Science.gov

Sample records for regional analysis

  1. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  2. USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, J. S.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The regional Pn and Sn phases, which are typically described as headwaves that propagate in the uppermost mantle, are sensitive to heterogeneities in the mantle lid and complement other seismic studies with poorer vertical resolution at this depth. We have experimented with a variety of approaches to image the velocity structure and anisotropy in the western U.S., starting with separate Pn and Sn time-term tomographies, but also localized cross-correlation and stacking approaches that benefit from the regular USArray station arrangement. Later we combined the data sets for joint Pn-Sn inversions and the resulting Vp/Vs maps provide further insight into the nature of the seismic anomalies. Now that USArray has reached the east coast, we are updating our models to include the cumulative station footprint. The sparser source distribution in the eastern U.S., and the resulting longer ray paths, provide new challenges and justify the inclusion of additional parameters that account for the velocity gradient in the mantle lid. Our results show generally higher Pn velocities in the eastern U.S., but we observe patches of lower velocities around the New Madrid seismic zone and below the eastern Appalachians. We find that the Pn fast axes generally do not agree with SKS splitting orientations, suggesting significant vertical changes in anisotropy in the upper mantle. For example, the circular pattern of the fast polarization direction of SKS in the western U.S. is much less pronounced in the Pn results, and in the eastern U.S. the dominant Pn fast direction is approximately north-south, whereas the SKS fast polarizations are oriented roughly parallel to the absolute plate motion direction. Since Pn and Sn travel through the crust, they can provide additional information on crustal thickness. In several regions our results and estimates from receiver function studies are inconsistent. For example, beneath the Colorado Plateau our crustal thickness estimates are about 35-40 km

  3. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  4. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."

  5. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike‐slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east‐west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north‐ to northeast‐striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local‐scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  6. Preliminary analysis of regional-precipitation periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.

    1980-01-01

    Precipitation variability plays a major role in nearly every aspect of the hydrologic cycle. Precipitation is not a random event, but it occurs after a sequence of prerequisites has been fulfilled. Recent investigations have shown that activity of the sun can affect atmospheric vorticity, an important factor in precipitation formation. Solar activity is known to be periodic; therefore, through a complex series of physical processes, precipitation variance is solar forced to a certain degree. A preliminary analysis of precipitation periodicity was made for eight regions scattered across the central United States. Each region contained 5 to 10 stations with long-term precipitation records that were averaged to obtain yearly regional-precipitation values. Graphic analysis shows 11-year and 22-year cycles that are nearly in phase with the solar cycles. An example of the effect of cyclic precipitation is presented for the Powder River basin in Wyoming and Montana. A cycle of 22 years exhibits fluctuations of approximately 22 to 27% for precipitation and 38 to 50% for runoff. A more detailed study that investigates solar-forced precipitation cycles and their relationship to hydrologic processes is needed. (USGS)

  7. Regional frequency analysis of extreme groundwater levels.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef; Bichler, Andrea; Konecny, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk is generally perceived as being a consequence of surface water inundation. However, large damage is also caused by high groundwater levels. In surface hydrology, statistical frequency analysis is a standard tool to estimate discharge with a given return period or exceedance probability. First, a suitable probability distribution is fit to a series of annual maximum peaks. Second, this distribution is used to determine the discharge corresponding to the desired return period. Where only short series of recorded data are available, the estimates can often be improved by regional frequency analysis (RFA). Unfortunately, there is little information in the literature on analogous approaches for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels. In this contribution, the applicability of l-moments-based RFA for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels is investigated. The main issues specific to groundwater levels are (1) appropriate transformation of the data, (2) criteria for identification of statistically homogeneous regions, (3) consideration of correlation between sites, and (4) choice of distribution function. This study is based on data from more than 1100 observation sites in four shallow Austrian Aquifers with a record length of 10 to 50 years. Results show that homogeneous regions for l-moments-based RFA can be identified covering about one half of the total area of the aquifers. The confidence intervals for the 30- and 100-year return levels can be significantly reduced by RFA. Out of the four investigated distribution functions, none is to be preferred generally.

  8. Regional Frequency Analysis of Ocean Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardara, Pietro; Weiss, Jerome; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of the extreme return level (up to 10-4 annual probability of exceedence) of natural phenomena is a very uncertain exercise, when extrapolating using the information and the measure collected in a single site. The aim of the Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) is to benefit from the information contained in observations and data collected not only on the site of interested but in a larger set of sites, located in the same region of the site of interest or sharing with it similar characteristics. This technique was introduced in the '60 and widely used in various domains including hydrology and meteorology. The RFA was recently acknowledge as a potential choice for the estimation of flooding hazard in the Methodological Guide for flooding hazard estimation [1], published in 2013 by the French Nuclear Safety Autority. The aim of this presentation is to bring in the main concepts of the RFA and illustrate the latest innovation on its application, delivered by EDF R&D. They concerns the statistical definition of storms, the formation of homogeneous regions and a new approach for filtering the redundant information linked to the spatial correlation of natural phenomena. Application to skew surges and waves will be shown 1. ASN, Guide pour la Protection des installations nucléaires de base contre les inondations externes. 2013, ASN. p. 44.

  9. Major trauma in Australia: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Dziukas, L; Hadj, A; Clark, P; Hooper, S

    1995-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency, distribution, cause, pattern, and outcome of patients suffering from major trauma in the State of Victoria over a 1-year period. No previous study in Australia has attempted a comprehensive regional analysis of major trauma. All major trauma admissions resulting from blunt, penetrating, and burns injury were identified, and data collected from emergency departments and intensive care log books at 25 major metropolitan and rural hospitals from the January 3, 1992 to February 28, 1993 by onsite data collectors. The total number of patients admitted into the study was 2,944. There were 1,076 major trauma cases with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 in a population of 4.2 million people. The type of injury was predominantly blunt (87.5%), with only a small percentage of penetrating injuries (6.4%) and burns (6%). Major trauma in pediatric cases is less common (132 cases). The most common causes of injury were road transport (56%) and falls (22%). The overall outcome of the group was favorable when compared with the Major Trauma Outcome Study group (Z = 1.4, M = 0.93, W = 0.52). There was an unexpectedly low number of patients suffering from major trauma. Outcome using Trauma and Injury Severity Score methodology was favorable when compared with North America.

  10. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  11. Regional analysis of energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F W; Meier, P M; Kleinman, L I

    1980-01-01

    This paper has examined some of the regional environmental parameters of energy facility siting, with emphasis on air quality impacts. An example of a siting optimization study was presented, and it was shown how difficult it presently is to specify an environmental objective function that is universally applicable. The importance of regional background effects was discussed, and long-range transport models were used to analyze the relative importance of local and long-range impacts.

  12. Multiwavelength analysis of a solar quiet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: We examine oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region from multi-wavelength observations obtained by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on the spacecraft Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). The observations were obtained during a coordinated observing campaign in October 2005. Aims: We investigate the temporal variations of the intensities and the velocities in two distinct regions of the quiet Sun, one containing several dark mottles and the other several bright points defining the network boundaries (NB). The aim is to find similarities and/or differences in the oscillatory phenomena observed in these two regions and in different spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the transition region, as well as the propagation characteristics of waves. Methods: Intensity and velocity variations are studied with wavelet and phase difference analyses. Results: Both regions (i.e. mottles and NB) show a periodicity of ~5 min in all considered lines. The V-V phase differences in the NB region point to an upward propagation of waves; in the region of mottles, for periods of 250-400 s, the phase difference is mainly negative, which suggests a downward propagation, in turn indicating a refraction of waves from the inclined magnetic field of mottles along the line-of-sight. Conclusions: The phase differences at the NB arise from a predominance of upward propagating waves. In the mottles' region, the negative phase differences we found suggest that propagating waves encounter a boundary and are refracted and reflected. Of course, several limitations exist in the exact interpretation of the phase differences, e.g. the complex topology of the magnetic field, the formation conditions and heights of the examined spectral lines, and the low spatial resolution.

  13. Hierarchical manifold learning for regional image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional properties of image datasets. While traditional manifold learning methods have become widely used for dimensionality reduction in medical imaging, they suffer from only being able to consider whole images as single data points. We extend conventional techniques by additionally examining local variations, in order to produce spatially-varying manifold embeddings that characterize a given dataset. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate the utility of our method in two very different settings: 1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved MR images of the thoracic cavity; 2) to find discriminative regions of 3-D brain MR images associated with neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  15. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  16. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  17. Pineal region tumors: analysis of treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; McClatchey, K.; Amendola, M.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article represents a review of 32 patients with pineal region tumors seen and treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from January 1950 to December 1980. All patients presented with manifestations of increased intracranial pressure: limitation of the upward gaze (Parinaud's syndrome), hydrocephalus and a mass in the posterior aspect of the third ventricle. The tumor was demonstrated by pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, angiography or CT scans. Ventricular decompression was performed in all patients. Twenty-seven patients received post-operative irradiation. The overall 10 year survival for evaluable patients was 16/24 (67%). Few complications were seen.

