671(100.0%), linezolid 671(100.0%), levofloxacin 665(99.1%), penicillin 595(88.7%), ceftriaxone 516(76.9%), cefotaxime 512(76.3%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin(SMZ-TMP) 103(15.4%), clindamycin 28(4.2%), tetracycline 26(3.9%), erythromycin 12(1.8%). From 2012 to 2014, the susceptibility rates of non-invasive isolates to penicillin every year were 95.0%(96/101), 97.3%(110/113), 87.3%(343/393), respectively, and there was significant difference among the three years(χ(2)=13.266, P<0.05), and the values of MIC(50, )MIC(90) and the maximum values of MIC(mg/L) of penicillin were 0.064, 2.000, 6.000 in 2012, which grew up to 1.000, 3.000, 16.000 in 2014. There was no significant difference in the susceptibility rate of non-invasive isolates to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime during these three years, (χ(2)=1.172, 1.198, both P>0.05). On the other hand, the values of MIC(50, )MIC(90) and the maximum value of MIC(mg/L) of

  11. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  12. Ottawa, Quebec Province, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-380 (22 June 1973) --- Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    for future studies. Relative malleability of province boundaries in the continental interior highlights this region as biogeographically diverse and dynamic. Interior-core provinces of this region (Central Gulf Coastal Plains, Northern Interior) have not been recognized previously and warrant further study.

  14. The Inter-provincial Transfer of Transportation Hidden Carbon in China’s Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ping; Wang, Jian Wei; Zhang, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Recognize the characteristics of the inter-provincial transportation hidden carbon transfer scientifically, which is significant to evaluate regional carbon emission correctly and reasonably and make the regional carbon reduction policies. With the China’s interregional input-output tables in 2007 and 2010 years, this paper measures the transportation hidden carbon and researches the features of inter-provincial transportation hidden carbon transfer. The results show that: (1) The Shanxi, Hubei and et al in central-western regions is the major importer of carbon emission, and the Tianjin, Jiangsu, Fujian and et al in eastern regions is the net exporter; (2)The transfer size and density of the eastern, central and western regions present the decreasing tendency. The more advanced the economy, the higher the transportation hidden carbon emission. In China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Economic Band is the most cohesive region about size and density. As the results, the responsibility of provincial transportation carbon emission should be properly adjusted, and regional linkage carbon emission policies should be implemented.

  15. A bibliography for the northern Madrean Biogeographic Province

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried; Daniel P. Huebner; Carl B. Edminster

    1999-01-01

    An online bibliography was compiled to furnish a literature basis for implementing of land management activities and planning research endeavors in the Madrean Biogeographic Province, which includes the Madrean Archipelago region in the southwestern United States. Citations are listed alphabetically by author in categories appropriate to the subject-matter presented....

  16. The suicide rates in the Yunnan Province, a multi-ethnic province in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Xiao, Yize; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Qingping; Yang, Yunjuan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown a high rate and a unique pattern of suicide in China. We aim to present the current suicide rates and patterns in the Yunnan province, a multi-ethnic region in Southwestern China. This is a descriptive study based on the 3rd Chinese national mortality survey. We reported the suicide rates by sex, 5-year age group, region (urban or rural), and minority group from 2004 to 2005 in the Yunnan province. We estimated a mean annual suicide rate of 19.82 per 100,000 and a total of 8751 suicide deaths per year. Sex-specific rate estimates were 21.09 per 100,000 and 18.46 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. The male/female ratio was 1.14. Region-specific rate estimates were 20.60 per 100,000 and 19.18 per 100,000 for rural and urban regions, respectively. The rural-to-urban ratio was 1.07. Suicide accounted for 4.83% of all deaths in the Yunnan province and represented the fifth leading cause of death. In minority groups, the highest suicide rates were found in the Li su minority (50.75 per 100,000), the Jing po minority (36.38 per 100,000), the Meng gu minority (32.65 per 100,000) and the Miao minority (30.75 per 100,000). The lowest rates were found in the Hui minority (0.96 per 100,000) and the Ha ni minority (1.64 per 100,000). The suicide characteristics of this multi-ethnic region of China are different from those of the rest of China and the world, which indicates that the development of a special intervention strategy in multi-ethnic areas for suicide prevention is needed.

  17. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  18. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  19. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  20. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  1. MC-3 Arcadia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-3 quadrangle, Arcadia region of Mars. The southern part contains the large shield volcano, Alba Patera, and the highly faulted Tempe Terra province, which includes many small volcanoes. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  2. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  3. Petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The recent discovery of major oil resources on Alaska's North Slope has rekindled interest in the petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks stretching along the west coast of Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta. Attention was first focused on this region in the early 1950's, after oil and gas were discovered in the Cretaceous of the North Slope by the U.S. Navy. The presence of similar Cretaceous strata in the Yukon-Koyukuk province and the possibility that some of the broad alluviated lowlands within the province might be underlain by Tertiary basins were pointed out by Gryc and others (1951) and Payne (1955). Between 1954 and 1961 large parts of the province were reconnoitered by oil company surface parties and a small amount of geophysical work was carried out in the Nulato-Kateel and Bethel areas. The explorational activity culminated in 1960-61 with the drilling of two deep tests, a 12,000-foot hole near Nulato on the Yukon River and a 15,000-foot hole at Napatuk Creek in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Coastal Lowland. Apparently neither test revealed oil shows or favorable reservoir rocks, as exploration and leasing activity in the province declined sharply thereafter.

  4. Determining the distribution loss of brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) using historical data and potential distribution estimates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilin; Li, Xinhai; Song, Zitan; Ding, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant's historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species' habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data. The current species distribution covers Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces, as well as Beijing city, while Shanxi remains the center of the distribution area. MaxEnt model indicated that the suitable conditions of the brown eared-pheasant had retreated to the western regions of Shanxi and that the historical distribution area had reduced synchronously with the disappearance of local forest cover in Shanxi. We built a correlative relationship between the presence/absence of brown eared-pheasants and forest coverage and found that forest coverage in the north, northeast, central, and southeast areas of the Shanxi province were all less than 10% in 1911. Wild brown eared-pheasants are stable in the Luliang Mountains, where forest coverage reached 13.2% in 2000. Consequently, we concluded that the distribution of this species is primarily determined by vegetation conditions and that forest cover was the most significant determining factor.

