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Sample records for region southern italy

  1. Southern Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-359 (22 June 1973) --- This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Analysis of extreme hydrological phenomena in southern Italy (Calabria region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, Tommaso; Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is a region exposed to the effects of contrasting climatic and hydrological phenomena. In fact, due to its oblong shape, to its position in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, and for its mountainous nature, Calabria shows a high spatial variability of the climatic features and of related phenomena such as floods and drought. The present paper is based on the historical database ASICal (Historically flooded areas in Calabria), a catalogue of effects of floods and rain-related landslides that occurred in the region since the XIX Century. The catalogue has been built using the typical historical data sources as chronicles, diaries, historical books, local and regional agencies, press archives, scientific papers, and documents of civil protection offices. From these sources, we selected information on damage caused by rain related phenomena at a municipal scale and chronologically sorted by year, month and day. The analysis of the entire catalogue allows highlighting the regional Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE), defined as periods of intense rain causing damage on regional sectors conventionally selected as larger than 30% of the entire regional territory. For each event, as a measure of the magnitude of rainfall, the return period of the daily rainfall recorded during the event has been evaluated. In addition, we recently carried out a similar historical research to identify the main drought events affecting the region. In this case, due to the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, data are collected both at municipal and regional scale, and the temporal scale is generally monthly or annual. For each event, we used as climatic descriptors a drought index for monitoring drought phenomena. Among drought indices, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which can be considered the most robust and effective, since it can be calculated for different time-scales and can be used to analyse different drought categories

  3. Modelling rural population change in the Cilento region of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    White, P E

    1985-10-01

    The relevance of established models of rural population change to the situation in the Cilento region of southern Italy is considered. The author notes that in this region, tourism seems to be the major factor explaining rural population change between 1961 and 1971. The need for a family of models to explain rural population change while taking into account a variety of cultural and developmental factors is suggested.

  4. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  5. Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The qualitative characteristics of four monovarietal olive oils produced in Calabria region (Southern Italy) were evaluated. The aim of this work was to evidence the differences on chemical parameters due to variety and to growing environment. Results demonstrated a large variability in qualitative indexes according to the variety. Most of the Grossa di Gerace oils sampled in Ionian Southern coast revealed a high total acidity (percentage upper 0.8% of oleic acid). Fatty acid composition showed some varietal characters: in Grossa di Gerace oils possessed a low content of oleic acid and many Carolea oils showed a heptadecenoic acid level higher than 0.3% as European Rules requires for the extra virgin olive oil category. Carolea cultivar is widely grown in different sites of Calabria and so it is influenced by the different climatic conditions: the obtained oils strongly differed according to the production area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbapenemases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitals of two regions of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Calia, Carla; Pazzani, Carlo; Oliva, Marta; Scrascia, Maria; Lovreglio, Piero; Capolongo, Carmen; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Chiarelli, Adriana; Monno, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. Antibiotic susceptibility was also evaluated. The relatedness of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 150 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, KPC-3 genotype was the most predominant (95%), followed by VIM-1 (5%). No other genotypes were found and no co-presence of two carbapenemase genes was found. A full concordance between results obtained by both the phenotypic and the genotypic tests was observed. All strains were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, and among antibiotics tested, only tetracycline and gentamycin showed low percentage of resistance (18% and 15%, respectively). Resistance to colistin was detected in 17.3% of strains studied. The analysis of PFGE profiles of the carbapenemases-positive strains shows that one group (B) of the five (A to E) main groups identified was the most prevalent and detected in almost all the hospitals considered, while the other groups were randomly distributed. Three different sequence types (ST 307, ST 258, and ST 512) were detected with the majority of isolates belonging to the ST 512. Our results demonstrated the wide diffusion of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 in the area considered, the good concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Gentamicin and colistin had a good activity against these strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  7. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  8. Allergy in urban elderly population living in Campania region (Southern Italy). A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Baldi, G; Berra, A; Ciccarelli, A; Cutajar, M; D'Amato, M; D'Angelo, R; Gargano, D; Giannattasio, D; Leone, G; Lo Schiavo, M; Madonna, F; Montera, C; Monti, R; Parente, R; Pedicini, A; Pio, A; Russo, M; Salzillo, A; Stanziola, A; Vatrella, A; Manzi, F; Bilò, M B

    2016-07-01

    Given the increasing life expectancy observed in Western countries, there is a marked interest to know more about how aging could influence respiratory health. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics and age of onset of allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms in a sample of atopic elders living in Campania region area (Southern Italy). Fourteen Allergy units or Centres examined a total of 462 patients. In this context 215 (46.53%) had positive skin prick tests (SPTs) to at least one allergen and were diagnosed with respiratory allergy. Parietaria represents the most common sensitizing agent in elders living in Campania region, followed by dust mites, grass pollen and Olea europaea. A relatively high percentage of atopic subjects suffered from respiratory symptoms at a fairly advanced age, namely 8.3% at 60-64 years, 10.2% at 65-70 and 5.7% at > 70 years. In conclusion, the prevalence and clinical significance of airway allergic sensitization in the elderly living in Campania region is more significant than expected in latter stages of life. Physicians should not neglect the role of atopy as a risk factor for the onset of allergic respiratory symptoms even in elderly patients.

  9. Endosulfan poisoning in canids and felids in the Calabria region of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Roma, Antonella; Rossini, Carmela; Riverso, Caterina; Galiero, Giorgio; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Endosulfan, a highly toxic insecticide and acaricide, was globally banned under the Stockholm Convention in May 2011 because of its threats to human health and the environment. Despite the ban on its use, endosulfan is still present in the environment, causing poisoning events in domestic animals and wildlife. Toxicologic analysis of poisoned animals conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno revealed that in the past 3 y, this pesticide has not disappeared in the regions of interest. More than 650 samples (baits and animal organs) collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed through solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. This methodology allowed us to identify 45 positive samples from the Calabria region of southern Italy (10.2 % of the total samples). Most were samples of gastric content (alpha-endosulfan range: 1.27-3,800 mg/kg) and baits (alpha-endosulfan range: 92-1,497 mg/kg). Lower concentrations of pesticide were found in samples of stomach (alpha-endosulfan: 6.7-118 mg/kg) and liver (alpha-endosulfan: 0.38-14.2 mg/kg).

  10. Microbiological quality of Burrata cheese produced in Puglia region: southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Saracino, Mara; Malcangi, Maria; Montagna, Cosimo; Quinto, Marcello; Lorusso, Vanessa; Normanno, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Burrata cheese is a popular typical Italian food product, produced in Puglia (an administrative region of southern Italy), and this study investigated the microbiological quality of 404 samples of this cheese. The samples were analyzed in order to quantify Escherichia coli and to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. No sample exceeded the values of E. coli set by EC Regulation 1441/07 for some dairy products, while 15 (3.7%) samples tested coagulase-positive staphylococci positive, with values greater than 10(3) CFU/g. One strain of S. aureus was identified and characterized from each of these positive samples, and of these strains, 7 (46.6%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin A, 5 (33.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin C, 2 (13.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin D, and 1 (6.6%) produced both staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. All strains were mecA negative. The 15 S. aureus isolates were tested for their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and all analyzed strains showed antimicrobial resistance properties for at least one of the tested antibiotics. Testing for the other pathogens mentioned above gave negative results. The results of our study mean that the microbiological quality of Burrata cheese can be assumed to be good, although care must be taken with raw materials and good hygiene during processing in order to guarantee greater food safety.

  11. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  12. [Mortality excess analysis for year 2015 in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Pinzone, Filippo; Cusimano, Rosanna; Casuccio, Nicolò; Mancuso, Adriana; Pitarresi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    a death number increment compared to the previous years was observed in Italy for the year 2015; its causes are under study. to verify if the mortality occurred in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) for the year 2015 was greater than the one observed in the previous period (years 2009-2014) and to find which death causes it would be attributable to. observed number of deaths in 2015 were compared with expected numbers calculated with the traditional analysis of direct adjusted rates, and with a 90% predictive interval estimated fitting a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), via a quasi-Poisson distribution of the observed deaths in the period 2009-2014; various measures of the environmental temperature were used as regressor. The latter method was used also to analyse causes of death. all deaths occurred in residents in Palermo Province in the years 2009-2015. for each population subgroup based on sex and residence, direct adjusted rates for 2015 were lower than those observed in the previous period, but for women resident in towns outside Palermo (observed/estimated ratio: 1.04; 95%IC 1.00-1.08). GAM analysis shows mortality excesses only in men aged more than 64 years; in Palermo residents, excesses were shown in the 2nd week of December; in residents in towns of the Province excesses were shown in the 2nd and 3rd week of February and in the 1st and 2nd week of August. In the death causes analysis, mortality excesses were shown for pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia in the 1st and 2nd weeks of January; 3rd week of February; in the 1st, 2nd and 4th week of August; and in the 1st week of October. For infectious diseases, these excesses were observed in the 1st week of March. it is plausible that in some weeks of the year 2015 there have been a mortality excess; however, as all-year mortality is lower or equal to that of the previous periods, the Authors believe that there is an harvesting effect, that is a mortality displacement that does not affect total

  13. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.

    2014-09-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructures and loss of lives, also adversely affecting the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected, with sufficient accuracy, by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy) concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris flows. Thus, a method is proposed - based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event - to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate countries. Therefore, the obtained (heavy) rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization, and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, gives robustness to the obtained results.

  14. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.

    2014-03-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructure and loss of lives, adversely affecting also the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean Countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected with sufficient accuracy by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy) concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris-flows. Thus a method is proposed - based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event - to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate Countries. Therefore the obtained (heavy) rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time, that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, give robustness to the obtained results.

  15. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  16. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  17. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  18. A regional structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dijk, J. P.; Bello, M.; Brancaleoni, G. P.; Cantarella, G.; Costa, V.; Frixa, A.; Golfetto, F.; Merlini, S.; Riva, M.; Torricelli, S.; Toscano, C.; Zerilli, A.

    2000-10-01

    A SW-NE-oriented structural crustal section of northern Calabria (Southern Italy) extending from back-arc (SW 'internal') up to foreland (NE. 'external') areas illustrates the tectonic evolution of this key sector of the Central Mediterranean Calabrian Arc. The outcropping terrains of this part of Calabria show a thrust sheet pile of basement units ('Calabrian basement Complex'), which are from top to bottom: a Hercynian assemblage of gneisses, granites, and metapelites ('Calabride' Units), with a partly detached Jurassic-Paleogene cover and former foredeep sequences, a series of Alpine metamorphic units comprising a Cretaceous to Paleogene metapelitic/ophiolitic/carbonate assemblage ('Liguride' Units). This highly tectonized and cataclastic assemblage overlies a Triassic carbonate series that outcrops in a number of tectonic windows along the internal, Tyrrhenian side of the Arc. Our field studies revealed that these can be assigned to the 'San Donato-Campotenese Unit' that shows a comprehensive Triassic pelitic to carbonatic platform series, more extensively outcropping in the northern part of the area. Along the external part of the section, well data show that the basement assemblage tectonically overlies a deformed carbonate unit and its Paleogene-Lower Miocene cover. These data confirm the hypothesis that the Calabrian basement was first deformed during Late Eocene (eo-Alpine phase) times and later overthrusted Tethyan carbonate platform areas, already deformed in the Apennine Chain. Highly detailed tectonostratigraphic studies of the Calabrian intra-arc and fore-arc basins, previously published and recently calibrated with a regional interpretation of the available two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic and well database, showed that the subsequent Late Neogene evolution was characterized by the activity of a number of oblique crustal shear zones that controlled the evolution of a wide range of thrust belt basins. Basin inversion phases during middle

  19. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  20. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  1. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  2. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  3. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  4. Unsafe tap water in households supplied from groundwater in the Salento Region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Masciopinto, Constantino; La Mantia, Rosanna; Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Calvario, Agata; Jatta, Edoardo

    2007-03-01

    Although the fractured aquifer of the Salento supplies over 80% of the drinking water requirements of the local population, its exposure to pollution has recently increased. In recent years, owing to the arid climate and droughts, the spreading of wastewater on soil for irrigation has become much more frequent. Consequently, hazardous and pathogenic microorganisms released with wastewater have been transported into the subsoil and have contaminated groundwater. An elaboration of epidemiological data has shown that the local population has the highest exposure to endemic gastroenteritis in Italy. In order to reduce human exposure to unsafe groundwater, the setback distance for drinking wells necessary to achieve the 'natural disinfection' criteria, has been determined experimentally at the Nardò aquifer (Salento region), supported by groundwater monitoring results and a mathematical transport model able to determine the apparent pathogenic microorganism pathways in fractures. The results also provided valuable inactivation constants of cultural indicators (coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium spores and somatic coliphages) and viruses in the wastewater that have been injected into the fractured aquifer since 1991. Furthermore, the efficacy of chlorine to remove viral indicators from water in a well 500 m from wastewater injection was tested. Hypochlorination reduces somatic coliphages and Clostridium spores in groundwaters but did not achieve complete inactivation in all tests. Complete disinfection of groundwater samples was possible only when there was an initial Clostridium spores count of < or = 10 CFU 100 ml (-1).

  5. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  6. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-12-11

    A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  9. Six years genotype distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Calabria Region, Southern Italy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Galati, Luisa; Peronace, Cinzia; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Masciari, Rosanna; Giraldi, Cristina; Nisticò, Salvatore; Minchella, Pasquale; Maiolo, Vincenzo; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Marascio, Nadia; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Giancotti, Aida; Lepore, Maria Gabriella; Greco, Francesca; Mauro, Maria Vittoria; Borelli, Annelisa; Bocchiaro, Giuseppa Lo; Surace, Giovanni; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Although analysis of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype spread in a particular area has a crucial impact on public health and prevention programmes, there is a lack of epidemiological data regarding HPV in the Calabria region of Italy. We therefore update information on HPV age/genotype distribution by retrospectively analysing a cohort of women, with and without cervical lesions, living in Calabria, who underwent HPV DNA testing; moreover, we also evaluated HPV age/genotype distribution in a subset of patients with cervical lesions. Cervical scrape specimens obtained from 9590 women (age range 20-75 years) from January 2010 to December 2015 were tested for HPV DNA. Viral types were genotyped by Linear Array HPV Genotyping® test (Roche, USA) at the Clinical Microbiology Operative Unit of six hospitals located in four provinces of the Calabria region. Cervical scrape specimens were also used to perform Pap smears for cytological analysis in a subset of 405 women; cytological classification of the samples was performed according to the Bethesda classification system. A total of 2974 women (31%) (C.I. 95% 30.09-31.94) were found to be HPV DNA positive for at least one (57.3%) or several (42.7%) HPV genotypes. Of single genotype HPV infections, 46.5% and 36.4 % were classed as high-risk (HR, Group 1) and low-risk (LR, Group 3) respectively, while 16.9% were classed as probably/possibly carcinogenic and 0.2% undetermined risk. Stratified by age, total HPV distribution, showed the highest prevalence within the range 30-39 years (37.2%), while single genotype infection distribution displayed a peak in women from the age range 20-29 years (37.5%). The most common high-risk HPV type was HPV 16 (19.1%), followed by HPV 31 (9.1%). We provide epidemiological data on HPV age/genotype distribution in women living in the Calabria region with or without cytological abnormalities, further to the enhancement of HPV screening/prevention programmes for the local population.

  10. Leveraging social media for flood emergency management: an experience in Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is exposed to severe hydrogeological risk scenarios, triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Many of these risk scenarios can only be mitigated by non-structural measures, which are mainly designed to increase the resilience of the exposed communities. Several studies have evidenced that the effectiveness of civil protection actions can be enhanced by using social media for disseminating and collecting information relevant for crisis preparedness, response and recovery. However, the application of social media in the management of hydrogeological risks is still in its infancy. The civil protection of Campania Region, as part of a FP7 project called SUPER (Social sensors for secUrity Assessments and Proactive EmeRgencies management), has been validating an integrated framework enabling optimal blending of social media in the emergency management processes. The SUPER project is a joint effort of social media experts (including social network providers) and security experts (including security and civil protection agencies), towards introducing an integrated and privacy-friendly approach to the use of social media in emergencies and security incidents. As part of the project outcomes, the "SUPER platform" has been developed. It consists of a set of social media processing components integrated in a Common Operational Picture, designed for supporting security and emergency management. A demonstration was primarily setup to evaluate how the SUPER platform can effectively facilitate the exploitation of social media data for improving civil protection actions during a simulated emergency scenario. To this purpose, a civil protection exercise took place in the city of Sorrento (Naples, Italy), involving tens of volunteers and emergency operators. The simulated emergency scenario was

  11. Joint geophysical measurements to investigate the Rossano of Vaglio archaeological site affected by landslide phenomena (Basilicata region, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Chianese, D.; Lapenna, V.; Lorenzo, P.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", the I.M.A.A. of the CNR (Tito Scalo, Potenza) and the Di.S.G.G. of the Basilicata University, developed a research activity focussed on the realization of combined geophysical measurements for the study of archaeological areas affected by landslide phenomena in Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Since IV century b.C., the birth and the evolution of many religious places is observed in the Basilicata region. Location and construction of these sanctuaries were influenced by the geological and geomorphological setting: many of them were built near important springs; others on morphological terraces, representing the main effect of the large and ancient landslides, often reactivated during the years. In this work we report the results regarding the application of 2D electrical resistivity tomographies, electromagnetic and magnetic measurements carried out in the Rossano of Vaglio (Potenza, Italy), where in the late IV century b.C. raised a sanctuary devoted to the Mephitis goddess (Adamasteanu and Dilthey, 1992; Masseria and D'Anisi, 2001). The sacred area was affected by a multiple and retrogressive rototranslational slide, historically and actually subject to reactivation. The geophysical results, obtained combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; Ciminale and Loddo, 2001; Nuzzo et al, 2002), allowed us to define the geometrical characteristics of the landslide body, to outline the sliding surfaces and to individuate the buried structures of the sanctuary.

  12. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  13. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  14. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  15. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  16. The Irpinia Seismic Network: An Advanced Monitoring Infrastructure For Earthquake Early Warning in The Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Bobbio, A.; Cantore, L.; Convertito, V.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Lancieri, M.; Martino, C.; Romeo, A.; Satriano, C.; Vassallo, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new seismic network (ISNet, Irpinia Seismic Network) is now operating in the Southern Italy. It is conceived as the core infrastructure for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) under development in Southern Italy. It is primarily aimed at providing an alert for moderate to large earthquakes (M>4) to selected target sites in Campania Region and it also provides data for rapid computation of regional ground-shaking maps. ISNet is deployed over an area of about 100×70 km2 covering the Apenninic active seismic zone where most of large earthquakes occurred during the last centuries, including the Ms=6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet is composed of 29 seismic stations equipped with three components accelerometers and velocimeters aggregated in six smaller sub-nets. The sub-net stations are connected with a real-time communications to a central data- collector site (LCC, Local Control Center). The different LCCs are linked among them and to a Network Control Center (NCC) located in the city of Naples 100 km away from the network center, with different type of transmission systems chosen according their transmission mode robustness and reliability. The network is designed to provide estimates of the location and size of a potential destructive earthquake within few seconds from the earthquake detection, through an evolutionary and fully probabilistic approach. For the real time location we developed a methodology which extends and generalizes the one Horiuchi et al. (2005) by a) starting the location procedure after only one station has triggered, b) using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) approach to incorporate the triggered arrivals and the not-yet-triggered stations, c) estimating the hypocenter probabilistically as a pdf instead of as a point, and d) applying a full, non-linearized, global-search for each update of the location estimate. Following an evolutionary approach, the method evaluates, at each time step, the EDT equations considering not only each

  17. Real-Time Estimation of Earthquake Location, Magnitude and Rapid Shake map Computation for the Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Convertito, V.; de Matteis, R.; Iannaccone, G.; Lancieri, M.; Lomax, A.; Satriano, C.

    2005-12-01

    A prototype system for earthquake early warning and rapid shake map evaluation is being developed and tested in southern Italy based on a dense, wide dynamic-range seismic network (accelerometers + seismometers) under installation in the Apenninic belt region (Irpinia Seismic Network). This system forms a regional Earthquake Early Warning System consisting of a seismic sensor network covering a portion of the expected epicentral area for large earrthquakes. Considering a warning window ranging from tens of seconds before to hundred of seconds after an earthquake, several public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance (hospitals, gas pipelines, railways, railroads, ...) of the Regione Campania are potential test-sites for testing innovative technologies for data acquisition, processing and transmission. A potential application of an early warning system in the Campania region based on the Irpinia network, should consider an expected time delay to the first energetic S wave train varying between 14-20 sec at 40-60 km distance to 26-30 sec at about 80-100 km, from a crustal earthquake occurring in the source region. The latter is the typical time window available for mitigating earthquake effects through early warning in the city of Naples (about 2 million of inhabitants including suburbs). We have developed a method for real time earthquake location following a probabilistic approach. The earthquake location is expressed as a probability density function for the hypocenter location in 3D space based on the concept of equal differential-time (EDT). It provides a location as the maximum of a stack over quasi-hyperbolic surfaces. On each surface the difference of calculated travel-times at a pair of stations is equal to the difference of observed arrival times at the same pair of stations. For an increasing number of P-wave readings, progressively acquired in the short time after the occurrence of an earthquake, the EDT method can be generalized by

  18. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    The central-southern Apennines and the Calabrian arc are among the most actively deforming zones of the Mediterranean basin connected with the motion of Africa and Aegean-Anatolian systems with respect to Eurasia. The tectonic stress, caused in this area by the convergence of the confining blocks, is elastically accumulated and periodically released along crustal discontinuities (faults) during earthquakes. A detailed knowledge of the ongoing crustal strain rates is fundamental to constrain geodynamical models of the Italian peninsula and to understand the characteristics of the active tectonic stress release. Given the low deformation rates in the Central Mediterranean area, only a long-term monitoring can yield the necessary data set to model and understand the ongoing tectonic processes. The Matese carbonatic massive occupies a surface of beyond 1000 km2 between the Campania Apennine northernmost part while Monti del Sannio, consisting primarily of quaternary deposits. It is located to the East of massive and represent the area of Apennine chain which degrades to East towards the Bradanica foredeep and it's delimited, in its complex, from Volturno, Biferno, Tammaro and Calore rivers. The area was interested in historical events by several destructive earthquakes with an Intensity I greater or equal than IX MCS (1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1962), besides by seismic sequences of low energy (1885, 1903, 1905, 1990, 1992, 1997). The first studies surveying the area started from 1990-2000 with the definition of geodetic networks, covering all or part of the massive Matese, with the aim of the evaluation of seismogenic sources responsible for the seismicity of the area. A preliminary study from the geological and structural point of view was focused on the area extending among Benevento, Campobasso, Caserta, Isernia and L'Aquila provinces, in order to accurately define the sites in which the vertices of the network could be installed. After a careful inspection of

  19. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  1. Analysis of damaging hydrogeological events: the case of the Calabria Region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Petrucci, O; Polemio, M; Pasqua, A A

    2009-03-01

    A period of bad weather conditions due to prolonged intense rainfall and strong winds can trigger landslides, floods, secondary floods (accumulation of rain on surfaces with low permeability), and sea storms, causing damage to humans and infrastructure. As a whole, these periods of bad weather and triggered phenomena can be defined as damaging hydrogeological events (DHEs). We define a methodological approach based on seven simple indexes to analyze such events. The indexes describe the return period (T) and trend of rainfall, the extent of hit areas, and the level of damages; they can be considered attributes of georeferenced features and analyzed with GIS techniques. We tested our method in an Italian region frequently hit by DHEs. In a period of 10 years, 747 damaging phenomena (landslides, 43%; floods, 38%) and 94 DHEs have been classified. The road network and housing areas are the most frequently damaged elements, threatened by all types of damaging phenomena. T classes are almost in accordance with the level of damage. These results can be used to outline warning levels for civil protection purposes, to forecast the areas most likely to be hit and the potential ensuing damage, to disseminate information concerning vulnerable areas, and to increase people's awareness of risk.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fresh water fish from Campania Region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pacini, N; Abate, V; Brambilla, G; De Felip, E; De Filippis, S P; De Luca, S; di Domenico, A; D'Orsi, A; Forte, T; Fulgenzi, A R; Iacovella, N; Luiselli, L; Miniero, R; Iamiceli, A L

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-eight fish muscle specimens from the main water bodies of the Campania Region were analyzed in our laboratory. On average, results showed a low contamination by PCDDs+PCDFs and a relatively more important presence of DL-PCBs. All specimens were compliant with EU regulatory maximum levels. Cumulative PCDD+PCDF+DL-PCB concentrations (TEQ(TOT)) were comprised in the range 0.223-11.4 pgWHO(97)-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight (fw). DL-PCB contribution to TEQ(TOT) was on average greater than 86% (range, 50.2-97.1%). The cumulative concentrations of 30 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners (Σ(30)(NDL-PCBs)) and of the six indicators (Σ(6)(NDL-PCBs)) were respectively in the ranges 3.30-515 and 1.30-195 ng g(-1) fw. The hybrid clustering approach adopted to analyze the sample-specific congener profiles indentified the main analytical patterns present in the database and, in particular, two main diverse exposure macro-areas that seem to exist north and south of the city of Naples. The distribution of PCDD and PCDF congeners among different species showed significant variations from chub (Leuciscus cephalus), characterized by a higher proportion of low-chlorinated congeners (e.g. 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD), to eel (Anguilla anguilla), whose contamination consisted mainly of highly chlorinated congeners (e.g. O(8)CDD). To have a more complete perspective in relation to the contaminants present in the environment, the study suggestion is to use benthic as well as pelagic species to obtain an integrated characterization of fish tissue contamination.

  3. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  4. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-04-06

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy.

  6. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  7. Back to the origin of HCV 2c subtype and spreading to the Calabria region (Southern Italy) over the last two centuries: a phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Marascio, Nadia; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Equestre, Michele; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Costantino, Angela; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Liberto, Maria Carla; Pisani, Giulio; Zicca, Emilia; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Torti, Carlo; Focà, Alfredo; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2014-08-01

    Circulation of HCV genotype 2 has been described in European Countries where numerous subtypes and unclassified HCV 2 lineages have been reported. In Italy, subtype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by genotype 2. In the present study, phylogeny of HCV 2c was investigated. The phylogeny of HCV 2c isolated from 54 Italian patients in the Calabria region (Southern Italy) was investigated by analyzing a fragment of the NS5B gene. Patients came from 5 metropolitan areas and a small village (Sersale). These areas were geographically dispersed throughout the entire region. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate origin and spreading of HCV 2c in this region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 Italian sequences were intermixed with foreign HCV 2c reference sequences and grouped into 3 major clades: A, B, and C. Nineteen inter-clade sequences were associated uniquely with surgery as risk factor for HCV acquisition. By contrast, a sub-cluster within clade B was associated with blood transfusion. Moreover, sequences from Sersale village grouped in the Italian sub-cluster and were intermixed with 10 sequences from metropolitan areas. The three isolates with the longest branch came from Sersale and belonged to patients who had glass syringes as risk factor. HCV 2c isolates from the Calabria region shared a common ancestor whose origin was traced back to 1889. Our results suggest that, after its introduction - possibly as a result of population movements between Italy and African Countries during Italian colonialism - HCV 2c spread through multiple risk factors, not including intravenous drug use. So, transmission chains followed a pathway different from other European Countries. Although HCV incidence is decreasing, these ways are still ongoing, possibly justifying stability in the relative prevalence of HCV 2c. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; de Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, R.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-09-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40°20' N, 18°6 E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS aerosol index product was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 307μm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 μm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  9. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-12-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  10. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  11. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-10-30

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0-15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre > or = 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  12. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-08-06

    51F-32-024 (29 July - 6 August 1985) --- Italy's “boot heel" surrounded by waters of the Ionian Sea/Golfo di Taranto and the Adriatic Sea is very clearly visible in this scene made with a handheld 70mm camera. Spacelab 2's versatile instrument pointing system (IPS) protrudes from the cargo bay.

  13. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  14. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (ML<3.3) occurred in the VA and surrounding regions between 2001-2014. We integrated waveforms recorded at 46 seismic stations belonging to 3 different networks: a dense temporary network installed by INGV in 2005-2006, the permanent national network of INGV, and the trigger-mode monitoring network managed by the local operator ENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE

  15. Decoding the role of tectonics, incision and lithology on drainage divide migration in the Mt. Alpi region, southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscher, J. T.; Ascione, A.; Valente, E.

    2017-01-01

    The proclivity of river networks to progressively carve mountain surfaces and preserve markers of landscape adjustments has made analyses of fluvial systems fundamental for understanding the topographic development of orogens. However, the transient nature of uplift and erosion has posed a challenge for inferring the roles that tectonics and/or climate have played on generating topographic relief. The Mt. Alpi region in the southern Apennines has a heterogeneous distribution of elevated topography, erosionally-resistant lithology and uplift, making the area optimal for conducting topographic and river analyses to better understand the landscape development of a transient orogen. Stream length-gradient, normalized channel steepness, stream convexity and first-order channel gradient indices from 10 m digital elevation data from the region exhibit stream profile inconsistencies along the current drainage divide and a dominance of high values subparallel but inboard of the primary chain axis irrespective of known transient landscape factors, suggesting that the current river network may be in a state of transition. The location of these stream profile anomalies both near the modern drainage divide and subparallel to an isolated swath of high topography away from catchment boundaries is thought to be the topographic expression of an imminent drainage divide migration driven primarily by the northeast-vergent extension of the western chain axis.

  16. Diffuse degassing of carbon dioxide at Somma Vesuvius volcanic complex (Southern Italy) and its relation with regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Caleca, Adriana; Federico, Cinzia; Gurrieri, Sergio; Valenza, Mariano

    2004-05-01

    A systematic survey of soil CO 2 concentrations was carried out on the flanks of Somma-Vesuvius volcano in order to constrain possible pathways responsible of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing taking place during the present state of quiescence. Measurements were performed at 1162 sites in late winter-spring 2000, highlighting that soil CO 2 concentrations range from 50 to 10500 ppmV. A statistical analysis was developed in order to define the threshold value of anomaly and separate the biogenic CO 2 component, produced by soil respiration, from the inorganic component of deep provenance. A computer routine was also elaborated to interpret the grid of CO 2 anomalous concentration values and define the actual location, orientation and length of degassing structures. The results obtained by this procedure reveal a main control of the regional stress field on the patterns of gas migration. The identified degassing lineaments are typically oriented along the Apenninic (NW-SE) and anti-Apenninic (NE-SW) trends, which are known to govern the past geological and structural evolution of the Campanian Plain and present seismicity and deformation pattern of Mount Vesuvius. A main degassing area was recognized on the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano, which likely relates to the geometry of the underlying carbonate basement, reaching its top (500 m depth) in this sector of the volcano.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard from historical macroseismic data: an application at the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, R.; D'Amico, S.; Tuvè, T.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (M<5.0). Nevertheless, the assessment of seismic hazard at Etna is neglected in the practice at a national scale, being aimed to evaluate the areas more exposed to large crustal earthquakes in the perspective of improving seismic building codes. The state of art on the recent studies devoted to a detailed assessment of seismic hazard in the Etna region, is presented. The seismic hazard is performed following probabilistic approach (PSHA) by using macroseismic data (D’Amico and Albarello, 2007) as an alternative to the Cornell-McGuire methodology. The input dataset is the CMTE earthquake catalogue (Azzaro et al. 2000), covering a time-span of ca. 180 yrs, from which the site seismic histories, i.e. the database of intensity data available for a given locality, are derived. When historical information is missing, the completeness of the site seismic history is improved by integrating observed data with values calculated according to the decay of the intensity with distance from the epicenter. This step is faced with a procedure based on the Bayesian statistics (Zonno et al., 2009), which provides the probabilistic mode of binomial distribution of the intensity at a given site. Then, by a probability distribution considering the completeness of the catalogue and the uncertainty of intensity data, the seismic hazard is expressed in terms of the maximum expected intensity characterised by a 10% probability of exceedance over different exposure times (10 to 50 yrs). The results shows that if shorter exposure times are considered, the expected intensity due to local very frequent earthquakes reaches the same values

  18. Evidence of regional Adria rebound as post-orogenic phase of the Central/Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Ben, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Until the Lower Pleistocene the Central/Southern Apennines were dominated by compressional tectonics which resulted in the emplacement from the west of Apennine thrust sheets. The Adria continental foreland, in its turns partially involved in compressional structures, was pushed (internal sector) and pulled (external sector) down through a regional tilting toward the chain. At the Early/Middle Pleistocene boundary the compression regime stopped, but an important vertical movements prosecuted, uplifting the chain. This last process has been alternatively ascribed to mantle wedging at the subduction hinge, or to thickening at depth of the accretionary wedge, or to a rebound of the chain/foreland system, related to the lateral propagation of a slab tear cutting the Adria foreland: if the two first hypothesis should imply uplift of the chain alone, the rebound should imply uplift of both the chain and foreland. This is an important possibility to discriminate a crucial component of the present geodynamics of the study area. Several evidence of Middle/Upper Pleistocene eastward tilting has been focused by analysis of geometries of the Plio-Quaternary seismic sequence of the Apennine foredeep. The east-ward deepening of the foreland can be easily recognized and measured in the Plio-Quaternary sequences from the Central Adriatic Sea to the Taranto Gulf shoreline, along the Apennine foredeep basin on the West Apulia onshore. The effects of the eastward tilting are generally masked along the chain, due to complex deformation and erosion which occurred during compressional and post-compressional regime. Anyway, recent uplift of the chain accords well with the measured tilting of the foreland, favouring an eastward regional tilting as the main source of Middle/Late Pleistocene uplift of the chain. This process i) re-activated some of the normal faults developed during the orogene-ward tilting and some of the Mesozoic normal fault systems separating the shallow water from

  19. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  20. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  1. Simultaneous detection and identification of STI pathogens by multiplex Real-Time PCR in genital tract specimens in a selected area of Apulia, a region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Raffaele; Ronga, Luigi; Lestingi, Mirella; Addati, Grazia; Angelotti, Umberto Filippo; Di Carlo, Domenico; Miragliotta, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Genital tract infections are globally a major cause of morbidity in sexually active individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of co-infections of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in specimens collected from female (SF) and male (SM) patients. 1575 samples from 1575 individuals from the geographical area around Bari, Apulia region in Southern Italy, were collected and analyzed by a multiplex Real-Time PCR (mRT-PCR) (Anyplex(TM) II STI-7, Seegene, Inc., Seoul, Korea) assay. 455/1575 (28.89%) samples resulted positive for at least one of the targets named above. Statistically significant differences in prevalence of the pathogens between SF and SM were not detected except for UP (24.92% in SF vs 8.91% in SM). Prevalence of co-infections was 6.84 and 3.96% in SF and SM, respectively. Moreover, MH presence in SF, but not in SM, was associated with UU and UP. Our data suggest different patterns of infections between females and male and the importance of an increased vigilance of sexually transmitted pathogens to reduce the burden on general population and the sequelae or the complications on reproductive organs.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of a densely populated region and associated human health risks: the Campania Plain (Southern Italy) case study.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Stefano; Fontaine, Barbara; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Cannatelli, Claudia; Piccolo, Alessandro; Qi, Shihua; Wang, Menghan; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of environmental pollutants mainly arising from anthropogenic activities. In this paper, the behavior and the distribution patterns of sixteen PAHs, listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 119 soil samples collected in different areas of Campania region in the southern Italy. The observation of the geochemical distribution patterns showed that both high and low molecular weight PAHs are mostly concentrated within the metropolitan area of Naples, the Agro Aversano area, and, partly, the Sarno River basin. In accordance with the Italian environmental law (D. Lgs. 152/2006), these areas should be considered potentially contaminated and not suitable for a residential use unless an environmental risk analysis does not demonstrate their safety. As a consequence, a preliminary quantitative risk assessment enhanced by the use of GIS was run revealing the existence of an incremental lifetime cancer risk higher than 1 × 10(-5) for the city of Naples and for some other populous areas.

  3. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  4. Rainstorms in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O.; Gariano, S. L.; Iaquinta, P.

    2012-04-01

    Many regions belonging to the Mediterranean basin are subject to a large number of catastrophic geo-hydrological events with high economic and social impact. Calabria, composed of several small basins with steep slopes and erodible soils, is frequently subject to rainfall-induced natural processes that cause dramatic consequences on the population (i.e. flash floods, intense soil erosion, fast slope movements). Proper understanding, interpreting and forecasting of rainfall events is a prerequisite for the adoption of appropriate mitigation measures and reducing the connected risk. This information is rarely available at the appropriate time scale (at the order of minutes) and does not have sufficient coverage in space. Thanks to the availability of observations with high temporal detail related to 155 sites in Calabria, a considerable amount of data were analysed in order to contribute to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of extreme rainfall events affecting the Calabrian territory. In particular, the study considers more than 152 thousands storms having different durations that took place in different seasons between 1989 and 2008. In order to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes, 45534 storms were selected and analyzed. First, the analysis was carried out to characterize, in simple but effective, the rainfall events with regard to: i) magnitude; ii) locations with high frequency per year; iii) locations where they are most severe; iv) within-storm temporal patterns; vi) the season in which they occur, even in relation to their temporal structure and severity. As concerns the structure of the storm, the use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP) to compare them, by simplifying analyses and presentation of data, is adopted in this study. In addition, the regional statistical analysis of the total rainfall of the events, due to its major

  5. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  6. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.

  7. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  8. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Parsons, Tom

    2017-03-01

    The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100 kyr and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥4.5. The model of the fault system upon which we applied the simulator code was obtained from the DISS 3.2.0 database, selecting all the faults that are recognized on the Calabria region, for a total of 22 fault segments. The application of our simulation algorithm provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behavior of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. The results of the physics-based simulator algorithm were compared with those obtained by an alternative method using a slip-rate balanced technique. Finally, as an example of a possible use of synthetic catalogs, an attenuation law has been applied to all the events reported in the synthetic catalog for the production of maps showing the exceedance probability of given values of PGA on the territory under investigation.

  9. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Parsons, Tom

    2017-02-01

    The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100 kyr and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥4.5. The model of the fault system upon which we applied the simulator code was obtained from the DISS 3.2.0 database, selecting all the faults that are recognized on the Calabria region, for a total of 22 fault segments. The application of our simulation algorithm provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behavior of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. The results of the physics-based simulator algorithm were compared with those obtained by an alternative method using a slip-rate balanced technique. Finally, as an example of a possible use of synthetic catalogs, an attenuation law has been applied to all the events reported in the synthetic catalog for the production of maps showing the exceedance probability of given values of PGA on the territory under investigation.

  10. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100 kyr and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥4.5. The model of the fault system upon which we applied the simulator code was obtained from the DISS 3.2.0 database, selecting all the faults that are recognized on the Calabria region, for a total of 22 fault segments. The application of our simulation algorithm provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behavior of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. The results of the physics-based simulator algorithm were compared with those obtained by an alternative method using a slip-rate balanced technique. Finally, as an example of a possible use of synthetic catalogs, an attenuation law has been applied to all the events reported in the synthetic catalog for the production of maps showing the exceedance probability of given values of PGA on the territory under investigation.