  18. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  19. Challenges from Variation across Regions in Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Multi-Regional Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yunbo; Dai, Luyan; Qi, Sheng; Smith, Matthew Lee; Huang, Hui; Li, Yang; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in the form of cost-effectiveness analysis has become a popular means to inform decisions in healthcare. With multi-regional clinical trials in a global development program becoming a new venue for drug efficacy testing in recent decades, questions in methods for cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials setting also emerge. This paper addresses some challenges from variation across regions in cost effectiveness analysis in multi-regional clinical trials. Several discussion points are raised for further attention and a multi-regional clinical trial example is presented to illustrate the implications in industrial application. A general message is delivered to call for a depth discussion by all stakeholders to reach an agreement on a good practice in cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials. Meanwhile, we recommend an additional consideration of cost-effectiveness analysis results based on the clinical evidence from a certain homogeneous population as sensitivity or scenario analysis upon data availability. PMID:27840606

  20. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  1. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  2. Worldwide Genetic Analysis of the CFTR Region

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Lao, Oscar; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    Mutations at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most prevalent severe genetic disorder in individuals of European descent. We have analyzed normal allele and haplotype variation at four short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFTR in 18 worldwide population samples, comprising a total of 1,944 chromosomes. The rooted phylogeny of the SNP haplotypes was established by typing ape samples. STRP variation within SNP haplotype backgrounds was highest in most ancestral haplotypes—although, when STRP allele sizes were taken into account, differences among haplotypes became smaller. Haplotype background determines STRP diversity to a greater extent than populations do, which indicates that haplotype backgrounds are older than populations. Heterogeneity among STRPs can be understood as the outcome of differences in mutation rate and pattern. STRP sites had higher heterozygosities in Africans, although, when whole haplotypes were considered, no significant differences remained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) shows a complex pattern not easily related to physical distance. The analysis of the fraction of possible different haplotypes not found may circumvent some of the methodological difficulties of LD measure. LD analysis showed a positive correlation with locus polymorphism, which could partly explain the unusual pattern of similar LD between Africans and non-Africans. The low values found in non-Africans may imply that the size of the modern human population that emerged “Out of Africa” may be larger than what previous LD studies suggested. PMID:11104661

  3. Analysis of novel Sir3 binding regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Risa; Ohashi, Tomoe; Kugou, Kazuto; Ichino, Ayako; Taniguchi, Kei; Ohta, Kunihiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oki, Masaya

    2016-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HMR, HML, telomere and rDNA regions are silenced. Silencing at the rDNA region requires Sir2, and silencing at the HMR, HML and telomere regions requires binding of a protein complex, consisting of Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4, that mediates repression of gene expression. Here, several novel Sir3 binding domains, termed CN domains (Chromosomal Novel Sir3 binding region), were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip analysis of S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Furthermore, analysis of G1-arrested cells demonstrated that Sir3 binding was elevated in G1-arrested cells compared with logarithmically growing asynchronous cells, and that Sir3 binding varied with the cell cycle. In addition to 14 CN regions identified from analysis of logarithmically growing asynchronous cells (CN1-14), 11 CN regions were identified from G1-arrested cells (CN15-25). Gene expression at some CN regions did not differ between WT and sir3Δ strains. Sir3 at conventional heterochromatic regions is thought to be recruited to chromosomes by Sir2 and Sir4; however, in this study, Sir3 binding occurred at some CN regions even in sir2Δ and sir4Δ backgrounds. Taken together, our results suggest that Sir3 exhibits novel binding parameters and gene regulatory functions at the CN binding domains.

  4. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  5. Thermal analysis of SC quadrupoles in accelerator interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, Igor; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents results of a thermal analysis and operation margin calculation performed for NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn low-beta quadrupoles in collider interaction regions. Results of the thermal analysis for NbTi quadrupoles are compared with the relevant experimental data. An approach to quench limit measurements for Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is discussed.

  6. The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Lawrence M.

    Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…

  7. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Teyra, Joan; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Anders, Gerd; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs) might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions. The hierarchical

  8. Using cluster analysis to organize and explore regional GPS velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Robert W.; Thatcher, Wayne; Savage, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers a simple visual exploratory tool for the initial investigation of regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations, which are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, can be subjective and is often guided by the distribution of known faults. To illustrate our method, we apply cluster analysis to GPS velocities from the San Francisco Bay Region, California, to search for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence of block-like behavior. The clustering process identifies four robust groupings of velocities that we identify with four crustal blocks. Although the analysis uses no prior geologic information other than the GPS velocities, the cluster/block boundaries track three major faults, both locked and creeping.

  9. Ultradeep analysis of tumor heterogeneity in regions of somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Spence, Janice M; Spence, John P; Abumoussa, Andrew; Burack, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is of growing importance in the treatment of cancers. Mutational hot spots are prime locations for determining number and proportions of low variant allele frequency (VAF) tumor subclones by next generation sequencing. Low VAF detection is complicated by poor mapping efficiency in regions with high mutation density. Our Deep-Drilling with iterative Mapping (DDiMAP) method retains variant allele patterns to aid in single nucleotide variation detection and generation of additional reference alleles, with remapping increasing coverage of highly mutated regions to capture data critical to heterogeneity analysis and enhancing sensitivity. DDiMAP outputs variant patterns with frequencies, enabling rapid phylogenetic analysis of ongoing mutation.

  10. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  11. Flexible expressed region analysis for RNA-seq with derfinder

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Nellore, Abhinav; Frazee, Alyssa C.; Wilks, Christopher; Love, Michael I.; Langmead, Ben; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Leek, Jeffrey T.; Jaffe, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    Differential expression analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data typically relies on reconstructing transcripts or counting reads that overlap known gene structures. We previously introduced an intermediate statistical approach called differentially expressed region (DER) finder that seeks to identify contiguous regions of the genome showing differential expression signal at single base resolution without relying on existing annotation or potentially inaccurate transcript assembly. We present the derfinder software that improves our annotation-agnostic approach to RNA-seq analysis by: (i) implementing a computationally efficient bump-hunting approach to identify DERs that permits genome-scale analyses in a large number of samples, (ii) introducing a flexible statistical modeling framework, including multi-group and time-course analyses and (iii) introducing a new set of data visualizations for expressed region analysis. We apply this approach to public RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and BrainSpan project to show that derfinder permits the analysis of hundreds of samples at base resolution in R, identifies expression outside of known gene boundaries and can be used to visualize expressed regions at base-resolution. In simulations, our base resolution approaches enable discovery in the presence of incomplete annotation and is nearly as powerful as feature-level methods when the annotation is complete. derfinder analysis using expressed region-level and single base-level approaches provides a compromise between full transcript reconstruction and feature-level analysis. The package is available from Bioconductor at www.bioconductor.org/packages/derfinder. PMID:27694310

  12. Multi-scaling allometric analysis for urban and regional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    The concept of allometric growth is based on scaling relations, and it has been applied to urban and regional analysis for a long time. However, most allometric analyses were devoted to the single proportional relation between two elements of a geographical system. Few researches focus on the allometric scaling of multielements. In this paper, a process of multiscaling allometric analysis is developed for the studies on spatio-temporal evolution of complex systems. By means of linear algebra, general system theory, and by analogy with the analytical hierarchy process, the concepts of allometric growth can be integrated with the ideas from fractal dimension. Thus a new methodology of geo-spatial analysis and the related theoretical models emerge. Based on the least squares regression and matrix operations, a simple algorithm is proposed to solve the multiscaling allometric equation. Applying the analytical method of multielement allometry to Chinese cities and regions yields satisfying results. A conclusion is reached that the multiscaling allometric analysis can be employed to make a comprehensive evaluation for the relative levels of urban and regional development, and explain spatial heterogeneity. The notion of multiscaling allometry may enrich the current theory and methodology of spatial analyses of urban and regional evolution.

  13. Analysis of drought variability in data sparse regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, M.; Apel, H.

    2012-04-01

    Drought impacts can be mitigated by enhancing preparedness. For better disaster management an effective drought forecasting and monitoring system has to be combined with detailed knowledge of drought variability and local impact. In regions with low data availability remotely sensed data and global reanalysis data and forecasts play an important role to supplement low density monitoring systems. Many sources of data are available to the public and represent most of the complex aspects of drought. To investigate drought variability - temporal and spatial - several statistical methods have to be combined to characterize a region. Here, we analyze drought variability in the Limpopo basin (southeastern Africa). We combine reanalysis data and drought indices to investigate meteorological drought. Vegetation indices provide an indicator of drought impact. We use empirical orthogonal function analysis and cluster analysis to find spatiotemporal patterns in drought conditions and identify homogeneous regions. For these homogeneous regions we extract a meteorological drought signal. Then, we employ wavelet analysis to investigate major characteristics of the drought signal. We seek to identify external climate factors such as ENSO having a major influence on drought occurrence. These factors can serve as a starting point for the investigation of predictors in a drought foreshadowing system enabling estimation of drought likelihood and severity with several months lead times. The foreshadowing based on statistical analysis and large scale climatic factors can complement physical model based forecasts for enhanced drought preparedness.