  5. Determining the distribution loss of brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) using historical data and potential distribution estimates

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zitan

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant’s historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species’ habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data. The current species distribution covers Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces, as well as Beijing city, while Shanxi remains the center of the distribution area. MaxEnt model indicated that the suitable conditions of the brown eared-pheasant had retreated to the western regions of Shanxi and that the historical distribution area had reduced synchronously with the disappearance of local forest cover in Shanxi. We built a correlative relationship between the presence/absence of brown eared-pheasants and forest coverage and found that forest coverage in the north, northeast, central, and southeast areas of the Shanxi province were all less than 10% in 1911. Wild brown eared-pheasants are stable in the Luliang Mountains, where forest coverage reached 13.2% in 2000. Consequently, we concluded that the distribution of this species is primarily determined by vegetation conditions and that forest cover was the most significant determining factor. PMID:27781161

  6. [Seroepidemiology of Chagas disease in the Province of Jujuy].

    PubMed

    Tortora, C C; Quincoces, V; Dipierri, J E

    1996-01-01

    Chagas disease is the principal zoonosis of the Province of Jujuy where it represents a major public health problem. In this paper the results of a serological screening of T. cruzi infection carried out in the Province of Jujuy are analyzed to determine the general prevalence, age and geographic distribution, sex ratio, prevalence in foreign population and their relation with migratory process. In every individual (N = 16482) indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and immunofluorescence (TIF) tests have been carried out. In 5879 of them the birth place in the territory of the Province and the number of foreign individuals (313, all Bolivians) were confirmed. Based on these data the individuals were grouped according to: a) the four geographical regions of the Province located at different altitude levels, Puna, Quebrada, Valle and Ramal; b) towns placed on or away from the main routes of communication of the Province. For the statistical analysis the X2 and Z tests were employed. The results show that: 1) the general prevalence was of 11.50%; 2) no differences existed between the sexes: 3) the region with the highest prevalence was the Valley (12.84%) followed by Ramal (10.43%), Quebrada (8.53%) and Puna (2.98%); 4) differences of the serum prevalence can be observed between the residents on and away from the main routes of communication denoting the existence of a migratory effect in the distribution of chagasic infection; 5) prevalence differences exist between naturalized foreigns (39.30%) and Argentines (10.25%), data which strengthen the previous remark. Except for the general prevalence, there are no similar serological surveys which might allow us to establish relationships with our results of which the outstanding one is the influence of the migratory aspect upon the prevalence and distribution of T. cruzi in the Province of Jujuy.

  7. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most

  8. A Survey of the Problem of Unbalanced High School Educational Resource Allocation within the County Region in Gansu Province--Using Seven High Schools in Three Counties as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Liu; Gaofu, Du

    2015-01-01

    The imbalance in allocating high school educational resources within the county region has expanded the imbalances in local high school educational development. This has caused "diseconomies of scale" in high schools, aggravated the "expansion impulse" in building model high schools, limited the growth of effective demand by…

  9. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  10. [Dynamic monitoring of ecological environment in loess hilly and gully region of Loess Plateau based on remote sensing: A case study on Fuxian County in Shaanxi Province. Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Fen-ling; Chang, Qin-rui; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), four ecological evaluation indicators including vegetation index, wet index, land surface temperature and soil index were combined to evaluate the ecological environment quality of Fuxian County in hilly and gully area of Loess Plateau from year 1995 to 2014. The results showed that the RSEI integrated RS and PCA method could reveal regional ecological changes objectively and quantitatively. The level of overall regional ecological status in Fuxian County was good with a high vegetation fraction and rich biodiversity. The synthetical ecological environment quality index increased from 3.17 to 3.53 indicating the ecological environment had been improved greatly in recent 20 years. The area with best ecological environment quality was located in Niuwu town. The magnitude of change increased progressively from northwest to southeast, and the biggest change occurred in Jiaodao and Nandaode towns. From 1995 to 2014, the areas with decreased and increased ecological environment quality were 16.7% and 42.7% of the study area, respectively, and the improved regions were mainly distributed in plateau and hilly area in the center, rocky low mountainous area in northeast and the Ziwuling Nature Reserve area in southwest of the county.

  11. Gastric microbiota features associated with cancer risk factors and clinical outcomes: A pilot study in gastric cardia cancer patients from Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Hu, Nan; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Han, Xiao-You; Humphry, Mike; Ravel, Jacques; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the link between gastric microbiota and the epidemiology of gastric cancer. In order to determine the epidemiologic and clinical relevance of gastric microbiota, we used 16 S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis to characterize the composition and structure of the gastric microbial community of 80 paired samples (non-malignant and matched tumor tissues) from gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) patients in Shanxi, China. We also used PICRUSt to predict microbial functional profiles. Compared to patients without family history of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota, patients with family history of UGI cancer had higher Helicobacter pylori (Hp) relative abundance (median: 0.83 vs. 0.38, p = 0.01) and lower alpha diversity (median observed species: 51 vs. 85, p = 0.01). Patients with higher (vs. lower) tumor grade had higher Hp relative abundance (0.73 vs. 0.18, p = 0.03), lower alpha diversity (observed species, 66 vs. 89, p = 0.01), altered beta diversity (weighted UniFrac, p = 0.002) and significant alterations in relative abundance of five KEGG functional modules in non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota. Patients without metastases had higher relative abundance of Lactobacillales than patients with metastases (0.05 vs. 0.01, p = 0.04) in non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota. These associations were observed in non-malignant tissues but not in tumor tissues. In conclusion, this study showed a link of gastric microbiota to a major gastric cancer risk factor and clinical features in GCA patients from Shanxi, China. Studies with both healthy controls and gastric cardia and noncardia cancer cases across different populations are needed to further examine the association between gastric cancer and the microbiota. © 2017 UICC.