  11. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100 kyr and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥4.5. The model of the fault system upon which we applied the simulator code was obtained from the DISS 3.2.0 database, selecting all the faults that are recognized on the Calabria region, for a total of 22 fault segments. The application of our simulation algorithm provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behavior of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. The results of the physics-based simulator algorithm were compared with those obtained by an alternative method using a slip-rate balanced technique. Finally, as an example of a possible use of synthetic catalogs, an attenuation law has been applied to all the events reported in the synthetic catalog for the production of maps showing the exceedance probability of given values of PGA on the territory under investigation.

  12. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    In Campania Region (Southern Italy), expected increases in heavy rainfall events under the effect of climate changes and demographic pressure could entail a growth of occurrence of weather induced landslides and associated damages. Indeed, already in recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling the slopes of a large part of the Region have been affected by numerous events often causing victims and damages to infrastructures serving the urban centers. Due to the strategic relevance of the area, landslide events affecting volcanic layers in Campania Region are one of the five case studies investigated in the FP7 European Project INTACT about the impacts of extreme weather on critical infrastructure. The main aim of INTACT project is to increase the resilience of critical infrastructures (CI) facing extreme weather events improving the awareness of stakeholders and asset managers about such phenomena and their potential variations due to Climate Changes and providing tools to support risk management strategies. A WIKI has been designed as a remote support for all stages of the risk process through brief theoretical explanations (in Wiki style) about tools and methods proposed and reports on the findings and hints returned by case studies investigations. In order to have a product tailored to the needs and background of CI owners, managers and policy makers, an intense effort of knowledge co-production between researchers and stakeholders have been carried out in different case studies through questionnaires, meetings, workshops and/or 1-to-1 interviews. This work presents the different tools and approaches adopted to facilitate the exchange with stakeholders in the Campanian case study such as the "Storytelling approach", aiming to stress the need for a comprehensive and overall approach to the issue between the different disaster management phases (mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) and actors; the CIRCLE approach developed by Deltares, partner in INTACT

  13. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-09-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The

  14. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-02-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For this purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found to be nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides in Calabria into lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions about the role of the environmental factors in the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The thresholds can also be used for landslide hazard

  15. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    . More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  16. Airborne Laser Scanner, optical high-resolution images analysis and geophysical survey for investigating the slope of Bosco Piccolo village (Basilicata region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenna, V.; Guariglia, A.; Saladino, R.; Arbia, F.; Lacovara, B.; Perrone, A.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The characterization of geomorphological features of slopes involved in complex landslide phenomena proves to be very difficult and often requires the combined use of different methodologies. We adopted an integrated approach, based on different observing techniques, to study a landslide (Bosco Piccolo) located in the surroundings of Potenza in Basilicata region (southern Italy), which is often affected by reactivation phenomena of quiescent landslides developing in clayey-marly formation after extreme rainfall or snowmelt events. The most important reactivation in the study area (8 x 5 km) occurred on February 2005 due to intense snowfalls and rapid snowmelt. The phenomenon was very dangerous causing the collapse of about 80% of the buildings of the village and the subsequent depopulation of the area. We elaborated optical high-resolution images to provide a general characterization of the involved area by detecting changes in the surface properties, such as vegetation removal and bare soil exposition. For a detailed reconstruction of the Bosco Piccolo slope, a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) with a cell size 0.5 m was obtained by a full-wave form Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS). Such a configuration allows the detection of surface elevation also under vegetation canopy giving a more detailed topographic information compared to the maps obtained by using conventional instruments (e.g. aerial-photogrammetry). Data were acquired by an integrated system constituted by a laser scanner, a digital metric camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an inertial navigation systems (INS). In order to support and integrate the results obtained from remote sensing techniques, a geoelectrical in-field survey was performed. In particular, electrical resistivity tomographies were carried out to reconstruct the subsoil geometry and to better define the boundaries of landslide body (sliding surface, lateral limits). The obtained results provided a complete

  17. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  18. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  19. Prevalence of Foodborne Viruses in Mussels in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanna; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Cioffi, Barbara; Ianiro, Giovanni; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Monini, Marina; Amoroso, Maria Grazia

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) belonging to class A and class B mollusc-harvesting areas in the Campania region in southern Italy was evaluated. One hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription PCR during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups I and II), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. Overall, 50.93% of mussels were contaminated by at least one of the tested viruses. Of these virus-positive mussels, 63.63% were contaminated by two or more viruses. In 2014, only three of the eight investigated viruses were detected: astrovirus, sapovirus and aichivirus, whereas in 2015, seven of the eight viruses were detected (only hepatitis E virus was not identified). Astrovirus was the most frequently detected virus in both sampling periods. In 2014, sapovirus was detected at the same frequency as astrovirus (16.00%), followed by aichivirus (8%). In 2015, astrovirus (32.53%) was most frequently detected, followed by norovirus GII (26.50%), sapovirus (18.07%), hepatitis A virus (16.87%), rotavirus (16.87%), aichivirus (13.25%) and norovirus GI (12.05%).This study describes, for the first time, the presence of aichivirus and sapovirus in mussels in Italy.

  20. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented.

  1. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  2. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enteritidis, southern Italy, 1990-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nastasi, A.; Mammina, C.; Cannova, L.

    2000-01-01

    During 1990 to 1998, we identified multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis in southern Italy. Plasmids containing class I integrons and codifying for synthesis of extended- spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Active surveillance for resistance to antimicrobial agents is needed to guard against the possible spread of resistant clones. PMID:10905977

  4. Nonstationarity of daily rainfall annual maxima in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, Vincenzo; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Extreme flood events occurring in the last decades, due to climatic conditions in rapid evolution and/or changes in land cover, has lead the scientific community to develop and improve probabilistic techniques in order to take into account these effects, as also requested by the EU Floods Directive 2007/60. In the recent literature are becoming more popular studies that investigate the nonstationarity of the variables usually treated in hydrology through the analysis of their trend behavior. In this context it is also useful to assess the impact that the climate and /or land cover modifications have on the performances of the probabilistic stationary models used to predict hydrological variables such as rainfall and flood peaks. Among several proposed approaches, we use the redefined concept of return period and risk by considering the variability over time of the position parameter of the GEV distribution, with the subsequent discussion about the implications of analytical and technical characters. The analysis was carried out on the time series of annual maximum of daily precipitation available for a broad number of rainfall gauged stations in Puglia (Southern Italy). The investigation, conducted at the regional scale, leads to the identification of areas with different significativity of the statistical tests usually performed in order to assess nonstationarity. The evaluated change of return period leads to considerations useful to redesign methods for regional analysis of flood frequency.

  5. Seismicity of the Sannio-Matese region in the 15 years before the ML=5, 29 December 2013 Matese Massif Earthquake (central-southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Girolamo; Ventura, Guido; Di Giovambattista, Rita

    2014-05-01

    The Sannio-Matese region represents one of the most seismically active segments of the Apennine chain. In terms of seismic-hazard evaluation, this sector of the chain is considered one of the most dangerous areas of Italy since, during historical times, it was hit by highly destructive earthquakes with I0>IX MCS, as well as by low-energy seismic sequences and swarms. Notable historical earthquakes, separated by long periods of relative quiescence, occurred in 1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805. On 29 December 2013 a seismic sequence, started with a ML=5 earthquake, affected the Matese Massif. This sequence struck the internal part of the massif where no seismogenic structures were known so far. Recent detailed studies on the seismicity of the Sannio-Matese area have shown that the seismic activity in the last 15 years has been characterized by the occurrence of isolated events, generally with magnitude less than 3.0, typically 2.5, with hypocenters within the uppermost 15 km of the crust. To this background seismicity, low magnitude seismic sequences and swarms superimposed. Key examples are the 1997-98 (M<4.2) and 2001 (M<3.6) sequences and the low-magnitude swarms (M<3.2), lasting few days and consisting of some tens of events occurred in 1999, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Isolated events prevalently align NW-SE along the Apennine chain axis whereas seismic sequences and swarms mainly concentrate at the tips of seismogenic sources of the large destructive events or between them along NNE-SSW fault segments. In the last 15 years, only very few isolated events (M≤2.5) occurred along the Matese Massif. The epicentral areas of the 1997-98, between the seismogenic sources of the 1805 and 1688 events, and the 2001, at the NW tip of the 1805 source, sequences suggest that, before the 29 December 2013 earthquake, the seismic release in the Matese Massif was concentrated in its WNW and ESE edges.

  6. Adverse drug reactions reporting in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the four-year period 2011-2014: impact of a regional pharmacovigilance project in light of the new European Legislation.

    PubMed

    Leporini, Christian; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mumoli, Laura; Esposito, Stefania; Gallelli, Luca; Mangano, Giovanna; Brancati, Giacomino; De Francesco, Emanuela Adele; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-05-01

    The number of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) yearly submitted to the Italian Network of Pharmacovigilance (RNF) has progressively increased after the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation (July 2012). These results have mostly reflected the agreements between Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) and Italian Regions, enabling the implementation of active pharmacovigilance projects. A project was funded by the AIFA in Calabria region (Southern Italy) in 2010 to increase ADRs reporting and promote a safer medicines' use. Based on this background, we investigated the trend of ADRs in Calabria in 2011-2014, trying to analyze the possible entailments of the new law. Quantitative and descriptive analysis of ADRs submitted by Calabrian healthcare professionals and patients to the RNF database between 2011 and 2014. A sharp rise in regional reporting rate was observed over study period. Calabrian Pharmacovigilance system completely fulfilled the World Health Organization gold standard for ADR reporting rate, both in 2013 and 2014. However, heterogeneity was observed regarding reporting health facilities, healthcare professionals and patients among the study years. These findings reflect the success of the project performed in Calabria. However, this initiative should go on in the next future to obtain better and more homogeneous reporting behavior.

  7. Boundaries inside the body: women's sufferings in southern peasant Italy.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, M

    1990-06-01

    In a village of Southern Italy the secret world of women's emotions is fundamentally expressed through the body. The female body is open to events of the world and absorbs and feels their effect and defines a new identity, a minimal one. This gives rise to a symbolic anatomy, pathology, and physiology that serve to distinguish male and female worlds and to bridge inner and outer experience. These "traces" of external and extraordinary events, which in the past and in daily life have cut the secret and emotional world of women, are inscribed on the body. This body becomes a phenomenological memoir that opens a new way of interpreting distress and suffering and illness. This article represents a bridge from the interpretation of suffering and illness in Southern Italy via Gramsci and De Martino to a metacultural process of creating a polysemic and multilevel sense of self.

  8. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  9. Stochastic analysis of long dry spells in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2017-02-01

    A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, streamflow, groundwater and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to investigate this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this study, a non-homogeneous Poisson model has been applied to a set of high-quality daily rainfall series, recorded in southern Italy (Calabria region) during the period 1981-2010, for the stochastic analysis of dry spells. Firstly, some statistical details of the Poisson models were presented. Then, the proposed model has been applied to the analysis of long dry spells. In particular, a Monte Carlo technique was performed to reproduce the characteristics of the process. As a result, the main characteristics of the long dry spells have shown patterns clearly related to some geographical features of the study area, such as elevation and latitude. The results obtained from the stochastic modelling of the long dry spells proved that the proposed model is useful for the probability evaluation of drought, thus improving environmental planning and management.

  10. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  11. Microbiological and hydrogeological assessment of groundwater in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, Osvalda; Barbuti, Giovanna; Trerotoli, Paolo; Brigida, Silvia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Di Vittorio, Giuseppe; Lovero, Grazia; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Uricchio, Vito Felice; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This study represents the first investigation of microbiological groundwater pollution as a function of aquifer type and season for the Apulia region of southern Italy. Two hundred and seven wells were randomly selected from those monitored by the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection for emergency use. Both compulsory (Escherichia coli, Total Coliform, and Enterococci) and optional (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Heterotrophic Plate Count at 37 and 22 °C) microbiological parameters were assessed regularly at these wells. Groundwater from only 18 of the 207 (8.7 %) wells was potable; these all draw from karst-fissured aquifers. The remaining 189 wells draw from karst-fissured (66.1 %) or porous (33.9 %) aquifers. Of these, 82 (43.4 %) tested negative for Salmonella spp. and P. aeruginosa, while 107 (56.6 %) tested positive for P. aeruginosa (75.7 %), Salmonella spp. (10.3 %), or for both Salmonella spp. and P. aeruginosa (14 %). A logistic regression model shows that the probability of potable groundwater depends on both season and aquifer type. Typically, water samples were more likely to be potable in autumn-winter than in spring-summer periods (odds ratio, OR = 2.1; 95 % confidence interval, 95 % CI = 1.6-2.7) and from karst-fissured rather than porous aquifers (OR = 5.8; 95 % CI = 4.4-7.8). Optional parameters only showed a seasonal pattern (OR = 2.6; 95 % CI = 1.7-3.9). Clearly, further investigation of groundwater microbiological aspects should be carried out to identify the risks of fecal contamination and to establish appropriate protection methods, which take into account the hydrogeological and climatic characteristics of this region.

  12. DEMETER In The Context Of The Irrigation And Reclamation Consortia In Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, A.

    2006-08-01

    About 75% of agricultural production in Southern Italy depends on irrigation. Water is therefore a vital element, required by farmers timely, at a reasonable price and in the requested quantities. In Southern Italy water is relatively scarce and is not uniformly distributes: regions or areas with the most intensive agricultural irrigated crops have limited water availability. Furthermore, there is a very strong competition between irrigation and other uses of water (urban areas, industries and tourist resorts). Water management is highly fragmented, among over 60 local reclamation consortia, regional governments, organisms in charge of dams' maintenance and regulation. In this framework DEMETER could play a key role in water use optimization, but defining an operative level approach, and an agreement with the local water governance in financial supporting DEMETER services and technological tools up-take.

  13. Southern regional report

    Treesearch

    Bryce J Stokes

    1997-01-01

    It appears as if many in wood procurement, forest management, operations, manufacturing, and sales in the Southern U.S. are simultaneously biting the bullet and showing signs of guarded optimism for the future. On the one hand, during last year, purchasing costs were high, selling prices were low, quotas ruled, and machine purchases sagged. However, there is continued...

  14. Miocene phosphate-rich sediments in Salento (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hofmann, Hélène; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Kaenel, Eric; Frijia, Gianluca; Parente, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    The upper Middle to lower Upper Miocene (Serravallian to Tortonian) sedimentary succession in Salento (southern Italy) includes glauconite- and phosphate-rich deposits, which are associated with pelagic micrite. In Baia del Ciolo and Marittima (southern Salento), the succession is composed of shallow-water platform carbonates of Late Oligocene age (Chattian; Porto Badisco Formation), which are overlain by a 20- to 30-cm-thick level of glauconite-rich micrite with abundant reworked particles and fossils of the underlying Porto Badisco Formation. This interval is in turn covered by an up to 15 cm thick phosphatic crust ("Livello ad Aturia"), which itself is overlain either by a hemipelagic chalk-like carbonate of Middle to Late Miocene age ("Pietra Leccese"; Marittima) or directly by a micrite of Late Miocene age (Messinian; Novaglie Formation; Baia del Ciolo), which shallows upwards into a shallow-water platform carbonate. A large hiatus is present in this succession, which likely includes the Lower and lower Middle Miocene. In the region of Lecce, two discrete levels enriched in glauconite and phosphate-each associated with a major discontinuity-occur within the Pietra Leccese. The strontium-isotope ages derived on phosphate nodules and phosphatized and non-phosphatized fossils and calcareous nannofossil ages indicate a time interval of phosphogenesis between 13.5 and 7.5 Ma, with two clusters at 12 and 10.5 Ma. The glauconite and phosphate-rich sediments resulted from a current-dominated regime, which was characterized by low overall sedimentation rates, erosion and sediment reworking, and authigenesis. This regime was likely related to a generally westward-directed bottom current, which was forced to upwell once it arrived at the western border of the eastern Mediterranean basin. The timing of the principal phosphogenic phases can only partly be correlated to those of other occurrences in this part of the Mediterranean (Malta, Gozo, southern Sicily, Matese

  15. Moment tensor resolvability for the Irpinia Seismic Network, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; Michele, M.; Custodio, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present an analysis of the resolution of focal mechanisms obtained through moment tensor inversion. Our analysis is based on the method proposed by Zahradnik and Custodio (2012), which relies on the linear inverse theory to build an error ellipsoid, and then uses a grid search approach to determine the family of acceptable solutions inside the ellipsoid. We focus our attention on data recorded at the Irpinia Seismic Network which is a high dynamic-range, dense, seismographic network that has been deployed in Southern Italy, along the Campania-Lucania Apennines where large historical earthquakes occurred in the past. The network has also been designed to be the backbone infrastructure for a regional earthquake early-warning system. Some preliminary studies show that the pattern of focal mechanism resolution mainly depends on two variables that are the source radiation pattern and the station geometry. In particular, station geometry is the dominant factor when relative data error is low, while radiation pattern dominates the resolution maps when relative data error is high. We also present moment tensor inversions with uncertainty assessment for four regional Italian earthquakes which have been well recorded at the network: Mw 6.4, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake; Mw 4.3, 2010 Foggia earthquake; Mw 4.2, 2012 Benevento earthquake; and Mw5.1, 2012 Pollino earthquake. The successful analysis on these earthquakes is particularly noteworthy given that they were recorded at large source-station distances (up to about 280 km) and with large azimuthal gaps (larger than 319°).

  16. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  17. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  18. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  19. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  20. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  1. Immigration flows and new epidemiological evidence in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Fedele, Alberto; Aprile, Valerio; Guido, Marcello; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2003-01-17

    Since 1991, immigration flows have had a relevant impact on the area of Salento, in southern Italy, with thousands of landings every year. For this reason, both temporary and permanent shelters were created. At these centres a team of doctors works permanently and full-time, carefully evaluating the immigrants' state of health and performing the sanitary interventions needed and/or provided by the law. Recently, 55 chickenpox cases were reported among Sri Lankan immigrants, four cases among subjects already sheltered in the centres who became infected after the arrival of the Sri Lankan group, and one in an Italian child. The Sri Lankan immigrants affected by chickenpox were aged 18-41 years and all recovered without sequelae. A seroepidemiological study was also performed. This was the first chickenpox epidemic ever occurred in a shelter for immigrants in Italy. This should induce attention towards the new and unpredictable sanitary emergencies that may occur in such contexts.

  2. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-09-18

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  3. Integrated hierarchical geo-environmental survey strategy applied to the detection and investigation of an illegal landfill: A case study in the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Punzo, Michele; Tarallo, Daniela; Casazza, Marco; Guarriello, Silvio Marco; Lega, Massimiliano

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to detect and investigate the main characteristics of a solid waste landfill through the integration of geological, geographical and geophysical methods. In particular, a multi-temporal analysis of the landfill morphological evolution was carried out using aerial and satellite photos, since there were no geological and geophysical data referring to the study area. Subsequently, a surface geophysical prospection was performed through geoelectric and geomagnetic methods. In particular, the combination of electrical resistivity, induced polarization and magnetic measurements removed some of the uncertainties, generally associated with a separate utilization of these techniques. This approach was successfully tested to support the Prosecutor Office of Salerno (S Italy) during a specific investigation about an illegal landfill. All the collected field data supported the reconstruction of the site-specific history, while the real quarry geometry and site geology were defined. Key elements of novelty of this method are the combination and the integration of different methodological approaches, as the parallel and combined use of satellite, aerial and in-situ collected data, that were validated in a real investigation and that revealed the effectiveness of this strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  5. The 2010 flood in the Sele river basin (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.; Cristiano, L.; Gentile, S.; Gentilella, M.; Giannattasio, M.; Napoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    On the 7th of November 2010, a deep Atlantic trough across the North-African Coast triggered an intense flux of hot-humid and unstable currents toward Italy. On the 8th of November, this trough extended over the Italian Peninsula, enhancing wind currents from south-west in the lower atmospheric layers in the west-facing regions. This structure has been almost stable within the following three days, from the 8th to the 10th of November. The southern currents, filled of humidity gained during their passage over the Tyrrhenian Sea, have generated diffuse rainstorms. Raingauges located along the Apennine range of the Campania Region have measured rainfall depths with estimated return period up to 90 years within time intervals of 48 hours, particularly across the Sele River basin (5.000 km2). At catchment scale, the overall rainfall event appeared as an unusual succession of three important sub-events, with a temporal scale of ten hours each. These sub-events generated three successive floods, with increasing peak values, within Sele sub-catchments (spatial extents of 1000-2000 km2) characterised by response times of the order of 10 hours. The overall event generated a major flood within the Sele River basin, with relevant damages to urban infrastructures, network utilities, agricultural and industrial settlements. The measured water level within Sele cross-section at Albanella (10 km uplsope the sea outlet) was the highest level ever measured since the gauge station has been established in 1933. A time series of spatial average rainfall depth from 1933 to 2010 have been reconstructed from historical daily raingauge data, in order to assess the return period of the spatial average rainfall depth across the entire Sele River basin. The probabilistic distribution of the catchment average annual maximum rain depth in two days is efficiently modelled by Gumbel law and the estimated return period of the two-days rain depth in 8-9 November 2010 is 130 years. Campania Region

  6. Sea water contamination in underground waters of salento (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, G; Cardellicchio, N; Dell'Atti, A; Genga, A; Strisciullo, G

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a study of a physico-chemical characterisation of underground waters, utilised for agriculture and human use in the Lecce district (Southern Italy) has been reported. The aim of the work has been to define the quality of underground waters in the different areas and to value salt contamination due to seawater intrusion. Statistical techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), have been utilised to examine the correlations among the different parameters and to define contamination areas. The results have shown a high salt contamination in artesian wells of the Ionian Sea coast.

  7. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  8. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Neola, Benedetto; Restucci, Brunella; Pagano, Teresa B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) infection was detected at post-mortem examination in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of 34/102 (33,3%) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Campania Region in southern Italy. Pathological changes consisted of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia caused by larvae and intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes. These changes confirm that angiostrongylosis infection in red foxes has a mainly chronic course, in which the infected host may disperse parasite larvae in the environment over its lifetime. Results suggest that the life cycle of A. vasorum is well established in the red fox in the Campania Region representing a potential infection risk for dogs.

  10. Multicentric study of seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophila in high-risk groups in regions of central and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santino, I; Cammarata, E; Franco, S; Galdiero, F; Oliva, B; Sessa, R; Cipriani, P; Tempera, G; Del Piano, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophila in populations of workers from 4 Italian regions, known to be exposed to tick bites. A total of 712 serum samples collected were divided as follows: 387 samples were obtained from workers at risk for tick bites and 325 from individuals that were not considered to be at risk of ticks bites and served as the control group. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were found in 29 (7.5%) of the 387 risk workers and in 4 (1.2%) of the 325 control group. Antibodies reactive with the HGE agent were found in 22 (5.7%) of the 387 risk workers and in 3 (0.9%) of the 325 control group. Antibodies to both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophila were found in 1.6% of the forestry workers confirming the possibility of coinfection or concurrent infection. The present finding show significant differences between seroprevalence of the risk workers and that of the people with no risk for tick exposure.

  11. [Levels of trace elements in the fruits and vegetables from the so-called Land of fires in Campania Region (Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Rosato, Guido; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Soprano, Vittorio; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE: una vasta area compresa tra le province di Napoli e Caserta nella regione Campania ha negli ultimi anni attirato l'attenzione dei mass media a causa degli interramenti illeciti di rifiuti di varia origine nei campi o del loro abbandono lungo le strade. A tali pratiche illecite si aggiunge il fenomeno dei roghi incontrollati di questo materiale, motivo per il quale la zona è stata soprannominata "Terra dei fuochi". OBIETTIVI: ricerca di elementi in tracce presenti nei prodotti alimentari di origine vegetale prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi. DISEGNO E SETTING: piano di monitoraggio per il rilevamento dei livelli di alcuni metalli tossici ed essenziali nei vegetali coltivati in Campania nella Terra dei fuochi. La determinazione dei microelementi è stata effettuata dopo mineralizzazione della sostanza organica mediante microonde, utilizzando la spettrometria di massa a plasma induttivamente accoppiato (ICP-MS). RISULTATI: durante l'attività di monitoraggio sono stati raccolti 65 campioni di ortaggi e 49 campioni di frutta in 43 comuni rientranti nella Terra dei fuochi. Il contenuto medio di metalli tossici, cadmio e piombo nei prodotti ortofrutticoli è risultato ben lontano dai limiti massimi fissati dalla normativa europea. I valori delle concentrazioni sono significativamente inferiori rispetto a quanto riscontrato in zone ad alto impatto ambientale a causa della presenza di impianti industriali. CONCLUSIONI: la presenza di elementi tossici o potenzialmente tali nei campioni vegetali prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi è attribuibile a una varietà di fattori ambientali rilevanti (caratteristiche geologiche dell'area, inquinamento del suolo, dell'atmosfera e delle acque di irrigazione, pratiche illecite di smaltimento dei rifiuti industriali); non sembra, tuttavia, sussistere un rischio per la salute dei consumatori. Resta comunque l'allerta per la loro presenza nell'ambiente e la necessità che le attività di monitoraggio continuino.

  12. Debris slides rapid earth flows in the carbonate massifs of the Campania region (Southern Italy): morphological and morphometric data for evaluating triggering susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Crescenzo, G.; Santo, A.

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines the morphological and morphometric properties of debris slides-rapid earth flows which have occurred in pyroclastic deposits of the Campania region over the last few centuries. The slopes bordering the main carbonate massif of western Campania are covered by several metres of pyroclastic deposits from the Somma-Vesuvio volcano that, due to the steepness of the slopes, are easily eroded by surface waters and periodic debris slides-rapid earth flows. These flows are sudden and unpredictable, and have caused both damage to the environment and loss of life over the last few decades. After consulting scientific papers and historical documents, the areas most recently affected by debris slides-rapid earth flows were analysed through aerial photographs and a geological survey. An inventory of 172 landslides was produced, and landslides were mapped at a scale of 1:2000 for further geomorphological and morphometric analysis. Morphological analysis was primarily concerned with predisposing factors; it confirmed that 86% of the slope failurecrowns developed in response to man-made cuts and tracks (44%), or due to the presence of cliffs (42%). Two different kinds of slopes are affected by debris slides-rapid earth flows: slopes lacking drainage basins and slopes cut by one or several drainage basins. Typical triangular-shaped earth flows with a landslide mass located at the foot of the slope (unchannelled debris slides-rapid earth flows) were found along the former slopes. In contrast, channelled debris slides-rapid earth flows formed along the latter slopes. These originated in the drainage divide area, developed along the main water segment and invaded the alluvial plain far from the foot of the slope. An intermediate group of flows started as triangular shaped and then became channelled. Morphometric analysis also investigated the parameters most commonly found in the literature (slope angle of the crown and sliding zone, crown altitude, areal extent of

  13. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  14. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other superficial fungal organisms in asymptomatic guinea pigs in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Grable, S L; Ferrara, M; Santoro, D

    2014-07-01

    Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Evidence for non-uniform uplift rates in southern Italy on glacial-cycle timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, F.; Ferranti, L.; Lambeck, K.; Verrubbi, V.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies of sea level change, with accurate positional measurements and precise datings have been published for Italy in the past decade. The use of markers whose formation positions are closely linked to mean sea level allows precise estimates to be made of local sea-level change. If the data is from tectonically active zones then these observations must be corrected for tectonic vertical movements. Examples include the records from Huon Penisula, Barbados and Tahiti. Often the corrections are based on a long term rates estimated from Quaternary data and in the best cases the last integlacial (~125 ka BP) shoreline is used as reference level. Uncertainties in these tectonic corrections may in some instances exceed the accuracy of the age-height measurements of the more recent shorelines. In the Mediterranean tectonically active coastlines occur in many locations, including Crete (Pirazzoli et al., 1982), southwest coast of Greece (Dia et al.,1997, Kershaw et al.,2002) and southern Italy (Miyauchi et al.,1994). Other coastal areas such as south eastern Spain (Zazo et al., 2001), Sardinia (Antonioli et al.,1999) and southern Latium (Hearty and Dai Prà, 1986) appear to be stable on the glacial timescales. We have obtained new Holocenic uplift rate for eastern Sicily and southern Calabria using Holocene and earlier interglacial observational data from Sicily (Taormina and St. Alessio Cape, Stewart et al., 1997, Antonioli et al., in print 2003) and Calabria (Scilla, Antonioli et al., submitted 2002, and Ioppolo, unpublished data) together with new models for the eustatic and glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions to Holocene sea level change where the latter have been calibrated against data from 30 sites in Italy (Lambeck et al.,submitted).For both regions of eastern Sicily and southern Calabria the Holocene uplift rates are greater than the long term average rates based on the position of the last (MIS 5.5) and earlier interglacial shorelines.

  17. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  18. Day care cataract surgery in Central and Southern Italy: a multicentric survey

    PubMed Central

    Cillino, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Pace, Francesco; Pillitteri, Francesco; Cillino, Giovanni; Lodato, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    Background Cataract day surgery has rapidly gained worldwide acceptance, because the new surgical techniques and costs are generally lower than those involved in ordinary hospitalization. Cataract surgery serves as a proxy indicator of the trend towards day surgery hospitalization in Italy and, therefore, of regional variability in health-care delivery and cost. The aim of this study was to update the diffusion of cataract day surgery through various surgical ophthalmological centers in central and southern Italy during 2005. Methods A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to draw a sample of Cataract Surgery Unit from Ophthalmic Units of central and southern Italy. A questionnaire was sent to 25 cataract surgery centers in nine health districts that represented the range of establishments (public, private, accredited or otherwise) in which cataract surgery is performed. Data were collected on numbers of procedures performed in 2005, hospital admission type, time from the onset of cataract day surgery, surgical procedure, and presence of other surgical centers. Results The response rate was 42% (10 surveys), resulting in at least one completed questionnaire for each of these 9 districts. There is a positive trend towards day surgery hospitalization in all surgical centers. The percentage of patients treated as outpatients during 2005 varied from 50–60% (Avellino, Naples, Campobasso), to 80–90% (Rome, Bari), up to 90–100% (Catania, Palermo, Siracusa and Trapani), with an increasing trend in all the centers studied. Few differences were found in surgical procedures, and these were statistically insignificant. Conclusion Our results confirm a positive trend towards day surgery in place of hospital inpatient admission for cataract surgery. This trend is expected to close the existing regional gap in Italy. Increased efficiency is an overriding need for the National Health Service in order to improve the rationalization of resources. PMID:17270040

  19. A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4

  20. Typology and distribution of sinkholes in the plain areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, S.; Iovine, G.; Parise, M.; Santo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a very subtle hazard in karst areas, and often pose serious threat to population and anthropogenic environment. Cases which open, even without any premonitory sign, as rapid, catastrophic failures (collapse and/or cover collapse sinkholes) may result in severe economic losses and, most important, in casualties. In the last years, researches on sinkhole phenomena and related effects have significantly increased in Italy, in the aftermath of some remarkable events occurred in different regions, from Tuscany (Camaiore in October 1995) to Apulia (Gallipoli in March 2007). Aimed at recognizing and analysing the peculiar stratigraphical and morphological conditions which lead to sinkhole occurrence in Southern Italy, a review of events occurred in the plain areas of Campania, Apulia and Calabria is discussed in this study. The three considered regions are, in fact, suitable for a comparative analysis, due to presence of a good variety of environmental conditions. In Campania, the filling deposits of the plains are represented by alluvial deposits, intercalated with volcaniclastic materials. Sinkholes are generally located along of the Tyrrhenian margin of the carbonate massifs or within intramontane basins, and are 25-30 m deep. Some of them occurred in the vicinity of urban centres causing serious hazard conditions (such as in the case of Telese village) are described in detail. In Apulia, a flat region almost entirely interested by outcropping of soluble rocks, some cases affecting the calcarenite rocks overlying the limestone bedrock are examined, together with other cases involving Triassic evaporite rocks. In Calabria, one of the most seismogenic Italian regions, the relationships between strong historical earthquakes and occurrence of sinkholes are analyzed; nevertheless, other events of sinkholes related to meteoric events, rather than seismic shocks, are also considered. The article intends to provide a first glance on the variety of sinkhole

  1. [Acute pancreatitis hospitalization in Veneto Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Saia, M; Pietrobon, F

    2009-01-01

    The incidence rate of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been reported as having increased during recent decades and associated mortality lies around 10%. This study was undertaken to establish the current AP hospitalization and mortality rates in Veneto Region. A retrospective study of all cases of acute pancreatitis admitted in hospital between 2000 and 2007 was carried out in all Veneto population. Data concerning patients discharged with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (ICD 9-CM code: 577.0) were obtained from the Regional data warehouse and analysed on a computer database. Altogether 11,685 discharges for AP were recorded; median age of the patients was 61.6 +/- 20.3 years. The mean annual AP hospitalization rate was 30.6 per 100,000 and in-hospital annual mortality rate (death from all causes) was 1.1 per 100,000 population. Hospitalization and mortality rates were larger in older and increased sharply with age. Hospital admissions for AP rose from 29.3 in 2000 to 32.2 per 100,000 population in 2007 without significative variations in mortality rate probably due to the increase of effectiveness and quality of care. The AP hospitalization rate in Veneto population is comparable to what has been found elsewhere in Italy and AP remains an increasing disease with high mortality.

  2. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  3. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  4. Genetic analysis of HAV strains recovered from patients with acute hepatitis from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chironna, Maria; Grottola, Antonella; Lanave, Cecilia; Villa, Erica; Barbuti, Salvatore; Quarto, Michele

    2003-07-01

    Southern Italy is an endemic area for HAV infection contributing to the majority of Italian hepatitis A cases. Using molecular analysis, HAV strains have been classified in distinct genotypes and subgenotypes. To characterize HAV wild-type strains circulating in Southern Italy, sequence analysis of VP3-VP1 and VP1/2A junction regions of HAV isolates recovered from 25 patients with acute hepatitis during 2000 and 2001 was carried out. HAV isolates showed a degree of identity, after pairwise comparison with one another, ranging from 91.9-100% in the VP3-VP1 junction region and 89.9-100% in the VP1/2A junction region. All strains belonged to genotype I, with 84% (21/25) of samples clustering in subgenotype IA and 16% (4/25) in subgenotype IB. Cocirculation of subgenotypes IA and IB was observed among isolates from 2000, whereas all strains from 2001 were subgenotype IA. In addition, the subgenotype IA strains formed different clusters, one of which was related closely to some Cuban strains, showing a percent similarity of 98.8% in the 168-base pair segment encompassing the VP1/2A junction and the same amino acid substitution. The latter finding suggests that this subgenotype variant circulates also in the Mediterranean area. The results of the phylogenetic analysis confirm the genetic heterogeneity among HAV strains in Western Europe. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. [Traditional diet in Southern Italy, between myth and reality].

    PubMed

    Giammanco, G

    2013-01-01

    "Mediterranean diet" is commonly defined as a type of diet based on traditional foods of the Southern Italian regions, assuming that in the past the southern populations enjoyed a balanced and healthy diet. In fact, up to the middle of the twentieth century, widespread poverty in large parts of the population led to malnutrition due to lack of calories and essential nutrients. Only among the upper classes consumption of food was reasonable and respectful of the recommendations of the "Mediterranean diet pyramid". The fact remains that many traditional dishes can be recommended because they are well balanced on nutrients, tasty and appetizing.

  6. Healthy behaviours and abdominal adiposity in adolescents from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Iaccarino Idelson, Paola; Scalfi, Luca; Vaino, Nicola; Mobilia, Sara; Montagnese, Concetta; Franzese, Adriana; Valerio, Giuliana

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of meeting health recommendations on diet and physical activity (having breakfast, eating fruit and vegetables, consumption of milk/yoghurt, performing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, limiting television watching) and to assess junk snack food consumption in adolescents from southern Italy. The association between healthy behaviours and abdominal adiposity was also examined. In a cross-sectional protocol, anthropometric data were measured by trained operators while other data were collected through a structured interview. Three high schools in Naples, Italy. A sample of 478 students, aged 14-17 years, was studied. The proportion of adolescents who met each of the health recommendations varied: 55·4% had breakfast on ≥6 d/week; 2·9% ate ≥5 servings of fruit and vegetables/d; 1·9% had ≥3 servings of milk/yoghurt daily; 13·6% performed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for ≥60 min/d; and 46·3% watched television for <2 h/d. More than 65% of adolescents consumed ≥1 serving of junk snack foods/d. Only 5% fulfilled at least three recommendations. Healthy habits tended to correlate with each other. As the number of health recommendations met decreased, the percentage of adolescents with high abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0·5) increased. The trend was not significant when the proportion of overweight/obese adolescents was considered. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender and watching television for ≥2 h/d were independently associated with a higher waist-to-height ratio. Most adolescents failed to meet the five health recommendations considered. Male gender and excessive television watching were associated with abdominal adiposity.

  7. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  9. Helminth community structure in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-02-01

    We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.

  10. Hydrogeological and geochemical study of the springs in San Severino Lucano territory (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiore, M.; Santaloia, F.; Vurro, F.

    1993-09-01

    A hydrogeological and geochemical study is presented for the San Severino Lucano region of southern Italy. In this region, groundwater circulation occurs in rocks lithologically different from one another (metaophiolites, carbonate rocks, etc.). Many springs drain this region. The Frido springs are the most important both for their great volume of flow and for their water quality. A water balance estimated for the recharge area of the Frido springs suggests that during the period 1938 1958 the evapotranspiration represents 54.8 percent, runoff 21.2 percent, and infiltration to groundwater 34 percent of rainfall. The springs studied have a meteoric origin and their waters are mostly acid carbonate-alkaline earth type. The reservoir rocks appear to be the only discriminating factors for the chemical composition of the waters analysed.

  11. Wasting lives: the effects of toxic waste exposure on health. The case of Campania, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Barba, Maddalena; Mazza, Alfredo; Guerriero, Carla; Di Maio, Massimo; Romeo, Frank; Maranta, Pasquale; Marino, Ignazio R; Paggi, Marco G; Giordano, Antonio

    2011-07-15

    Three decades of illegal practices of waste dumping and consequent environmental abuse have made the Campania region of Southern Italy a unique case in the context of waste-related health outcomes. Scientific evidence is mounting in support of a significant increase in cancer mortality and malformation occurrence in specific areas of the Campania region, where improper waste management and illegal waste trafficking have been repeatedly documented. However, the currently available evidence suffers from limitations mainly due to study design, lack of consideration of confounders and quality of the exposure data. Recent economic studies have shown the economic benefits of reclaiming toxic waste sites in Campania. Future perspectives include the adoption of different study designs, use of biomarkers and a molecular approach. Current knowledge, both scientific and economic, might be of help in orienting the short and long term governmental policy on waste related health outcomes at a regional level.