  14. Analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, G. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Techniques and significant results of an analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region are described. Specific investigative tasks included: (1) use of the multilevel data at different altitudes to develop a model for variation of magnetic anomaly with altitude; (2) development of the regional model for the description of main geomagnetic field for the Indian sub-continent using MAGSAT and observatory data; (3) development of regional mathematical model of secular variations over the Indian sub-continent; and (4) downward continuation of the anomaly field obtained from MAGSAT and its combination with the existing observatory data to produce a regional anomaly map for elucidating tectonic features of the Indian sub-continent.

  15. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea.

  16. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  17. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  19. Multi-regional input-output analysis for China's regional CH4 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiashuo; Peng, Beihua

    2014-03-01

    China is the largest CH4 emitter in the world. Given the importance of CH4 in greenhouse gas emission inventories, the characteristics of China's CH4 emissions at different scales deserve to be fully understood. Presented in this paper is an interprovincial input-output embodiment analysis of China's regional CH4 emissions in 2007, based on the most recently available multi-regional input-output table, and relevant CH4 emissions data. The results show that the eastern, central and western areas contribute to 48.2%, 28.6%, and 23.3% of the national total embodied emissions, respectively. Guangdong has the highest level of embodied CH4 emissions among all of the 30 regions. The Agriculture sector produces the most embodied CH4 emissions in final demand, followed by the Construction, Food Production and Tobacco Processing, and Other Service Activities sectors. Significant net transfers of embodied CH4 emission flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest interregional exporter of embodied CH4 emissions. In contrast, Guangdong is the largest interregional importer. Energy activities, agricultural activities, and waste management comprise 65.6%, 30.7%, and 3.7% of the total embodied CH4 emissions in interregional trade, respectively. By using consumption-based accounting principles, the emission magnitudes, per capita emissions, and emission intensities of most eastern regions increase remarkably, while those of some central and western regions decrease largely. To achieve regional CH4 emission mitigation, comprehensive mitigation measures should be designed under consideration of regional transfer of emission responsibility.

  20. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  1. Regional Frequency Analysis of extreme rainfall events, Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Chiarello, V.; Rossi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of extreme hydrological events at sites characterized by short time series or where no data record exists has been mainly obtained by regional models. Regional frequency analysis based on the index variable procedure is implemented here to describe the annual maximum of rainfall depth of short durations in Tuscany region. The probability distribution TCEV - Two Component Extreme Value is used in the frame of the procedure for the parameters estimation based on a three levels hierarchical approach. The methodology deal with the delineation of homogeneous regions, the identification of a robust regional frequency distribution and the assessment of the scale factor, i.e. the index rainfall. The data set includes the annual maximum of daily rainfall of 351 gauge stations with at least 30 years of records, in the period 1916 - 2012, and the extreme rainfalls of short duration, 1 hour and 3, 6, 12, 24 hours. Different subdivisions hypotheses have been verified. A four regions subdivision, coincident with four subregions, which takes into account the orography, the geomorphological and climatic peculiarities of the Tuscany region, has been adopted. Particularly, for testing the regional homogeneity, the cumulate frequency distributions of the observed skewness and variation coefficients of the recorded times series, are compared with the theoretical frequency distribution obtained through a Monte Carlo technique. The related L-skewness and L-variation coefficients are also examined. The application of the Student t -test and the Wilcoxon test for the mean, as well as the χ2 was also performed. Further tests of subdivision hypotheses have been made through the application of discordancy D and heterogeneity H tests and the analysis of the observed and the theoretical TCEV model growth curves. For each region the daily rainfall growth curve has been estimated. The growth curves for the hourly duration have been estimated when the daily rainfall growth curve

  2. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  3. Quantitative analysis and parametric display of regional myocardial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential for more accurate diagnosis of heart disease and/or cardiac irregularities. Local heart motion may be studied from medical imaging sequences. Using functional parametric mapping, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle can be color mapped onto a deformable heart model to obtain better understanding of the structure- to-function relationships in the myocardium, including regional patterns of akinesis or diskinesis associated with ischemia or infarction. In this study, 3D reconstructions were obtained from the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor at 15 time points throughout one cardiac cycle of pre-infarct and post-infarct hearts. Deformable models were created from the 3D images for each time point of the cardiac cycles. Form these polygonal models, regional excursions and velocities of each vertex representing a unit of myocardium were calculated for successive time-intervals. The calculated results were visualized through model animations and/or specially formatted static images. The time point of regional maximum velocity and excursion of myocardium through the cardiac cycle was displayed using color mapping. The absolute value of regional maximum velocity and maximum excursion were displayed in a similar manner. Using animations, the local myocardial velocity changes were visualized as color changes on the cardiac surface during the cardiac cycle. Moreover, the magnitude and direction of motion for individual segments of myocardium could be displayed. Comparison of these dynamic parametric displays suggest that the ability to encode quantitative functional information on dynamic cardiac anatomy enhances the diagnostic value of 4D images of the heart. Myocardial mechanics quantified this way adds a new dimension to the analysis of cardiac functional disease, including regional patterns of akinesis and diskinesis associated with ischemia and infarction. Similarly, disturbances in

  4. Structural Analysis of the ITER VV Lower Port Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yingxiang; Wu, Songtao; Yu, Jie

    2007-08-01

    A structural analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel's lower port region was presented by means of a finite element analysis method. The purpose is to evaluate the stress and displacement level on this structure under various combinations of five designed loads, including the gravity of the vacuum vessel, seismic loads, electromagnetic loads, and possible pressure loads to ensure structural safety. The cyclic symmetry finite element model of this structure was developed by using ANSYS code. The results showed that the maximum stress does not exceed the allowable value for any of the load combinations according to ASME code and the nine vacuum vessel (VV) supports have the ability to sustain the entire VV and in vessel-components and withstand load combinations under both normal as well as off-normal operation conditions. Stress mainly concentrates on the connecting region of the VV support and lower port stub extension.

  5. Analysis of supersonic combustion flow fields with embedded subsonic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    The viscous characteristic analysis for supersonic chemically reacting flows was extended to include provisions for analyzing embedded subsonic regions. The numerical method developed to analyze this mixed subsonic-supersonic flow fields is described. The boundary conditions are discussed related to the supersonic-subsonic and subsonic-supersonic transition, as well as a heuristic description of several other numerical schemes for analyzing this problem. An analysis of shock waves generated either by pressure mismatch between the injected fluid and surrounding flow or by chemical heat release is also described.

  6. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  7. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  8. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  9. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  10. REGIONAL-SCALE WIND FIELD CLASSIFICATION EMPLOYING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L G; Glaser, R E; Chin, H S; Loosmore, G A

    2004-06-17

    The classification of time-varying multivariate regional-scale wind fields at a specific location can assist event planning as well as consequence and risk analysis. Further, wind field classification involves data transformation and inference techniques that effectively characterize stochastic wind field variation. Such a classification scheme is potentially useful for addressing overall atmospheric transport uncertainty and meteorological parameter sensitivity issues. Different methods to classify wind fields over a location include the principal component analysis of wind data (e.g., Hardy and Walton, 1978) and the use of cluster analysis for wind data (e.g., Green et al., 1992; Kaufmann and Weber, 1996). The goal of this study is to use a clustering method to classify the winds of a gridded data set, i.e, from meteorological simulations generated by a forecast model.

  11. REGIONALLY SMOOTHED META-ANALYSIS METHODS FOR GWAS DATASETS

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Ferdouse; Sharker, Monir H.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Tseng, George C.; Feingold, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are proven tools for finding disease genes, but it is often necessary to combine many cohorts into a meta-analysis to detect statistically significant genetic effects. Often the component studies are performed by different investigators on different populations, using different chips with minimal SNPs overlap. In some cases, raw data are not available for imputation so that only the genotyped SNP results can be used in meta-analysis. Even when SNP sets are comparable, different cohorts may have peak association signals at different SNPs within the same gene due to population differences in linkage disequilibrium or environmental interactions. We hypothesize that the power to detect statistical signals in these situations will improve by using a method that simultaneously meta-analyzes and smooths the signal over nearby markers. In this study we propose regionally smoothed meta-analysis (RSM) methods and compare their performance on real and simulated data. PMID:26707090

  12. Cytogenetic Analysis of Chromosome Region 73ad of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Belote, J. M.; Hoffmann, F. M.; McKeown, M.; Chorsky, R. L.; Baker, B. S.