  12. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  13. Isolation, characterization, and phylogenic analysis of three new severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus strains derived from Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Su, Zhengyuan; Li, Mingyue; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Mengmeng; Hu, Zhihong; Peng, Cheng; Zheng, Xin; Deng, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Hubei Province is a major epidemic area of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. However, to date, a few SFTSV strains have been isolated from Hubei Province, preventing effective studies of epidemic outbreaks. Here, we report three confirmed patients (2015-2016) with typical symptoms of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome disease (SFTS) who were farmers resident in different regions in Hubei Province. Three new SFTSV strains were isolated from the serum samples of each patient. Characterization of viral growth properties showed that there were no significant differences in virus production. All strains were completely sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis showed that unlike the other strains from Hubei province, which belonged to the SFTSV C3 genotype, one of the three strains belonged to the SFTSV C2 genotype. These results suggested that multiple SFTSV genotypes have been circulating in Hubei Province, providing insights into SFTSV evolution and improving our understanding of SFTSV prevalence in Hubei Province.

  14. PRB - a province that never quits

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, R.

    1983-08-01

    Wyoming's Powder River Basin is one of those oil provinces that never quits. It currently is one of the more active areas in the Rocky Mountain region, and there are indications that suggest the latter half of this year could be more lively than the first half. The Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission listed 251 applications for drilling permits in June; 150 of them were for Powder River Basin counties. Operators indicate interest is building in the area for several reasons. Economic considerations are more favorable, money is more available, and there are ready markets for oil and associated natural gas. Drilling costs have decreased considerably, from $17/ft two years ago to $6.90-$7.70/ft.

  15. Chemical provinces reveal Elysium Volcano's compositional evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susko, D. A.; Karunatillake, S.; Wray, J. J.; Skok, J. R.; Hurowitz, J.; Ojha, L.; Judice, T.; Bently, R. O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars became definable[1-3] with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data[4,5]. Previous work highlighted the Elysium lava flow province as anomalous, with a depletion in K and Th relative to the average crust in the rest of Mars (ROM).[3] We characterize the elemental composition, geology, and geomorphology of the region to constrain the processes that have contributed to its evolution. We compare SE Elysium with its North West lava fields, advancing prior work on thermal evolution of the martian mantle.[6] Lava fields at both sites probably source from Elysium eruptions. Both show similar Si content, as well as a Ca-enrichment compared to ROM, consistent with prior models.[6,7] Nevertheless, the two fields are compositionally distinct from each other, with NW Elysium decisively depleted in Ca and Fe, but enriched in K and Th. Such distinctness, in elements that reflect magmatic fractionation, reveals the possibility that a single volcanic complex on Mars may evolve rapidly during the Amazonian era, causing variable flow compositions. Interestingly, a chemical province containing volcanics that is contemporaneous with Elysium, overlaps the Tharsis region.[3] Unlike Elysium, the K and Th distributions within Tharsis are indistinguishable from ROM. Meanwhile, the mass fraction signature in Tharsis is enriched in Cl and depleted in Si. Such contrast, in chemical anomalies between volcanic constructs of similar age, may indicate that the depletion of K and Th in SE Elysium did not arise from temporal evolution of the mantle. [1] Taylor, G. et al. Geology 38, 183-186, 2010 [2] Gasnault, O. et al. 207, 226-247, 2010 [3] Karunatillake, S. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E12001, 2009 [4] Boynton, W. V. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E12S99, 2007 [5] Feldman, W. C. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E09006, 2004 [6] Baratoux, D. et al. Nature 472, 338-41, 2011 [7] Balta, J. et al. Geology 41, 1115

  16. Characterization of Arctic Highly Magnetic Domains - the Geophysical Expression of Inferred Large Igneous Province(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G.; Miller, E. L.; Jackson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain (1000 x 1700 km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH) consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic, domains. The magnetic potential anomaly field (also known as pseudogravity) of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature (which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps). The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography. The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features. Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province. The term "Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province" is given to a domain mapped by tracing magnetic anomalies in a recent map published by AAPG (Grantz and others, 2009). On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between 120 and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity. In

  17. Cerro de Vidrio rhyolitic dome: evidence for Late Pliocene volcanism in the central Andean flat-slab region, Lama-Veladero district, 29°20'S, San Juan Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissig, Thomas; Clark, Alan H.; Lee, James K. W.

    2002-10-01

    Magmatic activity in the El Indio-Pascua Au-Ag-Cu belt, situated in the Cordillera Principal at latitudes 29-30°S at the center of the southern Central Andean flat subduction regime, did not, as previously assumed, cease at 5-6 Ma but continued locally until the Late Pliocene. New and essentially identical 40Ar- 39Ar laser step-heating ages of 2.1±0.5 Ma (biotite) and 2.0±0.2 Ma (glass) are recorded for a rhyolitic dome, the Cerro de Vidrio, in the northern Valle del Cura region near the Veladero Au (-Ag) property. The rhyolite is geochemically distinct from local Upper Miocene volcanic rocks; it is slightly but unequivocally peraluminous and does not exhibit significant REE fractionation apart from a pronounced negative Eu anomaly, a feature also shown by the Upper Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic basement units of the area. This suggests that magma generation occurred in a garnet-free environment, which implies anatexis at shallower levels than for the rhyolites of the Upper Miocene Vallecito Formation.

  18. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  19. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  20. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence.

  1. [Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China].