  12. Strain and stress fields in the Southern Apennines (Italy) constrained by geodetic, seismological and borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palano, M.; Cannavò, F.; Ferranti, L.; Mattia, M.; Mazzella, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present an improved evaluation of the current strain and stress fields in the Southern Apennines (Italy) obtained through a careful analysis of geodetic, seismological and borehole data. In particular, our analysis provides an updated comparison between the accrued strain recorded by geodetic data, and the strain released by seismic activity in a region hit by destructive historical earthquakes. To this end, we have used nine years of GPS observations (2001-2010) from a dense network of permanent stations, a data set of 73 well-constrained stress indicators (borehole breakouts and focal mechanisms of moderate-to-large earthquakes) and published estimations of the geological strain accommodated by active faults in the region. Although geodetic data are generally consistent with seismic and geological information, previously unknown features of the current deformation in southern Italy emerge from this analysis. The newly obtained GPS velocity field supports the well-established notion of a dominant NE-SW-oriented extension concentrated in a ˜50-km-wide belt along the topographic relief of the Apennines, as outlined by the distribution of seismogenic normal faults. Geodetic deformation is, however, non-uniform along the belt, with two patches of higher strain-rate and shear-stress accumulation in the north (Matese Mountains) and in the south (Irpinia area). Low geodetic strain-rates are found in the Bradano basin and Apulia plateau to the east. Along the Ionian Sea margin of southern Italy, in southern Apulia and eastern Basilicata and Calabria, geodetic velocities indicate NW-SE extension that is consistent with active shallow-crustal gravitational motion documented by geological studies. In the west, along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Campania region, the tectonic geodetic field is disturbed by volcanic processes. Comparison between the magnitude of the geodetic and the seismic strain rates (computed using a long historical seismicity catalogue) allow detecting

  13. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs <6 months and 99 pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 16 fattening pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  14. I-AMICA: infrastructure of high technology for environmental and climate monitoring in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    I-AMICA (Infrastruttura di Alta tecnologia per il Monitoraggio Climatico Ambientale - Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring -) is a three years Italian National Operative Program (PON) project co-founded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is devoted to strengthen the environmental monitoring in Southern Italy with the aim to support the integration among research, high training, and innovation also providing synergies among public and private research organizations. The activities are focused on actions addressed to strengthen the observational infrastructures for atmosphere, forest and coastal areas in the regions of Southern Italy, whose economic growth and social well-being are strongly related to the environment quality. In such Convergence Regions (Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), instrumental networks (e.g. advanced sensors, software tools, integrated platforms and mobile laboratory and stations) dedicated to the environmental and climatic monitoring in the Mediterranean area, in terms of air quality, forest and agriculture, coastal marine ecosystems are promoted and developed. In order to increase the competitive capacity at national and international level, four "pillar" activities are aimed to (1) strengthen observing infrastructures for climate and environment and data processing systems, (2) promote innovation, technological development and industrial transfer, (3) integrate these observational activities into international programs (i.e. GAW-WMO, ACTRIS, EARLINET, GMOS, ICOS, FLUXNET, SHARE, NEXT DATA) that will allow I-AMICA to effectively be integrated with important networks. Finally, (4) through the implementation of observations, networking, technological applications and territorial services in the Convergence Regions, I-AMICA provides an important support to the local and regional communities.

  15. The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere System in the Calabrian Arc and Surrounding Seas Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontevivo, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano Francesco

    2006-08-01

    A fairly detailed structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (thickness, S- and P-wave velocities of the crust and of the uppermost mantle layers) has been defined in the Calabrian Arc region (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Calabria and the northwestern part of the Ionian Sea) in Southern Italy using seismic data from literature as a priori constraints of the nonlinear inversion of surface-wave data. The main features identified by this study are: (1) A very shallow (less then 10 km deep) crust-mantle transition in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and a very low vs just below a very thin lid, in correspondence of the submarine volcanic bodies Magnaghi, Marsili and Vavilov, while the vs in the lid is quite high in the area that separates Marsili from Magnaghi-Vavilov; (2) a shallow and very low vs layer in the uppermost mantle in the areas of the Aeolian Islands, Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia, which represents their shallow-mantle magma source; (3) a thickened continental crust and lithospheric doubling in Calabria; (4) a crust about 25-km thick and a mantle velocity profile versus depth consistent with the presence of a continental rifted lithosphere, now thermally relaxed, in the investigated part of the Ionian Sea; (5) the subduction towards northwest of the Ionian lithosphere below the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea; (6) the subduction of the Adriatic/Ionian lithosphere underneath the Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields.

  16. Structural setting of the 1688 Sannio earthquake epicentral area (Southern Italy) from surface and subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucci, D.; Massa, B.; Tornaghi, M.; Zuppetta, A.

    2005-09-01

    We analysed the 1688 Sannio earthquake, one of the most destructive events that occurred along the axis of the Southern Apennines (Calore River valley, Italy). It was characterised by a very large damage area and by several ground effects. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of specific and multidisciplinary geological studies focused on the active tectonics of the area where this earthquake occurred. Therefore, this work is aimed at integrating subsurface and surface data to provide a new reconstruction of the present day structural setting and active tectonics of the region struck by the 1688 Sannio earthquake. We interpreted deep well logs and reflection seismic lines, and integrated them with the results of original geomorphic and mesostructural analyses and with new radiometric dating ( 40Ar/ 39Ar) of Pleistocene pyroclastic layers. The latest Pleistocene brittle deformation observed in the Calore valley suggests a NE dipping main fault related to a NW-SE oriented active extensional system (Calore River fault system: CRFS). This extensional system is tentatively interpreted as the seismogenic fault of the 1688 Sannio earthquake. The reconstruction of the deep structural setting of the study area, especially in correspondence with the CRFS, allowed the buried Apulia units to be identified. The active extensional fault system develops within a set of thrusts that strongly uplift the Apulia platform succession and possibly the underlying Paleozoic basement. At surface, instead, the extensional fault system projects within the most external parts of the Apennine unit, in proximity to its leading edge. A comparison with other extensional seismogenic sources of the Southern Apennines suggests that the occurrence of the described features could represent a key for the location of the major seismicity of the region and could provide an interpretative model for the identification of areas of possible seismic gap in Southern Italy.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  18. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity

  19. An outbreak of HIV-1 BC recombinants in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Monno, Laura; Brindicci, Gaetano; Lai, Alessia; Punzi, Grazia; Altamura, Maurantonio; Simonetti, Francesco Roberto; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Saracino, Annalisa; Balotta, Claudia; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2012-12-01

    In Western Europe, a previously subtype B HIV-1 restricted area, BC recombinants have been rarely reported. To describe an outbreak of HIV-1 BC recombinants in southern Italy. We analyzed pol (protease/reverse transcriptase) sequences from 135 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients during the years 2009-2011. For phylogenetic relationships, sequences were aligned to the most recent reference data set from the Los Alamos database using BioEdit (version 7.1.3). The resulting alignment was analyzed with the Phylip package (version 3.67) building a neighbor-joining tree based on the Kimura two-parameter substitution model. The reliability of the tree topology was assessed through bootstrapping using 1000 replicates. The recombination pattern was characterized using SimPlot 3.5.1 and SplitsTree 4. At phylogenetic analysis, 22 (16.2%) isolates whose sequences were not unequivocally assigned to a pure subtype or known CRF, formed a distinct monophyletic clade (100% of bootstrap value). For these isolates, the recombination analysis identified a BC mosaic pattern with two breakpoints at positions 2778±5 and 3162±8 (HXB2 numbering) which differed from those of known BC CRFs. All patients from whom these sequences were derived were highly educated youth Italians, 91% males and 82% MSM. Sequences of pol integrase, gp120 and gp41 from these same patients were classified as C subtype. This outbreak which further reflects the increasing heterogeneity of HIV epidemic in our country is the first report of an Italian outbreak of a BC recombinant, possibly a novel candidate CRF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology of osteoporosis in women in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    del Puente, A; Heyse, S P; Mandes, M G; Mantova, D; Carpinelli, A; Nutile, G; Oriente, P

    1998-02-01

    Studies on the distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) values in different age groups and in different populations are valuable for understanding the causes of the appreciable geographical variability in fracture incidence. We studied a population of southern Italy in an area where the incidence of hip fracture had been previously estimated. With a completion rate of 85%, we recruited a group of 264 women between 45 and 79 years of age, representative of non-institutionalized and active women in the population, and measured bone density both at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at the right femoral neck using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) system. We report the age group distribution of BMD in this population. The elderly showed higher mineralization, as compared to an international pooled sample. The prevalence of osteoporosis among women of 50-79 years of age was 40%; the rate changed according to the measurement site. Our results show that a large proportion of women would not have been diagnosed as having osteoporosis if we had relied on a single measurement site. A very low percentage of cases (as low as 4% in the 50-59 years age group) was diagnosed at both sites. The lack of concordance in BMD estimate between measurement sites is significant at younger ages, with an almost dichotomous distribution of cases diagnosed either at the lumbar or femoral site, suggesting the hypothesis that distinct patterns of bone involvement and bone mass lowering exist and all eventually lead to systemic involvement. Longitudinal follow-up of this population should help address some of the questions raised by these results.

  1. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  2. Occurrence of Mislabelling in Prepared Fishery Products in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Marchetti, Patrizia; Mottola, Anna; Terio, Valentina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Di Pinto, Angela

    2015-06-30

    Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and hake (Merluccius merluccius) fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy) using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8%) fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4%) fillets of sole (Solea solea) were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4%) plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6%) hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius) were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  3. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode.

  4. Neural Network Aided Evaluation of Landslide Susceptibility in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, Salvatore; Valente, Alessio

    Landslide hazard mapping is often performed through the identification and analysis of hillslope instability factors. In heuristic approaches, these factors are rated by the attribution of scores based on the assumed role played by each of them in controlling the development of a sliding process. The objective of this research is to forecast landslide susceptibility through the application of Artificial Neural Networks. In particular, given the availability of past events data, we mainly focused on the Calabria region (Italy). Vectors of eight hillslope factors (features) were considered for each considered event in this area (lithology, permeability, slope angle, vegetation cover in terms of type and density, land use, yearly rainfall and yearly temperature range). We collected 106 vectors and each one was labeled with its landslide susceptibility, which is assumed to be the output variable. Subsequently a set of these labeled vectors (examples) was used to train an artificial neural network belonging to the category of Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) to evaluate landslide susceptibility. Then the neural network predictions were verified on the vectors not used in the training (validation set), i.e. in previously unseen locations. The comparison between the expected output and the artificial neural network output showed satisfactory results, reporting a prediction discrepancy of less than 4.3%. This is an encouraging preliminary approach towards a systematic introduction of artificial neural network in landslide hazard assessment and mapping in the considered area.

  5. Understanding volcanic hazard at the most populated caldera in the world: Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Somma, Renato; Moretti, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Naples and its hinterland in Southern Italy are one of the most urbanized areas in the world under threat from volcanic activity. The region lies within range of three active volcanic centers: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, and Ischia. The Campi Flegrei caldera, in particular, has been in unrest for six decades. The unrest followed four centuries of quiescence and has heightened concern about an increased potential for eruption. Innovative modeling and scientific drilling are being used to investigate Campi Flegrei, and the results highlight key directions for better understanding the mechanisms of caldera formation and the roles of magma intrusion and geothermal activity in determining the volcano's behavior. They also provide a framework for evaluating and mitigating the risk from this caldera and other large ones worldwide.

  6. Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; Sabia, Serena; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Anastasio, Aniello; Ragosta, Maria; Paino, Salvatore

    2005-09-01

    We measured Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb levels in samples of fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues collected from 12 ovine farms in the regions of Campania and Calabria (Southern Italy). The areas in which the farms are located show different levels of anthropogenic pressure. The main purpose of this study is the identification and the analysis of relationships among metal concentrations observed in samples representative of different links in the food chain. Particularly, we apply univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques to identify the correlation structure of our data set and to evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activity. We discuss the results, focusing the analysis on the spatial and the temporal patterns of metal concentrations.

  7. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): insights from new seismic reflection data.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side.

  8. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  9. Controls on Recent Unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Bellucci, F.; Kilburn, C. R.; Rolandi, G.

    2005-05-01

    Campi Flegrei, in Southern Italy, is an active caldera that has shown signs of unrest since 1969. Because the caldera has a population of 400,000 people, it is especially important to understand the mechanisms driving the unrest and their implication for the probability of a future eruption. Since its last ignimbrite eruption 12,000 years ago (which produced the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff), volcanic activity in Campi Flegrei has consisted of numerous eruptions (volumes ~0.1 km3 or less) surrounding the inferred caldera rim. For at least the last 3,700 years, the caldera has been subsiding at mean rates of 14-17 mm per year, punctuated by two known periods of mean uplift (1430-1538 and 1969-Present). The first period produced a net uplift of about 30 m at the port of Pozzuoli and was followed in 1538 by the eruption of Monte Nuovo (20 million m3) some 4 km to the west. The second period has to date consisted of two episodes of uplift (in 1969-72 and 1982-84), each raising Pozzuoli by about 2 m. Studies of the second period have attributed uplift either to magmatic intrusion or to the expansion of water in heated aquifers. These interpretations assumed a stationary reference condition. It is here proposed that the reference condition in fact corresponds to subsidence at about 17 mm per year. Slower subsidence then reflects the difference between background subsidence and actual intrusion of magma. The revised interpretation suggests a two-component source for the recent episodes of uplift: (1) intrusion of two batches of magma of ~0.1 km3 that have produced a permanent uplift of about 2.8 m, and (2) the expansion and later dissipation of heated water, which produced a temporary uplift of about 0.7 m that has since disappeared. The similar volumes of recent intrusions and post-NYT eruptions further suggest that Campi Flegrei is fed by discrete batches of magma. The caldera today may thus be underlain by a collection of modest magma bodies rather than a single, large

  10. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

    2012-10-01

    The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy), attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle

  11. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

    2013-03-01

    The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Guado San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy) attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

  13. Prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in a migrant population from southern to northern Italy: a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varenna, M; Binelli, L; Zucchi, F; Rossi, V; Sinigaglia, L

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a migrant population from southern regions of Italy showed differences in osteoporosis (OP) and fracture prevalence in comparison to a population born and living in Milan, a city in northern Italy. The study group consisted of 1764 postmenopausal women born in southern Italy who migrated after age 20 to Milan, where they had lived for at least 15 years. This group was compared with a sample of 4018 postmenopausal women born, raised and living in Milan. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analysis showed a significantly higher BMI, a greater parity, a lower postmenopausal estrogen (HRT) usage and a lower calcium intake in the Southern group (SG). Densitometric values showed a mean lumbar BMD significantly lower in SG ( P<0.001), resulting in a greater prevalence of OP (30.5% versus 24.9%; P<0.001). Consistent with this result, the number of women reporting low energy fractures after menopause was higher in SG (4.8% versus 3.6%; P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that OP was predicted by well-recognized variables, such as age, age at menopause, BMI, HRT, calcium intake together to belonging to SG, which independently increased the risk for OP by 42%. Age, age at menopause, BMI and belonging to SG significantly influenced the fracture risk, but the last variable was no longer associated with an increased fracture risk when BMD was entered in the model. Despite the results of previous epidemiological studies and protective anthropometric measures, a higher OP and fracture prevalence was found in the migrant group from southern Italy to Milan in comparison with the native sample. These differences are not solely explained by lifestyle variables. Our data suggest that changing environmental exposures can influence bone mass and fracture risk.

  14. Spirocerca lupi infection in a dog from southern Italy: an "old fashioned" disease?

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Baldassarre, Valeria; Ramos, Rafael A N; Lia, Riccardo P; Furlanello, Tommaso; Trotta, Michele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Canine spirocercosis caused by Spirocerca lupi is a life-threatening helminthic disease featured by severe clinical signs and potential development of oesophageal neoplasia. This infection is considered fairly frequent in Europe but almost unknown in Italy, from where only few reports have been published in local journals at the beginning of the XXI century. In the present study, an autochthonous case of canine spirocercosis in a 2-year-old dog from southern Italy is described. The animal was admitted to a private veterinary clinic in the municipality of Potenza (Basilicata region) due to persistent dyspnoea, vomiting, and regurgitation. At the abdominal ultrasound, a mass (1.3 × 2 cm) was observed and, thereafter, surgically removed from the apical part of the stomach. A female specimen of S. lupi was morphologically identified during the histological examination of the nodule and its eggs were detected in the faeces. In addition, the morphological identification was confirmed by molecular amplification and sequencing of partial cox2 gene sequence of S. lupi. Veterinarians should be aware of the potential risks derived from infection with this spirurid, which requires specific diagnostic and preventive measures.

  15. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  16. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  17. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses.

  18. Integrated management of TYLCV/TYLCSV on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Ferrara, L; Caligiuri, G; Comes, S; Momol, M T; Olson, S M; Crescenzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, is a major disease of tomato in Sardinia and Sicily, and is becoming a serious threat in Southern Italy too. TYLCSV was first reported in Calabria region in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Later, during the 2003-2004 winter, a serious epidemic was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Cosenza province. TYLCV was first described in Sicily in 2003 and during 2004 in continental Italy. Both viruses were detected in winter 2005-2006 on the Basilicata Ionic coast, in the Metapontum area, both in protected and in open field tomato crops. Experiments were conducted in Calabria Region, Southern Italy, under controlled conditions in a group of greenhouses where several tomato crops were grown hydroponically to determine the separate and integrated effects of UV-reflective mulch (UVRM), Acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) and the two insecticides Imidacloprid (ADMIRE 2F) and Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG). Highly UV-reflective mulch covered plots were treated with Actigard and insecticides, both alone or in combination. TYLC disease incidence was determined from late August 2005 to late January 2006. The highly UVRM alone was effective in reducing disease incidence of about 28.6% at the end of October, and of 31.7% at the end of January. However, Actigard with UVRM significantly reduced TYLC disease incidence to 70% and 48.5%, in 2 months and 5 months after the first treatment, respectively. The insecticides with UVRM, resulted in a moderate reduction of disease incidence (22.5%) at the end of October. At the end of January a reduction in disease incidence due to insecticide applications was not significant. The use of Actigard combined with the insecticides on UVRM reduced the disease incidence (63.4% with Admire and 56.1% with Actara) at the end

  19. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  20. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  1. Geoelectrical Tomographies for the study of some landslide areas in the Lucanian Apennine Chain (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of the two projects supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Design of geophysical monitoring network in areas of the Basilicata Region characterized by a high hydrogeological hazard" and "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", we developed a research activity focussed on a 2D electromagnetic monitoring and modelling of landslide bodies. Basilicata region (Southern Italy), being dissected by numerous and often significant rivers and characterized by the outcrop of terrains with bad mechanical properties, is one of the more exposed regions of the southern Apennine chain to hydrogeologic hazard and shows a complete panorama of mass movements. In order to study some landslide areas located in the Basilicata region, such as Varco Izzo, Latronico, Campomaggiore and Maratea, we carried out 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), 2D-3D self-potential tomographies and maps, combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; McCann and Forster, 1990; Patella, 1997). The geophysical results allowed us: to outline the discontinuity between landslide material and bedrock, to identify the possible reactivation surfaces, to obtain useful information about the thickness of the mobilised material and the main patterns of the underground fluid flow. Geophysical results were compared with the data coming from geological and hydrogeological surveys and from the analysis of aerial photo and boreholes. The good correlation between the main anomalous geoelectrical zones, the main structural lineaments and hydrogeological characteristics of the investigated areas, allowed us to consider the used geoelectrical methods as a possible powerful tool to investigate landslide areas characterised by very complex geology.

  2. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2013-08-15

    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…

  4. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…

  5. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4d in Southern Italy: reconstruction of its origin and spread by a phylodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Equestre, Michele; Costantino, Angela; Marascio, Nadia; Quirino, Angela; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; Pisani, Giulio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2012-10-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 4 predominates in Middle East and Central Africa countries. Recently, it has become also prevalent in Southern European countries where it is thought to have been introduced through immigration and the movement of intravenous drug users. In Italy, the prevalence of genotype 4 is particularly high (4.5%) in Southern regions, such as Calabria, and reaches values of 8.4% in specific areas where there appears to be endemic circulation of this genotype. In the present study, the phylogeny of HCV subtype 4d isolated from 19 Italian patients in Calabria was investigated by analysing a fragment of the NS5B viral genomic region. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate origin and spread of the HCV 4d in this area. The mean evolutionary rate HCV 4d NS5B sequences was estimated using a dataset of sequences sampled at known times and a relaxed clock constant model that best fitted the data. By using a Bayesian coalescent method, the Italian 4d isolates collected in Calabria were found to share a common ancestor with reference 4d isolates whose origin was traced back to 1940s. The genotype 4d epidemic in Southern Italy was maintained in a steady non-expanding phase until the late 1970s after that it grew exponentially up to 1990s probably sustained by the vast increase of unsafe blood transfusions and the spread of illicit intravenous drug users.

  6. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    , for instance, insisted in taking refuge in a church and this led to over 100 fatalities when the roof collapsed. Intervention by the State included: the effective deployment of troops to handle evacuation, to re-open lines of communication and to distribute food and other relief. Management of the disaster was enhanced when prefectural commissioners were given executive powers. We argue that increased State intervention appears to have reduced self-reliance. In the short-term recovery was supported by regional/state aid and by charitable donations particularly from other governments and members of Neapolitan diaspora in other parts of Italy and abroad. This enabled land clearance, agriculture was re-established and roads/rail links were restored. Long-term recovery was slow with affected local-authorities (i.e., comuni) showing low rates of population growth for more than 15 years.

  7. Can antenatal classes reduce the rate of cesarean section in southern Italy?

    PubMed

    Cantone, Daniela; Pelullo, Concetta Paola; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Attena, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Among European Countries, Italy has the highest rate of cesarean section (36.8%), and in the Campania region this rate reaches 60.0%. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether participation in antenatal classes during pregnancy reduces the rate of cesarean delivery in southern Italy. We selected three local health authorities, with the lowest, the highest, and an intermediate rate of cesarean delivery. The study included 1893 mothers who brought their children for vaccination and were interviewed about their participation in antenatal classes and their obstetric history. The main causes of cesarean section given in the interview were clinical indications (61.0%), previous cesarean section (31.0%) and woman's request (8.0%). When we excluded emergency cesarean delivery, we found a moderate association between participation in antenatal classes and cesarean section reduction (relative risk=1.27; 95% CI=1.08-1.49; in percentage values from 49.3% to 38.8%). Private hospitals and the two local health authorities with higher baseline rates of cesarean section showed an enhanced reduction of these rates. Our paper shows moderate efficacy of antenatal classes, which reduced the occurrence of cesarean section by about 10%. However, the cesarean section rate remained high. As it is possible that different classes have a different level of efficacy, a further study on a standardized model of an antenatal classes is in progress, to assess its efficacy in term of cesarean section reduction, with the purpose of its widespread implementation to the whole region. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-stroke rehabilitation in Italy: inconsistencies across regional strategies.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, D; Spallazzi, M; Baldereschi, M; Di Carlo, A; Ferro, S; Rota E Morelli, N; Immovilli, P; Toni, D; Polizzi, B M; Inzitari, D

    2014-06-01

    Remarkable differences among European countries have been found in stroke rehabilitation models, owing to the fact that stroke rehabilitation services are embedded in health care systems. Comprehensive data on service utilization by stroke survivors in Italy are lacking, but would be instrumental in improving efficiency and effectiveness of post-acute stroke care, and consequently, in containing costs and improving outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to survey the Italian regional legislations in order to examine the provision of rehabilitation services for stroke survivors in Italy. This is a cross-sectional, observational study. Post-stroke intra- and extra-hospital rehabilitation. All decrees and resolutions as to post-acute stroke rehabilitation were collected from each Italian region. All decrees and resolutions were examined by the means of a check list including quantitative and qualitative characteristics, selected in accordance with national official recommendations. Each completed check list was then sent to each regional reference person, who filled in the section on the implementation of the indications and compliance. The study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2010. The documents were collected from 19 out of the 20 Italian regions. The results of the study indicate that there are many, remarkable regional variations in health policies concerning post-stroke care. Instruments for evaluation and criteria for allocating stroke patients to proper rehabilitation setting vary across regions, but data on the potential impact of these variations on clinical outcomes are still lacking. The study highlights the issue that, in Italy, delivery of post-stroke rehabilitation services is not uniform nation-wide and varies substantially across regions. The lack of a comprehensive post-acute stroke strategy is a major obstacle to service availability. The study results advocate the need for a consistent and comprehensive strategic planning of

  9. An application of a multi model approach for solar energy prediction in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, Elenio; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Tiriolo, Luca; Montesanti, Stefania; Transerici, Claudio; Federico, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of the short and medium range forecast of solar irradiance is very important for solar energy integration into the grid. This issue is particularly important for Southern Italy where a significant availability of solar energy is associated with a poor development of the grid. In this work we analyse the performance of two deterministic models for the prediction of surface temperature and short-wavelength radiance for two sites in southern Italy. Both parameters are needed to forecast the power production from solar power plants, so the performance of the forecast for these meteorological parameters is of paramount importance. The models considered in this work are the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and they were run for the summer 2013 at 4 km horizontal resolution over Italy. The forecast lasts three days. Initial and dynamic boundary conditions are given by the 12 UTC deterministic forecast of the ECMWF-IFS (European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecast - Integrated Forecasting System) model, and were available every 6 hours. Verification is given against two surface stations located in Southern Italy, Lamezia Terme and Lecce, and are based on hourly output of models forecast. Results for the whole period for temperature show a positive bias for the RAMS model and a negative bias for the WRF model. RMSE is between 1 and 2 °C for both models. Results for the whole period for the short-wavelength radiance show a positive bias for both models (about 30 W/m2 for both models) and a RMSE of 100 W/m2. To reduce the model errors, a statistical post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted. In this approach the two model's outputs are weighted with an adequate set of weights computed for a training period. In general, the performance is improved by the application of the technique, and the RMSE is reduced by a sizeable fraction (i.e. larger than 10% of the initial RMSE

  10. [Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), cervical cancer incidence and screening uptake: differences among Northern, Central and Southern Italy].

    PubMed

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Chini, Francesco; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Confortini, Massimo; Angeloni, Claudio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2012-01-01

    this article presents a review of evidences about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Italy, highlighting geographical differences. two systematic reviews recently published were updated, one collecting studies on the prevalence of HPV types in Italy in the general population and the other collecting prevalence of HPV types in cervical pathologic samples.The search was updated to 31.10.2010 and performed exclusively in MedLine and references in retrieved papers. the prevalence of HPV types has been related with the incidence of cervical cancer and the spread of Pap tests and screening programs. the prevalence high risk HPV types is 8%in studies with population-based random sample, with no significant difference between Centre-North and South-Islands, however, the prevalence is slightly higher in the South than the Centre-North for women up to 54 years of age, whereas in older women the ratio is reversed. HPV 16 is the most common type, while HPV 18 is less frequent, 5% and 1% respectively. The average of HPV 16 positivity is 64% and 68% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively, while the average of HPV 18 is 7% and 11% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively. There are no significant differences by geographical area.The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Italy has been decreasing in recent years changing from 9.2 to 7.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 10 years. The incidence is lower in South-Islands. Pap test coverage is over 80% in Centre-North and less than 60%in South-Islands. cervical cancer incidence is lower in Southern Italy, while the Pap test coverage is much higher in Centre-Northern Italy. This paradox, until now, has been interpreted as a consequence of a lower HPV prevalence in Southern than Northern regions. Recent studies on HPV prevalence do not confirm this hypothesis. Our interpretation is that in Southern Italy we are facing an epidemiologic scenario in transition where the low cancer incidence is the consequence of a low HPV

  11. Spatial and temporal features of heavy rainstorm events in Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Greco, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash floods, shallow landslides and debris flows, which cause several damage to manmade infrastructures and loss of lives. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal features of intense rainfall events is a fundamental step for a better understanding of the phenomena and for its possible prediction. The present study is an attempt to improve, from a statistical point of view, the understanding at sub-hourly scale of the temporal and spatial structure of intense rainfall events, by examining those that have hit Calabria (Southern Italy) in the years 1998-2008. More in detail, a considerable amount of series with high temporal detail (5 min) related to 155 sites (one rain gauge per less than 100 sq km), were analysed. First, more than 152 thousands rainfall events, separated by at least 6 hours of dry weather, were recognized. Then, less than a third (45,533) were selected, since denoted as erosive. Finally, several heavy rainstorm events (HREs) were chosen by considering the rainfall events recorded simultaneously at different rain gauges, even non-contiguous, within the region. In particular, this further selection was conducted, based on heuristic threshold values of cumulated rainfall (≥ 100 mm), maximum intensity (≥ 50 mm/h), and kinetic energy (≥ 29 MJ/ha). Therefore, 25 distinct HREs, including all the well-known catastrophic geo-hydrological events, were subjected to thorough investigation. The obtained HREs, automatically classified according to their structure in time, were analysed as regards both spatial and temporal evolution. At this end, the 25 HREs were distinguished as widespread (17) or localized (8), if the affected area is ≥ 500 sq km or < 500 sq km, respectively. In particular, the temporal storm structure was described by means of the standardized rainfall profile (rainfall amount vs. duration, in terms on cumulative percentages). Then, a 4-digit binary shape code was adopted to automatically

  12. A plastic flow model for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, Southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.; Wasowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A previously developed model for stress and velocity fields in two-dimensional Coulomb plastic materials under self-weight and pore pressure predicts that long, shallow landslides develop slip surfaces that manifest themselves as normal faults and normal fault scarps at the surface in areas of extending flow and as thrust faults and thrust fault scarps at the surface in areas of compressive flow. We have applied this model to describe the geometry of slip surfaces and ground stresses developed during the 1995 reactivation of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, southern Italy. This landslide is a long and shallow slide in which regions of compressive and extending flow are clearly identified. Slip surfaces in the main scarp region of the landslide have been reconstructed using surface surveys and subsurface borehole logging and inclinometer observations made during retrogression of the main scarp. Two of the four inferred main scarp slip surfaces are best constrained by field data. Slip surfaces in the toe region are reconstructed in the same way and three of the five inferred slip surfaces are similarly constrained. The location of the basal shear surface of the landslide is inferred from borehole logging and borehole inclinometry. Extensive data on material properties, landslide geometries, and pore pressures collected for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide give values for cohesion, friction angle, and unit weight, plus average basal shear-surface slopes, and pore-pressures required for modelling slip surfaces and stress fields. Results obtained from the landslide-flow model and the field data show that predicted slip surface shapes are consistent with inferred slip surface shapes in both the extending flow main scarp region and in the compressive flow toe region of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide. Also predicted stress distributions are found to explain deformation features seen in the toe and main scarp regions of the landslide. ?? 2005 Elsevier

  13. Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern Italy: a review and some alternative views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2010-05-01

    Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern Italy; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the Campi Flegrei volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.

  14. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease.

  15. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Pliocene Bianco section, Calabria, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rio, D.; Thunell, R.; Sprovieri, R.; Bukry, D.; Destefano, E.; Howell, M.; Raffi, I.; Sancetta, C.; Sanfilippo, A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated micropaleontological and geochemical study was carried out on the Pliocene-age Bianco section located in Calabria, southern Italy. This section is somewhat unique for the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region in that it contains abundant calcareous and siliceous microfossils. Based on the biostratigraphic findings, it ranges in age from approximately 3.7-3.0 Ma. The Bianco section is composed of marly mudstones intercalated with diatomites, with the diatomites being particularly common in the upper 50 m of the section (above 3.1 Ma). The diatomites contain an abundant benthic foraminiferal assemblage and have a low organic carbon content indicating that bottom waters were fairly well-oxygenated during their deposition. Faunal and floral indicators suggest a cooling of surface waters in this region at 3.1 Ma. The diatom assemblages within the Bianco diatomites are very similar to those living in the Gulf of California, suggesting an upwelling origin for these silica-rich units. A model is proposed which attributes diatomite formation to upwelling induced by climatically controlled changes in local hydrography. ?? 1989.

  16. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  17. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    PubMed

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  18. Long-term geomorphological evolution of the axial zone of the Campania-Lucania Apennine, southern Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiattarella, Marcello; Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Gioia, Dario

    2017-02-01

    Uplift and erosion rates have been calculated for a large sector of the Campania-Lucania Apennine and Calabrian arc, Italy, using both geomorphological observations (elevations, ages and arrangement of depositional and erosional land surfaces and other morphotectonic markers) and stratigraphical and structural data (sea-level related facies, base levels, fault kinematics, and fault offset estimations). The values of the Quaternary uplift rates of the southern Apennines vary from 0.2 mm/yr to about 1.2-1.3 mm/yr. The erosion rates from key-areas of the southern Apennines, obtained from both quantitative geomorphic analysis and missing volumes calculations, has been estimated at 0.2 mm/yr since the Middle Pleistocene. Since the Late Pleistocene erosion and uplift rates match well, the axial-zone landscape could have reached a flux steady state during that time, although it is more probable that the entire study area may be a transient landscape. Tectonic denudation phenomena — leading to the exhumation of the Mesozoic core of the chain — followed by an impressive regional planation started in the Late Pliocene have to be taken into account for a coherent explanation of the morphological evolution of southern Italy.

  19. How lithospheric subduction changes along the Calabrian Arc in southern Italy: geophysical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, G.; Marotta, A. M.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Totaro, C.; Barzaghi, R.; Borghi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Recent tomographic investigations performed down to ~300 km depth in the Calabrian Arc region gave insight in favor of the hypothesis that the Ionian subducting slab is continuous in depth beneath the central part of the Arc, while detachment of the deep portion of the subducting structure may have already taken place beneath the edges of the Arc itself. In the present study, we perform new geophysical analyses to further explore the structure of the subduction system and the structure and kinematics of the crustal units in the study area for a more comprehensive view of the local geodynamic scenario. Local earthquake tomography that we address to the exploration of the upper 40 km in the whole region of southern Italy furnishes P-wave velocity domains, suggesting southeast-ward long-term drifting of the southern Tyrrhenian unit with an advancement front matching well with the segment of Calabrian Arc where the subducting slab was found continuous and trench retreat can be presumed to have been active in the most recent times. This scenario of retreating subduction trench inducing drifting of the lithospheric unit overriding the subducting slab is further supported by the analysis of gravity anomalies, allowing us to better constrain the transitional zones between different subduction modes (continuous vs. detached slab) along the Arc. Also, the relocation of recent crustal seismicity, associated with geostructural data taken from the literature, provides evidence for NW-trending seismogenic structures in northeastern Sicily and northern Calabria that we interpret as Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults guiding the southeast-ward drifting process of the southern Tyrrhenian unit. Crustal earthquake relocations show also seismolineaments in southern Calabria corresponding to the NE-trending longitudinal structures of the Arc where the great shallow earthquakes of 28 December 1908, and 5 and 7 February 1783 occurred. Seismicity and the extensional stress

  20. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  1. Strategies for 2nd Grade zonation on susceptibility to seismic-induced landslides in Southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarallo, D.; Rapolla, A.; Paoletti, V.; di Nocera, S.; Matano, F.

    2010-12-01

    Key Words: Seismic-induced Landslides, Landslide Susceptibility, Evaluation Strategies, Southern Italy Southern Apennines, Italy, are characterized by a very high seismic hazard and the shaking related to this seismicity has been a major cause for landslide triggering. An effective study of seismic hazard of a landslide-prone region should therefore include a detailed assessment of the seismic slope stability, to be carried out at different scales (Fell et al., 2008). Due to the complexity of the different factors controlling slope stability there are currently only a few grade-2 methods (scales 1:50.000-1:10.000) for assessing seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. We here present an application to different seismic areas (Sannio and Irpinia) in Southern Apennines, Italy, of a new strategy for zonation on seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. These areas are characterized by several landslides most of them triggered by the main 1980 Irpinia earthquake. The new GIS-based approach (Rapolla et al., 2010) employs only three factors that we believe are most significant in the susceptibility assessment: i) the properties of outcropping rock/soil expressed as transversal seismic velocity (Vs) ii) the slope angle, iii) the MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg) Intensity. The lithological characteristics of the study areas were obtained from geological maps with 1:25000 scale. The attribution of the representative shear wave velocity value to the lithological units required a careful evaluation of their geotechnical and geophysical behavior. The slope angles were obtained from high resolution digital elevation model of the topography of the investigated areas. Finally, the seismic input for computing the MCS Intensity was derived from the macroseismic scenario for the worst event expected in the study area. Each of the three parameters was expressed as a Significance percentage and the resulting Seismic Landslide Susceptibility level was given by the average of the

  2. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata

    2010-05-01

    conclusion, taking into account all the above inferences, we think that suitable multi-scale electromagnetic approach has proved to be affective for MAF detection, giving valuable data to the seismic hazard assessment of the region. References Branno A., E.G.I. Esposito, A. Maturano, S. Porfido and V. Rinaldis (1985): Studio, su base macrosismica, del terremoto della Basilicata del 16 dicembre 1857. Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti di Napoli, 1985, 92, 249-338. Maschio L., L. Ferranti and P. Burrato (2005): Active extension in Val d'Agri area, Southern Apennines, Italy: implications for the geometry of the seismogenic belt. Geophys. J. Int., 162 (2), 591-609, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02597.x. Burrato P., and G. Valensise (2007): Rise and fall of a hypothesized seismic gap: source complexity in the 16 December 1857, Southern Italy earthquake (Mw 7.0). Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98 (1), 139-148, doi: 10.1785/0120070094.

  3. Genomic characterization of pestiviruses isolated from lambs and kids in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, A; Martella, V; Cirone, F; Buonavoglia, D; Elia, G; Tempesta, M; Buonavoglia, C

    2001-05-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction was used to identify 13 pestivirus strains isolated from small ruminants in several mixed (sheep and goats) flocks of Southern Italy, and for classification as bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) type 1, BVDV type 2, and Border disease virus (BDV) genotypes. Of the nine ovine isolates, two were characterized as BVDV type 1, and seven as BVDV type 2. The four pestiviruses isolated from kids belong to BVDV type 1. None of the pestivirus strains tested could be classified as 'true' BDV (genotype 3). Although BVDV type 2 has been described in Europe rarely, the characterization of BD/90-1M strain as BVDV type 2, isolated in Italy in 1990, demonstrates that this genotype has been circulating in Italy since the 1990s.

  4. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  5. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  6. Evolution of fatty alcohols in olive oils produced in Calabria (Southern Italy) during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted on olive oils extracted from olives collected in South West Calabria (Southern Italy) over three harvest years 2010-2011-2012. Three autochthonous cultivars were considered: Cassanese, Ottobratica and Sinopolese and seven allochtonous cultivars: Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nocellara Messinese, Nociara, Pendolino and Picholine. Thin Layer Chromatography - Gas Chromatograph (TLC-GC) technique permitted the separation and analysis of the fatty alcohol compounds. A general decline in fatty alcohol content was found during the three months of sampling, most evident in hexacosanol. Pendolino showed the greatest decline. A less evident decrease was measured in the odd chained fatty alcohols, mainly in heptacosanol. Both harvest date and cultivar significantly influenced the fatty alcohol content. This is the first report about the fatty alcohol variation during ripening in olive oil produced in South West Calabria (Southern Italy).