    1990-01-01

    The 73AD salivary chromosome region of Drosophila melanogaster was subjected to mutational analysis in order to (1) generate a collection of chromosome breakpoints that would allow a correlation between the genetic, cytological and molecular maps of the region and (2) define the number and gross organization of complementation groups within this interval. Eighteen complementation groups were defined and mapped to the 73A2-73B7 region, which is comprised of 17 polytene bands. These complementation groups include the previously known scarlet (st), transformer (tra) and Dominant temperature-sensitive lethal-5 (DTS-5) genes, as well as 13 new recessive lethal complementation groups and one male and female sterile locus. One of the newly identified lethal complementation groups corresponds to the molecularly identified abl locus, and another gene is defined by mutant alleles that exhibit an interaction with with the abl mutants. We also recovered several mutations in the 73C1-D1.2 interval, representing two lethal complementation groups, one new visible mutant, plucked (plk), and a previously known visible, dark body (db). There is no evidence of a complex of sex determination genes in the region near tra. PMID:2118870

  13. Multi-wavelength Analysis of a Solar Network Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.

    We analyse co-temporal observations of a network region found near the solar disc centre, obtained by the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on-board SOHO during a coordinated observing campaign in October 2005. DOT obtained images in 5 wavelengths along the ha\\ profile, while CDS obtained sit-and-stare observations in several EUV spectral lines that span the upper solar atmosphere. After fitting the CDS spectral line profiles we obtained 2-D space-time maps of intensities, Doppler velocities and Doppler widths. We study the appearance of the network region in the different spectral lines and the temporal variations of the obtained physical parameters. We employ a wavelet analysis to examine the existence of oscillations at the network in the different solar layers.

  14. Study on the validity region of Energy Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangjie; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Danhui; Zhang, Wenbo

    2014-04-01

    The validity domain of Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is studied in this paper. The validity region and criterion of EFEA are studied theoretically from the formation of reverberant plane wave field, one of the main assumptions of EFEA. The studies are acquired by virtue of the equation of radiative energy transfer method, a similar wave method that can express the direct field and its conversion relationship with reverberant field exactly. The result shows that the SEA criterion of diffuse field derived by Le Bot can be used as a good indicator for the EFEA validity. Numerical simulations on a rectangular plate with different physical parameters are applied to validate the criterion. The validity region and the diagrams of validity of EFEA are assessed and discussed. Some noteworthy conclusions about EFEA are drawn.

  15. GSLIB-style programs for discriminant analysis and regionalized classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis is a statistical technique used to predict the group membership of a set of multivariate observations, each of which is assumed to arise from one of a set of distinct classes or groups. Each group is characterized by a certain distribution in multivariate space, and group allocations are based on the similarity of each sample to each group. Assuming multivariate normality, generalized distance measures based on the squared Mahalanobis distance from each sample to each group centroid arise as the natural measure of similarity. One can allocate samples to groups either on the basis of minimum generalized distance or, equivalently, maximum posterior probability of group membership. In earth science applications samples are often associated with geographic locations. In this situation regionalized classification can be used to produce a map representing group membership throughout the sampled domain. This can be accomplished by interpolating either generalized distances or membership probabilities from sample locations to regularly spaced grid nodes and comparing resulting grids to produce a classification map. This paper presents a set of GSLIB-style FORTRAN programs for performing discriminant analysis and regionalized classification. The program disco performs discriminant analysis and the programs xmd2cls and prb2cls combine interpolated distances and probabilities, respectively, to create a grid of predicted classifications. In addition, the utility program colbind allows the user to combine selected columns from different GSLIB-style data files into one file. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Regional Frequency Analysis of Annual Maximum Streamflow in Gipuzkoa (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erro, J.; López, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme streamflow events have been an important cause of recent flooding in Gipuzkoa, and any change in the magnitude of such events may have severe impacts upon urban structures such as dams, urban drainage systems and flood defences, and cause failures to occur. So a regional frequency analysis of annual maximum streamflow was developed for Gipuzkoa, using the well known L-moments approach together with the index-flood procedure, and following the four steps that characterize it: initial screening of the data, identification of homogeneous regions, choice of the appropriate frequency distribution and estimation of quantiles for different return periods. The preliminary study, completed in 2009, was based on the observations recorded at 22 stations distributed throughout the area. A primary filtering of the data revealed the absence of jumps, inconsistencies and changes in trends within the series, and the discordancy measures showed that none of the sites used in the analysis had to be considered discordant with the others. Regionalization was performed by cluster analysis, grouping the stations according to eight physical site characteristics: latitude, longitude, drainage basin area, elevation, main channel length of the basin, slope, annual mean rainfall and annual maximum rainfall. It resulted in two groups - one cluster with the 18 sites of small-medium basin area, and a second cluster with the 4 remaining sites of major basin area - in which the homogeneity criteria were tested and satisfied. However, the short lenght of the series together with the introduction of the observations of 2010 and the inclusion of a historic extreme streamflow event occurred in northern Spain in November 2011, completely changed the results. With this consideration and adjustment, all Gipuzkoa could be treated as a homogeneus region. The goodness-of-fit measures indicated that Generalized Logistic (GLO) is the only suitable distribution to characterize Gipuzkoa. Using the

  17. Arms Transfers: A System Dynamics Analysis Focusing on Regional Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    73 IS OSOLET E . .. JILASSIIE]L.. SECURITY C14 A :PIrATInN (.S TWIM 04rc.- .- l° AFIT/GOR/OS/83D-8 ARMS TRANSFERS: A SYSTEM DYNA’ICS ALYSIS FOCUSING...regional stability. 5. Provide guidance and instructions on how to use and alter the model for specific policy analysis. Scot e This research is...a system, and that not all societal groups are the same. Durkheim insisted that his theory of anowia must be interpreted frorr a contingency point of

  18. Analysis of national and regional landslide inventories in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, J.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.

    2012-04-01

    methods only occasionally included advanced technologies such as remote sensing. With regard to the inventory maps of most databases, the analysis illustrates the high variability of scales (between 1:10 000 and 1:1 M for national inventories, and from 1:10 000 to 1:25 000 for regional inventories), landslide classification systems and representation symbology. It also shows the difficulties to precisely locate landslides referred to in historical documents only. In addition, information on landslide magnitude, geometrical characteristics and age reported in national and regional databases greatly differs, even within the same database, as it strongly depends on the objectives of the database, the data collection methods used, the resources employed and the remaining landslide expression. In particular, landslide initiation and/or reactivation dates are generally estimated in less than 25% of records, thus making hazard and hence risk assessment difficult. In most databases, scarce information on landslide impact (damage and casualties) further hinders risk assessment at regional and national scales. Estimated landslide activity, which is very relevant to early warning and emergency management, is only included in half of the national databases and restricted to part of the landslides registered. Moreover, the availability of this information is not substantially higher in regional databases than in national ones. Most landslide databases further included information on geo-environmental characteristics at the landslide site, which is very important for modelling landslide zoning. Although a number of national and regional agencies provide free web-GIS visualisation services, the potential of existing landslide databases is often not fully exploited as, in many cases, access by the general public and external researchers is restricted. Additionally, the availability of information only in the national or local language is common to most national and regional databases

  19. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation

  20. Regional Soiling Stations for PV: Soling Loss Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    TamizhMani, G.; King, B.; Venkatesan, A.; Deline, Chris; Pavgi, A.; Tatapudi, S.; Kuitche, J.; Chokor, A.; El Asmar, M.

    2016-11-21

    The soiling loss factor (SLF) of photovoltaic (PV) modules/system is an interplay between the dust frequency and intensity of the site, rain frequency and intensity of the site, tilt angle and height of the module installation, and wind speed and humidity of the site. The integrated area of the downward peaks of the SLF time series plots for a year provides the annual soiling loss for the system at each tilt angle. Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with Arizona State University, installed five regional soiling stations around the country and collected soiling loss data over a year. Four of these soiling stations are located at the U.S. Department of Energy Regional Test Centers (Florida, Albuquerque, Colorado and Vermont), while the fifth station is located at the Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Lab (Arizona). This paper presents an analysis on the SLF for each test site at ten different tilt angles. Based on the analysis of a yearlong data obtained in 2015, it appears to indicate that the Arizona site experienced the highest annual soiling loss with a significant dependence on the tilt angle while the other four sites experienced a negligibly small annual soiling loss with practically no dependence on the tilt angle.

  1. [Microbiological analysis of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic region].

    PubMed

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Shilin, S O; Chernaia, N A; Tashireva, A A

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological analysis has been made of 120 samples from biotopes of the western coast of the Antarctic peninsula (Rasmussen cope, Tuxen cope, Waugh mountain), Argentine archipelago islands (Galindez, Skua, Corner, Barchans, Irizar, Uruguay, Cluls, Three Little Pigs, King-George), as well as neighbouring islands (Petermann--on the north, a group of Jalour islands--on the east, Berthelot--on the south-east); and more remote islands (Darboux, Lippmann, Booth). It was found out that the total number of chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms was 10(6) - 10(8) cells/g of soil, that was by 2-3 orders lower than in the regions with temperate climate. One can observe a tendency of decreasing the quantity of chemoorganotrophic microorganisms in the Antartic biotopes (cells/g of a sample) in the following order: soil (1 x 10(7) - 8 x 10(8)), underground part of moss (1 x 10(6) - 5 x 10(7)), grass Deschampsia antarctica (10(6) - 10(8), slit of fresh-water reservoir (10(5) - 10(7)), ground part of moss (10(3) - 10(6)), lichens (10(3) - 10(6)). Representatives of several phylogenetic lines: Proteobacteria (genera Pseudomonas, Methylobacterium, Enterobacter), Firmicutes (genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus), Actinobacteria (genera Brevibacterium, Actinomyces, Streptomyces) have been found in the Antarctic samples. As a rule, genera of bacteria found in the Antarctic Region are widely distributed in different regions of the Earth with temperate climate. Microorganisms similar to the species Exophiala nigra (Issatsch.) Haats et de Hoog 1999, which was first detected 100 years ago by Academician B.L. Isachenko in the Arctic region water, were also isolated from biofilms on vertical rocks of the Galindez Island as well as from the soil of the Irizar Island.