    PubMed

    Han, X; Jiang, Y; Shang, H

    2001-12-01

    To study the prevalence of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China. Nuclear acids were extracted from blood samples of 16 HIV-1 infected individuals collected locally in Liaoning province of China from Jun. 1997 to Dec. 2000. The 0.7 kb or 1.2 kb segments of HIV-1 env gene were amplified using nested-PCR and the HIV-1 genetic subtypes were then assayed by heteroduplex mobility assay. Fifteen of 16 samples were positive by PCR amplification of HIV-1 env region and samples were found to be genetic subtype A,B',C,E. The proportion due to sexual transmission in all HIV infection was 31.25% (5/15), among which subtype B' (3/5) was the majority. A man who returned from Africa together with his spouse both had type A (2/5) infection. Intravenous drug users (IDUs) took up 31.25% (5/15) of all the HIV infections. Subtype C (2/4) and E were predominant among intravenous drug users. However, there was one IDU with subtype B or E. Nearly all blood recipients and blood donors were B' (4/5) except one with C. There have been several subtypes of HIV-1 existed in Liaoning province, demonstrating the complexity of HIV epidemology in Liaoning province and the difficulty conducting prevention and treatment.

  2. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  3. Geochronological, geochemical and petrographic constraints on the Paleoproterozoic Tocantinzinho gold deposit (Tapajos Gold Province, Amazonian Craton - Brazil): Implications for timing, regional evolution and deformation style of its host rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgo, Ariadne; Biondi, João Carlos; Chauvet, Alain; Bruguier, Olivier; Monié, Patrick; Baker, Timothy; Ocampo, Ruperto; Friedman, Richard; Mortensen, James

    2017-04-01

    The Tapajós Domain in the Amazonian Craton comprises hundreds of gold occurrences mainly hosted by Paleoproterozoic granitic rocks, whose geotectonic evolution and deformation style are poorly understood. The Tocantinzinho granite hosts a large amount of gold, forming the largest gold deposit known in the Tapajós Domain. The Tocantinzinho area is formed by plutonic rocks cut by subvolcanic rocks shallowly emplaced and constrained by NW-SE strike-slip faults, probably in a transtensive site. The magmatism started with the emplacement of huge granodiorite that presently formed the basement country rocks (2007-1997Ma), it was followed by the Tocantinzinho granite magmatism (1989-1979 Ma), and the coeval to late andesite emplacement. Petrological and textural evidence suggest the complex and synchronous occurrence of tectonics and few magmatic events expressed by the emplacement of successive granite, aplite, pegmatite, andesite, and dacite. The magmatic event finished with the cooling of this set of rocks below c. 320 °C, at c. 1950 Ma. The cooling rates vary from c. 3.6-14.7°C/Ma, with an average of 7.5°C/Ma, indicating no important vertical exhumations. The elongated geometry of the Tocantinzinho granite and related rocks, features of solid-state deformation within granites and syntectonic deformation of some andesite dikes imply the existence of wrench type tectonic control. The I-type signature of these rocks, their high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous affinities combined with the tectonic style indicate a post-collisional tectonic setting. Based on geochemical and structural constrains, the rocks from the Tocantinzinho area are interpreted as a part of the Creporizão Suite and probably represent the first expressions of this syn-to late-tectonic magmatism in the region. A continuous and progressive process of magmatic emplacement controlled by tectonics will be proposed and discussed in conclusion.

  4. Monitoring of ground movement in open pit iron mines of Carajás Province (Amazon region) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé

    2017-04-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.

  5. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kun; Song, Deyong

    2016-05-01

    Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. The Global Moran's I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran's I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. The overall Moran's I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran's I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions.

  6. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  7. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  8. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  9. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  10. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  11. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  12. Community and edaphic analysis of mixed oak forests in the ridge and valley province of central Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    G.J. Nowacki; M.D. Abrams

    1991-01-01

    Forty-two relatively undisturbed mixed oak stands on nine different physiographic units in the Ridge and Valley Province of central Pennsylvania were surveyed to investigate the ecological status of oak species in the region.

  13. Study on Optimal Spatial Allocation between Tourism Industry and Subject--The Case of Yunnan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Mu; Luo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    There exists mutual improvement and restriction between regional tourism industry and the development of the tourism subject. With the rapid development of the tourism industry, it has set up the tourism program in the universities of Yunnan Province. However, the regional development of the construction of tourism subject is not balanced and its…

  14. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus in pastures of Bingol Province, Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The province of Bingol, a very mountainous area located in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has limited agricultural land but large intermountain pastures supporting the main economic resource of the region, livestock production. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus was recovered from a ...

  15. [Mortality in the municipalities of Brindisi Province, 1981-2001].

    PubMed

    Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Serinelli, Maria; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Brindisi is a town on the South coast of the Adriatic sea, where many sources of airpollutants are located nearby the urban area. A part from the airport and the harbour, mainly for passenger traffic to Greece, a wide industrial area is present (petrochemical, power plants, chemical pharmaceutical, metallurgical, manufacturing). In seven municipalities, illegal dumps have been found. South west of Brindisi is the province of Taranto, whose industrial area includes steels factory a refinery and a cement factory. In both provinces, an area at "high risk of environmental crisis, has been identified by the Italian Ministry of Environment. In the Brindisi area, mortality from all causes, cancers and respiratory diseases. in 1990-1994 was found to be in excess. to estimate mortality among residents in the twenty municipalities of the province aggregated in four geographic areas: the one at "high risk" including the main town, and the areas located North. West and South of the Brindisi "high risk" area. descriptive geographical study. mortality analysis by gender, specific causes of death and two ten-year periods between 1981 and 2001. Standardised mortality ratios (Puglia region as referent population) and directly as well as age-standardized rates (ref. European population) have been computed. mortality from all causes and from forty selected causes. about 3,200 annual deaths have occurred in the province. Results for the high risk area confirm previous analyses while excesses in the other areas have appeared. A few municipalities, requiring a deeper investigation have been identified. Such excesses refer to mortality due to all causes, all cancers, stomach and lung cancers, respiratory and ischemic diseases. this study confirms excesses in the high risk areas and found mortality excesses in other municipality both among males and females. The results suggest to further investigate mortality both in the main town and in the small municipalities where illegal dump have

  16. Regional Seismic Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    Baikal to the Pamirs, earthquakes occuring in the Baikal region, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, southwest China and the Himalayas generated Lg/P ratios...data were obtained from stations within the USSR from earthquake events occuring in Baikal, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, Southwest China and the...earthquakes originating in the Sinkiang province and recorded by seismo- graphic stations along the Pamir-Lena River profile [25] 0 - recorded by short