  7. Delta beta-thalassaemia in southern Italy: evidence for a single mutational event.

    PubMed Central

    Carè, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Improta, T; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M; Marinucci, M; Tagarelli, A; Brancati, C

    1984-01-01

    Haematological and molecular studies on 32 heterozygotes for G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia from 15 unrelated families from southern Italy are reported. The haematological features of G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia carriers are compared with those of beta-thalassaemia and Hb Lepore heterozygotes. Striking similarity exists between the phenotypic expression of beta-thalassaemia and Lepore mutations. Globin gene mapping studies indicated that the molecular lesion underlying delta beta-thalassaemia is a large deletion starting from the large intervening sequence of the delta gene and extending downstream from the beta gene. The possibility that delta beta-thalassaemia haplotypes in southern Italy originated from a single mutational event is discussed. Images PMID:6325696

  8. Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in Southern Italy by IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Maruccio, Lucio; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Obsidian samples recovered in archaeological contexts in Southern Italy were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) for the quantitative determination of both major and trace elements composition. The archaeological contexts were absolutely dated to the 5th millennium BC by mean of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on associated organic materials such as charcoal and human bones. The comparison of the compositional results obtained for the analysed samples with published data available for the known obsidian sources in the Mediterranean allowed to identify the sources of the raw material, giving an important contribution to the reconstruction of the ancient trade and exchange routes in Southern Italy prehistory.

  9. Diffusion and persistence of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains phage type DT120 in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Danila; Monno, Rosa; Nuccio, Federica; Legretto, Marilisa; Oliva, Marta; Coscia, Maria Franca; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Calia, Carla; Capolongo, Carmen; Pazzani, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-two multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from 255 clinical strains collected in Southern Italy in 2006-2008 were characterised for antimicrobial resistance genes, pulsotype, and phage type. Most strains (83.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT) encoded in 88.5% by the Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) and in 11.5% by the InH-like integron (bla OXA-30-aadA1) and catA1, sul1, and tet(B) genes. STYMXB.0061 (75%) and DT120 (84.6%) were the prevalent pulsotype and phage type identified in these strains, respectively. Five other resistance patterns were found either in single or in a low number of isolates. The pandemic clone DT104 (ACSSuT encoded by SGI1) has been identified in Italy since 1992, while strains DT120 (ACSSuT encoded by SGI1) have never been previously reported in Italy. In Europe, clinical strains DT120 have been reported from sporadic outbreaks linked to the consumption of pork products. However, none of these strains were STYMXB.0061 and SGI1 positive. The prevalent identification and persistence of DT120 isolates would suggest, in Southern Italy, a phage type shifting of the pandemic DT104 clone pulsotype STYMXB.0061. Additionally, these findings raise epidemiological concern about the potential diffusion of these emerging multidrug resistant (SGI linked) DT120 strains.

  10. Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination

    PubMed Central

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Gambacorta, Lucia; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1, ZEA + α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) + β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and OTA, respectively. An UPLC-MS/MS multi-biomarker method was used to detect and measure incidence and levels of these biomarkers in urine samples of 52 volunteers resident in Apulia region in Southern Italy. The presence of ZEA + ZOLs, OTA, DON, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 96%, 56% and 6%, of samples, respectively. All samples contained biomarkers of two or more mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of biomarkers ranged from 0.055 ng/mL (FB1) to 11.89 ng/mL (DON). Urinary biomarker concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to multiple mycotoxin. For OTA and DON, 94% and 40% of volunteers, respectively exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins. The estimated human exposure to FB1 and ZEA was largely below the TDI for these mycotoxins for all volunteers. PMID:24476712

  11. Allelic distribution of human leucocyte antigen in historical and recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Cosentini, Elena; Zanzi, Delia; Sanna, Veronica; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Matarese, Giuseppe; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Perna, Francesco; Zappacosta, Serafino

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the analysis of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele distribution in 54 historical and in 68 recently diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients. The historical cohort was characterized by the presence of large fibrocavernous lesions effectively treated with therapeutic pneumothorax during the period 1950–55. Patients and healthy controls enrolled in the study were from the Campania region of southern Italy. No significant association between HLA alleles and TB in the population of recently diagnosed TB patients was observed. On the contrary, among the historical TB patients there was a strong association with an increased frequency of the HLA-DR4 allele alone and/or in the presence of the HLA-B14 allele (P = 0·000004; Pc = 0·0008), as well as with a decreased frequency of the HLA-A2+,-B14−,DR4− allele association (P = 0·00005; Pc = 0·01). In order to exclude any interference from age-related factors, these results were confirmed by comparing the historical cohort of TB patients with an age-matched healthy control population of the same ethnic origin (P = 0·00004; Pc = 0·008; and P = 0·0001; and Pc = 0·02, respectively). PMID:15009432

  12. Essential oil diversity of Origanum vulgare L. populations from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mastro, Giuseppe De; Tarraf, Waed; Verdini, Leonardo; Brunetti, Gianluca; Ruta, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    Essential oils (EOs) belonging to 25 wild populations of Origanum vulgare L. samples, growing wild in different locations of Calabria Region (Southern Italy), were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The quantitative and qualitative data showed EO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.10% and 37 compounds detected, representing more than 80% of the total composition of the oils. By applying hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of the EO constituents, two main groups and three subgroups were found, reflecting the variation in the chemical composition of EOs from wild oregano populations. The first group consisted of acyclic (linalool/linalyl acetate) chemotypes with a predominant presence of linalyl acetate; the second was characterized by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds, mainly carvacrol, thymol and γ-terpinene. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild oregano populations from Calabria to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary assessment of landslides resulting from the earthquake of 23rd November 1980 in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1981-12-01

    This paper examines the hazards, mechanisms and effects of landsliding provoked by the 1980 earthquake in Campania and Basilicata Regions, Southern Italy. The effects of seismically-induced mass-movement are assessed with respect to slope stability and damage to both settlements and roads. Whereas the mechanism of cyclic loading of soils, which can give rise to landslides, is different from the pore-pressure, gravity loading and strength-reduction mechanisms that normally cause slope failure, the morphology of slides is often indistinguishable and this made it difficult to identify which slides were directly caused by the earthquake. However, creep in potential shear planes undoubtably became more widespread, and the incidence of small, bowl-shaped slides Increased as a direct result of the earthquake. Although variations in the detailed stress-pattern within individual slopes meant that some very mobile soil and rock masses did not move, 36 settlements reported landslide damage and 29 roads were affected by landslides occurring during the earthquake and its immediate aftermath. A full assessment of the disaster, together with an explanation of the geography of the disaster area, can be found in Alexander (1982).

  14. Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-12-01

    A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient and recent admixture layers in Sicily and Southern Italy trace multiple migration routes along the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Pagani, Luca; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Gnecchi Ruscone, Guido Alberto; Guichard, Etienne; Ciani, Graziella; Bortolini, Eugenio; Barbieri, Chiara; Cilli, Elisabetta; Petrilli, Rosalba; Mikerezi, Ilia; Sineo, Luca; Vilar, Miguel; Wells, Spencer; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2017-05-16

    The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy. Our results reveal a shared Mediterranean genetic continuity, extending from Sicily to Cyprus, where Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek-speaking islands than to continental Greece. Besides a predominant Neolithic background, we identify traces of Post-Neolithic Levantine- and Caucasus-related ancestries, compatible with maritime Bronze-Age migrations. We argue that these results may have important implications in the cultural history of Europe, such as in the diffusion of some Indo-European languages. Instead, recent historical expansions from North-Eastern Europe account for the observed differentiation of present-day continental Southern Balkan groups. Patterns of IBD-sharing directly reconnect Albanian-speaking Arbereshe with a recent Balkan-source origin, while Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy cluster with their Italian-speaking neighbours suggesting a long-term history of presence in Southern Italy.

  16. Development of ground motion attenuation relationships for southern Italy based on attenuation models and stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of the expected peak ground motion caused by an earthquake is an important problem in earthquake seismology. It is particularly important for regions where strong-motion data are lacking. With the approach presented in this study of using data from small earthquakes, it is possible to extrapolate the peak motion parameters beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. To provide a description of the high frequency attenuation and ground motion parameters in southern Italy we used seismic recordings coming from two different projects: the SAPTEX (Southern Apennines Tomography Experiment) and the CAT/SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network). We used about 10,000 records with magnitudes between M=2.5 and M=4.7. Using regression model with the large number of weak-motion data, the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling were determined. To properly calibrate the source scaling it was necessary to compute moment magnitudes of several events in the data set. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the "Cut And Paste" and the SLUMT methods. Both methods determine the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. The methods provide quality solutions in the area in a magnitude range (2.5-4.5) that has been too small to be included in the Italian national earthquake catalogues. The derived database of focal mechanisms allowed us to better detail the transitional area in the Messina Strait between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (central-western Sicily). Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the derived propagation parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration for several faults, magnitude, and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak

  17. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP.

  19. A methodological approach to compare landslide occurences and rainfall events: an application in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullà Giovanni; Caloiero, Tommaso; Coscarelli, Roberto; Petrucci, Olga

    2010-05-01

    A methodology based on a comparative analysis of landslides, that occurred over a long period (1921-2009), and climatic data is presented. Landslide data have been extracted from historical archives and newspapers, while the climatic analysis is based on daily rainfall and cumulative elaboration carried out on different time aggregations. This approach has been tested in an area of Calabria (Southern Italy), a region in which landslide damages are very common, especially during autumn-winter season. The analysis of the historical landslide database highlights that, because of unfavourable geological and morphological framework, the phenomena are not necessarily triggered by events characterised by extreme daily rainfall. In this region, in fact, either prolonged rainy periods characterised by low daily intensities or short and intense storms can lead to territorial crises causing damage and victims. In severest cases, the beginning of rainy season is characterised by shallow landslides triggered by intense hourly or daily rainfall, followed by deeper mass movements starting when rainfall, cumulated over several days, reaches critical values typical of different regional sectors. Moreover, with the aim to take in account the effect of climate change on the distribution of rainfall and landslide events, a statistical analysis of the occurence of distribution of all the maximum values of shorter duration rainfall (1, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours) has been performed in order to point out possible temporal variation of the number of monthly occurrences during different decades. The comparative analysis of data concerning landslides and rainfall, recorded during and before the activation of these events, ensured the possibility of setting a reliable device, that supplies a series of typical landslide-scenarios. Such a device can be extended to other study areas and be usefull for civil protection purposes, contributing to early warnings and emergency management.

  20. Origin of biancane and calanchi in East Aliano, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farifteh, Jamshid; Soeters, Rob

    2006-07-01

    Areas underlain by Plio-Pleistocene marine mudstone in south Italy are severely affected by denudation processes and have been transformed into badlands with two well defined types of landform: biancane and calanchi. In this paper, factors that contributed to the development of the Aliano badlands and particularly to the geneses of biancane and calanchi have been studied, based on aerospace data; field observations on geomorphic processes and geological structure; laboratory measurements of soil and bedrock samples; and morphometric analysis. Several maps and spatial data were prepared to describe factors which are thought to be related with landform formations, such as lineament distribution, elevation, slope, and pipe distribution. Morphometric characteristics of biancane and calanchi (steepness and slope length), dominant active processes, and the dip/orientation of beddings, joints, and fault planes were investigated, and 71 samples of soils and bedrock were taken to characterise their properties. The results of the analyses of the soil/bedrock samples show no significant differences in their properties between biancane and calanchi. Field observations do not support the idea that biancane are the final product of calanchi development, but support the hypothesis that biancane and calanchi are formed under different terrain conditions related to structural patterns and denudation processes of highly erodible materials. The origin of biancane is associated with highly dissected surfaces along a reticular system of small joints. In contrast, calanchi are formed on steep wall-like slopes along larger lineaments where the rate of incision into the slopes surpasses the denudation of the densely vegetated back-slope.

  1. Tephra layers along the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy: Links to the X-5 & X-6 using volcanic glass geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, P.; Albert, P. G.; Crocitti, M.; De Rosa, R.; Menzies, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the geochemistry of glass fragments from three visible tephra layers outcropping in Southern Italy. Two tephra deposits (LeS1 and LeS2), outcropping in the Palinuro area (Cilento, Southern Italy), correspond stratigraphically to the CIL1 and CIL2 tephra units (Giaccio et al., 2012), respectively; in turn these are correlated with the X-5 (ca. 105 ka) and X-6 (ca. 108 ka) marine tephra markers on the basis of their major element glass compositions. In order to reinforce these tephra correlations we examine both their major and trace element glass compositions. LeS1 compositions were compared with other correlatives of the X-5 tephra layer (POP3 [Sulmona basin], TM-25 [Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM)], CIL1 [Palinuro]) from the central Mediterranean. Our data validate a correlation of the Palinuro tephra layer, LeS1, to the X-5 correlatives. The Palinuro tephra deposit, LeS2, has glass compositions which correspond precisely with correlatives of the X-6 marker tephra (CIL2 [Palinuro], TM-27 [LGdM], I-9 [Ionian Sea] and PRAD 2812 [PRAD1-2, Adriatic Sea]). A tephra in the Valle del Crati (Calabria) appears to overlap in composition with the LeS2 tephra, indicating a probable correlation with the X-6 marker. These new data provide a detailed geochemical characterisation of two widespread marker horizons and are crucial for establishing precise correlations of sedimentary archives across the central Mediterranean region.

  2. The Earthquake Early Warning System In Southern Italy: Performance Tests And Next Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is the software platform for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Southern Italy, that integrates recent algorithms for real-time earthquake location, magnitude estimation and damage assessment, into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation based on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet). PRESTo processes the live streams of 3C acceleration data for P-wave arrival detection and, while an event is occurring, promptly performs event detection and provides location, magnitude estimations and peak ground shaking predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation. At each time step, it uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. Magnitude estimation exploits an empirical relationship that correlates it to the filtered Peak Displacement (Pd), measured over the first 2-4 s of P-signal. Peak ground-motion parameters at any distance can be finally estimated by ground motion prediction equations. Alarm messages containing the updated estimates of these parameters can thus reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. Using the real-time data streaming from the ISNet network, PRESTo has produced a bulletin for about a hundred low-magnitude events occurred during last two years. Meanwhile, the performances of the EEW system were assessed off-line playing-back the records for moderate and large events from Italy, Spain and Japan and synthetic waveforms for large historical events in Italy. These tests have shown that, when a dense seismic network is deployed in the fault area, PRESTo produces reliable estimates of earthquake location and size within 5-6 s from the event origin time (To). Estimates are provided as probability density functions whose uncertainty typically decreases with time

  3. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  4. Floods, landslides and erosion from severe meteorological events in the Benevento Province, southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascellaro, Neri; Guerriero, Luigi; Revellino, Paola; Grelle, Gerardo; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2017-04-01

    As effect of the ongoing climate change, heavy meteorological events are increasing in frequency all over the world. The Campania Region in southern Italy is among the areas mostly affected by severe rainstorms and is periodically hit by their effect like floods and landslides. In October 2015, two intense rainfall events hit the central and southern regions of Italy but the most destructive effects occurred in the Benevento province (Campania region). The first storm, a self-healing V-shaped storm, began around at 7 p.m. of 14th October and stopped around at 3:00 a.m. of 15th October and was originated by the development of a cyclogenesis. The rain gages recorded a maximum cumulative value of 415.6 mm of rain in Paupisi (BN) and a strong increase in temperature; the maxima for the Benevento province was 24°C. The second storm began around at 12 a.m. of 19th October and stopped around at 7 p.m. of 20th October with a maximum cumulative value of 146.8 mm of rain in Colle Sannita(BN). These storms triggered a set of different effects that devastated more than 60 municipalities of the Sannio Province and were responsible for two casualties, €700 million of damage to infrastructures (estimates from Campania region) and about €1 billion damages to agriculture (Italian farmer Confederation). The the Calore river of the Benevento province and some of its tributaries overflowed destroying the surrounding area; major damages were recorded in the industrial area of the Benevento town. In the central and in the eastern sectors of the Benevento Province characterized by the outcropping of flyschoid units, the heavy rain triggered shallow earth flows, debris flows induced by rilling and soil slides. Debris avalanches and runoff-initiated debris flows reshaped the creeks of the Taburno-Camposauro massif and damaged a lot of infrastructure of the surrounding area. Flood events from the Calore river in the Benevento district have significant historical precedents. The most

  5. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  6. A novel cluster of patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Scaccianoce, Giuseppe; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad; Portincasa, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder characterised by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis (peritonitis, pleuritic or synovitis) affecting mainly populations of Mediterranean origin. To describe a relatively new cluster of FMF subjects from Apulia and Basilicata regions (southern Italy). Subjects were screened for FMF using the Tel-Hashomer criteria and genetic analysis. Demographic data were taken from patients' files and direct interviews. Patients were investigated about attack duration, intensity and site, body temperature, skin manifestations and overall quality of life before and after treatment with colchicine. Inflammatory parameters were also measured between these periods. Forty-nine subjects had FMF (M : F = 26 : 23, age 38 years ± 2 SE) and followed-up up to 8 years. The age at disease onset was 22·1 years ± 1·2SE and the diagnostic delay was 15·5 years ± 1·9SE. The majority of patients (82%) suffered from abdominal pain, and 35% had undergone prior abdominal surgery or laparotomy. Severity score (ISSF) was mild in 43% of patients and intermediate in 57% of patients. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was increased in 20% of patients (16·9 ± 3·7, normal range < 6·4 mg/dL). In over 95% of patients, inflammation markers, duration and intensity of febrile painful attacks, quality of life and ISSF score improved dramatically following colchicine treatment. The Apulia region represents a new endemic area for FMF. Clinical presentation of FMF can be misleading and requires a complete and early workup to recognise the disease and avoid unjustified surgery. Colchicine remains the gold standard therapy to prevent FMF attacks and fatal long-term complications. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  8. Assessment of the impact of climate change on the olive flowering in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, Elenio; Orlandi, Fabio; Bellecci, Carlo; Fornaciari, Marco; Federico, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    In phenological studies, plant development and its relationship with meteorological conditions are considered in order to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the characteristics of many crop species. In this work, the impact of climate change on the flowering of the olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) in Calabria, southern Italy, has been studied. Olive is one of the most important plant species in the Mediterranean area and, at the same time, Calabria is one of the most representative regions of this area, both geographically and climatically. The work is divided into two main research activities. First, the behaviour of olive tree in Calabria and the influence of temperature on phenological phases of this crop are investigated. An aerobiological method is used to determine the olive flowering dates through the analysis of pollen data collected in three experimental fields for an 11-year study period (1999-2009). Second, the study of climate change in Calabria at high spatial and temporal resolution is performed. A dynamical downscaling procedure is applied for the regionalization of large-scale climate analysis derived from general circulation models for two representative climatic periods (1981-2000 and 2081-2100); the A2 IPCC scenario is used for future climate projections. The final part of this work is the integration of the results of the two research activities to predict the olive flowering variation for the future climatic conditions. In agreement with our previous works, we found a significant correlation between the phenological phases and temperature. For the twenty-first century, an advance of pollen season in Calabria of about 9 days, on average, is expected for each degree of temperature rise. From phenological model results, on the basis of future climate predictions over Calabria, an anticipation of maximum olive flowering between 10 and 34 days is expected, depending on the area. The results of this work are useful for adaptation and

  9. New seismogenic stress fields for southern Italy from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, Cristina; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Scolaro, Silvia; Neri, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    A new database of high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism has been compiled for southern Italy by integrating the highest quality solutions, available from literature and catalogues, and 146 newly-computed ones. All the selected focal mechanisms are (i) coming from the Italian CMT, Regional CMT and TDMT catalogues (Pondrelli et al., PEPI 2006, PEPI 2011; http://www.ingv.it), or (ii) computed by using the Cut And Paste (CAP) method (Zhao & Helmberger, BSSA 1994; Zhu & Helmberger, BSSA 1996). Specific tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the robustness of the obtained solutions (e.g., by varying both seismic network configuration and Earth structure parameters) and to estimate uncertainties on the focal mechanism parameters. Only the resulting highest-quality solutions have been enclosed in the database, that has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method (Arnold & Townend, GJI 2007). This algorithm furnishes the posterior density function of the principal components of stress tensor (maximum σ1, intermediate σ2, and minimum σ3 compressive stress, respectively) and the stress-magnitude ratio (R). Before stress computation, we applied the k-means clustering algorithm to subdivide the focal mechanism catalog on the basis of earthquake locations. This approach allows identifying the sectors to be investigated without any "a priori" constraint from faulting type distribution. The large amount of data and the application of the Bayesian algorithm allowed us to provide a more accurate local-to-regional scale stress distribution that has shed new light on the kinematics and dynamics of this very complex area, where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. The new high-quality information here furnished will then represent very useful tools and constraints for future geophysical analyses and geodynamic modeling.

  10. Remote sensing for illegal dumps detection: a case study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzo Angelino, Cesario; Focareta, Mariano; Meoli, Giuseppe; Piacquadio, Giovanni; Cicala, Luca; Parrilli, Sara; De Mizio, Marco

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a case study about the detection of illegal dumps from optical satellite images in a large territory falling in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, Southern Italy. This location is also known with the term "Terra dei Fuochi" because in this area is particularly widespread the phenomenon of waste burning and, over the past decades, there have been many landfills of hazardous waste of industrial origin. In addition to the potential damage caused to the environmental matrices, this situation has led to considerable concerns over the health of citizens and a serious economic impact on the agricultural sector. In order to contrast this phenomenon, the government of the Campania Region organized some prevention, monitoring and repression activities. In particular, the monitoring activities are employed by periodic inspection of sites, which are often object of illegal deposits (former quarries, illegal dumps, as well as city and country roads). The periodic inspection is usually performed by patrols of the company SMA Campania (the in-house regional company, specialized in environmental protection), and law enforcement. As part of a project, the remote sensing company MAPSAT srl and CIRA (the Italian Aerospace Research Center), have proposed to SMA Campania to support the periodic monitoring inspection of the patrols, with optical satellite acquisitions. This paper describes the proposed approach, the type of data used, the technical problems encountered and solutions introduced. The periodic monitoring with biannual satellite acquisitions, was effective for both finding new illegal spills and to follow the evolution (in terms of extension) of landfills already found in the past.

  11. Probing the sources of ambient seismic noise near the coasts of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Dublanko, Curtis; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Brzak, Keith; Steckler, Michael

    2007-11-01

    In this study we probe the source of ambient noise in the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc by cross-correlating two months of ambient seismic noise records collected during the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Acretion Network (CAT/SCAN) project. Significant Rayleigh wave energy is observed on the vertical component of the noise correlation stacks and reveals multiple sources of ambient noise in southern Italy. The most dominant noise sources are found along (1) the Tyrrhenian coast of northern Calabria-southern Campania and (2) the Adriatic Sea near the Gargano Promontory. Enhanced ocean currents evident from buoy records during the study period could be responsible for the observed microseisms. We validate the source locations using earthquake records and the consistency between noise and earthquake correlation functions supports the observed dominant directions of ambient seismic noise.

  12. Molecular survey of Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii infections in wild mammals of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Veneziano, Vincenzo; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Cerrone, Anna; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Galiero, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichiosis and Q fever caused by the intracellular bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii, respectively, are tick-borne diseases with zoonotic potential and widespread geographical distribution. This study investigated the prevalence of both infections in wild mammals in southern Italy. Tissue samples obtained from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European badger (Meles meles), gray wolf (Canis lupus), beech marten (Martes foina), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) were processed for molecular detection of both pathogens. E. canis was detected in 55 out of 105 (52 %) red foxes and three out of six gray wolves. Four sequence types were identified, three of which were found in the spleen and liver samples of red foxes and wolves, and one in the kidney of a red fox. None of the examined mammals was positive to C. burnetii type. This represents the first report of E. canis in free-ranging wolves worldwide, as well as the first evidence of this pathogen in red foxes in the peninsular Italy. Our results suggest that E. canis infection is common in free-ranging canids in southern Italy and that a sylvatic life cycle of this pathogen may occur.

  13. Lower Cretaceous carbon burial epidodes in the Gargano Promontory succession (southern Italy): geochemical and biotic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, L.; Cobianchi, C.; Jenkyns, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Lower Cretaceous interval attracts increasingly attention by stratigraphers because of the occurrence of significant palaeoceanographic events, such as the widespread carbon burial within pelagic sediments. Some of these carbon-rich levels are related to global episodes of black-shale deposition and are interpreted as the sedimentary expression of productivity-driven Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). The anoxic events caused perturbations of the global carbon budget, which in turn influenced oceanic chemistry and climate, and induced changes in the microfossil distribution. In the Lower Cretaceous pelagic succession of the Gargano Promontory, southern Italy, the equivalents of the Selli, Urbino and Amadeus levels, formally described in the Umbria-Marche Basin (Central Italy) and corresponding to the OAE1a, OAE1b and OAE 1c respectively, have been documented. An integrated micropaleontological (foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils) and geochemical (stable carbon- and oxygen-isotope) study has been carried out to improve understanding of the biotic response to, and palaeoceanographic implications of, anoxic events. The Aptian Selli Level equivalent correlates with the top of the interval of unchanging carbon-isotope values. The onset of the global "nannoconid crisis" is recorded and coincides with the beginning of the negative carbon-isotope excursion. The occurrence of an impoverished benthic foraminiferal fauna in the black shale documents dysaerobic rather than completely anoxic conditions on the sea floor, and there is no evidence for dramatically increased productivity. In line with evidence from elsewhere, bulk oxygen-isotope data suggest cooling immediately following the Selli Event. In the Albian interval of the Gargano Promontory, the carbon-isotope curve shows positive peaks succeeding negative trends, only partly corresponding to the pattern of global carbon burial documented elsewhere. The δ13C negative excursions related to the Albian black shales

  14. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in the Vesuvio National Park (Campania, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Menale, Bruno; De Castro, Olga; Cascone, Ciro; Muoio, Rosa

    2016-11-04

    This paper illustrates the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in the Vesuvio National Park (VNP) (Campania, Southern Italy). It describes the medicinal uses of the plants in an ancient area rich in ethnobiodiversity investigated for the first time. The main aim of the study was to understand at what extent current knowledge on medicinal plant uses is still alive in VNP. The informations were collected using semi-structured and unstructured interviews performed on 136 persons living in the investigated area from March to November 2014 and from April to October 2015. The age of the informants ranged from 47 to 85 years old; more than half of the informants aged between 61 and 70. Local plant uses were listed and analyzed in a table and compared with uses in other localities in Italy and in other regions of the Mediterranean basin. In VNP were recorded a total number of 132 plant species, belonging to 110 genera and 51 families mentioned for medicinal purposes. Among the recorded 132 plant species, 70 are spontaneous or subspontaneous and 62 are cultivated above all in the kitchen gardens or in the apartments, as food or as ornamental. Herbs represent the majority, followed by trees and shrubs or subshrubs. The investigated plants were used to cure 116 different human health diseases and 4 veterinary problems. The majority of plants are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory problems. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects a well-preserved traditional popular knowledge (TPK) of the elderly people living in the rural areas and in the small villages of VNP. The conservation of TPK is owed to the persistence of an oral tradition that safeguard the use of plants as herbal medicine. We realized that while the use of some wild plants is decreasing, people continue to gather some cultivated and invasive plants for preparing remedies. Researches like this are necessary to protect ancient memories, to promote the

  15. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  16. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  17. Orographic barriers GIS-based definition of the Campania-Lucanian Apennine Range (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    The presence of mountains on the land surfaces plays a central role in the space-time dynamics of the hydrological, geomorphic and ecological systems (Roe G. H., 2005). The aim of this paper is to identify, delimitate and classify the orographic relief in the Campania - Lucanian Apennine (Southern Italy) to investigate the effects of large-scale orographic and small-scale windward-leeward phenomena on distribution, frequency and duration of rainfall. The scale-dependent effects derived from the topographic relief favor the utilization of a hierarchical and multi-scale approach. The approach is based on a GIS procedure applied on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 20 meters cell size and derived from Regional Technical Map (CTR) of Campania region (1:5000). The DEM has been smoothed from data spikes and pits and we have then proceed to: a) Identify the three basic landforms of the relief (summit, hillslope and plain) by generalizing a previous 10-type landforms using the TPI method (Weiss A. 2001) and by simplifying the established rules of the differential geometry on topographic surface; b) Delimitate the mountain relief by modifying the method proposed by O. Z. Chaudhry and W. A. Mackaness (2008). It is based on three concepts: prominence , morphological variability and parent-child relationship. Graphical results have shown a good spatial correspondence between the digital definition of mountains and their morpho-tectonic structure derived from tectonic geomorphological studies; c) Classify, by using a set rules of spatial statistics (Cluster analysis) on geomorphometric parameters (elevation, curvature, slope, aspect, relative relief and form factor). Finally, we have recognized three prototypal orographic barriers shapes: cone, tableland and ridge, which are fundamental to improve the models of orographic rainfall in the Southern Apennines. References Chaudhry O. Z.and Mackaness W. A. (2008). Creating Mountains out of Mole Hills: Automatic Identification of

  18. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  19. Quantification of Deeply Derived Carbon Dioxide in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Morgantini, N.

    2005-12-01

    A large portion of the total water discharge from the Apennine carbonate aquifers (~ 58 %) has been sampled and analysed for major chemical components and for the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). On the basis the carbon mass balance has been estimated that DIC derives from the dissolution of carbonates hosting the aquifers (~ 33 %), from the biogenic CO2 of the soils (~ 24 %), and for the greatest part from a deep source (~ 43 %). The modelling of the water-rock-gas interaction allowed to assess that groundwater composition is compatible with the evolution of infiltrating waters dissolving variable amounts of deeply derived CO2 with an isotopic composition in the range of that of the CO2 emitted in Italy from active volcanoes, geothermal fields, and cold gas emissions located in the western sector of the central and southern Italy. On the base of the computed deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing has been recently elaborated (Chiodini et al., 2004), pointing out the presence in the Tyrrhenian side of the Italian peninsula of two large regional degassing structures that, for the magnitude and for the geochemical features, can be related to a regional process of mantle degassing. In the western part of these regions is characterized by the presence of many CO2 rich gas emission releasing by soil diffuse degassing significant amount of CO2, geothermal systems, dissolved carbon in volcanic aquifers (Gambardella et.al., 2004) and large travertine deposits. Here, at smaller scale, a strong correlation between shallow geological structures and CO2 diffuse degassing was observed, suggesting that in this sector mantle fluids may enter the lower crust and move upwards through the interconnected network of extensional fractures and normal faults, accumulate in shallow reservoir and generate the high CO2 flux anomalies at the surface. On contrary, in the Adriatic foreland, which is characterized by a

  20. Dengue fever in travellers and risk of local spreading: case reports from Southern Italy and literature update.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Claudia; Lepore, Luciana; Chironna, Maria; Angarano, Gioacchino; Saracino, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), an arbovirosis caused by Dengue viruses (DV, serotypes 1-4), is responsible for an increasing number of travel-related acute febrile illnesses due to population growth, climate changes, spreading by viremic travellers, and improved laboratory diagnosis. The presence of efficient vectors (mosquito Aedes albopictus) has also been described in temperate regions including Italy which is considered the most heavily infected European country. Normally characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms, DF incidence is probably underestimated, especially in non-endemic countries, but the risk of severe forms is substantial. Between August and November 2013, five DF patients (4 males, age 23-38) were observed in the Infectious Disease Clinic (University of Bari, Southern Italy). All had just returned from DF endemic areas (2 French Polynesia, 3 Dominican Republic); 4/5 were hospitalized. Common clinical features included acute febrile syndrome, headache (2 with retro-orbital pain), rash (all patients), two with bleeding manifestations and one with gum bleeding. Laboratory tests demonstrated leukopenia (4 patients), elevated liver enzymes (3 patients), and thrombocytopenia (1 patient). Serum samples for DV antibodies and RNA detection were analyzed by the Regional Arbovirosis Reference Laboratory. Viral RNA was identified in 2/5 patients (DV-4) and seroconversion in the remaining cases. All patients made a complete recovery. Recent literature was reviewed, focusing on epidemiology and vector distribution (especially European and Italian territories), pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment including vaccine strategies. The occurrence of 5 DF cases during the period of highest vector activity (June-November) in Italy emphasizes the risk of local outbreaks in temperate regions. This paper highlights the importance of clinical alert for dengue also in non-endemic countries.

  1. Modifications of natural hazard impacts and hydrological extremes in previous centuries (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, Aurora Angela; Polemio, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    The present work is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning floods and landslides which occurred in Calabria, a region of southern Italy, since the seventeenth century, and including more than 11,000 records. This database has been built by collecting data coming from different information sources as newspapers, archives of regional and national agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. This database has been continuously updated by both the results of local historical research and data coming from the daily survey of regional newspapers. Similarly, a wide archive of rainfall data for the same period and the same region has been implemented. In this work, basing on the abovementioned archives, a comparative analysis of floods that occurred in a regional sector over a long period and the climatic data characterizing the same period has been carried out, focusing on the climate trend and aiming to investigate the potential effect of climate variation on the damaging floods trend. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be related to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In order to assess anthropogenic modifications, the evolution of urbanized sectors of the study area in the last centuries has been reenacted by mean of comparisons, in GIS environment, of historical maps of different epochs. The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and daily rainfall. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favorable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications. Moreover, the long historical series

  2. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  3. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    rainfall intensity and an increasing trend of wet days and temperatures) does not show favourable conditions for the increase of the annual number of damaging floods, its trend is increasing. The role of anthropogenic modifications and the mismanagement of risk-prone areas should be considered to justify the increasing occurrences of floods. A validation of this hypothesis comes from the study of land use modifications, carried out comparing different temporal levels of land use (from 1959 to 2006). The analysis shows, starting from 1959 to 2006, a significant increase in urban areas (of about 50%) on the entire regional territory. The municipality of Bari, the regional main town, has undergone a remarkable development of its urban areas, from 12.45 Km2 in 1959 to 58.82 Km2 in 2006. The consequent increased vulnerability of this area has been highlighted during the recent flood event occurred in 2005, which caused six casualties, numerous injuries and damages to roads, buildings, industries, agriculture, livestock and services. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Polemio and Lonigro, 2012). References Polemio M. (2010): Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219. Polemio M., Lonigro T. (2012): Variabilità climatica e ricorrenza delle calamità idrogeologiche in Puglia. Geologia dell'Ambiente, 2/2012: 262-266.

  4. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  5. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  6. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy. PMID:28267780

  7. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  8. Evidence for Circulation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Type 2c in Ruminants in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Lanave, G; Gargano, P; Larocca, V; Losurdo, M; Ciambrone, L; Marino, P A; Parisi, A; Casalinuovo, F; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G

    2016-11-23

    Recently, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2c (BVDV-2c) was responsible for a severe outbreak in cattle in northern Europe. Here, we present the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses in ruminants in southern Italy. Pooled serum samples were obtained from 997 bovine, 800 ovine, 431 caprine and eight bubaline farms, and pestiviral RNA was detected by molecular methods in 44 farms consisting of 16 cattle and one buffalo herds and of 21 sheep and six goat flocks. Twenty-nine and 15 farms were infected by BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains, respectively. BVDV-1 strains were recovered mainly from cattle and were heterogeneous, belonging to the subtypes 1b, 1u, 1e, 1g and 1h. In contrast, all BVDV-2 viruses but two were detected in sheep or goats and were characterized as BVDV-2c by sequence analysis of 5'UTR. These strains displayed high genetic identity to BVDV-2c circulating in cattle in northern Europe and were more distantly related to a BVDV-2c isolate recovered from a cattle herd in southern Italy more than 10 years before. The circulation of a BVDV-2c in small ruminants suggests the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of pestivirus-induced clinical signs in southern Italian farms.

  9. Warning system for hydrogeological hazards in Campania (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro; Cristiano, Luigi; Gentile, Salvatore; Gentilella, Matteo; Giannattasio, Maurizio; Napoli, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is affected by significant hydrogeological hazards, with related loss scenarios in almost 12% of it. The most critical hydrogeological hazard scenarios are those triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes up 72 hours: flood loss scenarios are expected in catchments with spatial extent from a few Km2 up to 5000 km2; shallow landslides and mudflows are also triggered by rainfall events within a broad range of time scales. This study presents a warning system for hydrogeological hazards, which has been operating in Campania since 2005, designed for mitigating losses due to extreme rainfall events. The warning system is structured into two stages: the meteorological forecasting stage and the hydrological monitoring stage. In the first stage, after evaluating rainfall forecasts provided by numerical weather prediction models (with a forecasting time up to 48 hours), warning messages are issued to the local municipalities grouped in 8 warning zones. Critical rainfall events are identified by three different alert levels, according to their forecasted spatial and temporal extents, each corresponding to a category of expected hazard scenarios at regional level. During the second stage, the dynamic evolution of the hydrological events is monitored by a real-time network of river stage and rain gauges, which are employed to compute one or more precursors for each loss scenario. Loss scenarios have been classified according to the temporal and spatial scales of the corresponding precursors, in order to deal with the difficulties related to the occurrence of significantly different hazard scenarios during the same rainfall event. Three threshold values have been identified for each precursor, corresponding to given hazard and alert levels. As a precursor exceeds a threshold value, warning messages are

  10. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  11. Geohazard assessment through the analysis of historical alluvial events in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo

    2015-04-01

    The risk associated with extreme water events such as flash floods, results from a combination of overflows and landslides hazards. A multi-hazard approach have been utilized to analyze the 1773 flood that occurred in conjunction with heavy rainfall, causing major damage in terms of lost lives and economic cost over an area of 200 km2, including both the coastal strip between Salerno and Maiori and the Apennine hinterland, Campania region - Southern Italy. This area has been affected by a total of 40 flood events over the last five centuries, 26 of them occurred between 1900 and 2000. Streamflow events have produced severe impacts on Cava de' Tirreni (SA) and its territory and in particular four catastrophic floods in 1581, 1773, 1899 and 1954, caused a pervasive pattern of destruction. In the study area, rainstorm events typically occur in small and medium-sized fluvial system, characterized by small catchment areas and high-elevation drainage basins, causing the detachment of large amount of volcaniclastic and siliciclastic covers from the carbonate bedrock. The mobilization of these deposits (slope debris) mixed with rising floodwaters along the water paths can produce fast-moving streamflows of large proportion with significant hazardous implications (Violante et al., 2009). In this context the study of 1773 historical flood allows the detection and the definition of those areas where catastrophic events repeatedly took place over the time. Moreover, it improves the understanding of the phenomena themselves, including some key elements in the management of risk mitigation, such as the restoration of the damage suffered by the buildings and/or the environmental effects caused by the floods.

  12. Particle size distributions and elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2008-06-01

    Three 2-wk seasonal field campaigns were performed in 2003 and 2004 at a sampling site on the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy with the aim to investigate the dynamics and characteristics of particle-bound pollutants in the Mediterranean area. Fine (PM(2.5)) and coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) size fractions were collected by a manual dichotomous sampler on 37-mm Teflon filters over a 24-hr sampling period. On average, 70% of the total PM(10) (PM(2.5) + PM(10-2.5)) mass was associated with the coarse fraction and 30% with the fine fraction during the three campaigns. The ambient concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, V, Cd, Fe, Cu, Ca, and Mg associated with both size fractions were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations showed differences in their absolute value, ranging from few ng x m(-3) to microg x m(-3), as well as in their variability within the PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) size fractions. PM(10) levels were well below the European Union (EU) limit value during the study period with the exception of three events during the first campaign (fall) and five events during the third campaign (spring). Two main sources were identified as the major contributors including mineral dust, transported from North Africa, and sea spray from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Comparing the results with backward trajectories, calculated using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (TOMS-NASA) maps, it was observed that in central and eastern Europe, the Tyrrhenian Sea and North Africa were the major emission source regions that affected the temporal variations and daily averages of PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) concentrations.