  2. Analysis Of The High Temperature Region In Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A. F.; Ringuelet, A. E.

    2006-08-01

    The High Temperature Region (HTR) that surrounds the photospheres of Be stars is studied in order to derive observational constraints for modelling Be stars, in particular for the region where superionization takes place. 50 Be stars, representative of a considerable range of temperature, were chosen. From archival, high-dispersion IUE spectra, different lines that originate in the HTR region were considered, namely the resonance lines of Si IV, C IV and Al III, and He II λ 1640. Equivalent widths (corrected for photospheric contribution), optical depths, atom columns and expansion velocities were measured. From this observational data several correlations between different observables were obtained. These correlations permit us to discuss the geometry, density distribution and heat input of the lines formation regions (LFRs). The major results can be summarised as follows: 1) The circumstellar material contributes to the resonance lines of Si IV, C IV, Al III and to the He II λ 1640 at all inclination angles. 2) In Si IV, C IV and Al III the equivalent widths have a tendency to increase in objects with high rotational velocities. 3) Si IV and C IV equivalent widths are also correlated to the kinetic energy of the expansion velocity. This means that dissipation of mechanical energy is one of the heating mechanisms. 4)On the basis of the expansion velocities and the line profiles, we establish a sequence for the LFRs: The LFR of He II is at the base of the wind and the closest to the central star. The LFRs of Si IV and C IV are inmersed in the stellar wind. The LFR of Al III is an interface between the HTR and the cool envelope. The analysis followed in this work is completely model-independent. Consequently, these results could be useful to decide which are the facts that are to be considered when modelling Be stars.

  3. Regional Scale Analysis of Extremes in an SRM Geoengineering Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthyala, R.; Bala, G.

    2014-12-01

    Only a few studies in the past have investigated the statistics of extreme events under geoengineering. In this study, a global climate model is used to investigate the impact of solar radiation management on extreme precipitation events on regional scale. Solar constant was reduced by 2.25% to counteract the global mean surface temperature change caused by a doubling of CO2 (2XCO2) from its preindustrial control value. Using daily precipitation rates, extreme events are defined as those which exceed 99.9th percentile precipitation threshold. Extremes are substantially reduced in geoengineering simulation: the magnitude of change is much smaller than those that occur in a simulation with doubled CO2. Regional analysis over 22 Giorgi land regions is also performed. Doubling of CO2 leads to an increase in intensity of extreme (99.9th percentile) precipitation by 17.7% on global-mean basis with maximum increase in intensity over South Asian region by 37%. In the geoengineering simulation, there is a global-mean reduction in intensity of 3.8%, with a maximum reduction over Tropical Ocean by 8.9%. Further, we find that the doubled CO2 simulation shows an increase in the frequency of extremes (>50 mm/day) by 50-200% with a global mean increase of 80%. In contrast, in geo-engineering climate there is a decrease in frequency of extreme events by 20% globally with a larger decrease over Tropical Ocean by 30%. In both the climate states (2XCO2 and geo-engineering) change in "extremes" is always greater than change in "means" over large domains. We conclude that changes in precipitation extremes are larger in 2XCO2 scenario compared to preindustrial climate while extremes decline slightly in the geoengineered climate. We are also investigating the changes in extreme statistics for daily maximum and minimum temperature, evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  5. Multi - Region Analysis of a New Climate Extremes Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittus, A. J.; Karoly, D. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Alexander, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new Climate Extremes Index (CEI) is introduced, extending the earlier combined CEI proposed by Karl et al. (1996). It is based on the use of standard extreme indices derived from daily meteorological station data, facilitating the computation of this index and making use of two global gridded extreme indices datasets. The index combines the fraction of area experiencing extreme conditions in daily temperature and daily and annual precipitation, therefore representing a combined measure of extremes. The analysis of this index at the global scale is limited by data availability. In this study, the four continental-scale regions analysed are Europe, North America, Asia and Australia over the period from 1951 to 2010. Additionally, the index is also computed for the entire Northern Hemisphere, corresponding to the first CEI results at the hemispheric scale. Results show statistically significant increases in the percentage area experiencing much above average warm days and nights and much below average cool days and nights for all regions, with the exception of North America for maximum temperature extremes. Increases in the area affected by precipitation extremes are also found for the Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly Europe. This study shows the potential of this new index for climate monitoring and other applications by documenting large-scale changes in the areas experiencing climate extremes. Preliminary detection and attribution results will also be presented using extreme indices computed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate model simulations (Sillmann et al., 2013). Karl, T. R., R. W. Knight, D. R. Easterling, and R. G. Quayle, 1996: Indices of climate change for the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 279-292. Sillmann, J., V. V. Kharin, X. Zhang, F. W. Zwiers, and D. Bronaugh (2013), Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 1. Model evaluation in the present climate, J. Geophys

  6. Regional Frequency and Uncertainty Analysis of Extreme Precipitation in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, M. R.; Demissie, Y.; Li, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Increased frequency of extreme precipitations, especially those with multiday durations, are responsible for recent urban floods and associated significant losses of lives and infrastructures in Bangladesh. Reliable and routinely updated estimation of the frequency of occurrence of such extreme precipitation events are thus important for developing up-to-date hydraulic structures and stormwater drainage system that can effectively minimize future risk from similar events. In this study, we have updated the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for Bangladesh using daily precipitation data from 1961 to 2010 and quantified associated uncertainties. Regional frequency analysis based on L-moments is applied on 1-day, 2-day and 5-day annual maximum precipitation series due to its advantages over at-site estimation. The regional frequency approach pools the information from climatologically similar sites to make reliable estimates of quantiles given that the pooling group is homogeneous and of reasonable size. We have used Region of influence (ROI) approach along with homogeneity measure based on L-moments to identify the homogenous pooling groups for each site. Five 3-parameter distributions (i.e., Generalized Logistic, Generalized Extreme value, Generalized Normal, Pearson Type Three, and Generalized Pareto) are used for a thorough selection of appropriate models that fit the sample data. Uncertainties related to the selection of the distributions and historical data are quantified using the Bayesian Model Averaging and Balanced Bootstrap approaches respectively. The results from this study can be used to update the current design and management of hydraulic structures as well as in exploring spatio-temporal variations of extreme precipitation and associated risk.

  7. Sequence Analysis of the Direct Repeat Region in Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Caimi, Karina; Romano, Maria I.; Alito, Alicia; Zumarraga, Martin; Bigi, Fabiana; Cataldi, Angel

    2001-01-01

    Spoligotyping is a major tool for molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis. This technique is based on the polymorphism of spacers that separate direct repeats (DRs) in the M. tuberculosis complex DR region. Numerous M. bovis strains show a lack of several spacers which appears as a gap in the spoligotyping pattern. To determine whether these gaps contain alternative spacers not included in the spoligotyping membrane, PCRs using primers that hybridize to the spacers adjacent to the gaps were performed. Comparing the sizes of products obtained by PCR with those deduced from spoligotyping patterns, fragments were selected and sequenced to look for alternative spacers. Upon analysis of the sequences, five alternative spacers were detected, although deletions of spacers are mainly responsible for the observed gaps. The alternative spacers, which are more frequent in M. bovis than in M. tuberculosis, may contribute to increased M. bovis differentiation. PMID:11230428

  8. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  9. Attainable region analysis for continuous production of second generation bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite its semi-commercial status, ethanol production from lignocellulosics presents many complexities not yet fully solved. Since the pretreatment stage has been recognized as a complex and yield-determining step, it has been extensively studied. However, economic success of the production process also requires optimization of the biochemical conversion stage. This work addresses the search of bioreactor configurations with improved residence times for continuous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation operations. Instead of analyzing each possible configuration through simulation, we apply graphical methods to optimize the residence time of reactor networks composed of steady-state reactors. Although this can be easily made for processes described by a single kinetic expression, reactions under analysis do not exhibit this feature. Hence, the attainable region method, able to handle multiple species and its reactions, was applied for continuous reactors. Additionally, the effects of the sugars contained in the pretreatment liquor over the enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were assessed. Results We obtained candidate attainable regions for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and SSF operations, both fed with pretreated corn stover. Results show that, despite the complexity of the reaction networks and underlying kinetics, the reactor networks that minimize the residence time can be constructed by using plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors. Regarding the effect of soluble solids in the feed stream to the reactor network, for SHF higher glucose concentration and yield are achieved for enzymatic hydrolysis with washed solids. Similarly, for SSF, higher yields and bioethanol titers are obtained using this substrate. Conclusions In this work, we demonstrated the capabilities of the attainable region analysis as a tool to assess the optimal reactor network with minimum

  10. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  11. Interactive retinal blood flow analysis of the macular region.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R; Smiddy, William E; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV and BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography data was registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s). Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software was 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001).