  17. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  18. Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-jian; Jin, You-qian; Wei, Jun-ling

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 249 drinking water samples collected from different regions of Anhui Province in China. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from 0.12 to 1.94 mg L(-1) (mean = 0.57 mg L(-1)) in the following order: Huaibei plain region > Jianghuai hill region ≈ Dabieshan mountainous region > plain along the Yangtze River region > southern Anhui mountainous region. The fluoride contents were less than 0.50 mg L(-1) in 66.66 % of the drinking water samples, 0.51-1.0 mg L(-1) in 23.29 %, and higher than 1.0 mg L(-1) in 12.04 %. The fluoride levels in some samples were lower than the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg L(-1)). The total fluoride intake from drinking water was between 0.14 and 2.33 mg per day in different regions of the province, supposing an individual consumes 1.2 L of water per day. Therefore, measures should be taken to increase fluoride intake in the Jianghuai hill region, Dabieshan mountainous region, plain along the Yangtze River, and southern Anhui mountainous region to control dental caries. On the other hand, the fluoride levels must be reduced in the Huaibei plain region to decrease endemic fluorosis. The results serve as crucial guidelines for managing fluoride safety in drinking water and controlling endemic fluorosis in different regions of Anhui Province.

  19. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  20. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  1. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern-recognition processing for classifying wines of two Italian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Gordillo, B.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; González-Miret, M. L.; Heredia, F. J.; Cichelli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experiment making use of the near-infrared spectrum for distinguishing the wines produced in two close provinces of Abruzzo region of Italy. A collection of 32 wines was considered, 18 of which were produced in the province of Chieti, while the other 14 were from the province of Teramo. A conventional dual-beam spectrophotometer was used for absorption measurements in the 1300-1900 nm spectroscopic range. Principal Component Analysis was used for explorative analysis. Score maps in the PC1-PC2 or PC2-PC3 spaces were obtained, which successfully grouped the wine samples in two distinct clusters, corresponding to Chieti and Teramo provinces, respectively. A modelling of dual-band spectroscopy was also proposed, making use of two LEDs for illumination and a PIN detector instead of the spectrometer. These data were processed using Linear Discriminant Analysis which demonstrated satisfactory classification results.

  3. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids (s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  5. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids ( s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  6. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  7. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  8. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  9. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  10. Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).

    PubMed

    Montero-Granados, Roberto; Jiménez, Juan de Dios; Martín, José

    2007-03-01

    This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially.

  11. Student Motivations, Quality and Status in Adult Higher Education (AHE) in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…

  12. Student Motivations, Quality and Status in Adult Higher Education (AHE) in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…

  13. Hydrology of Area 25: eastern region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-09-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report is designed to be useful to the mine owners, mine operators, and others by presenting information about the existing hydrologic conditions and by identifying sources of hydrologic information. General hydrologic information is presented using a brief text with an accompanying map, chart, graph, or other illustration for each of a series of water-resources-related topics. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Study area 25 is located in west-central Illinois. It includes parts of three physiographic divisions; the Galesburg Plain, the Springfield Plain, and the Bloomington Ridged Plain. The drainage basins in the area are the Spoon River, Sugar Creek, Kickapoo Creek, and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Coal is found in Pennsylvanian rocks underlying most of the study area. Water from surface-water impoundments and rivers makes up 97 percent of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches across the area with about 22 inches occurring from April to September. The US Geological Survey operates a network of eight hydrologic monitoring stations in the study area. Streamflow, water levels, and water-quality data are collected. The major hydrologic problems related to surface mining are degradation of water quality and sedimentation. Water quality can be altered as a result of drainage of mine sites into the surrounding area and into the streams. Natural conditions may neutralize acidic waters but increased concentrations of dissolved trace elements can remain in the waters. High rates of sedimentation can result from the lack of soil cover and the disturbed conditions left by mining operations.

  14. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  15. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively.

  16. Major geohydrologic units in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas and Oklahoma-Ozark aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the geohydrologic system in the Ozark Plateaus province (index map and Fenneman, 1938) has been made as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (Jorgenson and Signor, 1981), a major study that encompasses parts of 10 States. The study is one of several by the U.S. Geological Survey that are designed to increase knowledge of the flow regime and geohydrologic properties of regional aquifer systems in the United States. Because a large quantity of fresh groundwater is available in aquifers underlying the Ozark Plateaus province, a subregional project has been established to study the geohydrologic units of this area in more detail than is practical in the regional study. The stratigraphic relationship among the primary geohydrologic units in the Ozark Plateaus province is discussed in Chapter A of this Hydrologic Investigations Atlas series. This chapter focuses on the Ozark aquifer, a geohydrologic unit within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system underlying the Ozark Plateaus province.

  17. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  18. Spread of Phlebotominae in temperate climates: province of Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Visintin, Andrés Mario; Beranek, Mauricio Daniel; Amieva, Maria José; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of the competent vector for Leishmaniaspp, Migonemyia migonei, and theEvandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi complex south of its known distribution in the central temperate region of Argentina, in the province of Córdoba. The persistence of this phlebotomine in the northern border of the province, its association with a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and the new record in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, the second most populated in the country, strengthens the need for regular vector surveillance and a case detection-sensitive health system in vulnerable regions, even in temperate climates. PMID:26814647

  19. Seismic hazard assessment of Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia: deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Faisal; El-Hady, Sherif M.; Atef, Ali H.; Harbi, Hussein M.

    2016-10-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude ( M max), set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE), and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.

  20. Spread of Phlebotominae in temperate climates: province of Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Andrés Mario; Beranek, Mauricio Daniel; Amieva, Maria José; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of the competent vector for Leishmania spp, Migonemyia migonei, and the Evandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi complex south of its known distribution in the central temperate region of Argentina, in the province of Córdoba. The persistence of this phlebotomine in the northern border of the province, its association with a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and the new record in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, the second most populated in the country, strengthens the need for regular vector surveillance and a case detection-sensitive health system in vulnerable regions, even in temperate climates.