  13. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Faugno, Salvatore; Pindozzi, Stefania; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00), nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year). The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should be revisited.

  14. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  15. The stress field beneath Mt. Vesuvius (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Luca; Massa, Bruno; De Matteo, Ada

    2014-05-01

    The Somma-Vesuvius is the smallest and one of the youngest volcanoes of the Neapolitan district. Its origin is linked to a Late Pleistocene-Holocene extension occurred along the entire Tyrrhenian margin of the Apennine chain. Nowadays, Mt. Vesuvius is a quiescent strato-volcano. Using different approaches and a comparison between observations and numerical models we have determined the spatial variations in the stress field beneath the volcano edifice. In order to achieve this target we have analyzed a focal mechanism dataset derived from 197 events recorded from Jan. 1999 to Jan. 2012. The main results highlight the presence of two seismogenic volumes characterized by markedly different stress patterns. The two volumes are separated by a layer where the seismic strain release shows a significant decrease. Previous studies postulated the existence, at about the same depth, of a ductile layer allowing the spreading of the Mt. Vesuvius edifice. We interpreted the difference in the stress pattern within the two volumes as the effect of a mechanical decoupling caused by the aforementioned ductile layer. The stress pattern in the top volume is dominated by a reverse faulting style, which agrees with the hypothesis of a seismicity driven by the spreading process. On the other hand, the stress field determined for the deep volume is consistent with a background regional field locally perturbed by the effects of the topography and of heterogeneities in the volcanic structure. Since the seismicity of the deep volume shows an intermittent behaviour and has shown to be linked to geochemical variations in the fumaroles of the volcano, we hypothesize that it results from the effect of fluid injection episodes, possibly of magmatic origin, perturbing the pore pressure within the hydrothermal system. The retrieved changes in the stress pattern could indicate variations in volcano dynamics potentially linked to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth.

  16. Late Pleistocene differential uplift inferred from the analysis of fluvial terraces (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Giannandrea, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The stratigraphic architecture and morphological assemblage of the Pleistocene fluvial terraces contained in two contiguous fluvial valleys are used to understand the spatial distribution and the timing of the differential uplift that affected two different geological and geomorphological settings of an active orogen. The study areas, both placed in the eastern sector of the southern Apennines of Italy, are the Sant'Arcangelo sedimentary basin and the Valsinni Ridge anticline. Pleistocene uplift rate of 0.7-0.9 mm y- 1 and historical earthquakes affecting those areas suggest active tectonics. Based on the synthem units used to classify the fluvial deposits in the field, several strath, fill, and fill-cut terraces have been mapped in the middle valleys of the Agri and Sinni rivers. Four Middle Pleistocene high terraces (Qes) are found in the Sant'Arcangelo Basin and cut its infill, and three Late Pleistocene low terraces (Qt) are found at both the Agri and Sinni valley flanks. The Agri and Sinni rivers cross-cut the NW-SE-oriented fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Apennines from W to E, producing a transverse drainage. As a result, ten- to hundred-metre deep gorges and wide floodplains were created in the middle reach of the river valleys. Computation of the bedrock incision rates from the Qes1, Qes4, and SQt1 terraces, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 at 400-240 ka and 0.8 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 in the last 240 ka, together with the terrace profile arrangements in the Agri and Sinni valleys, allow for the documentation of i) the differential uplift of the study area and ii) the age of terrace abandonment corresponding to the beginning age of the vertical incision in the valley floor sediments to form the Qt terraces. The differential uplift is subsequently discussed in a space and time-sequence evolution of the Late Pleistocene to assess the complex morphotectonic development that occurred in the eastern threshold of the basin. The differential uplift of both the

  17. Crustal structure and seismotectonics of central Sicily (southern Italy): new constraints from instrumental seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgroi, Tiziana; de Nardis, Rita; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of the crustal structure and seismotectonics for central Sicily (southern Italy) through the analysis of the depth distribution and kinematics of the instrumental seismicity, occurring during the period from 1983 to 2010, and its comparison with individual geological structures that may be active in the area. The analysed data set consists of 392 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.7. We defined a new, detailed 1-D velocity model to relocate the earthquakes that occurred in central Sicily, and we calculated a Moho depth of 37 km and a mean VP/VS ratio of 1.73. The relocated seismic events are clustered mainly in the area north of Caltanissetta (e.g. Mainland Sicily) and in the northeastern sector (Madonie Mountains) of the study area; only minor and greatly dispersed seismicity is located in the western sector, near Belice, and along the southern coast, between Gela and Sciacca. The relocated hypocentral distribution depicts a bimodal pattern: 50 per cent of the events occur within the upper crust at depths less than ˜16 km, 40 per cent of the events occur within the middle and depth crust, at depths between 16 and 32 km, and the remaining 10 per cent occur at subcrustal depths. The energy release pattern shows a similar depth distribution. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of 38 newly computed focal plane solutions, two major geographically distinct seismotectonic domains are distinguished: the Madonie Mountain domain, with prevalent extensional and extensional-oblique kinematics associated with upper crust Late Pliocene-Quaternary faulting, and the Mainland Sicily domain, with prevalent compressional and compressional-oblique kinematics associated with thrust faulting, at mid to deep crust depth, along the north-dipping Sicilian Basal Thrust (SBT). The stress inversion of the Mainland Sicily focal solutions integrated with neighbouring mechanisms available in the literature highlights a regional

  18. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  19. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  20. The helminth community of Talpa romana (Thomas, 1902) (Insectivora, Talpidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, C; Casanova, J C; Aloise, G; Ribas, A; Cagnin, M

    2002-11-01

    The helminth parasite community of Talpa romana in Calabria (southern Italy ) was studied. The helminth fauna comprised six species: Ityogonimus ocreatus (Goeze 1782), Staphylocistis bacillaris (Goeze 1782), Capillaria talpae (Siebold 1850), Parastrongyloides winchesi (Morgan 1928), Spirura talpae (Gmelin 1790), and Tricholinstowia linstowi (Travassos 1918). All species except S. bacillaris were dominant in this community. The helminths are all stenoxenous species of Paleartic Talpaspp. This paper is the first quantitative approach to the helminth community of T. romana and reveals typical characteristics of an isolationist community. This can be explained by genetic and paleogeographic events.

  1. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.

  2. Gas Hazard from Natural CO2 Emissions in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Avino, R.; Baldini, A.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Granieri, D.; Minopoli, C.; Morgantini, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies at regional scale showed that the central and southern Italy are affected by an active and intense process of CO2 Earth degassing. Considering the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater of large regional aquifers, Chiodini et al. (2004) elaborated a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing, pointing out the presence of two large CO2 degassing structures (62000 km2) a northern one, the tuscan roman degassing structure (TRDS) and a southern one, the campanian degassing structure (CDS). The deeply derived CO2 released by these two structures was estimated in ~ 9.2 Mt/y (Chiodini et al., 2004). This amount, which is globally relevant being ~ 10% of the present-day total CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes of the Earth, is of low magnitude with respect to the amount of CO2 that is estimated to be injected in the storage sites. TRDS and CDS are characterized by the presence of many vents of cold CO2 rich gases and areas of anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2. The gas manifestations are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. More than 100 gas emissions are located in the Italian territory and represent a serious hazard for humans and animals. Gas flow rates are very high. For example, the biggest gas emissions daily release into atmosphere hundreds of tons of CO2, amounts similar to those released by diffuse degassing from active volcanoes (CO2 fluxes from 6 t/d to 2800 t/d, mean of 430 t/d, Morner and Etiope, 2002). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 air concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. The last lethal accident occurred in 2003 in Tuscany, at Mt. Amiata. However, the most dangerous gas emission is Mefite d'Ansanto, located in the Southern Apennine, where three persons were killed during 1990's and historical

  3. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  4. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  5. Negative effects of land-use changes in the karst setting of Apulia, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Apulia is an almost entirely carbonate region in south-eastern Italy, representing the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Due to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, and its geographical configuration, which in some way connects the Italian territory to the eastward lands, it had a long history of human settlements, as shown by the many remarkable prehistoric findings that have been recorded in this area during the last century. The flatness of the region, derived from the geologic origin of Apulia as the undeformed foreland of the Southern Apenninic Chain of Italy, together with its NW-SE oriented peninsula configuration and the long coastlines, are at the origin of the good-continuity occupation by man during the different phases of human history. The original karst landscape, characterized by absence of surface runoff, due to rapid infiltration of surface water into the network of karst conduits and fissures within the carbonate rock mass, was with time modified by man. Agriculture initially developed in the narrow strips of land where the presence of residual deposits (terre rosse) allowed the establishment of thin soil layers, and/or in small depressions where water was able to be kept for a longer time within the epikarst. Outside of these sites, the karst landscape typically consisted of stony plateaus and subdued rounding hills. To gain further space to agricultural practices, part of the surrounding stony areas was cleared of rocks: the latter were extracted by hand, and used to build dry stone walls to delimitate the properties, and/or to act as a barrier to soil erosion or to work as terrace walls in the sectors with higher gradients. At the same time, extraction and re-use of carbonate rocks originated some of the typical rural architecture common in Apulia, from "trulli" to "pagliare" and, later on, to "masserie" (the old countryside mansions). In the last decades of XX century, thanks to the use of modern technologies and

  6. Allele frequencies of the new European Standard Set (ESS) loci in a population of Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Tonino Marsella, L; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-02-01

    Allele frequencies of five miniSTRs loci (D1S1656, D2S441, D12S391, D10S1248 and D22S1045) included in the new European Standard Set (ESS) were calculated from a sample of 150 unrelated individuals from Apulia, a Region of Southern Italy. Two different PCR Amplification Kits were used, in order to evaluate the concordance of the genotypes. The results obtained with the two kits showed no differences in all genotype profiles. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was detected at either locus. Moreover genetic analysis using Fst estimation showed no evidence for differentiation at the five new loci between Apulia and Italian populations. The high levels of polymorphisms of the analyzed markers in the Apulian population allow to confirm that these markers are useful tools in paternity and forensic analysis from degraded DNA samples.

  7. Quantifying rock uplift rates using channel steepness and cosmogenic nuclide–determined erosion rates: Examples from northern and southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyr, Andrew J.; Granger, Darryl E.; Olivetti, Valerio; Molin, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Rock uplift rates can be difficult to measure over 103–105 yr time scales. If, however, a landscape approaches steady state, where hillslope erosion and rock uplift rates are steady and locally similar, then it should be possible to quantify rock uplift rates from hillslope erosion rates. Here, we test this prediction by comparing channel steepness index values and 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates to well-constrained rock uplift rates in two landscapes in Italy. The first field area is the Romagna Apennines, northern Italy, where rock uplift rates are relatively uniform, between 0.2 and 0.5 mm/yr (regional mean 0.40 ± 0.15 [SE] mm/yr), and have been steady since 0.9 Ma. The second area is the region around northeastern Sicily and the southernmost Italian peninsula, where rock uplift rates are higher and exhibit a strong spatial gradient, from ∼0.7 to ∼1.6 mm/yr (regional mean 1.09 ± 0.13 [SE] mm/yr). In both regions, channel steepness indices and 10Be erosion rates vary directly with rock uplift rates. Although there is considerable variability in erosion rates, regionally averaged rates in both the northern (0.46 ± 0.04 [SE] mm/yr) and southern (1.21 ± 0.24 [SE] mm/yr) areas accurately measure rock uplift rates. Although channel steepness indices do not quantify rock uplift rates, they are useful for (1) identifying regional patterns of rock uplift, (2) identifying areas where uplift rates might be expected to be uniform, and (3) informing 10Be sampling strategies. This study demonstrates that, together, channel steepness and hillslope erosion rates can provide a powerful tool for determining rock uplift rates.

  8. [Malaria and memory in the Veneto region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Manuela; Crotti, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    Malaria and emigration are two terms deeply embedded in Veneto history, related to images far back in the past, unknown to younger generations. Losing one's own collective historical memory is a source of personal and cultural impoverishment and inevitably compromises one's awareness of the present, possibly leading to superficial judgements and hastily formed opinions. Such a situation is all the more serious in a geographical area, north-eastern Italy, where immigration is so abundant. In this paper the authors seek to retrieve, at least in part, this memory, especially in terms of history (to what extent malaria afflicted residents in Veneto and migrants from the region) and biology (how much imprinting from malaria has remained in the native population's genetic make-up).

  9. Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolandi, G.; Bellucci, F.; Heizler, M.T.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Campanian Plain is an 80 x 30 km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600 ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289-246 ka, 157 ka and 106 ka) have been identified in the Apennine area in the last 300 ka. These deposits probably represent distal ash flow units of ignimbrite eruptions which occurred throughout the CVZ. The resulting deposits are interstratified with marine sediments indicating that periods of repeated volcano-tectonic emergence and subsidence may have occurred in the past. The eruption, defined as the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), with the largest volume (310 km3), occurred in the CVZ 39 ka ago. The products of the CI eruption consist of two units (unit-1 and unit-2) formed from a single compositionally zoned magma body. Slightly different in composition, three trachytic melts constitute the two units. Unit-1 type A is an acid trachyte, type B is a trachyte and type C of unit-2 is a mafic trachyte. The CI, vented from pre-existing neotectonic faults, formed during the Apennine uplift, Initially the venting of volatile-rich type A magma deposited the products to the N-NE of the CVZ. During the eruption, the Acerra graben already affected by a NE-SW fault system, was transected by E-W faults, forming a cross-graben that extended to the gulf of Naples. E-W faults were then further dislocated by NE-SW transcurrent movements. This additional collapse significantly influenced the deposition of the B-type magma of unit-1, and the C-type magma of unit-2 toward the E-SE and S, in the Bay of Naples. The pumice fall deposit underlying the CI deposits, until now thought to be associated with the CI eruption, is not a strict transition from plinian to CI-forming activity. It is derived instead from an independent source probably located near the

  10. Long-term variation of rainfall erosivity in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Porto, P.; La Spada, C.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in rainfall erosivity have been investigated using the rainfall erosivity factor (R) proposed for USLE by Wischmeier and Smith (R W-S ) and some simplified indexes (the Fournier index modified by Arnoldus, F, a regional index spatial independent, R Fr , and a regional index spatial dependent, R Fs ) estimated by indirect approaches. The analysis has been carried out over 48 rainfall stations located in Calabria (Southern Italy) using data collected in the period 1936-2012 and divided in three sub-periods. The series of the erosivity indexes and of some precipitation variables have been analyzed for evidence of trends using standard methods. The simplified indexes suggested a general underestimation of the rainfall erosivity with respect to R W-S . The mean underestimation ranged between 23 and 54 % for R Fr and from 10 to 15 % for R Fs . Both the sign and the magnitude of the trends were different for the different stations depending on the variable and sub-period considered. In general, the erosivity increased during the period 1936-1955 (1st sub-period) and during the more recent sub-period (1992-2012, 3rd sub-period), whereas it decreased during 1958-1977 (2nd sub-period). The evidence of trends was generally higher for R W-S than for R Fr and R Fs . Focusing on the most recent sub-period (3rd sub-period), all the variables analyzed showed mainly increasing trends but with different magnitude. More particularly, R W-S showed a mean increment of 29 %; F, R Fr and R Fs increased by 11, 15 and 18 %, respectively; the maximum intensity of 0.5-h precipitation increased by 5 %; and the annual precipitation increased by 22 %. Consequently, it remains difficult to define which precipitation variable plays the dominant role in the temporal variation of rainfall erosivity in the region. However, the overall results suggest that the indexes estimated by indirect procedures (F, R Fr , and R Fs ) should be used with caution for climate change analysis, despite

  11. Long-term variation of rainfall erosivity in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Porto, P.; La Spada, C.

    2017-04-01

    The changes in rainfall erosivity have been investigated using the rainfall erosivity factor ( R) proposed for USLE by Wischmeier and Smith ( R W-S ) and some simplified indexes (the Fournier index modified by Arnoldus, F, a regional index spatial independent, R Fr , and a regional index spatial dependent, R Fs ) estimated by indirect approaches. The analysis has been carried out over 48 rainfall stations located in Calabria (Southern Italy) using data collected in the period 1936-2012 and divided in three sub-periods. The series of the erosivity indexes and of some precipitation variables have been analyzed for evidence of trends using standard methods. The simplified indexes suggested a general underestimation of the rainfall erosivity with respect to R W-S . The mean underestimation ranged between 23 and 54 % for R Fr and from 10 to 15 % for R Fs . Both the sign and the magnitude of the trends were different for the different stations depending on the variable and sub-period considered. In general, the erosivity increased during the period 1936-1955 (1st sub-period) and during the more recent sub-period (1992-2012, 3rd sub-period), whereas it decreased during 1958-1977 (2nd sub-period). The evidence of trends was generally higher for R W-S than for R Fr and R Fs . Focusing on the most recent sub-period (3rd sub-period), all the variables analyzed showed mainly increasing trends but with different magnitude. More particularly, R W-S showed a mean increment of 29 %; F, R Fr and R Fs increased by 11, 15 and 18 %, respectively; the maximum intensity of 0.5-h precipitation increased by 5 %; and the annual precipitation increased by 22 %. Consequently, it remains difficult to define which precipitation variable plays the dominant role in the temporal variation of rainfall erosivity in the region. However, the overall results suggest that the indexes estimated by indirect procedures ( F, R Fr , and R Fs ) should be used with caution for climate change analysis, despite

  12. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  13. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-11-23

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m³ with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m³ and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  14. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  15. Ixodid ticks of road-killed wildlife species in southern Italy: new tick-host associations and locality records.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vincenzo; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify ticks collected from road-killed wildlife species retrieved in several localities of southern Italy and to assess the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. DNA in ticks. Collections were carried out from January 2000 to December 2009 on wild animals found dead within the territories of 11 municipalities from three regions (i.e., Apulia, Basilicata, and Calabria). In total, 189 carcasses of wild animals belonging to 10 species were checked for tick infestation, and 40 animals belonging to seven species were found parasitized. One hundred and twenty-five ixodid ticks (11 larvae, 14 nymphs, 77 males, and 23 females) were collected and identified as belonging to nine species, namely Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus turanicus. None of the 36 tick specimens tested by PCR was positive for tick-borne pathogens. The results add new information on the tick fauna associated with wild animals in Italy, reporting new tick-host associations. Further field studies are still needed to ascertain the suitability of certain wildlife species as hosts for some tick species, particularly for those implicated in the transmission of pathogens to domestic animals and humans. Finally, from a conservation perspective, it would be interesting to assess whether these wild animals (e.g., Lepus corsicanus) are exposed to tick-borne pathogens, investigating the possible implications for their health and behavior.

  16. A database on flash flood events in Campania, southern Italy, with an evaluation of their spatial and temporal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an historical database of flash flood events in the Campania region of southern Italy. The study focuses on small catchments characterized by intermittent flow, generally occurring during and after heavy rainstorms, which can be hydrologically defined as small Mediterranean catchments. As the outlet zones of these catchments (consisting mainly of alluvial fans or fan deltas) are highly urbanized in Campania, the population living in the delivery areas is exposed to high risk. Detailed scrutiny and critical analysis of the existing literature, and of the data inventory available, allowed us to build a robust database consisting of about 500 events from 1540 to 2015, which is continuously updated. Since this study is the first step of a longer project to perform a hazard analysis, information about time and site of occurrence is known for all events. As for the hazard analysis envisaged, collecting information about past events could provide information on future events, in terms of damage and also spatial and temporal occurrence. After introducing the issue of flash floods in Italy we then describe the geological and geomorphological settings of the study area. The database is then presented, illustrating the methodology used in collecting information and its general structure. The collected data are then discussed and the statistical data analysis presented.

  17. Wind speed and temperature trends impacts on reference evapotranspiration in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impacts of both temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration have been assessed using as a case study the Southern Italy, which present a wide variety of combination of such climatic variables trends in terms of direction and magnitude. The existence of statistically significant trends in wind speed and temperature from observational datasets, measured in ten stations over Southern Italy during the period 1968-2004, has been investigated. Time series have been examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric statistical test in order to detect possible evidences of wind speed and temperature trends at different temporal resolution and significance level. Once trends have been examined and quantified, the effects of these trends on seasonal reference evapotranspiration have been evaluated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation. Results quantified the effects of extrapolated temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration. Where these climatic drivers are on the same direction, reference evapotranspiration generally increases during the growing season due to a nonlinear overlapping of effects. Whereas wind speed decreases and temperature increases, there is a sort of counterbalancing effect between the two considered climatic forcing in determining future reference evapotranspiration.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in different population groups in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montella, M; Crispo, A; Grimaldi, M; Angeletti, C; Amore, A; Ronga, D; Sabbatini, M; Sabbatici, M; Pisani, A; Spiteri, D; Serraino, D

    2005-02-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was carried out between 2000 and 2002 to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in Naples, southern Italy. Five groups of individuals were investigated, two at low risk and three at high risk for HCV infection. Blood sample sera were collected among 5,391 individuals (4,059 men and 1,332 women): 1,972 general practitioner (GP) patients and 781 employees of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of Naples (low-risk groups); 524 male prisoners, 1,436 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 678 hemodialysis patients (high-risk groups). Overall HCV seropositivity rates ranged from 6.4% among employees of the NCI to 37.4% among male prisoners. HCV infection tended to generally increase with age, but in IDUs and in male prisoners the upward trend leveled off at 50 years of age. As compared to GP patients, IDUs (both sexes) and male prisoners had a nearly 6-fold increased risk of HCV infection, while HCV was nearly 3-fold more common among hemodialysis patients. Employees of NCI were at reduced risk of HCV infection, particularly women (odds ratio = 0.3). The study findings confirmed the high risk for HCV infection in IDUs and identified other population groups in southern Italy that should be offered HCV screening and counselling given the severe implications of HCV infection on health.

  19. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in a student cohort from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Noto, D; Niglio, T; Cefalù, A B; Martino, E; Fayer, F; Mina, M; Valenti, V; Notarbartolo, A; Averna, M; Martino, F

    2009-11-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors present in childhood predict future CV events. Few data regarding the metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence are available in adolescents from Mediterranean areas where obesity is becoming a social emergency. This study presents data of MS prevalence in a student cohort from southern Italy. 1629 students between 7 and 14 years of age underwent anthropometric measurements and a blood sample was obtained to assess biochemical parameters. MS risk factors were calculated based on age and gender adjusted percentiles of parameter distributions. MS prevalence rate was 0.022 using paediatric, age-adjusted criteria; the rate increased to 0.029 using a 90th percentile criteria for fasting blood glucose instead of >100mg/dL. Using the criteria issued by the International Diabetes Federation the MS prevalence rate dropped to 0.005. The exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: age/fat related, lipids, blood pressure and blood glucose. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with triglyceride [OR=1.55 (1.0-2.3)] and BMI [OR=1.71 (1.2-2.4)] but not to blood glucose by logistic regression analysis. In a student cohort from Southern Italy, obesity is associated with the features of MS.

  20. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC.

  1. The northward tectonic transport in the southern Apennines: examples from the Capri Island and western Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Tramparulo, Francesco D'Assisi; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Amore, Filomena Ornella; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Laiena, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a thrust fault system located in the western Sorrento Peninsula and Capri Island (southern Italy) where several mesoscale structures related to the main thrusts, such as Riedel shear planes, overturned folds, minor thrust and back-thrust faults, suggest a dominant northward tectonic transport. Major and minor thrust faults, generally characterized by a ramp-flat geometry, involved the Mesozoic Apennine carbonates, the Middle Miocene foredeep, and the unconformable thrust-top basin deposits. The biostratigraphic analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages on the thrust-top basin sediments indicates an age not older than late Tortonian. We propose that this out-of-sequence thrusting stage was related to a regional tectonic event widespread in the entire southern Apennines, probably occurred in the Pliocene time simultaneously with the activity of deep-seated thrust faults that involved the buried carbonates of the Apulian platform. These out-of-sequence thrust faults, here referred to as "envelopment thrusts," were enucleated in a lower structural level with respect to the allochthonous wedge, representing the W-E segments of large regional arcuate structures.

  2. Investigation on sediment erosion and water runoff by means of simulated rainfall in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antronico, L.; Terranova, O.; Torri, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is a severe and extended issue affecting all European countries, although with different intensities. In particular, Calabria (southern Italy) is one of the Italian regions mainly affected by intense water erosion; in fact Calabrian soils are highly erodible due to soil composition and slope morphology; moreover climatic regimes display marked seasonality and intense rainfalls also in areas subject to water scarcity. Simulated rainfall experiments, aimed at studying the interaction between rainfall and slope processes, were carried out in small watersheds of Calabria, characterized by different geological and climatic conditions. The experiments were mainly carried out by means of rainfall simulators and laboratory analyses. The rain simulator consisted of a pole 3 m in height, with an arm at the top which protruded 1.5 m and supported a nozzle (Fulljet HH50 and HH30, Spraying Systems Co.) which can sprinkle 6 m2. Inside of the plots rainfall distribution was monitored with 5-6 manual gauges; discharge and sediment concentration were measured at 3 min intervals at terminal troughs and laboratory determinations of sediment concentration were made. Two tests were conducted on all plots: the first in dry antecedent moisture condition and the second, several hours later, in wet antecedent condition. The vegetal coverage of soil and the artificial rains intensities were such as to simulate the conditions typical of the dry season and summer storms. More in detail, experiments were designed to obtain rainfall intensities of approximately 85 mm hour-1 (corresponding to a return time of 100 years) but, in some experiments, wind disturbance caused a change (from 70 to 120 mm hour-1) in the whished rainfall intensity. The rock types of the experimental plots are representative of wide areas inside the Calabria region. In particular, the influence of lithology, aspect, slope and vegetation on both surface runoff and soil erosion was investigated. The

  3. The informed consent in Southern Italy does not adequately inform parents about infant vaccination.

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco; Valdes Abuadili, Amanda; Marino, Sara

    2014-02-28

    Vaccination centres in the Campania Region, southern Italy, vaccinate children with a hexavalent vaccine that contains the mandatory vaccines diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and viral Hepatitis B. This vaccine also includes two non-mandatory vaccines, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Information about these optional vaccines should be communicated to the parents, and informed consent should be obtained from parents before vaccination. We explored whether informed consent was delivered to the parents, whether they signed the consent form, and whether they read and acquired the information about the vaccination that their child would receive. Childhood immunisations are provided at specific public health vaccination centres, "Unità Operative Materno-infantili's" (UOMIs). We selected four UOMI from the Campania Region where we interviewed 1039 parents bringing their children for the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd doses of hexavalent vaccine. The consent forms were collected from the four vaccination centres and were analysed with respect to clarity and completeness. Most of the respondents (89.5%) were mothers between 20 and 39 years of age (80.4% vs 59.6% of the fathers), they were married (87.2% vs 93.5% of the fathers), and only one-half of them were employed (50.2% vs 92.6% of the fathers). The informed consent form was received from 58.1% of the parents and signed by 52.8%, but read by 35.0% of them. Only 1.5% of parents knew which vaccines were mandatory, and 25.0% of them believed that the entire hexavalent vaccine was mandatory. When we asked the parents which non-mandatory vaccinations were administered to their children, only 0.5% indicated the Haemophilus influenzae type B and none indicated the pertussis vaccine. Thirty-six per cent of the parents replied that their child had not received any non-mandatory vaccines. No parents were informed by the operators that their children would receive non-mandatory vaccines. In our study, consent procedures did

  4. The informed consent in Southern Italy does not adequately inform parents about infant vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination centres in the Campania Region, southern Italy, vaccinate children with a hexavalent vaccine that contains the mandatory vaccines diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and viral Hepatitis B. This vaccine also includes two non-mandatory vaccines, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Information about these optional vaccines should be communicated to the parents, and informed consent should be obtained from parents before vaccination. We explored whether informed consent was delivered to the parents, whether they signed the consent form, and whether they read and acquired the information about the vaccination that their child would receive. Methods Childhood immunisations are provided at specific public health vaccination centres, "Unità Operative Materno-infantili’s" (UOMIs). We selected four UOMI from the Campania Region where we interviewed 1039 parents bringing their children for the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd doses of hexavalent vaccine. The consent forms were collected from the four vaccination centres and were analysed with respect to clarity and completeness. Results Most of the respondents (89.5%) were mothers between 20 and 39 years of age (80.4% vs 59.6% of the fathers), they were married (87.2% vs 93.5% of the fathers), and only one-half of them were employed (50.2% vs 92.6% of the fathers). The informed consent form was received from 58.1% of the parents and signed by 52.8%, but read by 35.0% of them. Only 1.5% of parents knew which vaccines were mandatory, and 25.0% of them believed that the entire hexavalent vaccine was mandatory. When we asked the parents which non-mandatory vaccinations were administered to their children, only 0.5% indicated the Haemophilus influenzae type B and none indicated the pertussis vaccine. Thirty-six per cent of the parents replied that their child had not received any non-mandatory vaccines. No parents were informed by the operators that their children would receive non-mandatory vaccines

  5. Traveling for care: inter-regional mobility for aortic valve substitution in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Petrarca, Giuseppina; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2014-07-01

    Patient flows across the regions of the Italian National Health Service can shed light on patient mobility, including cross-border flows within the European Union. We used 2009 data on 11,531 NHS admissions for aortic valve replacement operations to measure the extent of inter-regional patient mobility and to determine whether resident and non-resident patients differ. We also investigated whether public and private hospitals behave differently in terms of attracting patients. For this major cardio-surgical intervention, patient mobility in Italy is substantial (13.6% of total admissions). Such mobility mainly involves patients moving from southern to northern regions, which often requires several hundred kilometers of travel and a transfer of financial resources from poorer to richer regions. Patients admitted in the regions where they reside are older than those admitted outside their regions (69.2 versus 65.6, p<0.0001), and stay in hospital approximately 0.7 days longer (14.7 versus 14.0, p=0.017). Compared to public hospitals, private hospitals are more likely to admit non-resident patients (OR between 2.1 and 4.4). The extent and direction of patients' mobility raise equity concerns, as receiving care in locations that are distant from home requires substantial financial and relational resources.

  6. Update on epidemiology of HCV in Italy: focus on the Calabria Region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile of HCV infection is evolving in Europe, as well as in Italy. We have previously showed genotype distributions and their dynamics in 2,153 HCV RNA positive patients living in Calabria, Southern Italy, over 11 years. In this study, we extend and update this information by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of 945 HCV RNA positive patients attending five hospitals in the Calabria Region from January 2011 to August 2013. We assessed rates of HCV genotypes according to age and gender and the dynamics of HCV genotype distribution over the 3-year period studied. Data showed that genotype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by subtypes 2a/2c and genotype 3. Genotype 4 exhibited an increase between 2011 and 2013. Also, we found a significant decrease in the median age of subjects infected with HCV genotype 3 and 4 during the period studied. Since HCV genotypes are important in epidemiology, pathogenesis and response to antiviral therapy, a continuous epidemiological surveillance is needed. PMID:25236184

  7. Update on epidemiology of HCV in Italy: focus on the Calabria Region.

    PubMed

    Marascio, Nadia; Liberto, Maria; Barreca, Giorgio; Zicca, Emilia; Quirino, Angela; Lamberti, Angelo; Bianco, Giovanna; Matera, Giovanni; Surace, Lorenzo; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Surace, Lidia; De Maria, Vincenzo; Giancotti, Francesca; Leone, Rosa; Villella, Vilma; Nisticò, Salvatore; Borelli, Annelisa; Caruso, Vincenzina; Calderazzo, Massimo; Griffo, Gianfranco; Masciari, Rosanna; Minchella, Pasquale; Cosco, Lucio; Laganà, Carmelo; Oliva, Angela; Foti, Giuseppe; Fiorillo, Maria; Bocchiaro, Giuseppa; Surace, Pasquale; Ciccaglione, Anna; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Cesario, Francesco; Torti, Carlo; Focà, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile of HCV infection is evolving in Europe, as well as in Italy. We have previously showed genotype distributions and their dynamics in 2,153 HCV RNA positive patients living in Calabria, Southern Italy, over 11 years. In this study, we extend and update this information by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of 945 HCV RNA positive patients attending five hospitals in the Calabria Region from January 2011 to August 2013. We assessed rates of HCV genotypes according to age and gender and the dynamics of HCV genotype distribution over the 3-year period studied. Data showed that genotype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by subtypes 2a/2c and genotype 3. Genotype 4 exhibited an increase between 2011 and 2013. Also, we found a significant decrease in the median age of subjects infected with HCV genotype 3 and 4 during the period studied. Since HCV genotypes are important in epidemiology, pathogenesis and response to antiviral therapy, a continuous epidemiological surveillance is needed.

  8. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  9. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species.

  10. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  11. Epidemiological, clinical, and genetic characteristics of Paget's disease of bone in a rural area of Calabria, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; Gianfrancesco, F; De Filippo, G; Merlotti, D; Esposito, T; Aloia, A; Benvenuto, D; Vivona, C L; Annunziata, G; Nuti, R; Strazzullo, P; Mossetti, G; Gennari, L

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is unknown in peninsular Southern Italy, although an elevated clinical severity of the disease was reported in patients from Campania. This study was performed to evaluate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PDB in a rural area of Calabria, the southernmost region in the Italian peninsula. We examined 1068 consecutive pelvic radiographs of patients older than 40 yr referred for any reason to the "Spinelli" Hospital, Belvedere Marittimo, from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2006. In subjects with radiological findings of pelvic PDB, a 99m Technetium methylene diphosphonate bone scan and the sequence analysis of the sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) gene were subsequently performed. In the examined geographic area, the crude radiographic prevalence of pelvic PDB was 0.74% (8/1068; male:female 5:3, mean age 71.6 ± 13.1 yr) whereas the estimated overall prevalence of PDB between 0.82% and 1.21%. PDB patients from Calabria showed clinical characteristics similar to those reported in patients from Campania. The disease was also frequently complicated by osteoarthritis and the right side of the body was more affected than the left. The SQSTM1 gene analysis revealed the presence of a novel missense mutation (M401V) in exon 8 in one subject with a familial and aggressive form of PDB. The study results confirmed that patients with PDB from rural districts of Southern Italy show an earlier onset and an increased clinical severity of the disease that appears mostly independent from the presence of germinal SQSTM1 mutations.

  12. Mortality Trend for Tumor Correlated Immune System in Hyperendemic Area of HCV Infection in Southern Italy: Joinpoint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montella, Maurizio; Malvezzi, Matteo; Grimaldi, Maria; Nocerino, Flavia; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Pinto, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Crispo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background In many regions of southern Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health problem (with a prevalence rate between 6% and 13%). HCV is associated with different kinds of neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and with auto-immune diseases (cryoglobulinemia), which develop after the virus has caused immune system alterations. Objectives To provide updated information on trends in mortality in a major metropolitan area of southern Italy from NHL, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease we analyzed cancer mortality data from 1988 to 2009. Materials and Methods Mortality data were extracted from National death certificates by age groups, gender, residence and cause of death by the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT). Age-standardized mortality rates (SMR) were computed applying the direct method and using the world standard population. To quantify the recent direction of temporal trends in older populations over time, truncated age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated for people aged 65 years and older. Cancer mortality trends were described using their estimated annual percent change (EAPC) and related 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results Statistically significant increasing EAPC was found among women for NHL (+2.0% / year), while statistically significant decrease was found among men and women for HD (-3.5% / year, -3.4% / year, respectively). No statistically significant EAPC was found for multiple myeloma. Conclusions The association between viral hepatitis and NHL in the area of interest might provide some degree of explanation to this finding. Our data confirm that due to epidemic infection of HCV in the area of Naples, a high mortality for NHL persists, moreover the adoption of standard therapeutic protocols administered in full accordance with an evidence-based approach and current guidelines explain reduced mortality from Hodgkin lymphomas. PMID:24171011

  13. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  14. [Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in Veneto Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Saia, M; Callegaro, G; Pilerci, C; Pietrobon, F

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GB) is still a common medical emergency and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. There is clear evidence that early endoscopic intervention is effective in reducing mortality, length of stay and surgery procedures utilization in high-risk patients. In the last decades advances in medical practice and in endoscopic technology have influenced the management of GB, but their impact on the incidence and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively time trends (2000-2007) in GB hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality, and describe the organization of endoscopic services of Veneto region, Italy. Data were collected from regional database of hospital discharge from 2000 to 2007 and all patients with an ICD 9-CM discharge diagnosis of GB were included. Overall hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates were respectively 99.3 and 4.5 per 100.000 inh./year, the last being related to older age. Surgery procedures utilization was 5%. Hospitalization and mortality rates decreased significantly over years, probably owing to advances in the acute management of GB, principally represented by endoscopic procedures.

  15. Assessment of potentially harmful elements pollution in the Calore River basin (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuzolo, Daniela; Cicchella, Domenico; Catani, Vittorio; Giaccio, Lucia; Guagliardi, Ilaria; Esposito, Libera; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-06-01

    The geographical distribution of concentration values for harmful elements was determined in the Campania region, Italy. The study area consists of the drainage basin of the River Calore, a tributary of the river Volturno, the largest Southern Italian river. The results provide reliable analytical data allowing a quantitative assessment of the trace element pollution threat to the ecosystem and human health. Altogether 562 stream sediment samples were collected at a sampling density of 1 site per 5 km(2). All samples were air-dried, sieved to <100 mesh fraction and analyzed for 37 elements after an aqua regia extraction by a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In addition to elemental analysis, gamma-ray spectrometry data were collected (a total of 562 measurements) using a hand-held Scintrex GRS-500 spectrometer. Statistical analyses were performed to show the single-element distribution and the distribution of elemental association factor scores resulting from R-mode factor analyses. Maps showing element distributions were made using GeoDAS and ArcGIS software. Our study showed that, despite evidence from concentrations of many elements for enrichment over natural background values, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements in Calore River basin is determined mostly by geogenic factors. The southwestern area of the basin highlighted an enrichment of many elements potentially harmful for human health and other living organisms (Al, Fe, K, Na, As, Cd, La, Pb, Th, Tl, U); however, these anomalies are due to the presence of pyroclastic and alkaline volcanic lithologies. Even where sedimentary lithologies occur, many harmful elements (Co, Cr, Mn, Ni) showed high concentration levels due to natural origins. Conversely, a strong heavy metal contamination (Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ag, Au, Hg), due to an anthropogenic contribution, is highlighted in many areas characterized by the presence of road junctions, urban settlements and industrial areas. The enrichment factor

  16. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  17. Facies characteristics and magma-water interaction of the White Trachytic Tuffs (Roccamonfina Volcano, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido

    The Quaternary White Trachytic Tuffs Formation from Roccamonfina Volcano (southern Italy) comprises four non-welded, trachytic, pyroclastic sequences bounded by paleosols, each of which corresponds to small- to intermediate-volume explosive eruptions from central vents. From oldest to youngest they are: White Trachytic Tuff (WTT) Cupa, WTT Aulpi, WTT S. Clemente, and WTT Galluccio. The WTT Galluccio eruption was the largest and emplaced 4km3 of magma. The internal stratigraphy of all four WTT eruptive units is a complex association of fallout, surge, and pyroclastic flow deposits. Each eruptive unit is organized into two facies associations, Facies Association A below Facies Association B. The emplacement of the two facies associations may have been separated by short time breaks allowing for limited reworking and erosion. Facies Association A consists of interbedded fallout deposits, surge deposits, and subordinate ignimbrites. This facies association involved the eruption of the most evolved trachytic magma, and pumice clasts are white and well vesiculated. The grain size coarsens upward in Facies Association A, with upward increases of dune bedform wavelengths and a decrease in the proportion of fine ash. These trends could reflect an increase in eruption column height from the onset of the eruption and possibly also in mass eruption rate. Facies Association B comprises massive ignimbrites that are progressively richer in lithic clast content. This association involved the eruption of more mafic magma, and pumice clasts are gray and poorly vesiculated. Facies Association B is interpreted to record the climax of the eruption. Phreatomagmatic deposits occur at different stratigraphic levels in the four WTT and have different facies characteristics. The deposits reflect the style and degree of magma-water interaction and the local hydrogeology. Very fine-grained, lithic-poor phreatomagmatic surge deposits found at the base of WTT Cupa and WTT Galluccio could record

  18. Database for the degradation risk assessment of groundwater resources (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, M.; Dragone, V.; Mitolo, D.