  12. Analysis of damaging hydrogeological events in a Mediterranean region (Calabria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Luigi; Caloiero, Tommaso; Pasqua, A. A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2016-10-01

    Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are periods of severe weather conditions affecting wide areas for several days, and causing mainly damaging landslides and floods. In order to characterise the DHEs, we analysed the historical series of the events that affected a Mediterranean region (Calabria, southern Italy) throughout 92 years of observation. Depending on their magnitude, we classified the events as: major catastrophic, catastrophic, extraordinary and ordinary. In winter events, damaged areas and damage were greater than those resulting from the other seasons. Nevertheless, the majority of the events took place in autumn, when, in addition to landslides, a relevant percentage of flash floods and floods also occurred. Results also show that the frequency of major catastrophic and catastrophic events has decreased since 1971, and that, in recent decades, Calabria has suffered from damaging effects even though rain did not reached extreme characteristics. In fact, the duration of triggering rain, the maximum daily rain of the events and the out coming frequency of the high return period of rain show a decreasing pattern throughout the study period. As to what concerns the damaging phenomena, landslides were identified as the most frequent in every season and in every type of events, the eastern side of the region was the most frequently and heavily damaged. According to literature, the trend of number of victims per event is also decreasing. The proposed analysis can be applied to different study areas in order to assess the relative magnitude of DHEs and their evolution throughout the years. The classification criterion can be useful to compare different events for either scientific or insurance purposes, and to identify the typical rainfall-damage scenario of a study area.

  13. Interactive Retinal Blood Flow Analysis of the Macular Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R.; Smiddy, William E.; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy which is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI-3005, Optical Imaging, Rehovot, Israel). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo even in the capillaries. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV as well as BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) data from commercially available devices were registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s) which other currently available devices targeting the retinal microcirculation are not yet capable of. Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software were 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% in the RFI built-in software to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001). PMID:26569349

  14. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

  15. Analysis of mercury in hair of EPA region V population.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, E D; Fernando, R; Cramer, G M; Meaburn, G M; Bangerter, K

    1999-01-01

    A scoping study, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) was conducted in EPA Region V from July 1995 to May 1997. This probability-based population study provided an opportunity to examine the mercury levels in 182 participants who provided hair samples. A sensitive analytical procedure based on atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed and evaluated for the analysis of Hg in approximately 5 mg of human hair. The correlation coefficient (r), the precision, and bias were 0.9983, < or = 1.6%, and < or = 8%, respectively, for standard curves in the hair matrix. The method detection limit (MDL), recovery of Hg in a certified sample (NIES-13), precision (% RSD) for duplicate extract analysis, and precision for duplicate sample analysis averaged 12 ppb (range 4 to 22 ppb), 100 +/- 3% (N=27), 4.6 +/- 2.8 (N=18), and 12.5 +/- 7.4 (N=17), respectively, over the 7 to 8 months of sample analysis. The low MDL yielded 95% of the samples with measurable values, permitting the entire distribution of Hg levels to be characterized. Comparison of annualized Hg distribution in hair with and without background correction revealed a negligible bias on the distribution (1.47% at the 90th percentile). Also, a comparison of the unweighted and nonannualized weighted Hg levels throughout the percentile distribution indicated a small deviation in the upper tail (95th percentile) and is attributable to the small sample size (N=182). The mean, median, and maximum of the annualized Hg levels in hair were 287, 204, and 3505 ppb, respectively. The 75th percentiles were 335 and 368 ppb for the weighted annualized and unweighted distributions, respectively. The percent of individuals in three age categories (0-24, 25-49, and 50 years and older) who exceeded the 75th percentile showed a linear increase with age. Males (N=81) had 10% and 20% lower mean levels than females (N=101) for unweighted and annualized weighted Hg data, respectively. The application of this methodology for

  16. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Li, Jimmy J.; Delouille, Véronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods: We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results: We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions: Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  17. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  18. Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Almas; Khayyat, Nabaz T

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities.

  19. Scientific Analysis and Documentation Provided by EPA Regional Labs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 10 EPA Regional laboratories provide maximum flexibility to support Agency response to natural disasters and emergencies by developing effective approaches for a wide range of analytical challenges.

  20. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2009-08-01

    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  1. California Migrant Student Movement Study--Region 3 Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Benjamin G.

    The five counties of Madera, Merced, Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Stanislaus constitute Region 3 of the California Migrant Education Program. A study to evaluate movement patterns of migrant students from, to and within the state was conducted using data from the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. It indicates that in 1977 Region 3 ranked…

  2. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  3. EUV analysis of an active region. [of solar corona in limb region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, N.; Withbroe, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    A sequence of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectroheliograms of McMath region No. 10283 were obtained by OSO-6. The lines O VI (1032 A) Mg X (625 A), Si XII (499 A), and Fe XVI (335 A) were used to determine coronal temperatures and densities above the active region. A comparison of theoretical and observed line ratios yielded coronal temperatures of 2.2 to 2.3 million K above the active region and 2.0 to 2.1 million K in the surrounding area. The temperatures derived from ratios involving the O VI intensities are systematically higher than the others. This is attributed to an error in the theoretical O VI intensities. The intensities observed above the limb are compared with intensities predicted by a simple model based on cylindrical geometry. The overall agreement shows that the assumption of an isothermal corona in hydrostatic equilibrium above the active region is a resonable working hypothesis and that the adopted geometrical model for the electron density distribution is adequate.

  4. Frequency analysis of multispectral photoacoustic images for differentiating malignant region from normal region in excised human prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Saugata; Rao, Navalgund A.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Dogra, Vikram S.; Helguera, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Frequency domain analysis of the photoacoustic (PA) radio frequency signals can potentially be used as a tool for characterizing microstructure of absorbers in tissue. This study investigates the feasibility of analyzing the spectrum of multiwavelength PA signals generated by excised human prostate tissue samples to differentiate between malignant and normal prostate regions. Photoacoustic imaging at five different wavelengths, corresponding to peak absorption coefficients of deoxyhemoglobin, whole blood, oxyhemoglobin, water and lipid in the near infrared (NIR) (700 nm - 1000 nm) region, was performed on freshly excised prostate specimens taken from patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. The PA images were co-registered with the histopathology images of the prostate specimens to determine the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant and normal tissue. The calibrated power spectrum of each PA signal from a selected ROI was fit to a linear model to extract the corresponding slope, midband fit and intercept parameters. The mean value of each parameter corresponding to malignant and adjacent normal prostate ROI was calculated for each of the five wavelengths. The results obtained for 9 different human prostate specimens, show that the mean values of midband fit and intercept are significantly different between malignant and normal regions. In addition, the average midband fit and intercept values show a decreasing trend with increasing wavelength. These preliminary results suggest that frequency analysis of multispectral PA signals can be used to differentiate malignant region from the adjacent normal region in human prostate tissue.

  5. Multinational Experiment 7. Regional Analysis: Western Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    terrorist groups, as it materialised in the attack on a French tanker in October 2002. Nearly three decades ago threats in the region consisted of...attack on a French tanker in October 2002. Nearly three decades ago threats in the region consisted of attacks on shipping in the Persian Gulf...of 17 states, including four island states as well as territories under French and British sovereignty. An additional 10 states have coastlines to

  6. Conditional Analysis of Dynamically Distinct Regions in Stratified Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portwood, Gavin; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen; Taylor, John; Salehipour, Hasem; Caulfield, Colm-Cille

    2016-11-01

    Stratified flows have been shown to exhibit broadly intermittent flow dynamics at large scales. In DNS of forced homogeneous stratified turbulence, we employ a conditional averaging technique to distinguish compositional flow regions which define the entire flow domain. Here, we condition on the vertical density gradient at inertial and buoyancy length scales to subdivide homogeneous stratified turbulence into three distinct regions that may be characterised by Gn ≡ ɛ / νN2 . We show that flows across the Fr-Re parameter space exhibit regions of (a) moderately 'quiescent' flow with few three-dimensional overturnings, (b) 'layered' turbulent regions which have constrained vertical length scales, and (c) three dimensional 'patches' of turbulence and that these regions may be characterised by Gn O (1) , Gn O (10) , and Gn O (100) , respectively. We conjecture that treating stratified turbulence as an instantaneous assemblage of these different regions in varying proportions may explain some of the apparently highly scattered flow dynamics and statistics previously reported in the literature. U.S. Office of Naval Research via Grant N00014-15-1-2248; U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grant EP/K034529/1; U.S. DoD HPCMP Frontier Project FP-CFD-FY14-007.