  1. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  2. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  3. Construction and Analysis of Long-Term Surface Temperature Dataset in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. E.; Wang, X. Q.; Su, H.

    2017-09-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2) from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual) from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  4. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  5. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western

  6. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  7. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  8. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  9. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting, for Four Research Stations in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina, 2000-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    tectonic belt in the Piedmont Physiographic Province and is underlain by quartz diorite and biotite gneiss rock types. Regionally, the LPRS is...Provinces in North Carolina (Daniel and Dahlen, 2002). The LPRS was selected to evaluate the effects of quartz diorite and massive (weakly foliated

  10. Incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in Tokat province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Bülent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Köseoğlu, Reşid Doğan; Güneri, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in Tokat province, Turkey. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated at one university hospital, six government hospitals, and one specialist hospital in Tokat province between January 2005 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Results During the study period, there were 59,754 births and GTD was diagnosed in 73 cases. The calculated GTD incidence was 1.22/1000. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with GTD was 28.6±7.3 (range 17–51) years. In GTD, complete moles occurred in 26%, partial moles in 74%, and no invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, or placental site trophoblastic tumours were found. Only two patients received chemotherapy (methotrexate). There was no mortality associated with the disease during follow-up. Conclusion The incidence of GTD in Tokat province was 1.2 per 1000 births. Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up play a critical role in preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with disease. The incidence of GTD, which has a high recovery rate with adequate treatment and follow-up, can be determined from regional and community-based research. PMID:24790512

  11. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  12. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  13. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Bavani, Mulood Mohammadi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Entezar-Mahdi, Rasool; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province. Methods: Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province. Results: Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province. Conclusion: Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26114130

  14. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  15. A wintertime study of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan during 2009-2013: Assessment of pollution control strategy in a typical basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Guo, Lili; Cao, Runfang; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yulong; He, Qiusheng

    2016-09-01

    Taiyuan city in Shanxi province, China has been one of the top heavily polluted cities in the world for a long time with large industrial emissions and high disease burden. Many pollution control strategies have been implemented forcefully by the government in recent years in Taiyuan. To better understand the effect of the strategies and related influence factors, we studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during heating seasons in Taiyuan from 2009 to 2013. The results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5 (70.7-477.9 μg/m3) and related total PAHs (T-PAHs, 128.7-1840.2 ng/m3) far exceeded the air quality standards issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) and were higher than those in many domestic and foreign cities in spite of the pollution control. Source apportionment by the diagnostic ratio analysis and PMF model found that coal consumption contributed the most (52.1%) to the total PM2.5-bound PAHs followed by the coking industry (27.3%) and traffic exhausts (20.6%). Significant decreases in PM2.5 and PAHs levels were found in 2013, which was probably due to the large abatement of residential coal consumption and favorable meteorological factors. Being located in the north of Taiyuan basin, the pollution in Taiyuan could be aggravated by the regional transport of coal combustion- and coking-related pollutants from other industrial development zones in the south-western basin as found by the analysis of meteorological influence and back trajectory. Although the PAHs were the lowest in 2013, the BaPeq or ILCR were the highest in that year. This should be related to the increasing vehicle numbers in Taiyuan, because vehicle exhaust tends to enrich in higher molecular weight and more toxic PAHs. Our results provided useful guidance for solving the air pollution problem for cities in a semi- or total-closed basin with coal as the major energy source such as Taiyuan.

  16. Geochemistry of the Kalkarindji Magmas: Insights into the Source of the Oldest Phanerozoic Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, B. D.; Jourdan, F.; Hodges, K.; Tessalina, S.; Chiaradia, M.; Evins, L.; Gole, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province (CFBP) of northern Australia is the oldest Phanerozoic large igneous province (LIP) in the world. The extent of this Middle Cambrian LIP has been estimated to at least 2.1 x 106 km2 with exposures in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, and South Australia. The research into Kalkarindji is still in its infancy with only a handful of studies published. The rocks of the Kalkarindji province occur as lava flows, sills, dykes, and volcanic tuffs. Kalkarindji has been linked to an extinction event at the Early-Middle Cambrian boundary. The Kalkarindji province displays Low-Ti values and high SiO2 values compared to other large igneous provinces, enriched 87Sr/86Sr values, and low 187Os/188Os. This project presents a large data set of new geochemical analyses of the various constituents of the Kalkarindji CFBP. Source mixing calculations, assimilation and fractionation models, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to understand the petrogenesis of the province. The trace element and 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a contribution of enriched crustal-like material into the source region; however, the Os values fall into typical mantle ranges. These geochemical patterns suggest that the mantle source(s) of the Kalkarindji CFBP has been directly enriched at some stage of history, before the emplacement of the province. This study will provide further insights into the magma source and origin processes needed to create one of the world's largest and oldest Phanerozoic large igneous provinces.

  17. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  18. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  19. Blood donation in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong. These data were analysed to explore trends in blood donation in Guangdong Province, and to detect differences among the province's four regions. The number of blood donations in Guangdong increased by 38·23% from 2006 to 2014; overall, the rate increased annually, although it fluctuated in the eastern region. Family replacement/mutual whole blood and platelet donation rates decreased dramatically from 2006 to 2014 (from 39·99% to 20·16% and from 64·15% to 26·51%, respectively), but remained high. Marked disparities in blood donation development were detected among the four regions. With nearly a decade of efforts, blood donation in Guangdong has developed rapidly and sustainably. All blood collection and supply institutions must strengthen efforts to improve awareness of blood donation among the population, retain repeat and regular donors and reduce the rate of FRMBD in favor of the development of VNRBD. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  1. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    PubMed

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  2. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of P<0.05 with spatial autocorrelation analyses. Regions with high concentration of fatal accidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as P<0.05. Large differences were found between the rates of deaths and accidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as

  3. [Experience with the development of vaccinal prophylaxis in Perm Province].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T M; Fel'dblium, I V; Komkov, B D; Skovorodin, A N; Deviatkov, M Iu; Sarmometov, E V; Perminova, O A; Vorozhtsova, T N

    1999-01-01

    The results of the introduction of the system of epidemiological surveillance on vaccinal prophylaxis on the territory of Perm Province are presented. This system has permitted the realization of the principles of the regional tactics of immunization, while following the unified strategy acting on the territory of the Russian Federation. The optimization of the organizational foundations of vaccinal prophylaxis has made it possible to maintain the morbidity rates if infections, controlled by means of specific prophylaxis, on the levels below the average figures for the Federation and to preserve more stable tendencies to their decrease.