    2003-04-01

    The risk characterisation of quality degradation and availability lowering of groundwater resources has been pursued for a wide coastal plain (Basilicata region, Southern Italy), an area covering 40 km along the Ionian Sea and 10 km inland. The quality degradation is due two phenomena: pollution due to discharge of waste water (coming from urban areas) and due to salt pollution, related to seawater intrusion but not only. The availability lowering is due to overexploitation but also due to drought effects. To this purpose the historical data of 1,130 wells have been collected. Wells, homogenously distributed in the area, were the source of geological, stratigraphical, hydrogeological, geochemical data. In order to manage space-related information via a GIS, a database system has been devised to encompass all the surveyed wells and the body of information available per well. Geo-databases were designed to comprise the four types of data collected: a database including geometrical, geological and hydrogeological data on wells (WDB), a database devoted to chemical and physical data on groundwater (CDB), a database including the geotechnical parameters (GDB), a database concering piezometric and hydrological (rainfall, air temperature, river discharge) data (HDB). The record pertaining to each well is identified in these databases by the progressive number of the well itself. Every database is designed as follows: a) the HDB contains 1,158 records, 28 of and 31 fields, mainly describing the geometry of the well and of the stratigraphy; b) the CDB encompasses data about 157 wells, based on which the chemical and physical analyses of groundwater have been carried out. More than one record has been associated with these 157 wells, due to periodic monitoring and analysis; c) the GDB covers 61 wells to which the geotechnical parameters obtained by soil samples taken at various depths; the HDB is designed to permit the analysis of long time series (from 1918) of piezometric

  19. The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010).

    PubMed

    Jonker, Marcel F; D'Ippolito, Edoardo; Eikemo, Terje A; Congdon, Peter D; Nante, Nicola; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2017-03-01

    The evidence on the association between politics and health is scarce considering the importance of this topic for population health. Studies that investigated the effect of different political regimes on health outcomes show inconsistent results. Bayesian time-series cross-section analyses are used to examine the overall impact of regional politics on variations in Italian regional life expectancy (LE) at birth during the period 1980-2010. Our analyses control for trends in and unobserved determinants of regional LE, correct for temporal as well as spatial autocorrelation, and employ a flexible specification for the timing of the political effects. In the period from 1980 to 1995, we find no evidence that the communist, left-oriented coalitions and Christian Democratic, centre-oriented coalitions have had an effect on regional LE. In the period from 1995 onwards, after a major reconfiguration of Italy's political regimes and a major healthcare reform, we again find no evidence that the Centre-Left and Centre-Right coalitions have had a significant impact on regional LE. The presented results provide no support for the notion that different regional political regimes in Italy have had a differential effect on regional LE, even though Italian regions have had considerable and increasing autonomy over healthcare and health-related policies and expenditures.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a methodology, based both on the use methods of time series analyses and of geospatial analyses of monthly climatic data (rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), annual maximum of short-duration rainfall (from 1 hour to 5 days), historical modification of land use, and population variations in order to characterise the effects of these variables on the occurrence of landsliding in Daunia area, located on the eastern margin of the Southern Apennines thrust belt (southern Italy). Rock strata (mainly) interbedded with clayey marls, clays and silty-clays outcrop in this area. Due to the intense strain history, these successions are found to be from stratified to deeply fractured, up to be disrupted and floating as blocks in a clayey matrix. In turn, the clay units are laminated to intensely fissured and characterised by very poor mechanical properties (Santaloia et al., 2012). The statistical analyses deal with data coming from published databases, integrated by public and private documents, referring to a wide time span. Climate data records from 1877 to 2008 were elaborated, in particular the data coming from sixteen rainfall gauges, ten of which were also thermometric. Moreover, some monthly indices of rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, temperature, and landslide occurrence were introduced to simplify the analysis of parameters, characterised by spatial and temporal variability. The population records are from the 19th century up to now while the time period of reference for the land use data is from 1930 up to now. As concerns the landslide events, they were collected from 1918 to 2006. The main source of these records is the AVI database, an existing Italian database that collects data about damaging floods and landslides from 1918 to 1996. This dataset was integrated up to 2006 by consulting newspapers, scientific publications, technical reports, written by the researchers of the CNR-IRPI for the Civil

  1. Like a pig out of water: seaborne spread of domestic pigs in Southern Italy and Sardinia during the Bronze and Iron Ages.

    PubMed

    Lega, C; Fulgione, D; Genovese, A; Rook, L; Masseti, M; Meiri, M; Cinzia Marra, A; Carotenuto, F; Raia, P

    2017-02-01

    Southern Italy has a long history of human occupation and passage of different cultures since the Early Holocene. Repeated, ancient introductions of pigs in several geographic areas in Europe make it difficult to understand pig translocation and domestication in Italy. The archeozoological record may provide fundamental information on this, hence shedding light on peopling and on trading among different ancient cultures in the Mediterranean. Yet, because of the scanty nature of the fossil record, ancient remains from human-associated animals are somewhat rare. Fortunately, ancient DNA analysis as applied to domestic species proved to be a powerful tool in revealing human migrations. Herein, we analyzed 80-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region from 27 Sus scrofa ancient samples retrieved from Southern Italian and Sardinian archeological sites, spanning in age from the Mesolithic to the Roman period. Our results surprisingly indicate the presence of the Near Eastern haplotype Y1 on both Italy's major islands (Sardinia and Sicily) during the Bronze Age, suggesting the seaborne transportation of domestic pigs by humans at least during 1600-1300 BC. The presence of the Italian E2 clade in domestic contexts shows that the indigenous wild boar was effectively domesticated or incorporated into domestic stocks in Southern Italy during the Bronze Age, although the E2 haplotype has never been found in modern domestic breeds. Pigs belonging to the endemic E2 clade were thus traded between the Peninsula and Sardinia by the end of the second millennium BC and this genetic signature is still detected in Sardinian feral pigs.

  2. Mortality pattern of silicotic subjects in the Latium region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Forastiere, F; Lagorio, S; Michelozzi, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1989-12-01

    A mortality study was carried out on 595 workers who were compensated for silicosis in the Latium region, Italy, during the period 1946-84 who died between 1 January 1969 and 31 December 1984. Respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, lung cancer, bone cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver showed significantly increased risk ratios (4.1, 3.7, 1.5, 4.1, and 1.9 respectively); excesses of brain cancer and leukaemia did not reach statistical significance. Lung cancer mortality was further analysed by age, period of compensation, final degree of disability, and occupational activity. The possible confounding role of smoking was assessed by comparing the lifetime smoking habits of a sample of silicotic subjects with those of the general male population as estimated by a national health survey; the prevalence of ever smokers among silicotic subjects (70.7%) was similar to that estimated for the general population (68.5%). The present study indicates that silicosis is associated with lung cancer even though it does not clarify the respective roles of exposure to silica and silicosis.

  3. Southern Living and Southern Voices: Models of Regional Magazine Success and Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, John W.

    This paper examines the phenomenon of magazine success and failure as demonstrated by two regional magazines, "Southern Living" and "Southern Voices." The former, a combination of articles about food, travel, sports, and other positive aspects of southern life, was quickly accepted by its readers and advertisers and began…

  4. Last Interglacial palaeovegetation, palaeoenvironments and chronology: a new record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Judy R. M.; Huntley, Brian

    2009-07-01

    The sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy, extend continuously from the present back to the penultimate glacial stage and have an independent lamination-based chronology of high precision and accuracy. Results are presented here from a detailed palynological investigation of that part of the sediment sequence that extends from the last millennia of the penultimate glacial stage to the first stadial following the Last Interglacial (LI). Quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstructions made from the palynological data are also presented. The onset of the LI is dated to 127.20 ka BP, a date that is consistent with other recent estimates; the duration of the LI is estimated to have been 17.70 ka. The palaeovegetation record indicates a transition period of 3.35 ka at the end of the penultimate glacial stage prior to the onset of the LI; no Younger Dryas-like oscillation is recorded, although the transition was interrupted by a brief event, lasting ca 250 years, during which pollen of woody taxa was reduced in abundance. Steppe vegetation dominated during the latter part of the penultimate full-glacial stage, but was replaced progressively by wooded steppe during the transition. Although the development of forest cover marked the onset of the LI, the forests were relatively open or discontinuous during the first 2.65 ka, closing progressively thereafter and generally dominating between 123.00 and 109.50 ka BP. The end of the LI is dated to 109.50 ka BP, after which date forest cover became discontinuous and wooded steppe or steppe dominated during the 1.90 ka of the subsequent stadial. As might be expected, given the location of the lake, the composition of the LI forests differs markedly from those recorded from northern Europe, as well as from those recorded at other localities in southern Europe. The palaeoclimate reconstructions reveal complex changes in seasonality, the maximum coldest month mean temperatures being between 125.70 ka

  5. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; de Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest.

  6. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Christopher R J; De Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-05-15

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering as fingerprinting of ancient potteries from Sicily (Southern Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Teixeira, J.

    2009-09-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out in order to investigate, in microdestructive way, the mesoscopic structure of a variety of potteries of relevance to cultural heritage coming from different Sicilian (Southern Italy) archeological sites belonging to the 'Strait of Messina' area and dated back to 7th-3rd century B.C. Data have been compared with the mesoscopic parameters extracted for two series of clayey sediments typical of the Strait of Messina area and fired under controlled conditions. The observed agreement between the features of reference and archeological samples allowed us to estimate the maximum firing temperature of the latter. Information on the pore sizes was obtained by the use of the concept of fractal surface, and compared with porosimetry results.

  8. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  9. Underground waters quality in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Maci, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows the results of underground waters last monitoring in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy). We carried out the physical-chemical characterization of the aquifers and their classification in accordance to limit values sanctioned by Italian legislation in force, by European directives and by FAO, in order to define their quality and to establish their possible use for drinkable and irrigation purposes. The attention has been focused on salinity evaluation and underground waters contamination phenomena, due to sea-water intrusion and to the use of fertilizers. Salinity and nitrates concentrations are high in a few wells. Iron and manganese concentrations are very high for almost every sample and this is due to corrosion phenomena of artesian wells metallic structure. For a better interpretation of data, multivariate statistical analysis has been used, in order to obtain the correlation among analytical results, soils hydro-geological properties and anthropic conditions.

  10. Multi-temporal maps of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy from 1954 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, Luigi; Revellino, Paola; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Focareta, Mariano; Grelle, Gerardo; Albanese, Vincenzo; Corazza, Angelo; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2013-01-01

    Historical movement of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy has periodically destroyed residences and farmland, and damaged the Italian National Road SS90 and the Benevento-Foggia National Railway. This paper provides maps from an investigation into the evolution of the Montaguto earth flow from 1954 to 2010. We used aerial photos, topographic maps, LiDAR data, satellite images, and field observations to produce multi-temporal maps. The maps show the spatial and temporal distribution of back-tilted surfaces, flank ridges, and normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Springs, creeks, and ponds are also shown on the maps. The maps provide a basis for interpreting how basal and lateral boundary geometries influence earth-flow behavior and surface-water hydrology.

  11. Synanthropy and temporal variability of Calliphoridae living in Cosenza (Calabria, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Silvia; Brandmayr, Pietro; Bonacci, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synanthropy of Diptera: Calliphoridae, insects of forensic importance, in Calabria (southern Italy). The study lasted 2 years, from February 2010 to January 2012, and was carried out in three areas of Cosenza province representing "urban", "rural", and "wild" environments. Bottle traps baited with pork were used to catch Calliphoridae. Six species were identified, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve 1922, Lucilia caesar (L.), and Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826). Data on phenologies in the study areas are reported for these species and the Synanthropy Index was calculated to evaluate their relationship with the human environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Hepatitis A virus and norovirus in bivalve molluscs in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanna; Aprea, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio; Guarino, Achille; Viscardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    European Legislation has fixed microbiological, chemical and biotoxicological limits for shellfish but no limits for viruses. In the present study we report the results of an investigation on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV) contamination in 59 bivalve shellfish collected during the years 2011-2012 in Southern Italy. All the samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis and of Solen marginatus were negative for HAV whereas 6.8% of them were positive for Norovirus GI (NoVGI) and 11.9% positive for Norovirus GII (NoVGII). Samples were also negative for Salmonella spp., while 16 of them (27%) were positive for E. coli. No correlation was found between E. coli and NoV contamination in bivalve molluscs. Moreover, the Competent Authorities are advised to take into serious consideration additional measures for the legislation in force in order to guarantee the consumer's health.

  13. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Christopher R.J.; De Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest. PMID:28504261

  14. Helminth infestation in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Tripepi, Mauro; Kinsella, John M; Panebianco, Antonio; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2010-10-01

    Helminth infestation was identified at post mortem examination in 110/116 (95%) raptors belonging to six species in Southern Italy. Pathological changes associated with helminths were observed in 81/110 (74%) of birds. Lesions in the respiratory system were associated with the nematode Serratospiculum tendo only in Falco peregrinus. Lesions in the digestive tract in a range of species of raptors were associated with nematodes (Cheilospirura falconis, Dispharynx falconis, Dispharynx mathewossianae, Physaloptera spp., Procyrnea spp., Procyrnea leptoptera, Synhimantus spp., Synhimantus laticeps, Eucoleus dispar, Porrocaecum spp. and Porrocaecum angusticolle), acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus buteonis and Centrorhynchus globocaudatus), digeneans (Neodiplostomum spp., Neodiplostomum perlatum, Parastrigea intermedia and Strigea falconis) and a single cestode (Cladotaenia spp.). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L

    2005-10-03

    A cross-cultural comparison of traditional household remedies in primary health care and ritual healing practices in two economically and socio-demographically similar communities in Lucania (inland southern Italy) was considered: Ginestra/Zhurë, inhabited by ethnic Albanians, who migrated to the area during the 15th century, and Castelmezzano, inhabited by autochthonous South-Italians. In Ginestra/Zhurë, the number of traditional natural remedies (mainly derived from local medicinal plants) was only half of that in the local folk pharmacopoeia quoted in Castelmezzano. However, ritual magic-healing practices still play a central role among the Albanians in Ginestra/Zhurë, while they do not in Castelmezzano. Reasons for this shift, as well as components that have affected cultural adaptation phenomena and transitions among the Albanians are discussed.

  16. Analysis of the spatial correlation structure exhibited by daily rainfall in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Ferrari, E.

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of the spatial correlation structure exhibited by ground-based rainfall measurements can provide useful results for understanding, from a climatic point of view, the effects produced by the interaction between meteorological patterns and morphological features of a given territory. The central aspect of this study is the description of the spatial inhomogeneity and anisotropy that characterizes the correlation structure of daily rainfall. In the proposed approach, the analysis is developed by assuming that the correlation structure exhibited by the rainfall heights can be interpreted through a suitable deformation of the spatial coordinates providing a homogeneous and isotropic field. The technique has been applied to the daily rainfall recorded at the rain gauges network of the Crati River basin (Southern Italy). The results show that the elliptic deformations of the spatial structure exhibited by the correlation structure of the rain gauges are closely related to the physiographic features of the territory.

  17. Dental anthropology of central-southern, Iron Age Italy: the evidence of metric versus nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Coppa, A; Cucina, A; Mancinelli, D; Vargiu, R; Calcagno, J M

    1998-12-01

    Discrete and metric dental traits are used to assess biological similarities and differences among 13 bioarchaeological populations located on each side of the Apennine mountains in central-southern Italy and dated to the first millennium BC. An initial hypothesis, that the mountain chain might provide a significant geographical barrier for population movement (resulting in greater biological affinities among those groups on the same side), is not supported. Instead, the samples appear to cluster more on the basis of time than geography. Archaeological evidence, however, supports an association between populations on opposite sides of the mountains and thus is in accord with the dental data. As anticipated, discrete dental traits appear to be more useful than metric dental traits in assessing such population affinities. This research represents a beginning to a better comprehension of the complexity of the biological and cultural dynamics of Italian populations during recent millennia.

  18. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  19. Characterization of the Cystoid Nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae (Nemata: Sphaeronematidae) from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vovlas, N; Landa, B B; Liébanas, G; Handoo, Z A; Subbotin, S A; Castillo, P

    2006-09-01

    A population of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in southern Italy. The morphological identification of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which clearly separated it from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni. A phylogenetic analysis of M. kirjanovae with species of related genera was conducted using sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with trees from an extended dataset for Criconematina and Tylenchida. The basal position of the genus Meloidoderita together with Sphaeronema within the Criconematina clade in this tree may indicate their close relationships. The anatomical changes induced by M. kirjanovae population from Italy in water mint were similar to those reported for a nematode population infecting roots of M. longifolia in Israel. Nematode feeding caused the formation of a stellar syncytium that disorganized the pericycle and vascular root tissues.

  20. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in Salerno (southern Italy) and its province.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, G; Napoletano, R

    2008-01-01

    Many multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence studies in Italian northern and central areas, since 1980, have put Italy in a high risk zone; none concerns southern Italy. The MS registry of Salerno Center was reviewed, including the city and 16 towns at different distances (9-149 km) better connected to our Center. Population screened: 259 681 persons (Salerno = 136 678; province = 123 003). Prevalence day was December 31, 2005. Data on 186 patients were collected of which 55 were males, 131 females; crude total prevalence = 71.6263 (62.03-82.303, ranging from 50.1128 (Oliveto Citra) to 431.499 (Controne). Salerno prevalence rate is 70.9697 (57.41-86.583); standardized = 72.02. Incidence rate ranges from 2.38585 (1.6-3.39) (1991-95) to 4.31997 (3.24-5.6) (2001-05). Our data can be underestimated because some patients could have skipped the local center. This emphasizes that the results, except for Sardinia, are comparable to Italian literature data. They confirm that this territory is a high risk area for MS. There is also an indirect indication against a latitude gradient for MS.

  1. Characterization of the Cystoid Nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae (Nemata: Sphaeronematidae) from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, N.; Landa, B.B.; Liébanas, G.; Handoo, Z.A.; Subbotin, S.A.; Castillo, P.

    2006-01-01

    A population of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in southern Italy. The morphological identification of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which clearly separated it from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni. A phylogenetic analysis of M. kirjanovae with species of related genera was conducted using sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with trees from an extended dataset for Criconematina and Tylenchida. The basal position of the genus Meloidoderita together with Sphaeronema within the Criconematina clade in this tree may indicate their close relationships. The anatomical changes induced by M. kirjanovae population from Italy in water mint were similar to those reported for a nematode population infecting roots of M. longifolia in Israel. Nematode feeding caused the formation of a stellar syncytium that disorganized the pericycle and vascular root tissues. PMID:19259543

  2. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  3. Prescription Patterns of Antidiabetic Treatment in the Elderly. Results from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Valentina; Guerriero, Francesca; Putignano, Daria; Monetti, Valeria M.; Tari, Daniele U.; Farina, Giuseppin; Illario, Maddalena; Iaccarino, Guido; Menditto, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetes in the elderly is a major challenge both in terms of clinical management and of public health. Evidence about prescribing patterns in the elderly diabetic population is limited. The aim was to describe trends in antidiabetic drug (AD) utilization patterns in the elderly in Southern Italy with a focus on drugs for cardiovascular prevention and pharmaceutical costs. The data used for this study were obtained from pharmacy records of Caserta Local Health Authority, a province in Southern Italy with 1 million of inhabitants, comprising urban and rural areas. Subjects above 65 years who received at least one dispensing of antidiabetic between January 2010 and December 2014 were selected. Prevalence and incidence rates (%) of AD use were calculated for each calendar year and stratified by class therapy and age group. Sub-analyses by cardiovascular co-medication therapy and pharmaceutical cost analysis were performed. The prevalence rate decreases from 22.0% in 2010 to 17.5% in 2014 (p<0.001). Proportion of subjects treated with monotherapy increases over the study period (33.9% in 2010; 38.6% in 2014; p<0.001). In particular, increases the proportion of users of metformin (18.2% in 2010; 23.7% in 2014; p<0.001), while the proportion of users of sulfonylureas dropped (11.0% in 2010; 7.2% in 2014; p< 0.001). About 90% of elderly diabetic patients are treated with drugs for cardiovascular prevention. The per/patient/yearly drug costs were 2,349 €: 28.5% for AD therapy and 71.5% for other treatments. Trend in drug utilization patterns showed a tendency towards treatment recommendations in older adults. PMID:26126718

  4. Source scaling of microearthquakes at Mt. Etna Volcano and in the Calabrian Arc (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, D.; Ferrucci, F.; Giampiccolo, E.; Scaramuzzino, L.

    Microearthquake data recorded at Mt. Etna volcano and in the Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy) have been used to study the scaling of the main source parameters. After correction of the P-wave displacement spectra for both path attenuation and the site amplification effects, an inverse method has been applied to compute spectral parameters (low frequency spectral level, corner frequency and high frequency roll-off). Results show that seismic moments (M0) range from ca. 1016 to 1021 dyne-cm at Mt. Etna and from ca 1017 to 1020 dyne-cm in southern Calabria. Corner frequencies range from ca. 3 to 15 Hz. In both areas we found that the stress drop decreases (from ca. 100 to few bars) with decreasing seismic moment. A simple Brune source model is not able to explain the source scaling, because the typical fall-off observed at higher frequencies (ω-3 as an average) is larger than that of Brune's theory. Furthermore, the relation between the seismic moment and the corner frequency points to a scaling law behaving as M0∝ωc-4.5 and M0∝ωc-3.6 on average, at Mt. Etna and in southern Calabria respectively, and higher for smaller events in both areas. Therefore, the cube law (M0 ∝ ω-3) generally accepted for large earthquakes does not hold true for the analysed microearthquakes, neither for those which occur along the tectonic structures of southern Calabria, or along those hosting the roots of the feeding system of the largest European volcano.

  5. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  6. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  7. [Monitoring plan of environmental contaminants in sheep milk from areas next to an Italian contaminated site named «Aree industriali di Porto Torres e discarica di Calancoi» (Industrial areas of Porto Torres and landfill of Calancoi) in Sardinia Region (Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Sgarangella, Francesco; Bitti, Giuseppe; Suelzu, Maria Caterina; Desini, Pietro; Piras, Patrizia; Fiori, Gianuario; Cossu, Maurizio; Chessa, Giannina

    2016-01-01

    to assess concentration levels of dioxins, PCBs, and chemical elements in sheep milk produced in areas close to the Italian contaminated site (CS) located in the North-West of Sardinia (Southern Italy), named «Aree industriali di Porto Torres e discarica di Calancoi» (i.e., industrial areas of Porto Torres and landfill of Calancoi). monitoring plan of environmental contaminants on zootechnical productions based on analysis of dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb), and other elements (As, Be, Cr, Ni, Tl , Zn) in sheep bulk milk. 60 samples of sheep bulk milk were collected in rural farms where animals were fed mainly with forage and feed produced in the CS: 30 samples from farms located near the industrial area of Porto Torres and 30 taken from farms spread out the landfill area of Calancoi, a former waste dump in the East of Sassari city. the concentration levels of target substances were determined and compared to legal thresholds fixed on EU regulations. concentrations of target substances in all samples were below the maximum limits set by EU regulations. Dioxins and DL-PCBs (expressed as the sum) were in the range 0.20-1.30 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, NDL-PCB (sum of the six marker congeners) were in the range 0.50-7.50 ng/g, while concentrations of all heavy metals were not detectable or were near the limit of quantitation of the method. Undetectable concentrations were also observed for the toxic elements beryllium and thallium. concentration levels of micro-pollutants in milk samples were significantly lower than the legal thresholds. Concentrations and congener profiles showed no relevant differences compared to milk samples from areas with low environmental impact, therefore consumption of milk from the studied area do not produce a higher intake of contaminants respect to the regional milk. The results of this study do not make the resident population safe from health risks caused by critical issue of the CS, but provide information limited to the safety of

  8. Increased incidence of multiple sclerosis in the Veneto region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Puthenparampil, M; Seppi, D; Rinaldi, F; Federle, L; Calabrese, M; Perini, P; Gallo, P

    2013-04-01

    To what extent the progressive increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) observed in the province of Padova over the period 1970-1999 was an expression of a real increased risk of developing MS remained unclear. The objective of this paper is to update the epidemiological figures of MS and probe whether the risk of having MS has increased in the province of Padova during the decade 2000-2009. All patients born in Italy and having a diagnosis of MS or possible MS identified through analysis of all available sources of information were included in the study. The incidence and prevalence rates between 2000 and 2009 were obtained and compared with our previously published data. On 31 December 2009, the overall prevalence was 139.5/100,000, 192.0 ± 9.5 for females and 83.9 ± 6.3 for males. During the decade 2000-2009, the overall incidence rate of MS was 5.5 ± 0.5, 7.4 ± 0.8 for females and 3.5 ± 0.6 for males. The onset-diagnosis delay, the female/male ratio and the mean age at onset did not significantly change compared to the prior period of observation. Our findings support the hypothesis of a real increased risk of developing MS in the province of Padova. Moreover, the actual prevalence of 1.4/1000 makes our region a high-risk geographical area for MS. The role played by exogenous factors in determining susceptibility to MS needs to be thoroughly investigated.

  9. Nowcasting and assessing thunderstorm risk on the Lombardy region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.; Bertolotti, E.; Collino, E.; Stella, G.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of severe thunderstorm risk in the Lombardy region (Italy) is serious. In fact during the warm season many thunderstorms (TS) occur in high density populated area located between the river Po and the Alps. In the year 2003, about 90 TS caused damage to people, houses, cars, agriculture and electrical lines. About 30 municipalities undergo damage by tornadoes. The 2003 summer was not particularly anomalous with respect to others for TS activity. In this region storms are well detected by some C-band radars and the Meteosat satellites, but the study of the correlation between these variables and the TS severity needs the collection of many met-data at the ground. Unfortunately the lack of a fine mesh met-station network forces the use of local press news or subjective reports to identify the impact of TS. Since 2006 ERSE has been collaborating with the Lombardy Region - Civil Protection Service/Office - in developing and testing a system to detect and nowcast severe thunderstorms, STAF (Storm Track Alert and Forecast). STAF is a nowcasting tool based on Radar and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) data that selects only severe TS, tracks them and produces alert messages to users. In order to evaluate the severity of a TS, a crucial issue for STAF is the correlation between variables detected by the remote-sensing instruments and the effects at the ground. The paper describes a method to classify the severity of a TS by computing an index named "probability of damage" (PD). The index has been carried out by means of a storm archive, where radar and satellite data are stored together with damages reports from newspapers, all collected in 2003 summer. The index has been verified during the 2009 summer, when STAF was applied in a field test involving a group of Civil Protection observers and users. The results of this test are reported in the paper. The test has been also an occasion for verifying the effectiveness of information provided by STAF to selected

  10. Fractal scaling of landslide distribution in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Ponziani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The application of the fractal theory has made a great contribution to the understanding of surface processes governing landscape evolution. In this study we focus on landslide events, which also have critical implications in Natural Hazard assessment. Several works have shown that landslides can be described as processes characterized by self-organized criticality. Based on this, the distribution of landslides in the Umbria Region (Central Italy) was analysed by means of fractal techniques. Statistical self-similarity in space was investigated by applying the box-counting method and the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the inventory map of landslide trigger points. Results showed the existence of fractal scaling and provided an estimate of the Capacity Dimension (D0) and Correlation Dimension (D2) of the sample, the latter expressed as the mean regional value. The characteristic minimum distance of landslides was extrapolated from the lower scaling limit for D0. In order to investigate the spatial pattern of landslides, artificial point maps were generated. Three different distributions were imposed on the points: i) uniform distribution, ii) random distribution and iii) cluster distribution. The box-counting method was applied to each distribution and the calculated Capacity Dimensions were compared with that of the natural sample. Results showed that landslides in the Umbria Region display spatial clustering. In addition, the D0 measured for the uniform distribution, lower than 2, highlights that the statement that a D0 equal to 2 indicates a uniform distribution of points in a 2-dimensional space must be carefully considered on a case by case basis, since the shape of the embedding space strongly affects its value. Additional analyses were carried out to address the problem of the 'edge effect' in the computation of D2, which results in the underestimation of its value and may lead to incorrect interpretations of the statistical distribution of points. We

  11. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Paul T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  12. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  13. The late Barremian Halimedides horizon of the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Lukeneder, Alexander; Uchman, Alfred; Gaillard, Christian; Olivero, Davide

    2012-01-01

    A new trace fossil marker level, the Halimedides horizon, is proposed for the Lower Cretaceous pelagic to hemipelagic succession of the Puez area (Southern Alps, Italy). The horizon occurs in the middle part of the late Barremian Gerhardtia sartousiana Zone (Gerhardtia sartousiana Subzone). It is approximately 20 cm thick and restricted to the uppermost part of the Puez Limestone Member (marly limestones; Hauterivian–Barremian; Puez Formation). It is fixed to the top 20 cm of bed P1/204. The grey–whitish limestone bed of the G. sartousiana Zone is penetrated by Aptian red marls–siltstones of the Redbed Member. The horizon is documented for the first time from the Southern Alps, including the Dolomites, and can be correlated with other Mediterranean localities. The trace fossil assemblage of this marker bed with the co-occurrence of Halimedides, Spongeliomorpha and Zoophycos sheds light on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentological history and current system of the Puez area within the Dolomites. It also highlights the palaeoenvironmental evolution of basins and plateaus and provides insights into the late Barremian interval. PMID:27087717

  14. Species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction.

  15. Structural setting of the Southern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt (Italy) at hypocentral depth: The Calore Valley case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucci, Daniela; Massa, Bruno; Tornaghi, Milly; Zuppetta, Agostino

    2006-11-01

    The reconstruction of the main structural features of the Southern Apennines (Italy), in correspondence with the focal volume of some strong earthquakes that have affected this chain, can be attempted by analysing reflection seismic lines and deep well logs in comparison with surface geology. For instance, the Calore Valley and its surroundings have been the object of intense hydrocarbon exploration, and a wealth of subsurface data is available. Moreover, this area was affected by the 1688 Sannio earthquake (macroseismic magnitude 7.1), and a new location has recently been proposed for the related causative fault system. The present work defines the structural setting of the Southern Apennine chain in correspondence with this new location, and compares it with similar cases along the Italian peninsula. The analysis was focussed on the reconstruction of deep tectonic units (formed by the buried Apulia carbonate platform succession), which generally correspond to the hypocentral depths of strong earthquakes along the axis of the Southern Apennines. The results show that the Apulia platform succession is affected by three main thrusts, locally accompanied by backthrusts. The top of this succession is relatively shallow: the maximum depth does not exceed 1.8 s TWT (i.e. about 3500 m b.s.l.), while minimum depths occur in correspondence with the ramp anticlines culminations, at ˜0.5 s TWT (i.e. at about 500 m b.s.l.). Moreover, data suggest that the underlying Paleozoic basement is possibly involved in thrusting. In a regional perspective, extensional seismogenic structures along the axis of the Southern Apennines seem to share some common characteristics. Indeed, they develop (i) in correspondence with an uplifted Paleozoic basement; (ii) at the rear of a set of thrusts that account for the shallow Apulia units; (iii) at the surface, in proximity to the leading edge of a surficial tectonic unit formed by the Apennine carbonate platform succession. The 1688 seismogenic

  16. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  17. Possible fault plane in a seismic gap area of the southern Apennines (Italy) revealed by receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucente, Francesco Pio; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Moro, Marco; Selvaggi, Giulio; di Bona, Massimo

    2005-04-01

    Unusual features in teleseismic receiver function, computed at a single three-component seismic station, reveal the presence of a dipping interface in the shallow crust with a pronounced seismic velocity contrast in the Campania-Lucania region, southern Apennines (Italy). The locus of this finding is the Pergola-Melandro basin, situated between the maximum intensity areas of two of the most destructive earthquakes reported in the Italian seismic catalogue: the M ˜ 7.0 Val d'Agri earthquake (1857) and the Ms = 6.9 Irpinia earthquake (1980). This area is not associated with known historical events and for this reason is currently object of investigation as a potential seismic gap, where the probability of future ruptures is higher than in surrounding regions, also for the static stress increase caused by the two above mentioned earthquakes. Through an inversion procedure applied to the computed receiver functions, we are able to satisfactorily constrain the strike, dip, depth, and velocity contrast of this crustal discontinuity, whose geometric characteristics closely match those proposed by some authors for the sources of the two neighboring earthquakes. We argue that the detected interface is the seismogenic source which fills the gap. The findings of this study could open new perspectives both in the study of seismic gap areas and in the identification of historical earthquake sources, offering a new and effective tool to locate, investigate, and constrain buried or unknown faults.

  18. Inferences on the lithospheric structure of Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) from seismic noise cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.

  19. A cluster of progranulin C157KfsX97 mutations in Southern Italy: clinical characterization and genetic correlations.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Cinzia; Saracino, Dario; Puoti, Gianfranco; Lus, Giacomo; Dato, Clemente; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jeremie; Caroppo, Paola; Piccoli, Elena; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Rossi, Giacomina

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of neurodegenerative diseases displaying high clinical, pathologic, and genetic heterogeneity. Several autosomal dominant progranulin (GRN) mutations have been reported, accounting for 5%-10% of FTLD cases worldwide. In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of 7 Italian patients, 5 with a diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia behavioral variant and 2 of corticobasal syndrome (CBS), carrying the GRN deletion g.101349_101355delCTGCTGT, resulting in the C157KfsX97 null mutation, and hypothesized the existence of a founder effect by means of haplotype sharing analysis. We performed plasma progranulin dosage, GRN gene sequencing, and haplotype sharing study, analyzing 10 short tandem repeat markers, spanning a region of 11.08 Mb flanking GRN on chromosome 17q21. We observed shared alleles among 6 patients for 8 consecutive short tandem repeat markers spanning a 7.29 Mb region. Therefore, also with this particular mutation, the elevated clinical variability described among GRN-mutated FTLD cases is confirmed. Moreover, this is the first study reporting the likely existence of a founder effect for C157KfsX97 mutation in Southern Italy.

  20. Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.; Mancini, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hydrological impacts from climate change are of principal interest to water resources policy-makers and practising engineers. Climate change has attracted extensive attention from every sector of the society because of the potentially large scale negative environmental and economic consequences. Particularly the analysis of the temporal evolution of precipitation is fundamental to evaluate water resources availability, especially in areas with a marked orography like in Southern Italy. To this aim several statistical tests can be used for exploratory analyses and detection of monotonic trends in time series data. Moreover rainfall amounts occurred in seasonal periods, directly responsible for availability of water resources on a specified area, are strongly dependent on climate system. In order to highlight some features of such dependence, planetary-scale indexes based on the difference in the sea level pressure between two geographic areas tagging centres of climatic action have been taken into account. Such procedure, called teleconnection, shows that climatic conditions in different geographical areas, even relatively far from each other, can be interdependent. For instance, the conditions of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, which constitute heat and steam sources for the masses of air which cross them, in the intertropical zone are related to the precipitation regime, while at the latitudes of the temperate zones they modulate the circulation of the western winds, the high and low pressure zones distribution and the track of the low pressure areas responsible for the atmospheric phenomena. Within this purview, some authors have drawn correlations between precipitation and indexes describing some planetary-scale oscillations, like the well-known El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). As example, several analyses of the relationships between large-scale pressure fields, such as the NAO, and European climate have

  1. 36 CFR 261.77 - Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. 261.77 Section 261.77 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Regions § 261.77 Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. (a)...

  2. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and <16 ka BP, i.e. during the LGM. A yellowish-brown Calcic Luvisol developed in the loess. Thus, the soils reflect rather the interglacial soil formation in a Mediterranean environment than the glacial soil formation in a steppe environment. References Allen, J.R.M., Watts, W.A., Huntley, B. (2000): Weichelian palynostratigraphy, palaeovegetation and palaeoenvironment; the record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy. Quaternary International, 73/74: 91-110. Brückner, H., 1980. Marine Terrassen in Süditalien. Eine quartärmorphologische Studie über das Küstentiefland von Metapont. Düsseldorfer Geographische Schriften, 14, 235 p. Di Donato, V., Esposito, P., Russo-Ermolli, E., Scarano, A., Cheddadi, R. (2008): Coupled atmospheric and marine palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the last 35 ka in the Sele Plain - Gulf of Salerno area (southern Italy). Quaternary International, 190: 146-157. Follieri, M., Giardini, M., Magri, D., Sadori, L. (1998): Palynostratigraphy of the last glacial period in the volcanic region of central Italy. Quaternary International, 47/48: 3-20. Zander, A., Fülling, A., Brückner, H. & Mastronuzzi, G. (2006): OSL dating of Upper Pleistocene littoral sediments: a contribution to the chronostratigraphy of raised marine terraces bordering the Gulf of Taranto, South Italy. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria

  3. Simulations of soil water balance in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, D.; Castellini, M.; Giglio, L.; di Giacomo, E.; Lopez, R.