  7. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the

  8. Analysis of Structured and Intrinsically Disordered Regions of Transmembrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bin; Li, Liwei; Meroueh, Samy O.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins display two major types of transmembrane structures, helical bundles and beta barrels. The main functional roles of transmembrane proteins are the transport of small molecules and cell signaling, and sometimes these two roles are coupled. For cytosolic, water-soluble proteins, signaling and regulatory functions are often carried out by intrinsically disordered regions. Our long range goal is to determine whether integral membrane proteins likewise often use disordered regions for signaling and regulation. Here we carried out a systematic bioinformatics investigation of intrinsically disordered regions obtained from integral membrane proteins for which crystal structures have been determined, and for which the intrinsic disorder was identified as missing electron density. We found 120 disorder-containing integral membrane proteins having a total of 33,675 residues, with 3209 of the residues distributed among 240 different disordered regions. These disordered regions were compared with those obtained from water-soluble proteins with regard to their amino acid compositional biases, and with regard to accuracies of various disorder predictors. The results of these analyses show that the disordered regions from helical bundle integral membrane proteins, those from beta barrel integral membrane proteins, and those from water soluble proteins all exhibit statistically distinct amino acid compositional biases. Despite these differences in composition, current algorithms make reasonably accurate predictions of disorder for these membrane proteins. Although the small size of the current data sets are limiting, these results suggest that developing new predictors that make use of data from disordered regions in helical bundles and beta barrels, especially as these datasets increase in size, will likely lead to significantly more accurate disorder predictions for these two classes of integral membrane proteins. PMID:19585006

  9. Nucleotide diversity analysis highlights functionally important genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Chekalin, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Bruskin, Sergey; Chebotarov, Dmitry; McNally, Kenneth L; Alexandrov, Nickolai

    2016-10-24

    We analyzed functionality and relative distribution of genetic variants across the complete Oryza sativa genome, using the 40 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) dataset from the 3,000 Rice Genomes Project (http://snp-seek.irri.org), the largest and highest density SNP collection for any higher plant. We have shown that the DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are the most conserved group of genes, whereas kinases and membrane-localized transporters are the most variable ones. TFs may be conserved because they belong to some of the most connected regulatory hubs that modulate transcription of vast downstream gene networks, whereas signaling kinases and transporters need to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. In general, the observed profound patterns of nucleotide variability reveal functionally important genomic regions. As expected, nucleotide diversity is much higher in intergenic regions than within gene bodies (regions spanning gene models), and protein-coding sequences are more conserved than untranslated gene regions. We have observed a sharp decline in nucleotide diversity that begins at about 250 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start and reaches minimal diversity exactly at the transcription start. We found the transcription termination sites to have remarkably symmetrical patterns of SNP density, implying presence of functional sites near transcription termination. Also, nucleotide diversity was significantly lower near 3' UTRs, the area rich with regulatory regions.

  10. Nucleotide diversity analysis highlights functionally important genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana V.; Chekalin, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Bruskin, Sergey; Chebotarov, Dmitry; McNally, Kenneth L.; Alexandrov, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed functionality and relative distribution of genetic variants across the complete Oryza sativa genome, using the 40 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) dataset from the 3,000 Rice Genomes Project (http://snp-seek.irri.org), the largest and highest density SNP collection for any higher plant. We have shown that the DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are the most conserved group of genes, whereas kinases and membrane-localized transporters are the most variable ones. TFs may be conserved because they belong to some of the most connected regulatory hubs that modulate transcription of vast downstream gene networks, whereas signaling kinases and transporters need to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. In general, the observed profound patterns of nucleotide variability reveal functionally important genomic regions. As expected, nucleotide diversity is much higher in intergenic regions than within gene bodies (regions spanning gene models), and protein-coding sequences are more conserved than untranslated gene regions. We have observed a sharp decline in nucleotide diversity that begins at about 250 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start and reaches minimal diversity exactly at the transcription start. We found the transcription termination sites to have remarkably symmetrical patterns of SNP density, implying presence of functional sites near transcription termination. Also, nucleotide diversity was significantly lower near 3′ UTRs, the area rich with regulatory regions. PMID:27774999

  11. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anupam; N K, Rakhi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  12. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India

    PubMed Central

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food. PMID:26430895

  13. Fuzzy-Klassen Model for Development Disparities Analysis based on Gross Regional Domestic Product Sector of a Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Tb.; Wardoyo, Retantyo

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of regional development imbalances quadrant has a very important meaning in order to see the extent of achievement of the development of certain areas as well as the difference. Factors that could be used as a tool to measure the inequality of development is to look at the average growth and development contribution of each sector of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) based on the analyzed region and the reference region. This study discusses the development of a model to determine the regional development imbalances using fuzzy approach system, and the rules of typology Klassen. The model is then called fuzzy-Klassen. Implications Product Mamdani fuzzy system is used in the model as an inference engine to generate output after defuzzyfication process. Application of MATLAB is used as a tool of analysis in this study. The test a result of Kota Cilegon is shows that there are significant differences between traditional Klassen typology analyses with the results of the model developed. Fuzzy model-Klassen shows GRDP sector inequality Cilegon City is dominated by Quadrant I (K4), where status is the sector forward and grows exponentially. While the traditional Klassen typology, half of GRDP sector is dominated by Quadrant IV (K4) with a sector that is lagging relative status.

  14. Findings of the Mars Special Regions Science Analysis Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaty, D.W.; Buxbaum, K.L.; Meyer, M.A.; Barlow, N.; Boynton, W.; Clark, B.; Deming, J.; Doran, P.T.; Edgett, K.; Hancock, S.; Head, J.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Kieft, T.; Mancinelli, R.; McDonald, E.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Newsom, H.; Ori, G.; Paige, D.; Schuerger, A.C.; Sogin, M.; Spry, J.A.; Steele, A.; Tanaka, K.; Voytek, M.

    2006-01-01

    In summary, within the upper 5 m most of Mars is either too cold or too dry to support the propagation of terrestrial life. However, there are regions that are in disequilibrium, naturally or induced, and could be classified as "special" or, if enough uncertainty exist, could not be declared as "non-special." ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  15. Management Models and Cost Analysis for Regional Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Eugene T.

    The implementation of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) has placed an enormous financial burden on local districts. In order to create special education programs that combine cost effectiveness and high quality, a regional model has been developed. The Therapeutic Residential Experience for Emotional Stability (TREES) in…

  16. Analysis of the PTCH coding region in human rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Calzada-Wack, Julia; Schnitzbauer, Udo; Walch, Axel; Wurster, Karl-Heinz; Kappler, Roland; Nathrath, Michaela; Hahn, Heidi

    2002-09-01

    Inherited mutations of the human tumor suppressor gene Patched (PTCH) lead to an autosomal dominant disorder known as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). The syndrome is characterized by a combination of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to tumor formation. Tumors in patients with NBCCS include basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, fibroma and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). RMS are also present in 15 % of mice haplodeficient for Ptch. To investigate whether mutations in PTCH are a general feature in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis we sequenced the protein-coding region in sporadic human cases of these tumors. For this purpose we first determined the distribution and frequency of polymorphisms in 23 exons of PTCH in 48 healthy caucasians. Ten new polymorphisms were identified (IVS11 + 15-17del AAA; IVS14 + 25T>C; 2485G>A; IVS15 + 9G>C; IVS17 + 21A>G; 3033T>C; 3149T>C; 3387T>C; 3617G>A; 4080C>T). Next, the PTCH coding region in 14 RMS was sequenced. Whereas one case with LOH at the PTCH locus was detected, none of the cases showed nonsense or missense mutations in the coding region of PTCH. These data do not support the existence of frequent mutations in the protein-coding region of PTCH in RMS.

  17. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  19. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STAR-FORMING REGION AFGL 490

    SciTech Connect

    Masiunas, L. C.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Megeath, S. T.; Myers, P. C.; Kirk, H. M.; Fazio, G. G.; Allen, L. E.

    2012-06-20

    We present Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the star-forming region containing intermediate-mass young stellar object (YSO) AFGL 490. We supplement these data with near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and with deep Simultaneous Quad Infrared Imaging Device observations off the central high-extinction region. We have more than doubled the known membership of this region to 57 Class I and 303 Class II YSOs via the combined 1-24 {mu}m photometric catalog derived from these data. We construct and analyze the minimum spanning tree of their projected positions, isolating one locally overdense cluster core containing 219 YSOs (60.8% of the region's members). We find this cluster core to be larger yet less dense than similarly analyzed clusters. Although the structure of this cluster core appears irregular, we demonstrate that the parsec-scale surface densities of both YSOs and gas are correlated with a power-law slope of 2.8, as found for other similarly analyzed nearby molecular clouds. We also explore the mass segregation implications of AFGL 490's offset from the center of its core, finding that it has no apparent preferential central position relative to the low-mass members.

  20. Analysis of Projected Changes in Precipitation Regions of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbas, Abdullah; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Classification and clustering are important issues in climatology studies for water management. In this study, we examine the precipitation regions of Turkey with combination of the regional climate model outputs with a hierarchical cluster technique. Therefore, the outputs of the HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) for the period of 2070 - 2100 with respect to the present period of 1970 - 2000 under two distinct case scenarios (i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Thereafter, Ward's method, which is commonly used in climate research, was also performed in order to cluster the precipitation data. In this context, spatial variations in precipitation regions of Turkey were determined for different climate change pathways. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  1. Transportation analysis for the concept of regional repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Hudson, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    Over the past several years, planning associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program assumed the use of one or two large, centrally located repository facilities. Recently, an alternative approach has been proposed which consists of the use of multiple, smaller regional repositories. In this report, several regional concepts were studied and the transportation requirements for the shipment of spent fuel to the regional repositories were estimated. In general, the transportation requirements decrease as the number of repositories increase. However, as far as transportation is concerned, the point of diminishing returns is reached at approximately one repository in each of three to four regions. Additional savings beyond this point are small. A series of sensitivity studies is also included to demonstrate the impact on the total transportation requirements of varying cask capacity, rail speed, or truck speed. Since most of the projected fuel shipments are to be made by rail, varying the capacity of the rail cask or varying average rail transport speed will have a major effect on overall transportation requirements.