  4. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  5. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution in soil of Fars Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S

    2011-04-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg(-1), 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1), 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg(-1) and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (137)Cs, (232)Th and (238)U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv.

  6. Early Proterozoic crustal provinces in the southwestern U. S. : What they represent and implications about continental reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Wooden, J.L.; Miller, D.M.; Howard, K. ); Dewitt, E. ); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology); Nutman, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Early Proterozoic basement of the southwestern US can be divided into at least 3 major crustal provinces on the basis of Pb isotopic and geochemical signatures. These are: (1) the Mojave of SE CA, southern NV, and western AZ; (2) the Yavapai of central and northern AZ, northern NM and southern CO; and (3) the Mazatzal of southern AZ., and central and southern NM. The boundary between the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces is close to the age province boundary proposed by Silver. Crustal provinces defined by chronologic, structural, lithologic, or metamorphic criteria usually don't distinguish regions unique in crustal formation character because these criteria often represent events that affected the crust (well) after the time of its original formation or represent non-unique information (e.g., magmatism can occur at the same time in entirely different crustal provinces). In comparison, isotopic and certain geochemical data often provide unique criteria because they are related to distinct mantle sources, specific processes, or the specific time of crustal formation. New U-Pb zircon ages determined by the SHRIMP ion microprobe indicate that the Mojave province probably has a latest Archean/earliest Proterozoic basement on which sedimentary rocks containing 2.7--2.5 Ga and 2.0--1.8 Ga detrital zircon populations were deposited. The timing of plutonic events in the Mojave and Yavapai provinces is indistinguishable from 1.76--1.70 Ga. Plutonic rocks with Yavapai isotopic and geochemical signatures intruded the eastern edge ( ) of the Mojave province as early as 1.74 Ga. This suggests that the two provinces were in close proximity from 1.76 Ga and that the older Mojave province was a buttress against which juvenile Yavapai crust formed.

  7. [Characteristics of agricultural climate resources in three provinces of northeast China under global climate change].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng; Li, Ke-nan; Zhang, Xiao-yu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 weather data from 72 meteorological stations in three provinces of Northeast China, the change characteristics of agricultural climatic factors including yearly and temperature-defined growing season's mean air temperature, > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and sunshine hours were analyzed. In 1961-2007, the yearly mean air temperature in the three provinces had an increasing trend, with a rate of 0.38 degrees C x 10 a(-1). The > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature in temperature-defined growing season also had an increasing trend, and the border of > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature belt moved northward and eastward. The area of > or =3200 degrees C x d accumulated temperature increased by 2.2 x 10(4) km2. The belt of 2800-3200 degrees C x d moved northward about 0.85 degrees and eastward about 0.67 degrees, while that of 2400-2800 degrees C x d moved northward about 1.1 degrees. The sunshine hours decreased significantly, especially in the east part of Songnen Plain, central and west plains of Jilin Province, and west part of Liaohe River Plain. The area with sunshine hours > 2800 h decreased from 13.6 x 10(4) km2 to 4. 1 x 10(4) km2, and the zone with sunshine hours 2600-2800 h moved westward about 1.5 degrees. The average sunshine hour in temperature-defined growing season was 1174 h. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the region with more sunshine hours in temperature-defined growing season in 1981-2007 narrowed significantly, and the zone with sunshine hours 1200-1400 h moved westward about 0.9 degrees. In 1961-2007, both the yearly and the temperature-defined growing season's precipitation decreased, and the yearly reference evapotranspiration increased in Heilongjiang Province and in the eastern mountain areas of Jilin Province but decreased in the central and west plains of Jilin Province and in Liaoning Province. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the zone of

  8. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact.

  9. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  11. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  12. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  15. Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia using semiparametric Poisson regression.

    PubMed

    Shimaponda-Mataa, Nzooma M; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Gebreslasie, Michael; Achia, Thomas N O; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-02-01

    Although malaria morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced globally owing to great control efforts, the disease remains the main contributor. In Zambia, all provinces are malaria endemic. However, the transmission intensities vary mainly depending on environmental factors as they interact with the vectors. Generally in Africa, possibly due to the varying perspectives and methods used, there is variation on the relative importance of malaria risk determinants. In Zambia, the role climatic factors play on malaria case rates has not been determined in combination of space and time using robust methods in modelling. This is critical considering the reversal in malaria reduction after the year 2010 and the variation by transmission zones. Using a geoadditive or structured additive semiparametric Poisson regression model, we determined the influence of climatic factors on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia. We demonstrate a strong positive association between malaria incidence and precipitation as well as minimum temperature. The risk of malaria was 95% lower in Lusaka (ARR=0.05, 95% CI=0.04-0.06) and 68% lower in the Western Province (ARR=0.31, 95% CI=0.25-0.41) compared to Luapula Province. North-western Province did not vary from Luapula Province. The effects of geographical region are clearly demonstrated by the unique behaviour and effects of minimum and maximum temperatures in the four provinces. Environmental factors such as landscape in urbanised places may also be playing a role.

  16. Transpressional tectonics vs. superposed deformation in the Rengali Province, eastern Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saibal; Misra, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    > 0.90 indicating dominantly simple shear deformation. Thus, D3 strike-slip shearing was associated with a limited pure shear component, indicating that it is unrelated to the widespread shortening structures documented from the region. Chlorite bearing syn-D3 assemblages within the mica schists yield ages of 490-470 Ma, indicating that greenschist facies metamorphism in the Rengali Province operated 2000 Ma after the amphibolite facies event. Since the province-bounding shears form a step-over zone, the structural complexity within the Rengali Province arises from superposition of syn-D3 shortening structures on earlier cylindrical D1-D2 folds. The predominant shortening observed within the province, therefore, is genetically unrelated to the Cambro-Ordovician strike-slip deformation.