    2009-04-01

    The available approaches for predicting the soil hydraulic functions include direct methods, using laboratory and field experiments, and indirect methods, such as the application of pedo-transfer functions or inverse methods. This last approach consists of a non-linear estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters by minimising the residuals between observed and simulated values of variables, such as the volumetric water content (theta) and the soil water pressure head (h). Numerical models are increasingly being used to simulate water and solute movement in the vadose zone for a variety of applications in research and soil/water management. While a large number of models of various complexity have been developed over the years, relatively few have been tested under field conditions. Soil water flow in physically-based models is described by Richards' equation. Application of this equation requires knowledge of the two functions: the soil water retention, theta(h), and the hydraulic conductivity, K(h). Inverse procedures have been successfully applied to analyse laboratory results using multistep or evaporation methods. During the last years, the application of inverse method is increasing by being applied to field experiments. Recently, several Authors have estimated the effective soil hydraulic function parameters with the inverse method by using evapotranspiration (ET) and soil water content data collected from a lysimeter experiment for a soil cropped with wheat. The objective of this paper is to test different strategies to optimize the simulation of soil water content dynamics for a typical cultivation of water melon (Cuccumis citrullus) for the area of "Arco Jonico Metapontino" located in Basilicata and Puglia regions (Southern Italy). The strategies utilized in the comparison are based on: (i) direct measurements of the theta(h) and the K(h); (ii) utilization of pedotransfer functions starting from textural information and (iii) inverse procedures including

  4. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  5. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  6. Moving through different structural styles: kinematics and sediment discharge of the Mount Pizzuto earth flow, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerriero, Luigi; Bertello, Lara; Cardozo, Nestor; Berti, Matteo; Grelle, Gerardo; Revellino, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Surface mapping, GPS surveys, T-LiDAR surveys, boreholes, seismic profiles, and HVSR measurements are used to study the geometry, kinematics, segmentation, and sediment discharge of the Mount Pizzuto earth flow in southern Italy. This earth flow is one of the most active earth flows of the Benevento Province (southern Italy), causing direct damages to properties and indirect damages to the local road and service lines, which have been destroyed several times by the earth flow induced floods. It involves an estimated volume of 300,000 m3 of fine-grained flyschoid material, and has a complex source area with two branches, a 500 m long transport zone, and a fan-shaped bulging toe. The earth flow presents several kinematic zones, with transitional areas marked by a change of deformational style, from compressional structures (thrusts) upslope to extensional structures (normal faults) downslope. We use displacement/velocity data and the reconstructed cross-sectional geometry to calculate sediment discharge at the transition of the kinematic zones relating it to internal strain. This allows us to understand i) the characteristics of flow movement, ii) the control exerted by the basal slip surface on flow velocity, iii) changes and distribution of flow velocity, and iv) characteristics of sediment transport along the flow and cascade effects during both ordinary and extraordinary (i.e. surge) movements. The results suggest that: i) during surge, flow acceleration starts within the head and propagates downslope (constant sediment discharge) inducing a cascade effect between kinematic zones, ii) change in mechanical behavior of the material below the neck influences the propagation of movement downslope, iii) during ordinary movement, the activity of kinematic zones is mutually independent and sediment discharge varies along the flow length, iv) the velocity profile and the dilatation style are controlled by the geometry of the basal slip surface, and v) the earth flow

  7. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  8. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.

    2013-12-01

    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  9. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead.

  10. Seroprevalence study of Toscana virus and viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Naples antigenic complex in central and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Serena; Trombetta, Claudia M; Kistner, Otfried; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2017-02-22

    Sandfly fever viruses are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies; serotypes sandfly fever Naples virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus and sandfly fever Cyprus virus cause febrile illness, whereas Toscana virus (TOSV) may cause neuroinvasive infections. Although TOSV is an important cause of aseptic meningitis in central and southern Italy, in many cases the infection is asymptomatic, leading to underestimation of the actual spread of the virus. This serosurvey aimed to assess the seroprevalence of TOSV in a random population in Siena (Tuscany, central Italy) in 2003-2004 and 2013-2014 and Bari (Apulia, southern Italy) in 2004 and 2015. 2132 serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-TOSV/SFNV IgG by means of ELISA and IFA commercial tests. Seroprevalence rates were compared in the two cities and over a ten-year period in the same city. Seroprevalence results in the Siena population (22.95% in 2003-2004 vs 26.75% in 2013-2014) confirmed the endemic circulation of TOSV and closely related viruses in central Italy, without major changes over the last decade, while no significant prevalence was observed in Bari (2.90% in 2004 vs 1.85% in 2015).

  11. Heavy metals in ryegrass species versus metal concentrations in atmospheric particulate measured in an industrial area of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; d'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of ryegrass species as active biomonitors by assessing atmospheric metal concentrations. We show a procedure for measuring atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals by means of biomonitors and present the data collected between July 1997 and October 2000 in the industrial area of Tito Scalo (Basilicata region, Southern Italy). In particular, we discuss the reproducibility of the biomonitoring measures, the influence of plant age and the correlation between metal concentrations in plants and in atmospheric particulate. Statistical analysis of measured data suggests us that in the investigated site, Cd, Cr and Ni are suitable to be monitored by means of ryegrass species. For the other metals, their emission patterns in atmosphere make it difficult to identify the correlation structure between plants and particulate, and as a result the interpretation of the biomonitoring data is complex. On the basis of the results, we believe that for correct application of active biomonitoring procedure, a careful preliminary analysis of the monitoring site and integration of the biomonitoring and chemical-physical observation is necessary.

  12. On the LiDAR contribution for the archaeological and geomorphological study of a deserted medieval village in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Coluzzi, Rosa; Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Masini, Nicola

    2010-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an optical measurement technique for obtaining high-precision information about the Earth's surface including basic terrain mapping (digital terrain model, bathymetry, corridor mapping), vegetation cover (forest assessment and inventory) and coastal and urban areas. Recent studies examined the possibility of using ALS in archaeological investigations to identify earthworks, although the ability of ALS measurements in this context has not yet been studied in detail. This paper focuses on the potential of the latest generation of airborne ALS for the detection and the spatial characterization of micro-topographic relief linked to archaeological and geomorphological features. The investigations were carried out near Monteserico, an archaeological area in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) which is characterized by complex topographical and morphological features. The study emphasizes that the DTM-LiDAR data are a powerful instrument for detecting surface discontinuities relevant for investigating geomorphological processes and cultural features. The LiDAR survey allowed us to identify the urban shape of a medieval village, by capturing the small differences in height produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks) which were not visible from ground or from optical dataset. In this way, surface reliefs and small elevation changes, linked to geomorphological and archaeological features, have been surveyed with great detail.

  13. Patterns of ecology and distribution of the tree crickets Oecanthus dulcisonans and O. pellucens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Oecanthinae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Labadessa, Rocco; Todisco, Simone

    2016-09-21

    Ecological proclivities of the tree cricket Oecanthus dulcisonans, which has been recently separated from the well known O. pellucens, have been poorly investigated. Moreover, studies on the patterns driving niche segregation between these related species are still needed. This study aims to explore the role of macro-habitat in shaping the distribution of O. dulcisonans and O. pellucens in southern Italy. Occurrence data were sampled by means of a rapid acoustic survey scheme at a regional scale. The significance of difference in ecological and habitat parameters was tested between the two species. While confirming species behavioural patterns, new findings are provided with regard to their ecological difference. Species distribution proves to be primarily driven by elevation gradient and temperature variation, with O. dulcisonans common and widespread in warmer lowlands and O. pellucens limited to higher altitudes. The two species also show significant spatial segregation within vegetation layers. These findings also provide cues for future studies on species interaction, as well as for the assessment of a monitoring scheme which may help interpreting the effects of broad environmental changes.

  14. Transient deformation of karst aquifers due to seasonal and multiyear groundwater variations observed by GPS in southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverii, Francesca; D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Fiorillo, Francesco; Ventafridda, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    We present GPS, hydrological, and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) observations in southern Apennines (Italy) pointing to a previously unnoticed response of the solid Earth to hydrological processes. Transient patterns in GPS horizontal time series near to large karst aquifers are controlled by seasonal and interannual phases of groundwater recharge/discharge of karst aquifers, modulating the extensional ˜3 mm/yr strain within the tectonically active Apennines. We suggest that transient signals are produced, below the saturation level of the aquifers and above a poorly constrained depth in the shallow crust, by time-dependent opening of subvertical, fluid-filled, conductive fractures. We ascribe this process to the immature karstification and intense tectonic fracturing, favoring slow groundwater circulation, and to multiyear variations of the water table elevation, influenced by variable seasonal recharge. The vertical component displays seasonal and multiyear signals more homogeneously distributed in space and closely correlated with estimates of total water storage from GRACE, reflecting the elastic response of the lithosphere to variations of surface water loads. The different sensitivities of vertical and horizontal components to the hydrologically induced deformation processes allow us to spatially and temporally resolve the different phases of the water cycle, from maximum hydrological loading at the surface to maximum hydrostatic pressure beneath karst aquifers. Finally, we suggest that transient deformation signals in the geodetic series of the Apennines are correlated to large-scale climatic patterns (Northern Atlantic Oscillation) through their influence on precipitation variability and trends at the regional scale.

  15. Ticks infesting the endangered Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus) and their habitat in an ecological park in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Testini, Gabriella; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Mallia, Egidio; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus) is an endangered species whose natural populations have decreased in recent years. This study's objective was to identify ticks infesting hares and their habitats in a wildlife reserve in southern Italy. In June 2009, ticks were collected by dragging in three transects set in a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by hares and in three similar transects outside this enclosure. Fifty-five ticks were collected by dragging, being 54 inside and 1 outside the enclosure. Ticks were identified as Hyalomma marginatum (34 males, 17 females), Dermacentor marginatus (2 males, 1 female), and Rhipicephalus bursa (1 female). In September 2009, ticks were collected from 17 Italian hares and identified as Ixodes ricinus (2 larvae, 45 nymphs, 35 males, 37 females), Rhipicephalus turanicus (2 males, 1 nymph), and Hyalomma sp. (165 nymphs). PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial region of the 12S rDNA gene of Hyalomma nymphs allowed their identification as H. marginatum. This study suggests that host presence is a factor determining the level of environmental tick infestation as well as the free-living tick species in the study area and that Italian hares are hosts for I. ricinus and H. marginatum. Studies to assess whether these ticks could limit the survival and fitness of Italian hares and affect their conservation status are needed. Moreover, it is necessary to investigate whether these ticks are infected with pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.

  16. Response of Quercus pubescens leaves exposed to geothermal pollutant input in southern Tuscany (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bussotti, F; Tognelli, R; Montagni, G; Borghini, F; Bruschi, P; Tani, C

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports a case of evident and widespread leaf damage on trees in southern Tuscany (Central Italy) attributed to the input of pollutants produced in a geothermal area. The main potentially phytotoxic substances are boron and hydrogen sulphide. Trees affected are conifers as well as both evergreen and deciduous broadleaves. In the present study the possible impact of geothermal pollutants on Quercus pubescens leaves has been considered. Leaf samples coming from three sampling locations (S1 inside the geothermal area; S2 on the margins; S3 outside) and three consecutive dates (June, July and August) were analyzed for the following parameters: sulphur and boron concentration; leaf area; leaf mass per area; chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm); chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentrations. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations were also performed. In all sampling location sulphur and boron concentrations are greater than the background values recorded in southern Tuscany in a previous survey. The sulphur concentration in leaves was higher in S1 than S2 and S3, but did not increase throughout the survey period. Boron reached the greatest concentrations in S2 and showed a continuous increase over the study period. Leaves subjected to a higher load of pollutants were smaller in size (in terms of leaf area), but were more sclerophyllous. Damaged chloroplasts and reduced Fv/Fm values were observed at S1 and S2, but chlorophyll concentration values were higher at S1. Such an apparent anomaly can possibly be explained by the onset of compensation and recovery mechanisms. Foliar injuries appeared to be related to boron concentration.

  17. Relationship between geo- and biodiversity: an example from the Piemonte Region (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Pistarino, Annalaura; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The portion of floodplain located in the southern sector of Piemonte region (NW Italy) nearby the Langhe hills, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous geomorphological system. It is the results of geological processes and climate changes occurred since Pliocene and continued in the Upper Pleistocene with the piracy of the Tanaro River, which because of the change of the base level it triggered processes of intense headward erosion, helped by the sedimentary nature of the substrate. As a consequence of this action the landscape can be subdivided in three main geomorphological units: i) the deep incisions on the floodplain where the main rivers flow; ii) the uplands rising above the plain characterized in the eastern portion by several fluvial terraces, while in the northern one they are cut by streams that dug deep gorges where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop; iii) the hilly area of Langhe and Roero, which shaped on sedimentary rocks, represents a monocline structure dipping to the north-west. The aim of the present work is to identify a complex of geomorphosites able to describe not only the geological and geomorphological evolution, but also the conditioning that the geomorphological features produce on the vegetation. In particular this kind of analysis has been carried out on a limited area located nearby the city of Cherasco. In this sector the presence of deep narrow gorges created a characteristic environment with ecological niches occupied by plant communities of alpine origin, considered as glacial relicts.

  18. Integration of rainfall/runoff and geomorphological analyses flood hazard in small catchments: case studies from the southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Manuela; Ascione, Alessandra; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of an analysis of flood hazard in ungauged mountain catchments that are associated with intensely urbanized alluvial fans. Assessment of hydrological hazard has been based on the integration of rainfall/runoff modelling of drainage basins with geomorphological analysis and mapping. Some small and steep, ungauged mountain catchments located in various areas of the southern Apennines, in southern Italy, have been chosen as test sites. In the last centuries, the selected basins have been subject to heavy and intense precipitation events, which have caused flash floods with serious damages in the correlated alluvial fan areas. Available spatial information (regional technical maps, DEMs, land use maps, geological/lithological maps, orthophotos) and an automated GIS-based procedure (ArcGis tools and ArcHydro tools) have been used to extract morphological, hydrological and hydraulic parameters. Such parameters have been used to run the HEC (Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers) software (GeoHMS, GeoRAS, HMS and RAS) based on rainfall-runoff models, which have allowed the hydrological and hydraulic simulations. As the floods occurred in the studied catchments have been debris flows dominated, the solid load simulation has been also performed. In order to validate the simulations, we have compared results of the modelling with the effects produced by past floods. Such effects have been quantified through estimations of both the sediment volumes within each catchment that have the potential to be mobilised (pre-event) during a sediment transfer event, and the volume of sediments delivered by the debris flows at basins' outlets (post-event). The post-event sediment volume has been quantified through post-event surveys and Lidar data. Evaluation of the pre-event sediment volumes in single catchments has been based on mapping of sediment storages that may constitute source zones of bed load transport and debris flows. For

  19. Environmental monitoring in the Mar Grande basin (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Hydrodynamic and water quality data has been recorded since February 2014 by a meteo-oceanographic station installed in the inner part of the Gulf of Taranto, in the northeastern part of the Ionian Sea (Southern Italy). This monitoring action, managed by the research unit of the Technical University of Bari, DICATECh Department, could play a pivotal role in a vulnerable and sensitive area, affected by massive chemical and biological pollutant discharges due to the presence of heavy industry and intense maritime traffic. Monthly trends of winds, waves, currents, and biochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and turbidity, are analyzed and discussed. The analysis exhibits that the wave regime is slightly controlled by wind forcing; rather, topography strongly affects the wave propagation direction. Surface currents appear wind induced in the measuring station, while near the bottom a quasi-steady current directed towards southwest is formed. The selected water quality indicators show monthly trends consistent with the typical seasonal convective fluxes and mixing.

  20. Phaeoacremonium italicum sp. nov., associated with esca of grapevine in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Maria Luisa; Lops, Francesco; Carlucci, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    To date at least 42 Phaeoacremonium species are known throughout the world. These fungal pathogens are responsible for several syndromes that occur in wood of different hosts, 27 of which have been associated with decline and dieback diseases or esca of grapevine and have been abundantly isolated from necrotic wood of grapevines with Petri and esca disease in vineyards worldwide. During a survey carried out in five vineyards of the grapevine cultivar Italia, several symptomatic samples were collected. A collection of 28 Phaeoacremonium isolates was analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships of the isolates were determined through the study of the β-tubulin and actin gene sequences. Combining morphological, culture and molecular data, three known Phaeoacremonium spp. were found, namely Pm. aleophilum, Pm. parasiticum and Pm. scolyti. One new species is described. Phaeoacremonium italicum can be identified by the common occurrence of bundles of up to 13, conidiophores with up to seven septa, occasionally branched, percurrent rejuvenation and predominantly phialides of type II. This novel species thus is isolated for the first time from grapevine in Apulia (southern Italy). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machačová, T; Bártová, E; Di Loria, A; Sedlák, K; Guccione, J; Fulgione, D; Veneziano, V

    2013-11-15

    In some European countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. Despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. Samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in Southern Italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (Martina-Franca, Amiata, Sicilian-Grey, Ragusano, Sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). Sera were tested by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Neospora caninum; the sera were marked positive, if more than 30% inhibition was found. Out of a total 238 donkeys, 28 (11.8%) were found positive for Neospora antibodies with 12% in females and 6% in males. Different seroprevalence 15.4%, 16%, 12% and 8.8% were found in age categories <1 year, 1-4 years, 5-9 years and ≥10 years, respectively. The seroprevalence ranged in different breeds from 36% (Sicilian-Grey) to 0% (Sardinian) and in different use from 17% (for breeding) to 0% (for meat production). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated evidence of a significant (P<0.05) association between crossbreed origin of samples and risk of protozoan infection; age of donkeys was also significant risk factor for protozoan infection. No statistical significant difference (P>0.05) was found among genders and use of donkeys and risk of N. caninum infection. This is the first serological survey for Neospora spp. performed in donkeys.

  2. The 1980 earthquake in southern Italy: rescue of trapped victims and mortality*

    PubMed Central

    de Bruycker, Marc; Greco, Donato; Annino, Isidoro; Stazi, Maria A.; de Ruggiero, Nicola; Triassi, Maria; de Kettenis, Yves P.; Lechat, Michel F.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey was undertaken on the health effects of the 1980 earthquake in southern Italy. The study population included 3619 people living in 7 villages situated near the epicentre of the disaster. The overall casualty rate (dead and injured) was 19.7%. Nearly all the deaths (192/202) occurred among trapped people who died before they could be rescued. Eighty per cent of all the trapped people were extricated within 2 days, mostly without the use of sophisticated means. The probability of survival decreased sharply, the longer the time before extrication. The crude mortality during the 18 months following the earthquake was 19.0 per thousand among the injured people who received treatment, and 14.1 per thousand among non-injured people. After age standardization, there was no significant difference between these two figures and the expected mortality figures for the Italian population in normal times (14.4 per thousand). These results stress the importance of providing rescue activities in the first 48 hours after the impact. Strengthening the self-reliance of the community in disaster preparedness is suggested as the best way to improve the effectiveness of relief operations. In disaster-prone areas, training and education in methods of rescue should be an integral part of any primary health care programme. PMID:6609007

  3. Engineering Geological and Petrographic Characterization of Migmatites Belonging to the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Punturo, R.; Mineo, S.; Ortolano, G.; Castelli, F.

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory characterization of migmatite rocks, affected by tunneling works in southern Calabria (Italy), has been carried out with the purpose of investigating the relationship between some potentially interdependent petrographic and petrophysical features with the mechanical behavior of the excavated rocks. Mineralogical and petrographic investigation allowed estimating the modal composition of the rock and the grain size of the constituting minerals, as well as examining the intergranular contacts and associated microfractures. The velocity of seismic waves within the specimens has been measured and calculated, along with the elastic properties of the rock. Specimens were also characterized from the physical-mechanical point of view and their mode of failure was considered. Results show that the mechanical behavior of migmatites varies within the sample population, although the specimens belong to the same sampling area. It is controlled by both porosity and modal composition of the rock. Thus, primary minerals were grouped with respect to their elastic properties; their abundance/deficiency within the specimen controls its mechanical strength. This is also reflected in the modes of failure associated to different strength values. This is a new consideration in the laboratory characterization of this rock type, largely cropping out in several contexts worldwide. Results should be taken into account before starting engineering works, in order to avoid errors resulting from considering this rock as a homogeneous material from the mechanical and petrographic points of view.

  4. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  5. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  6. Late Quaternary incision and deposition in an active volcanic setting: The Volturno valley fill, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Pacifico, Annamaria; Rossi, Veronica; Ruberti, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Extensive illustration of depositional facies, ostracod and foraminiferal assemblages, and Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture is offered for the first time from beneath the modern coastal plain of Volturno River, the longest river in southern Italy. Proximity to an active volcanic district, including quiescent Vesuvius Volcano, provides an easily identifiable stratigraphic marker (Campania Grey Tuff or CGT), up to 55 m thick, emplaced 39 ky cal BP by a large-volume explosive pyroclastic eruption. Identification of top CGT to a maximum depth of 30 m allows tracing out the shape of a 15-20 km wide Late Quaternary palaeovalley incised by Volturno River into the thick ignimbritic unit immediately after its deposition. A terraced palaeotopography of the valley flanks is reconstructed on the basis of core data. Above the basal fluvial deposits, the early Holocene transgressive facies consist of a suite of estuarine (freshwater to brackish) deposits. These are separated from overlying transgressive barrier sands by a distinctive wave ravinement surface. Upwards, a distinctive shallowing-upward succession of middle-late Holocene age is interpreted to reflect initiation and subsequent progradation of a wave-dominated delta system, with flanking strandplains, in response to reduced rate of sea-level rise. The turnaround from transgressive to highstand conditions is identified on the basis of subtle changes in the meiofauna. These enable tracking of the maximum flooding surface into its updip (lagoonal/estuarine) counterpart, thus highlighting the role of refined palaeontological criteria as a powerful tool for high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic studies.

  7. Use of molecular approaches in hydrogeological studies: the case of carbonate aquifers in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Antonio; Petrella, Emma; Celico, Fulvio; Naclerio, Gino

    2017-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens represent a significant health risk in both developed and developing countries with sensitive sub-populations including children, the elderly, neonates, and immune-compromised people, who are particularly susceptible to enteric infections. Annually, approximately 1.8 billion people utilize a faecally contaminated water source, and waterborne diseases are resulting in up to 2.1 million human mortalities globally. Although groundwater has traditionally been considered less susceptible to contamination by enteric pathogens than surface water due to natural attenuation by overlying strata, the degree of microbial removal attributable to soils and aquifers can vary significantly depending on several factors. Thus, accurate assessment of the variable presence and concentration of microbial contaminants, and the relative importance of potentially causative factors affecting contaminant ingress, is critical in order to develop effective source (well) and resource (aquifer) protection strategies. "Traditional" and molecular microbiological study designs, when coupled with hydrogeological, hydrochemical, isotopic, and geophysical methods, have proven useful for analysis of numerous aspects of subsurface microbial dynamics. Accordingly, this overview paper presents the principal microbial techniques currently being employed (1) to predict and identify sources of faecal contamination in groundwater, (2) to elucidate the dynamics of contaminant migration, and (3) to refine knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics and behaviours of aquifer systems affected by microbial contamination with an emphasis on carbonate aquifers, which represent an important global water supply. Previous investigations carried out in carbonate aquifers in southern Italy are discussed.

  8. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-15

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tsunamigenic potential of a newly discovered active fault zone in the outer Messina Strait, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lili; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Cukur, Deniz; Chiocci, Francesco L.; Ridente, Domenico; Gross, Felix; Bialas, Jörg; Krastel, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    The 1908 Messina tsunami was the most catastrophic tsunami hitting the coastline of Southern Italy in the younger past. The source of this tsunami, however, is still heavily debated, and both rupture along a fault and a slope failure have been postulated as potential origin of the tsunami. Here we report a newly discovered active Fiumefreddo-Melito di Porto Salvo Fault Zone (F-MPS_FZ), which is located in the outer Messina Strait in a proposed landslide source area of the 1908 Messina tsunami. Tsunami modeling showed that this fault zone would produce devastating tsunamis by assuming slip amounts of ≥5 m. An assumed slip of up to 17 m could even generate a tsunami comparable to the 1908 Messina tsunami, but we do not consider the F-MPS_FZ as a source for the 1908 Messina tsunami because its E-W strike contradicts seismological observations of the 1908 Messina earthquake. Future researches on the F-MPS_FZ, however, may contribute to the tsunami risk assessment in the Messina Strait.

  10. Non-volcanic CO2 Earth degassing: Case of Mefite d'Ansanto (southern Apennines), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Avino, R.; Caliro, S.; Costa, A.; Minopoli, C.; Vilardo, G.

    2010-06-01

    Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, Italy is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth. The emission is fed by a buried reservoir, made up of permeable limestones and covered by clayey sediments. We estimated a total gas flux of ˜2000 tons per day. Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time people and animals. The application of a physical numerical model allowed us to define the zones which potentially can be affected by dangerous CO2 concentration at breathing height for humans. The geometry of the Mefite gas reservoir is similar to those designed for sequestering CO2 in geological storage projects where huge amounts of CO2 should be injected in order to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration. The approach which we have used at Mefite to define hazardous zones for the human health can be applied also in case of large CO2 leakages from storage sites, a phenomena which, even if improbable, can not be ruled out.

  11. Electromagnetic methods to characterize the Savoia di Lucania waste dump (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this work is the joint application and integration of non-invasive geoelectrical methods for studying the landfill of Savoia di Lucania (Southern Italy). This landfill for its engineering features and small dimensions (70 m × 30 m × 6 m) represents an optimal test site to assess a geophysical survey protocol for municipal solid waste landfills investigation and monitoring. The landfill of Savoia di Lucania has been built with a reinforced concrete material and coated with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner. Three electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT), two self-potential (SP) map surveys and one induced polarization (IP) section have been performed, both in the surrounding area and inside the waste landfill. The geophysical investigations have well defined some buried boundaries of the landfill basin and localized the leachate accumulation zones inside the dumpsite. Comparison of our results with other engineering and geological investigations could be the key for evaluating the integrity of the HDPE liner. Finally, the joint use of the ERT, IP and SP methods seems to be a promising tool for studying and designing new monitoring systems able to perform a time-lapse analysis of waste landfill geometry and integrity.

  12. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  13. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M.; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples.

  14. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  15. [Densitometry analysis with quantitative computerized tomography in 530 subjects from Southern Italy].

    PubMed

    Addesso, A M; Cinque, T; Del Vecchio, W; Salvi, V; Schillirò, F

    1996-10-01

    Quantitative measure of bone mineral content (BMC) loss is an important diagnostic indicator for determining the risk of fracture and in following the course of patients undergoing therapy for osteoporosis. Several techniques have been used to evaluate this parameter. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) is the most precise and accurate method allowing selective measurement of trabecular compartment of the vertebrae. Age, sex, ethnic heritage and geographic factors influence BMC variability. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cross-section pattern of age-related spinal bone loss in a Southern Italy population (530 healthy subjects: 450 women, 80 men) and to provide a local data-base for better interpretation of the BMC values. The BMC of lumbar spine was measured by single energy QCT, using a reference phantom with five tubes containing known amounts of CaCO3, placed approximately at the vertebral bodies L2-L4. Results indicate an age-related bone loss with the lowest values at 55-70 years, particularly in women, while no major further decrease was observed in subjects over 65 years. Normal linear BMC decrease rate can be derived from this data.

  16. Archaeomagnetic results from southern Italy and their bearing on geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Hoye, G. S.

    2005-07-01

    Archaeodirectional results from kilns and other baked structures in southern Italy are presented. They are generally compatible with the much larger data sets from France and Bulgaria. In particular, a summary of all the results associated with the well-known eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii ( n = 9, D = 355°, I = 58°, α95 = 1.5°) provides a reliable archaeomagnetic anchor point supporting the French and Bulgarian master curves. It is extremely well-constrained in time and it comprises independent studies carried out in four different countries. Furthermore, it is derived from a diverse set of features agreement amongst which argues strongly against significant perturbations due to magnetic refraction, structural disturbance, or depositional shallowing. In terms of geomagnetic secular variation, we interpret the western European archaeomagnetic data summarized here in terms of an open loop caused by westward drift, followed by an inclination low spanning the first few centuries CE representing the signal of a static flux pulse that reaches a maximum magnetic moment of a few percent of the earth's main central dipole.

  17. The impact of two damaging hydrogeological events in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, A. A.; Petrucci, O.

    2012-04-01

    Basing on the analysis of a detailed historical database concerning the impact of bad weather periods in Calabria (southern Italy), two cases, occurred in October 1951 and October 1953, have been selected. The choice of these events firstly depends on their high socio-economic impact: they caused severe economic damage and, during both the events, about 100 people were killed. Secondly it depends on the extremely high rainfall values recorded in both cases: during 1951 event, as example, in 13 rain gauges of the hit area, the daily rainfall reached the highest value ever recorded. After the delimitation of the geographic areas hit, the events are described in terms of types of damaging phenomena occurred (floods, landslides, wind storms). Basing on the available historical data, the amount of direct, indirect and intangible damage is also assessed. Then, the amount of rainfall recorded in the raingauges of the affected areas is analyzed. Rainfall values are compared to the whole historical rainfall series, in order to select similar rainfall events and to compare the different damaging effects reported in the historical database. This comparison is focused on the analysis of the actual role played by the rainfall in causing the huge damage occurred in the studied cases, which could even be related to the past anthropogenic configuration of the hit areas. Finally, an actualization of the scenario of these events -in the current territory configuration- is attempted, aiming to assess the possible impact of similar rainfall scenarios in the future.

  18. Retrieving geomagnetic secular variations from lava flows: evidence from Mounts Arso, Etna and Vesuvius (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incoronato, Alberto; Angelino, Antimo; Romano, Romolo; Ferrante, Agostino; Sauna, Renata; Vanacore, Gianpio; Vecchione, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Mean directions of magnetization from Mounts Arso (Ischia Island, Gulf of Naples), Etna and Vesuvius lava flows have been determined based on very stringent linearity criteria. These indicate that, regardless of the source volcano, the lava flow mean directions of magnetization form a common path, the SISVC (Southern Italy Secular Variation Curve). This curve enables a reassessment of the age of eruption of several lavas. A date of AD 1169 is demonstrated to be the only possible time of emplacement for one Etna lava flow previously assigned an age of AD 812/1169. It is also demonstrated that two Etna lava flows, which, according to the literature, were emplaced in AD 1536 and 1595 respectively, were actually both emplaced around AD 1037. Three other Etna lava flows, one ascribed to AD 1566 and two to AD 1595, were actually emplaced between AD 1169 and 1284/85. The same time window also holds for a Vesuvius lava flow for which only an upper time threshold was previously available. Only one of the studied flows needs further sampling and analysis to verify whether this flow has been affected by a complete remagnetization or has an erroneous historical dating. The applied procedure seems to be the most appropriate one in carrying out palaeomagnetic surveys of lava flows, as also suggested by the broad agreement with some 17th and 19th century measurements of the geomagnetic field in Rome, relocated to Etna, and is likely to improve knowledge of past history of a volcano significantly.

  19. Tectonic stress and renewed uplift at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy: New insights from caldera drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Deep drilling is a key tool for the investigation of active volcanoes in the modern Earth Sciences, as this provides the only means to obtain direct information on processes that occur at depth. Data acquired from drilling projects are fundamental to our understanding of volcano dynamics, and for mitigation of the hazards they pose for millions of people who live close to active volcanoes. We present here the first borehole measurement of the stress field in the crust of Campi Flegrei (southern Italy), a large active caldera, and one of the highest risk volcanoes worldwide. Measurements were performed to depths of ∼500 m during a pilot study for the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project. These data indicate an extensional stress field, with a minimum horizontal stress of ca. 75% to 80% of the maximum horizontal stress, which is approximately equal to the vertical stress. The deviation from lithostatic conditions is consistent with a progressive increase in applied horizontal stress during episodes of unrest, since at least 1969. As the stress field is evolving with time, the outcome of renewed unrest cannot be assessed by analogy with previous episodes. Interpretations of future unrest must therefore accommodate the possibility that Campi Flegrei is approaching conditions that are more favourable to a volcanic eruption than has previously been the case. Such long-term accumulation of stress is not expected to be unique to Campi Flegrei, and so might provide a basis for improved forecasts of eruptions at large calderas elsewhere.

  20. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  1. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  2. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens.

  3. Membrane filtration of municipal wastewater effluents for implementing agricultural reuse in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Pollice, A; Laera, G; Lonigro, A; Rubino, P

    2010-01-01

    Membrane filtration was investigated at field scale in order to assess its effectiveness for reusing municipal effluents in agriculture. The study was started on April 2002 and ended on September 2007, as part of a national R&D project (AQUATEC). Preliminary results, which we already reported elsewhere, concerned the first two project years while this paper refers to the subsequent period. Three different crops (processing tomato, fennel and lettuce) were grown in rotation at a test field located in Apulia (Southern Italy) and irrigated with membrane filtered municipal secondary effluents. The quality of the reclaimed water was monitored chemically and microbiologically, and compared with conventional water pumped from a local well. Both water sources were used in parallel for irrigating two plots of the test field. The results showed that the microbiological quality of the treated wastewater was comparable to or even higher than that of the conventional source. Protozoan (oo)cysts were experimentally identified as effective indicators of possible failures of the filtration system. Moreover, long term heavy metals accumulation trends were monitored in soil and crops, showing that despite some lead and copper accumulation in the soil, no measurable increase of these metals was observed in the edible parts of the crops.

  4. Newly identified active faults in the Pollino seismic gap, southern Italy, and their seismotectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzetti, Francesco; Cirillo, Daniele; de Nardis, Rita; Cardinali, Mauro; Lavecchia, Giusy; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The following is a geological study of a Quaternary and active normal fault-system, which crops out in the Pollino area, a seismogenic sector of the Southern Apennines, Italy. From 2010 to 2014, this area was affected by long lasting seismic activity characterized by three major events which occurred in May 2012 (Mw 4.3), in October 2012 (Mw 5.2) and in June 2014 (Mw 4.0). The integration of structural-geological data with morpho-structural and remote sensing analyses, led to define the geometry, the kinematics, the cross-cutting relationships and the slip rates of the inferred active fault segments within and near the epicentral area. We reconstructed an asymmetric extensional pattern characterized by low-angle, E and NNE-dipping faults, and by antithetic, high-angle, SW- to WSW-dipping faults. The geometry of the faults at depth was constrained using high-resolution hypocenter distributions. The overall system fits well with the deformation field obtained from focal mechanisms and geodetic data. Comparing the fault pattern with the time-space evolution of the Pollino seismic activity, we identified the seismogenic sources in two, near-parallel, WSW-dipping faults, whose seismogenic potential were assessed. The peculiar perpendicular-to-fault-strike evolution of the seismic activity, is discussed in the frame of the reconstructed seismotectonic model.

  5. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  6. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis.

  7. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  8. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  9. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-03-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in Southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructures in an urbanized area, as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide was discovered in the last century and has been studied since the 1990's using classical geotechnical methods, but the sliding body continues to move. In this paper, we will present the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project of which the results will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Endophytic fungi occurring in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery--commercial crops in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Margherita; Frisullo, Salvatore; Cirulli, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of endophytic fungi in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery crops was investigated in southern Italy. A total of 186 symptomless plants was randomly collected and sampled at the stage of commercial ripeness. Fungal species of Acremonium, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Plectosporium were detected in all four crops; Plectosporium tabacinum was the most common in all crop species and surveyed sites. The effect of eight endophytic isolates (five belonging to Plectosporium tabacinum and three to three species of Acremonium) inoculated on lettuce plants grown in gnotobiosis was assessed by recording plant height, root length and dry weight, collar diameter, root necrosis, and leaf yellowing. P. tabacinum and three species of Acremonium, inoculated on gnotobiotically grown lettuce plants, showed pathogenic activity that varied with the fungal isolate. Lettuce plants inoculated with the isolates Ak of Acremonium kiliense, Ac of Acremonium cucurbitacearum, and P35 of P. tabacinum showed an increased root growth, compared to the non-inoculated control. The high frequency of P. tabacinum isolation recorded in lettuce plants collected in Bari and Metaponto, and in fennel plants from Foggia agricultural districts, suggests a relationship not only between a crop species and P. tabacinum, but also between the occurrence of the endophyte and the crop rotation history of the soil.

  11. Intractions of mantle and crustal magmas in the southern part of the Ivrea Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigoi, S.; Antonini, P.; Demarchi, G.; Longinelli, A.; Mazzucchelli, M.; Negrini, L.; Rivalenti, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the southern part of the Ivrea Zone (Italy), the majority of the Mafic Formation is composed of: 1. amphibole-bearing gabbro; 2. a series of rocks ranging from norites to charnockites; 3. leucocratic charnockites. In the proximity of metasedimentary septa within the Mafic Formation, the igneous lithologies are in many places intimately and chaotically intermingled, giving rise to a marble-cake structure. Whole-rock chemistry, and oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions indicate that the mafic and felsic rocks are dominated by mantle and crustal sources respectively. The norite-charnockite suite may be modelled as the mixing product of basic and acid melts. Abundant plastic deformation structures suggest that mafic and hybrid rocks experienced an important tectonic event during or soon after their crystallization. Melting of crustal country rocks continued after the deformation event and produced the undeformed leucocratic charnockites. The study area exemplifies some of the possible effects of the intrusion of a large volume of basic magma into hot crust.

  12. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  13. Recent seismicity and crustal stress field in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (Southern Italy): Seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, C.; Frepoli, A.; Cimini, G. B.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the instrumental seismicity of Southern Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological data base available so far. P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were re-picked along with those of the SAPTEX temporary array deployed in the region in the period 2001-2004. For some events located in the upper Val d'Agri, we also used data from the Eni-Agip oil company seismic network. We examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ≥ 2.0. We computed the VP/ VS ratio obtaining a value of 1.83 and we carried out an analysis for the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model that approximates the seismic structure of the study area. Earthquakes were relocated and, for well- recorded events, we also computed 108 fault plane solutions. Finally, using 58 solutions, the most constrained, we computed regional stress field in the study area. Earthquake distribution shows three main seismic regions: the westernmost (Lucanian Apennines) characterized by high background seismicity, mostly with shallow hypocenters, the easternmost below the Bradano foredeep and the Murge with deeper and more scattered seismicity, and finally the more isolated and sparse seismicity localized in the Sila Range and in the offshore area along the northeastern Calabrian coast. Focal mechanisms computed in this work are in large part normal and strike-slip solutions and their tensional axes ( T-axes) have a generalized NE-SW orientation. The denser station coverage allowed us to improve hypocenters determination compared to those obtained by using only RSNC data, for a better characterization of the crustal and subcrustal seismicity in the study area.

  14. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  15. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of an experiment aimed at detecting possible displacements due to subsidence in the coastal area of the Tavoliere plain, Puglia Region, in Southern Italy, through analysis of remotely sensed data. The Tavoliere is the second largest Italian plain. Its coastal area, between the urban centers of Manfredonia and Barletta, is composed of a 50 km long sandy beach (Manfredonia gulf), linking the Gargano massif at north with the Murge plateau in the south-east. Both areas belong to the carbonate Mesozoic Apulian platform. The current configuration of the Gulf was reached recently, as a consequence of the Holocene sea level rise. During the Neolithic age the plain was occupied by an elongated lagoon (Salpi Lagoon) [1]. During the 2nd century B.C., alluvial deposition caused the lagoon to be separated into two basins: the so-called Salpi lake at south and the Salso lake at north. To cope with the increasing demand of arable lands and with the necessity to make unhealthy areas accessible to humans, some reclaims were accomplished by diverting and channelling the rivers crossing the Tavoliere plain, and by levelling dune belts. At present, the beach is separated by low artificial dunes from the areas already reclaimed and intensely cultivated or exploited as evaporation basin for salt production. In the last decades, the coastal area has been retreating due to a reduction in sediment input necessary for coastal equilibrium. The levelling of dunes and the decrease of fluvial turbid discharge due to dam constructions are probably the cause of this deficit in sediment supply. During highly intense hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters often penetrate deeply inland, flooding intensively cultivated areas. These events are occurring with growing frequency and rates. They are an indication of the possibility that those areas are subject to subsidence at a faster rate in comparison to the surroundings. An example is the salt marsh located inland of the

  16. Southern Regional Action Plan To Improve the Quality of Early Care and Education. Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This booklet presents the action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care for improving the quality of early care and education (ECE) in southern states. Also included in the booklet are tables that represent data collected from 16 participating states and the District of Columbia on state child care quality standards and…

  17. Siderite deposits in northern Italy: Early Permian to Early Triassic hydrothermalism in the Southern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Silvana; Toffolo, Luca; Moroni, Marilena; Montorfano, Carlo; Secco, Luciano; Agnini, Claudia; Nimis, Paolo; Tumiati, Simone

    2017-07-01

    We present a minero-petrographic, geochemical and geochronological study of siderite orebodies from different localities of the Southern Alps (northern Italy). Siderite occurs as veins cutting the Variscan basement and the overlying Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary cover (Collio Fm.), and as both veins and conformable stratabound orebodies in the Upper Permian (Verrucano Lombardo and Bellerophon Fms.) and Lower Triassic (Servino and Werfen Fms.) sedimentary sequences of the Lombardian and the Venetian Alps. All types of deposits show similar major- and rare-earth (REE)-element patterns, suggesting a common iron-mineralizing event. The compositions of coexisting siderite, Fe-rich dolomite and calcite suggest formation from hydrothermal fluids at relatively high temperature conditions (≥ 250 °C). Geochemical modelling, supported by REE analyses and by literature and new δ13C and δ18O isotopic data, suggests that fluids responsible for the formation of siderite in the Variscan basement and in the overlying Lower Permian cover were derived from dominant fresh water, which leached Fe and C from volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolites/rhyodacites) and organic carbon-bearing continental sediments. On the basis of U-Th-Pb microchemical dating of uraninite associated with siderite in the Val Vedello and Novazza deposits (Lombardian Alps), the onset of hydrothermalism is constrained to 275 ± 13 Ma (Early-Mid Permian), i.e., it was virtually contemporaneous to the plutonism and the volcanic-sedimentary cycle reported in the same area (Orobic Basin). The youngest iron-mineralizing event is represented by siderite veins and conformable orebodies hosted in Lower Triassic shallow-marine carbonatic successions. In this case, the siderite-forming fluids contained a seawater component, interacted with the underlying Permian successions and eventually replaced the marine carbonates at temperatures of ≥ 250 °C. The absence of siderite in younger rocks suggests an Early Triassic

  18. Knowledge of seismic hazard for the preservation of cultural heritage: the case study of Naples (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Spiga, Efisio

    2017-04-01

    The recent seismic sequence that struck central Italy, started the August 24, 2016, is characterized by five events with magnitude Mw> 5.0. The strongest events of the seismic sequence were the August 24, with Mw = 6.0 located between Accumoli and Amatrice towns and the October 30 with Mw = 6.5, located between Norcia and Visso town. These earthquakes shocked not only Central Italy, with the death of about 300 people and the almost complete destruction of historical towns (Amatrice, Arquata del Tronto, Accumoli, Pescara del Tronto, Castelluccio, Norcia, Visso), but also shook the entire Italian country, strongly proposing the issue of the vulnerability of the city historical centers. The knowledge, the conservation and preservation of the natural and urban environment represent issues to be faced urgently for preventing the devastation of our heritage, unique in the world. The historical center of Naples was affected by the 30 event October 2016 with an intensity I = V MCS. In the last millennium more than a hundred earthquakes hit Naples, with intensity I> III MCS, ten of which has exceeded the damage level, sometimes with intensity greater of VII MCS. The historical Neapolitan urban context suffered devastating effects, reaching levels of damage equal to the VIII degree MCS, as a result of the large earthquakes occurred in 1456 (I0=XI MCS), 1688 (I0=XI MCS) and 1805 (I0=X MCS). In the twentieth century the city of Napoli was shaken by the 1930, 1962 and 1980, the three strong earthquakes occurred in southern Apennines, between Irpinia and Basilicata regions. The review of earthquakes with higher energy (M> 6) shows that the metropolitan area of Naples suffered high damage levels with intensity I = VIII MCS, especially in the historical center, with a damage recurring on the same architectonic elements of the historical heritage. The recent past of the seismic history teaches us that the Apennines is highly seismic, consequently in the future we can expected

  19. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support…

  20. Information sources and knowledge on vaccination in a population from southern Italy: The ESCULAPIO project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Ferro, Antonio; Marchese, Valentina; Napoli, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Sara; Raia, Daniele; Restivo, Vincenzo; Siddu, Andrea; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Vaccine knowledge of the general population is shaped by different information sources and strongly influences vaccination attitudes and uptake. The CCM-Italian Ministry of Health ESCULAPIO project attempted to identify the role of such information sources, in order to address adequate strategies to improve information on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. In the present study, data on 632 adults from Southern Italy regarding information sources were collected, and their perceived and actual knowledge on vaccinations were compared and analyzed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources. The main reported reference sources were general practitioners (GPs) (42.5%) and pediatricians (33.1%), followed by mass media (24.1%) and the Internet (17.6%). A total of 45.4% reported they believed to be informed (45.4%), while those estimated to be truly informed were 43.8%. However, as showed in the multivariate logistic regression, people having the perception to be correctly informed ascribed their good knowledge to their profession in the health sector (Adj OR 2.28, CI 1.09-4.77, p < 0.05) and to friends/relatives/colleagues (AdjOR 6.25, CI 2.38-16.44, p < 0.001), while the non-informed population thought the responsibility had to be attributed to mass media (AdjOR 0.45, CI 0.22-0.92, p < 0.05). Those showing the real correct information, instead, were younger (AdjOR 1.64, CI 1.04-2.59, p < 0.05), and their main reference sources were pediatricians (AdjOR 1.63, CI 1.11-2.39, p < 0.05) and scientific magazines (Adj OR 3.39, CI 1.51-7.59, p < 0.01). Only 6% knew the "VaccinarSì" portal, developed to counter the widespred antivaccine websites in Italy. The post-survey significant increase of connections to "VaccinarSi" could be ascribed to the counselling performed during questionnaire administration. Strategies to improve information about vaccination should be addressed to fortifying healthcare workers knowledge in order to make them

  1. 3-D deformation rates and processes driving seismicity in the Western Alps and Pyrenees (southern France, northern Spain, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Masson, Christine; Ninh NGuyen, Hai; Doerflinger, Erik; Chéry, Jean; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2017-04-01

    Although subject to significant earthquakes, the region covering the Western Alps and Pyrenees in southern France, northern Spain, and northern Italy is characterized by very slow deformation rates (below 1 mm a-1), leading to ongoing debates regarding the driving processes and characteristics of this seismicity. We present a new 3-D velocity field for nearly 500 GPS sites covering this area, with two main objectives: (1) Precisely define the level of velocity and strain rate signals that can be extracted from the GPS data, and (2) Characterize the patterns and amplitude of present-day deformation in both the Western Alps and Pyrenees to help constrain the geodynamic processes at play. Statistical analyses of the GPS time series shows that a horizontal (resp. vertical) precision level of 0.2 mm a-1 can be achieved for series of 6 years (resp. 9 years), and that the velocity field for the entire Western Alps - Pyrenees region is stable at 0.2 mm a-1, indicating that horizontal deformation, where present, must be below this threshold. Significant horizontal strain rates are detected in the western Pyrenees, with up to 4 × 10-9 a-1 NNE-SSW extension, and to a lower level in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 a-1 E-W extension). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates in the Western Alps (up to 2 mm a-1) but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm a-1). As shown by numerical models and by the correlation between site elevations and uplift rates, fast uplift in the northern part of the Western Alps can be explained for the most part by postglacial rebound following the Würm glaciation. In contrast, the very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees may be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound. These results suggest that the primary driving mechanisms for present-day seismicity in the Western Alps, the Pyrenees, and their foreland basins may be visco-elastic rebound. Other processes, such as regional tectonics, post-orogenic collapse, or

  2. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Di Pietro, Francesco; Frisiello, Michele; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%). The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4%) supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected) sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  3. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  4. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  5. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate the water level in the inner part of dam on dependence of the minimum and maximum water level in the basin. These surveys have allowed to identify areas of the side facing upstream, at which sampling coring were carried out, and the samples were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory with the aim to evaluate the state of conservation and permeability. ERT images also permitted to identify areas affected by water infiltration below the basin level, which underwent to a visual inspection through an underwater drone. This underwater survey confirmed the presence of deteriorated areas and submerged fractured bituminous zone. This, the flaring of the reservoir was carried out as far as the managing body saw fit. After, in correspondence of the minimum basin level, a visual inspection of all the bituminous face was performed, thus identifying fractured zones on which to intervene immediately. As conclusion, we can state that the integrated approach here presented was crucial in order to identify, areas of the facing bituminous needing urgent interventions. [1] A. Loperte, M Bavusi, G. Cerverizzo, V Lapenna, and F Soldovieri, "Integrated geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-9972, 2012

  6. Experimental study on the rheologic behavior of debris flow material in the Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotto di Santolo, A.; Evangelista, A.; Pellegrino, A.

    2009-04-01

    The rheologic behavior of the natural material collected in the source area of debris flows occurred in the Campania region has been investigated. Several studies have been carried out on the conditions leading to the triggering of landslides. Less information is available on the transition between soil behavior and fluid behavior. In this work the rheologic flow behavior of the suspension of these materials in distilled water has been investigated with a standard viscosimeter (AR 2000ex TA Instruments) at different solid volumetric concentrations Cv (20, 30 and 40%). The materials tested were taken from the source area of three debris flows occurred in the mountainsides of the Northwestern Campania region (Southern Italy): Nocera, Salerno (March 2005) material A in the following; Monteforte Irpino, Avellino (May 1998) material B; Astroni, Naples (December 2005) material C. The soil type regards the most recent pyroclastic deposits deriving from the volcanic activity of mount Somma/Vesuvius (comprising the Sorrento Penisula and the mountains of Sarno-Quindici) for materials A and B. For material C, the soil type regards the most recent pyroclastic deposits deriving from the volcanic activity of the Phlegrean Fields (part of the city of Naples). For each solid volumetric concentration Cv, two kinds of tests have been performed: test on fine particle suspension (maximum diameter of 0.1 mm); test on large particle suspension (maximum diameter of 0.5 mm). The principal result is that the flow behavior is almost the same for all pyroclastic deposits: the materials behave like a Non-Newtonian fluid with a threshold shear stress (yield stress). The shear stress increases with increase of shear strain in the range analyzed (1< γ י

  7. Incidence of neuroepithelial primary brain tumors among adult population of Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldin, Elisa; Testoni, Stefania; de Pasqua, Silvia; Ferro, Salvatore; Albani, Fiorenzo; Baruzzi, Agostino; D'Alessandro, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Incidence of neuroepithelial Primary Brain Tumors (nPBT) varies, ranging from 7.3 to 11.6 cases/100,000/year across Europe. We present incidence and survival of nPBT in the Emilia-Romagna region (ER), Italy. This study is the largest in Southern Europe. Specialists in neurosurgery, neurology, neuroradiology, oncology, radiotherapy, genetics, and pathology of ER notified all suspected nPBT adult cases residing in ER (4,337,966 inhabitants) observed during 2009. Furthermore, through ICD-9 discharge codes, we identified and reviewed all possible cases. Neuroepithelial PBT diagnosis was based on histological or radiological findings. We included 400 incident nPBT cases, of which 102 (25%) were retrospectively identified. These latter were significantly older. The standardized incidence was 10.5/100,000/year (95% CI 9.4-11.5), higher for men. It was 9.2/100,000/year (95% CI 8.3-10.2) for astrocytic tumors, 0.6/100,000/year (95% CI 0.4-0.9) for oligodendroglial tumors, and 7.1 (95% CI 6.3-8.0) for glioblastoma (GBM). Among GBM patients, median survival was 249 days if prospectively identified vs. 132 days when identified through ICD-9 codes (p < 0.0001). The incidence of nPBT in the ER region is among the highest in the literature. Older patients were more likely to escape an active surveillance system. This should be considered when comparing incidence rates across studies, giving the increasing number of elderly people in the general population.

  8. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  9. West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Autorino, Gian Luca; Battisti, Antonio; Deubel, Vincent; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Forletta, Riccardo; Giovannini, Armando; Lelli, Rossella; Murri, Severine; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neurologic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pistoia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic cases that occurred from August 20 to October 6 (attack rate of 2.8%). A serologic survey conducted over a 700-km2 area in stables with and without apparent clinical cases confirmed a wider spread of the infection, with an overall seroprevalence rate of 38% in the affected area. No significant differences in age-specific prevalence were observed, suggesting that the horses residing in the area had not been exposed previously to West Nile virus and supporting the hypothesis of its introduction in the wetland area during the first half of 1998. PMID:12498650

  10. Assessing the Impact of Farmland Abandonment on Ecosystem Services of a Catchment in Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.; Nasta, P.; Palladino, M.; Saracino, A.; Ursino, N.

    2016-12-01

    During the postwar period farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe have been subjected to progressive abandonment. The environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on the ecosystem services (ESs) have been investigated in the Upper Alento River Basin (UARB) located in Southern Italy. A chronosequence of LULC maps was built. In 1955 we document the human-driven landscape with dominance of pasture and crops (35% and 34%, respectively) over forested areas (20%); in 1998 forests doubled and crops roughly halved their surface (43% and 18%, respectively) as a result of decadal land abandonment. In 2015 we document a massive landscape shift in which secondary forests occupy 70% of the basin and orchards 20%, the latter favored by European Community incentives. The 1998 land-use scenario has been implemented in the SWAT model that was calibrated and validated using direct streamflow measurements recorded in the period 1995-2004 at the earth-dam located at the outlet of UARB. Numerical simulations offer "pseudo-realistic" scenarios that can help interpret differences in average annual and monthly water budget and sediment transport when the 1998 land-use scenario is compared to 1955 and 2015 ones, respectively. The dominance of forest in the last decades implies a reduction of runoff and water influx into the water reservoir, thereby limiting the water stocks for hydroelectric, irrigation and drinking purposes. Conversely, the reduction in runoff is compensated by a decrease in soil erosion that represents a beneficial ES. In a hypothetical land-use scenario, by returning to cropland dominance, as observed in 1955, the ESs will benefit of higher water influx into the reservoir, yet counterbalanced by higher sediment transport. Therefore, in order to mitigate soil erosion, it is necessary to plan soil-loss suitable support practices in view of the potential impact of future projected extreme rainfall events on the hydrological

  11. Coastline shifts and probable ship landing site submerged off ancient Locri-Epizefiri, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennent, J.M.; Stanley, J.-D.; Hart, P.E.; Bernasconi, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical survey provides new information on marine features located seaward of Locri-Epizefiri (Locri), an ancient Greek settlement on the Ionian coastal margin in southern Italy. The study supplements previous work by archaeologists who long searched for the site's harbor and recently identified what was once a marine basin that is now on land next to the city walls of Locri. Profiles obtained offshore, between the present coast and outer shelf, made with a high-resolution, seismic subbottom-profiling system, record spatial and temporal variations of buried Holocene deposits. Two of these submerged features are part of a probable now-submerged ship landing facility. The offshore features can be linked to coastline displacements that occurred off Locri: a sea-to-land shift before Greek settlement, followed by a shoreline reversal from the archaeological site back to sea, and more recently, a return landward. The seaward directed coastal shift that occurred after Locri's occupation by Greeks was likely caused by land uplift near the coastal margin and tectonic seaward shift of the coast, as documented along this geologically active sector of the Calabrian Arc. The seismic survey records an angular, hook-shaped, low rise that extends from the present shore and is now buried on the inner shelf. The rise, enclosing a core lens of poorly stratified to transparent acoustic layers, bounds a broad, low-elevation zone positioned immediately seaward of the shoreline. Close proximity of the raised feature to the low-elevation area suggests it may have been a fabricated structure that functioned as a wave-break for a ship-landing site. The study indicates that the basin extended offshore as a function of the coastline's seaward migration during and/or after Greek occupation of Locri.

  12. Genesis of autochthonous and allochthonous Apulian karst bauxites (Southern Italy): Climate constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Buccione, Roberto; Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-07-01

    The Apulian Carbonate Platform (ACP) in southern Italy has experienced several episodes of subaerial exposure, which were in some cases associated with the formation of karst bauxite deposits. The ACP contains both autochthonous canyon-like bauxite and allochthonous Salento-type bauxite, with the latter having been derived from a weathered and eroded pristine bauxite deposit. The remnants of this pristine bauxite are preserved as transported pebbles embedded in a clayey matrix. The autochthonous bauxite and the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite have the same texture of sub-spheroidal components (ooids) dispersed in a fine-grained matrix. The fractal dimension of ooids from both deposits is very similar and corresponds to the growth of "aggregates" under a diffusion-controlled process. The ooids of the autochthonous bauxite have a different composition to those in the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite, because they formed under different climatic conditions. During the Turonian, autochthonous bauxite ooids formed in alternating wet tropical conditions (promoting Al-hematite formation) and drier conditions (favouring boehmite stability). In the allochthonous pebbles, ooids formed mainly in a dry climate, promoting the formation of large boehmite cores. The ooids/matrix ratio and the geometrical features of the ooids reflect these climate differences. The differences in composition and age (post-Turonian) of the Salento-type bauxite bedrock suggest that the pristine bauxite that produced the Salento-type pebbles was different in composition to and younger in age than the Canyon-like bauxite. The latter probably formed during a middle Campanian emersion event (evidenced by large karstic cavities), which is correlated with the subaerial exposure of karst recorded on the Adriatic island of Brač.

  13. Karst collapse susceptibility assessment: A case study on the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; Budetta, Paolo; Forte, Giovanni; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the collapse susceptibility of a karst cave located along a slope on the Amalfi coast (southern Italy) and the presumable geomorphological evolution of the whole slope as a result of cave roof collapse. In the study area, several natural karst caves with volumes varying between 1000 and > 10,000 m3 were inventoried and the most likely genetic processes were identified. Some of them proved to be remnants of already collapsed caves, while others were in precarious stability conditions. The caves are usually located upslope or very close to the main populated resorts. A detailed geological, geomorphological and geostructural study was performed on a very wide, deep cave (called the ;Saraceno; cave), on which the resort town of Conca de' Marini has been built. The study was carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, which included classical field geological observations, sometimes requiring the support of rock-climbing geologists, experts in photogrammetric surveys and terrestrial laser scanning techniques (TLS). TLS surveys allowed the reconstruction of an accurate geometric and geostructural model of the cave and its relationship with the upslope Conca de' Marini resort. Furthermore, it allowed the thickness of the cave overburden to be determined in detail; ground surfaces most susceptible to collapse were also identified. In the event of possible widespread collapse, several buildings and transportation infrastructures could be involved. As the cave is located on a very steep slope, a debris avalanche could be triggered in the event of a catastrophic failure, and the landslide debris, characterized by a presumably high magnitude and velocity, could involve a wide slope area down to the coast. The failure evolution could be very similar to that which took place in Amalfi in the late 19th century.

  14. Variations of local seismic response in Benevento (Southern Italy) using earthquakes and ambient noise recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, Luigi; di Giulio, Giuseppe; Rovelli, Antonio

    The city of Benevento (Southern Italy) has been repeatedly struck by large historical earthquakes. A heterogeneous geologic structure and widespread soft soil conditions make the estimation of site effects crucial for the seismic hazard assessment of the city. From 2000 until 2004, we installed seismic stations to collect earthquake data over zones with different geological conditions. Despite the high level of urban noise, we recorded more than 150 earthquakes at twelve sites. This data set yields the first, well documented experimental evidence for weak to moderate local amplifications. We investigated site effects primarily by the classical spectral ratio technique (CSR) using a rock station placed on the Benevento hill as reference. All sites in the Calore river valley and in the eastern part of the Benevento hill show a moderate high-frequency (f > 4 Hz) amplification peak. Conversely, sites in the Sabato river valley share weak-to-moderate amplification in a wide frequency band (from 1-2 to 7-10 Hz), without evident frequency peaks. Application of no-reference-site techniques to earthquake and noise data confirms the results of the CSRs in the sites of the Calore river valley and of the eastern part of the Benevento hill, but fails in providing indications for site effects in the Sabato river valley, being the H/V ratios nearly flat. One-dimensional modeling indicates that the ground motion amplification can be essentially explained in terms of a vertically varying geologic structure. High-frequency narrow peaks are caused by the strong impedance contrast existing between near-surface soft deposits and stiff cemented conglomerates. Conversely, broad-band amplifications in the Sabato river valley are likely due to a more complex layering with weak impedance contrasts both in the shallow and deep structure of the valley.

  15. Fissumella motolae new genus new species from the late Aptian-early Albian of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Erzika; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Parente, Mariano; Ciria, Alex; Caus, Esmeralda

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera, together with calcareous algae and rudist bivalves, play a key role in the biostratigraphy of Cretaceous carbonate platforms of the peri-Adriatic area. In the biozonation currently adopted for the carbonate platforms of central and southern Apennines (Italy) there is a stratigraphic interval, roughly corresponding to most of the Albian stage, which is poorly defined and assigned to a single biozone, called "Ostracoda and Miliolidae" biozone (Chiocchini et al., 2008). We describe here a new peneropliform benthic foraminifer, Fissumella motolae n. gen., n. sp. which could be used for a finer biostratigraphic subdivision of this interval. Its porcelaneous test shows a peneropliform shape with rounded margins. In the early stage of growth the chambers are streptospirally arranged, becoming later planispiral involute. The aperture is single, migrating during ontogeny from an interiomarginal position to the center of septa. The chamber lumina are traversed by few and short radial septula. Fissumella motolae is a common constituent of benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Apennine Carbonate Platform. We have found it in the same stratigraphic interval in several stratigraphic sections distributed along a NW-SE transect from Monte Croce (in the Aurunci Mts.) to Monte Tobenna (in the Picentini Mts.) to Monte Motola (in the Cilento Promontory). It first appears in the levels with Archaeoalveolina reicheli, close to Aptian-Albian boundary, and then continues for some tens of meters, associated with Praechrysalidina infracretacea, Cuneolina parva, Sabaudia minuta, conical imperforate foraminifers, miliolids, textularids, nezzazzatids, dasycladalean green algae and ostracods. Carbon isotope stratigraphy has been used to better constrain the correlation between the studied sections and their chronostratigraphic calibration. Chiocchini, M., Chiocchini, R. A., Didaskalou, P., and Potetti, M., 2008. Microbiostratigrafia del Triassico superiore, Giurassico e

  16. Thermo-tectonics of the Calabrian Arc, southern Italy: Constraints from fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Stuart Nigel

    This study uses fission track analysis to provide temperature and time constraints on the cooling and exhumation history of the basement rocks of the Calabrian Arc of southern Italy. Fission track analysis also provides information on the provenance and burial history of the terrigenous Oligo-Miocene Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation. 65 samples from the basement rocks have yielded 57 apatite fission track ages, 54 zircon fission track ages and 25 apatite track length distributions. 9 samples from the Stilo- Capo d'Orlando Formation have yielded 8 apatite fission track ages, 8 zircon fission track ages and 6 apatite track length distributions. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fission track data reveals that the majority of the basement rocks underwent a phase of increased cooling related to exhumation between about 35 Ma (Early Oligocene) and 15 Ma (Middle Miocene). Evidence from the local sedimentary record indicates that erosion played an important role in the exhumation process. Extensional tectonism also contributes to some of the increased exhumation. Analysis of the fission track results obtained from the Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation confirm a Calabrian basement provenance for the sediments. The previously debated origin of volcanic conglomerate clasts from the formation is also resolved. Finally apatite fission track analysis indicates post-depositional burial at the base of the formation to temperatures greater than 80° C. The final part of this thesis uses the fission track age and temperature constraints to produce an improved tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene tectonic evolution of the Calabrian Arc. This model proposes that increased exhumation is a consequence of the dynamics of an overthickened orogenic wedge. The model is related to the overall plate dynamics of the western Mediterranean orogeny.

  17. The effects of lithology and landsliding on hillslope sediment supply: case study from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; McDonald, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    Sediment supply from hillslopes -including volumes, rates and grain size distributions- controls the sediment fluxes from upland areas and modulates how landscapes respond to tectonics. Here, we present new field data from tectonically-active areas in southern Italy that quantifies how lithology and rock-mass strength control the delivery processes and grain size distributions of sediment supplied from hillslopes. We evaluate the influence of landslides on sediment supply along 8 normal faults with excellent tectonic constraints. Frequency-area analysis of the landslide inventory, and a new field-calibrated area-volume scaling relationship, reveal that landsliding in the area is not dominated by large landslides (β ˜2), with 83% of landslides being < 0.1 km2 and shallower than 3 m. Based on volumetric estimates and published erosion rates, we infer that our inventory likely represents the integrated record of landsliding over 1-3 kyrs, implying minimum sediment fluxes between 6.90 x 102 and 2.07 x 103 m3/yr. We demonstrate that outcrop-scale rock-mass strength controls both landslide occurrence and the grain sizes supplied by bedrock weathering, for different lithologies. Comparisons of particle size distributions from bedrock weathering with those measured on landslide deposits demonstrates that landslides supply systematically coarser material, with lithology influencing the degree of coarsening. Finally, we evaluate the effect of landslide supply on fluvial sediment export, and show that D84 grain size increases by ˜ 6 mm for each 100-m increment in incision depth, due to the combination of enhanced landsliding and transport capacity in more incised catchments. Our results reveal a dual control of lithology and rock-mass strength on both the sediment volumes and grain sizes supplied to the fluvial system, which we demonstrate has a significant impact on sediment export from upland areas. This study provides a uniquely detailed field data set for studying how

  18. Understanding the structural setting in the Southern Apennines (Italy): insight from Gravity Gradient Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Ferranti, Luigi; Florio, Giovanni; Giori, Italiano; Italiano, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The Lucania Apennines form the frontal part of the Apennines in Southern Italy. This orogenic belt was formed in response to late Miocene-Early Pleistocene shortening and allochthon emplacement toward the northeast, and was subsequently affected by extensional faulting which migrated to northeast ahead of the thrust system. As a result, contraction structures are found associated to Pliocene-Early Pleistocene thrust-top basins in the NE part of the area, whereas extensional faults shape Middle Pleistocene-Holocene basin on the SW sector. The main structural grain of the belt is NW-SE, but E-W structures are widespread in the area as a result of phases of non-coaxial thrusting and strike-slip faulting. The analysis, one by one, of the components of the Gravity Gradient Tensor (GGT) has proved to yield a fine image of the structural setting of the investigated area. GGT is a second rank tensor containing the second spatial derivatives of the gravity potential and in this paper is used instead than the more traditional gravity data. The Tzz component allows an accurate description of the location and of the shape of basins and other structures, but different components of the GGT provide even more detailed insights for such structures. In particular, we found that the Tzy and Tyy locate well those structures trending closer to the E-W direction for both thrust-top and extensional basins, and their termination against the main NW-SE structures. The combined use of components of GGT provides a finer definition of the anomaly sources particularly if a good knowledge of their strike and depth is independently estimated with other geological and geophysical investigations.

  19. An innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic: first application in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Bavusi, Massimo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Valanzano, Antonio; Pafundi, Donato; Lacorazza, Piero

    2013-04-01

    This work will show the preliminary results obtained through the use of an innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic. This electromagnetic mobile system is an innovative tool which is able to analyse and monitor the road paving of the overall road network with the aim of individuating critical areas affected by sinking or wearing. The georadar system, equipped by a high frequency antenna (f=1GHz), is mounted on a van and is able to acquire suitable data at velocities up to 70Km/hour. Through the use of this kind of mobile system it is possible to obtain in a short time and with very low costs a wide amount of data on thickness and roughness of the asphalt, superficial sinking and water saturated areas. The first tests were carried out on the main provincial road located in an area of the Southern Apennines affected by hydrogeological risk. This activity has been performed in the framework of a project funded by the Province of Potenza, and realized thank to the consolidated collaboration between the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (IMAA) and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). This activity has been recognized also at European level as a best practice procedure in the frame of "Window on GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security". The application of this innovative electromagnetic system on the overall road system of the province of Potenza will enable the decision-makers to plan with more detail and awareness the technical actions addressed to maintain and repair the road sections really affected by anomalies, with a time-saving and lower management costs.

  20. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  1. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  2. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  3. Glucokinase (GCK) Mutations and Their Characterization in MODY2 Children of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tinto, Nadia; Carluccio, Carla; Capobianco, Valentina; Coto, Iolanda; Cola, Arturo; Iafusco, Dario; Franzese, Adriana; Zagari, Adriana; Navas, Maria Angeles; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY2) is a monogenic autosomal disease characterized by a primary defect in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. It results from GCK gene mutations that impair enzyme activity. Between 2006 and 2010, we investigated GCK mutations in 66 diabetic children from southern Italy with suspected MODY2. Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) and sequence analysis revealed 19 GCK mutations in 28 children, six of which were novel: p.Glu40Asp, p.Val154Leu, p.Arg447Glyfs, p.Lys458_Cys461del, p.Glu395_Arg397del and c.580-2A>T. We evaluated the effect of these 19 mutations using bioinformatic tools such as Polymorphism Phenotyping (Polyphen), Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) and in silico modelling. We also conducted a functional study to evaluate the pathogenic significance of seven mutations that are among the most severe mutations found in our population, and have never been characterized: p.Glu70Asp, p.His137Asp, p.Phe150Tyr, p.Val154Leu, p.Gly162Asp, p.Arg303Trp and p.Arg392Ser. These seven mutations, by altering one or more kinetic parameters, reduced enzyme catalytic activity by >40%. All mutations except p.Glu70Asp displayed thermal-instability, indeed >50% of enzyme activity was lost at 50°C/30 min. Thus, these seven mutations play a pathogenic role in MODY2 insurgence. In conclusion, this report revealed six novel GCK mutations and sheds some light on the structure-function relationship of human GCK mutations and MODY2. PMID:22761713

  4. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  5. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  6. Crustal structure and deformation across a mature slab tear zone: the case of southern Tyrrhenian subduction (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Di Bona, Massimo; Govoni, Aladino; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    We compute S velocity profiles of the crust across the Messina Strait (Italy), the tear zone at the southern end of the Ionian subduction zone. Separating Sicily from Calabria, the Messina Strait hosted some of the strongest earthquakes to ever occur in Italy. Here the motion of the Ionian slab with respect to Sicily creates a complex tectonic setting characterized by lithospheric tearing. We show velocity models of the crust, computed from teleseismic receiver function inversion, outlining the differences between Sicily and Calabria. Strong deformation across the Messina Strait between 10-15 and 30 km depth is expressed by strong anisotropy (up to 10%), developed in a ductile shear zone of the crust. The top of these ductile weaker layers could limit the depth extent of future ruptures.

  7. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  8. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  9. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  10. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  11. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  12. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Calidonna, C. R.; Sempreviva, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern Italy), in an area characterized by a complex orography near the sea. Results of 1 km × 1 km grid spacing simulations are compared with the data collected during a measurement campaign in summer 2009, considering hourly model outputs. Measurements from several instruments are taken into account for the performance evaluation: near surface variables (2 m temperature and relative humidity, downward shortwave radiation, 10 m wind speed and direction) from a surface station and a meteorological mast; vertical wind profiles from Lidar and Sodar; also, the aerosol backscattering from a ceilometer to estimate the PBL height. Results covering the whole measurement campaign show a cold and moist bias near the surface, mostly during daytime, for all schemes, as well as an overestimation of the downward shortwave radiation and wind speed. Wind speed and direction are also verified at vertical levels above the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes with the best performance in representing parameters near the surface and in the boundary layer during the analyzed campaign.

  14. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  15. A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Capelli, G

    2001-12-13

    A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and choroplethic municipal maps (MMs) were drawn by a geographical information system (GIS) software. Microfilariae were detected in 63 of the 351 dogs surveyed, constituting a total filarial prevalence of 17.9%. In particular, 56 dogs (15.9%) showed only microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum; three dogs (0.8%) only microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens; two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D. reconditum prevalence was associated with hunting practice, masculine gender and older dogs. There was also a tendency to find high prevalence in dogs sampled in the afternoon. In conclusion, the presence of microfilariae of D. reconditum in 92% of microfilaraemic dogs indicates that this filarial worm was the predominant filarial species in dogs in the Mt. Vesuvius area. In addition, the general trends of the MMs showed that D. immitis and D. repens were present only in a few municipalities, whereas D. reconditum was widely and homogeneously spread throughout the entire study area.

  16. New Electrical Resistivity Tomography approach for karst cave characterization: Castello di Lepre karst cave (Marsico Nuovo, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerriero, Merilisa; Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Perciante, Felice; Gueguen, Erwan; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    Geophysical methods are commonly applied to characterize karst cave. Several geophysical method are used such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), gravimetric prospecting (G), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods (S), in order to provide information on cave geometry and subsurface geological structure. In detail, in some complex karst systems, each geophysical method can only give partial information if used in normal way due to a low resolution for deep target. In order to reduce uncertainty and avoid misinterpretations based on a normal use of the electrical resistivity tomography method, a new ERT approach has been applied in karst cave Castello di Lepre (Marsico Nuovo, Basilicata region, Italy) located in the Mezo-Cenozoic carbonate substratum of the Monti della Maddalena ridge (Southern Appenines). In detail, a cross-ERT acquisition system was applied in order to improve the resolution on the electrical resistivity distribution on the surrounding geological structure of a karst cave. The cross-ERT system provides a more uniform model resolution vertically, increasing the resolution of the surface resistivity imaging. The usual cross-ERT is made by electrode setting in two or more borehole in order to acquire the resistivity data distribution. In this work the cross-ERT was made between the electrodes located on surface and along a karst cave, in order to obtain an high resolution of the electrical resistivity distributed between the cave and the surface topography. Finally, the acquired cross-ERT is potentially well-suited for imaging fracture zones since electrical current flow in fractured rock is primarily electrolytic via the secondary porosity associated with the fractures.

  17. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  18. [Updating of the prevalence of congenital anomalies among resident births in the Municipality of Gela (Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bianca, Sebastiano; Barone, Chiara; Pierini, Anna

    2014-01-01

    to update the prevalence of congenital anomalies in the Municipality of Gela (Southern Italy), in particular to verify whether the previously reported high prevalence of hypospadias was confirmed. study on prevalence at birth of congenital anomalies by retrieving information from multiple sources. in the Municipality of Gela it is localized a site of national interest for environmental remediation (SIN). Data of residents born in the Municipality of Gela in 2003-2008 were recovered from hospital records, local and regional archives, Sicilian registry of congenital malformations database, hospital admissions at medical and surgical hospitals in Catania. For comparison, European (EUROCAT), Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna registries data have been used. congenital anomalies, divided into confirmed anomalies, minor anomalies, uncertain conditions, classified by large groups and specific anomalies. statistically significant excesses emerge with respect to the references for genital anomalies, and for urinary and total anomalies including not-specified diagnoses. For cardiovascular and limb anomalies (including not-specified clubfoot), the excess is significant only in comparison with Italian figures. The prevalence of hypospadias of 46.7/10,000 shows statistically significant excesses compared to European and Italian reference values, of 1.7 and 2.3 times, respectively. retrospective recovery of data produced incompleteness of cases and poor diagnostic definition. The epidemiological picture is more reliable for congenital anomalies less susceptible to termination of pregnancy. The study confirms a high prevalence of hypospadias, estimated between the value observed in the previous twelve-year study and the one reported for the area of Priolo-Augusta-Melilli for the years 1990-1998; and higher than those reported in literature, with sporadic exceptions. The observed data, as well as the documented presence in the environment and in biological fluids of dangerous pollutants

  19. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals.

  20. Surveillance for West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-04-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures.

  1. Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M.; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures PMID:22469230

  2. Elements levels in dogs from "triangle of death" and different areas of Campania region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Silvi, Marina; Di Vaia, Roberto; Formigaro, Costanza; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    In the last twenty years, many concerns have raised in Campania region (Southern Italy) about illegal waste dumping and toxic waste and their possible adverse effects on health. Many human activities are considered to be important sources of environmental pollutants, elements among them. In this study, pet dogs were enrolled as environmental sentinels from three different areas of Campania, with a different degree of pollution, evaluating elements in blood and hair. The obtained data indicated that dogs from less polluted area were exposed to a hot spot of pollution, as only animals from one city (Sessa Aurunca) presented elements concentrations very close to toxic levels. When excluding these animals, the area proved to be the less contaminated. The present report confirm the higher degree of pollution of the most industrialized areas, and a certain concern originates from Cr, Ni and As, which are present as levels well above toxic thresholds. These data are indicative of a reduced pollution of the areas considered by Cd and Pb, but arise concern for Hg, As, Cr and Ni, which reach concentrations high enough to impact dogs and humans health, in term of acute (in the city of Sessa Aurunca) and chronic toxicity (i.e. reproduction impairment, endocrine disruption, immunosuppression). Additional studies are necessary to better define not only the precise distribution of hot spots of pollution, but also the real impact of such an exposure on the health of dogs, in term of endocrine balance and/or immune system activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: Two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeolithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccio, Biagio; Isaia, Roberto; Fedele, Francesco G.; Di Canzio, Emanuele; Hoffecker, John; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Sinitsyn, Andrey A.; Anikovich, Mikhail; Lisitsyn, Sergey N.; Popov, Vasil V.

    2008-10-01

    Tephra layers from archaeological sites in southern Italy and eastern Europe stratigraphically associated with cultural levels containing Early Upper Palaeolithic industry were analysed. The results confirm the occurrence of the Campanian Ignimbrite tephra (CI; ca. 40 cal ka BP) at Castelcivita Cave (southern Italy), Temnata Cave (Bulgaria) and in the Kostenki-Borshchevo area of the Russian Plain. This tephra, originated from the largest eruption of the Phlegrean Field caldera, represents the widest volcanic deposit and one of the most important temporal/stratigraphic markers of western Eurasia. At Paglicci Cave and lesser sites in the Apulia region we recognise a chemically and texturally different tephra, which lithologically, chronologically and chemically matches the physical and chemical characteristics of the Plinian eruption of Codola; a poorly known Late Pleistocene explosive event from the Neapolitan volcanoes, likely Somma-Vesuvius. For this latter, we propose a preliminary age estimate of ca. 33 cal ka BP and a correlation to the widespread C-10 marine tephra of the central Mediterranean. The stratigraphic position of both CI and Codola tephra layers at Castelcivita and Paglicci help date the first and the last documented appearance of Early Upper Palaeolithic industries of southern Italy to ca. 41-40 and 33 cal ka BP, respectively, or between two interstadial oscillations of the Monticchio pollen record - to which the CI and Codola tephras are physically correlated - corresponding to the Greenland interstadials 10-9 and 5. In eastern Europe, the stratigraphic and chronometric data seem to indicate an earlier appearance of the Early Upper Palaeolithic industries, which would predate of two millennia at least the overlying CI tephra. The tephrostratigraphic correlation indicates that in both regions the innovations connected with the so-called Early Upper Palaeolithic - encompassing subsistence strategy and stone tool technology - appeared and evolved

  4. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that apprec