  17. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  18. Multi-regional input-output analysis for China's regional CH4 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiashuo; Peng, Beihua

    2014-03-01

    China is the largest CH4 emitter in the world. Given the importance of CH4 in greenhouse gas emission inventories, the characteristics of China's CH4 emissions at different scales deserve to be fully understood. Presented in this paper is an interprovincial input-output embodiment analysis of China's regional CH4 emissions in 2007, based on the most recently available multi-regional input-output table, and relevant CH4 emissions data. The results show that the eastern, central and western areas contribute to 48.2%, 28.6%, and 23.3% of the national total embodied emissions, respectively. Guangdong has the highest level of embodied CH4 emissions among all of the 30 regions. The Agriculture sector produces the most embodied CH4 emissions in final demand, followed by the Construction, Food Production and Tobacco Processing, and Other Service Activities sectors. Significant net transfers of embodied CH4 emission flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest interregional exporter of embodied CH4 emissions. In contrast, Guangdong is the largest interregional importer. Energy activities, agricultural activities, and waste management comprise 65.6%, 30.7%, and 3.7% of the total embodied CH4 emissions in interregional trade, respectively. By using consumption-based accounting principles, the emission magnitudes, per capita emissions, and emission intensities of most eastern regions increase remarkably, while those of some central and western regions decrease largely. To achieve regional CH4 emission mitigation, comprehensive mitigation measures should be designed under consideration of regional transfer of emission responsibility.

  19. [Genetic characteristics of EV71 in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Jun; Wu, Yan; Tian, Bing-Jun; Cun, Jian-Ping; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Li-Li; Ma, Yue; Lu, Lin; Xu, Wen

    2012-06-01

    In order to learn about the genetic characteristic of human enterovirus type71 (HEV71) isolated from cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010. 50 isolates form HFMD cases were performed entire VP1 coding region amplification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing the nucleotide sequences; then the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The complete nucleotide sequences of region VP1 of the 50 strains were all 891nt length coding 297 amino acids. The result of molecular identification of the 50 strains is HEV71. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 48 EV71 isolates belonged to subgenotype C4a and 2 EV71 isolates belonged to genotype A. From 2009 to 2010, the pathogen of HFMD cases were EV71 strains in Yunnan province, which were co-evolved with isolates from other provinces in mainland of China. There was no significant difference found in the whole sequence of VP1 gene of the strains isolated from different regions or under different diseases occurred, but the spread of genetype A appared in Yunnan Province in 2009.

  20. Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-01

    This pair of images, acquired 16 days apart by NASA Terra satellite in 2002 and 2007, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea, comparing a relatively clear day and an extremely dusty day.

  1. PREVALENCE OF DEMODEX ECTOPARASITES AMONG HUMANS IN ORDU PROVINCE IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ülkü; Kolören, Zeynep; Enginyurt, Özgür; Çolak, Cemil

    2016-03-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites in humans. Demodex parasite infestations have not been determined in the province of Ordu. We determined the prevalence of Demodex species among humans in Ordu Provience, Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-nine subjects (438 males and 361 females) aged ≥ 18 years living in the central districts of Ordu Province, Turkey, were selected using the World Health Organization cluster sampling method. A superficial skin biopsy of the face was obtained from each subject. Six hundred sixty-nine subjects (83.7%) had a Demodex parasite. Factors significantly associated with the presence of Demodex infestation were: female gender, employment in the private sector, people who only occasionally wash their face and district of residence. Since Demodex ectoparasites were common in Ordu Province, it is suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of this ectoparasite should be carried out in the hospitals of this region.

  2. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  3. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  4. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-25

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m(3) (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m(3) in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m(3) in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m(3), respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Change characteristics of soil moisture and nutrients in rain-fed winter wheat field under different fertilization modes in Southern Shanxi of China during summer fallow period].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Liang; Xie, Ying-He; Hong, Jian-Ping; Feng, Qian; Sun, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    In 2009-2011, a field experiment was conducted in a rain-fed winter wheat field in Southern Shanxi of China to study the effects of different fertilization modes on the change characteristics of soil moisture and nitrate-N contents in 0-200 cm layer and of soil available phosphorus (Oslen-P) and potassium contents in 0-40 cm layer during summer fallow period (from June to September). Three fertilization modes were installed, i. e., conventional fertilization (CF), recommended fertilization (RF), and ridge film furrow planting (RFFP) combined with straw mulch. The results showed that the rainfall in summer fallow period could complement the consumed water in 0-200 cm soil layer in dryland wheat field throughout the growth season, and more than 94% of the water storage was in 0-140 cm soil layer, with the fallow efficiency ranged from 6% to 27%. The rainfall in summer fallow period caused the soil nitrate-N moving downward. 357-400 mm rainfall could make the soil nitrate-N leaching down to 100 cm soil layer, with the peak in 20-40 cm soil layer. Straw mulching or plastic film with straw mulch in summer fallow period could effectively increase the Oslen-P and available K contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, and the accumulative increment in three summer fallow periods was 16-45% and 36-49%, respectively. Among the three modes, the binary coverage mode of RFFP plus furrow straw mulching had the best effect in maintaining soil water and fertility. The accumulative water storage and mineral N in 0-200 cm soil layer in three summer fallow periods were up to 215 mm and 90 kg x hm(-2), and the accumulative Oslen-P and available K contents in plough layer were increased by 2.7 mg x kg(-1) and 83 mg x kg(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than those in treatments CF and RF. There were no significant differences in the change characteristics in the soil moisture and nutrients between treatments CF and RF.

  6. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baoling; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Qiang; Bu, Yushan

    2017-07-21

    Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy meta