  2. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  3. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  4. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  5. Analysis of regional albedo characteristics and its influence in the regional climate model REMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuschmann, S.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    The effects of land-use changes on climate have a high priority in climate impact researches. Nevertheless it is not trivial to integrate land-use changes in the Regional atmospherical climate Model REMO (Jacob 2001) so that characteristics of a typical land-use type can be created and therewith systematical effects can be analyzed. As in many regional dynamical climate models, REMO is calculating in the target resolution with parameters which are independent of land-use classes. Considering only one of these parameters, e.g. the albedo, the processing chain (Rechid et al. 2008) to construct the underlying model-albedo uses a number of assumptions which levels phase and amplitude of the albedo-cycle of a regional typical land cover. The albedo data product ALBEDOMAP (Fischer et al. 2006) of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on the ESA platform ENVISAT is used as comparative data set. The annual cycle of the ALBEDOMAP data exceeds the modeled variability of the annual albedo cycle permanently in some cases by a factor of ten. Results of REMO-sensitivity studies show, that even small changes in the albedo about one percent is influencing the simulation. Within this study the relevance of characteristically surface information concerning land-use change for fine resolutions in REMO were shown. Fischer, J. ; Preusker, R.; Muller, J.-P. & M. Zühlke (2007): ALBEDOMAP -Validation Report - ESA AO/1-4559/04/I-LG, Online-Publikation: http://www.brockmann-consult.de/albedomap/pdf/MERIS-AlbedoMap-Validation-1.0.pdf. Jacob, D. (2001): A note to the simulation of the annual and inter-annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin; Meteorol. Amtos. Phys., 77, 61-73, 2001. Rechid, D.; Raddatz, T. & D. Jacob (2008): Parameterization of snow-free land surface albedo as a function of vegetation phenology based on MODIS data and applied in climate modelling.; Theor. Appl. Climatol., DOI 10.1007/s00704-008-0003-y.

  6. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  7. Analysis of Human Accelerated DNA Regions Using Archaic Hominin Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Burbano, Hernán A.; Green, Richard E.; Maricic, Tomislav; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Kelso, Janet; Pollard, Katherine S.; Lachmann, Michael; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Several previous comparisons of the human genome with other primate and vertebrate genomes identified genomic regions that are highly conserved in vertebrate evolution but fast-evolving on the human lineage. These human accelerated regions (HARs) may be regions of past adaptive evolution in humans. Alternatively, they may be the result of non-adaptive processes, such as biased gene conversion. We captured and sequenced DNA from a collection of previously published HARs using DNA from an Iberian Neandertal. Combining these new data with shotgun sequence from the Neandertal and Denisova draft genomes, we determine at least one archaic hominin allele for 84% of all positions within HARs. We find that 8% of HAR substitutions are not observed in the archaic hominins and are thus recent in the sense that the derived allele had not come to fixation in the common ancestor of modern humans and archaic hominins. Further, we find that recent substitutions in HARs tend to have come to fixation faster than substitutions elsewhere in the genome and that substitutions in HARs tend to cluster in time, consistent with an episodic rather than a clock-like process underlying HAR evolution. Our catalog of sequence changes in HARs will help prioritize them for functional studies of genomic elements potentially responsible for modern human adaptations. PMID:22412940

  8. Development of a Regional Routing Model for Strategic Waterway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Peterson, Bruce E; Lambert, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The NETS (Navigation Economics Technologies) suite of models is being developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to bring new analytic tools to the process of evaluating and planning navigation investments. A hierarchical and potentially iterative approach consisting of three levels, or tiers, has been proposed, one that moves from a broad regional and global geography in Tier 1, down to a detailed, project and facility specific level of detail in Tier 3. This paper describes the construction a commodity flows database to support Tier 2 modeling. Called the Regional Routing Model, it takes spatial disaggregations of broad regionally forecasts of commodity flows to a point where they can be assigned to specific modes and routes over the U.S. transportation network. The paper describes the model structure and how it is being tied closely to a multi-source database constructed to support base year model calibration. A goal for the model is to be able to measure the effects on flows and transportation costs of changes to either the capacity of the transportation network or to the volumes of goods produced and consumed. Some preliminary results are shown.

  9. Anthropogenic Aerosol Dimming Over Oceans: A Regional Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, T. N.; Folini, D.; Knutti, R.; Wild, M.

    2015-12-01

    The role of anthropogenic aerosols in shaping 20th century SSTs through alteration of surface solar radiation (SSR) is still subject to debate. Identifying and quantifying the relationship between aerosol-induced changes in SSR and the corresponding SST response is difficult due to the masking effect of numerous feedback mechanisms and general variability of the atmosphere-ocean system. We therefore analysed potential anthropogenic aerosol effects on SST with a cascade of experiments of increasing complexity: From atmosphere-only over mixed-layer ocean (MLO) experiments, to fully coupled transient ocean-atmosphere simulations, with and without greenhouse gases and / or aerosols, using the general circulation model ECHAM with explicit aerosol representation. We find anthropogenic aerosols to be crucial to obtain realistic SSR and SST patterns, although co-location of changes in individual variables (aerosol optical depth, SSR, SST) is weak. The effect of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the MLO simulations is essentially additive on global and regional scales, an assumption frequently made in the literature. With atmosphere-only simulations we identified regions most prone to anthropogenic aerosol dimming throughout the 20th century using a strict criterion. From MLO equilibria representative of different decades throughout the 20th century, we identified ocean regions, whose SSTs are most sensitive to changing anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The surface temperature response patterns in our MLO simulations are more sensitive towards the choice of prescribed deep-ocean heat flux if anthropogenic aerosols were included as compared to greenhouse gas only simulations. This implies that ocean dynamics might mask some of the response and cautions against the use of just one set of deep-ocean heat fluxes in MLO studies. Our results corroborate not only the relevance of anthropogenic aerosols for SST responses, but also highlight the complexity and non-locality of the

  10. Multi-wavelength Analysis of a Quiet Solar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Giannikakis, J.; Young, P.; Schühle, U.; Heinzel, P.

    2007-05-01

    We present observations of a solar quiet region obtained by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), and by instruments on the spacecraft SOHO and TRACE. The observations were obtained during a coordinated observing campaign on October 2005. The aim of this work is to present the rich diversity of fine-scale structures that are found at the network boundaries and their appearance in different instruments and different spectral lines that span the photosphere to the corona. Detailed studies of these structures are crucial to understanding their dynamics in different solar layers, as well as the role such structures play in the mass balance and heating of the solar atmosphere.

  11. Neptune's polar cusp region - Observations and magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Vasyliunas, V. M.; Szabo, A.; Steinberg, J.; Ness, N. F.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper confirms and extends the results of Szabo et al. (1991) (which demonstrated some similarities of the Neptune's polar cusp region to the earth's cusp), but uses a different approach requiring plasma and vector magnetic field quantities. In addition, various MHD properties of the cusp-magnetopause boundary, which separates the cusp from the magnetosheath allowing thermal anisotropy, are obtained, including the magnetopause (MP) normal, mass, and normal momentum flux, the boundary speed (and thickness), and their relationships. Results demonstrate that the MP velocity is composed of two components: a propagation speed and the other component consistent with the rotational motion of the magnetosphere.

  12. Updating our understanding of "Special Regions" on Mars: The second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Planning and Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars, defined in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy as places where Earth organisms might replicate (the basis of this study), or that have a high potential for the existence of extant martian life forms (not the basis of this study). The review and update was conducted by an international team, drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, to understand when and where Special Regions could, and likely do, occur. The study applied recently available data about Mars environments and about Earth organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a large new body of highly relevant data has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched 2005), Phoenix (2007), and from Mars Express and the twin MER landers (all 2003). Additional results were also gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth—including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The analysis of Mars Special Regions included: 1. An extensive analysis of both new and previously unavailable data regarding the environmental limits of life on Earth, including both experimental results and environmental observations; 2. An examination of extensive post-2006 observational data sets, including high spacial and temporal resolution data from orbit and new data from landed spacecraft; 3. New models of Mars relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; 4. Review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and 5. Updated maps and descriptions of the Mars environments that are recommended for treatment as "uncertain

  13. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1991-01-01

    We have made important progress since the beginning of the current grant year. We have further developed the microdissection and PCR- assisted microcloning techniques using the linker-adaptor method. We have critically evaluated the microdissection libraries constructed by this microtechnology and proved that they are of high quality. We further demonstrated that these microdissection clones are useful in identifying corresponding YAC clones for a thousand-fold expansion of the genomic coverage and for contig construction. We are also improving the technique of cloning the dissected fragments in test tube by the TDT method. We are applying both of these PCR cloning technique to human chromosomes 2 and 5 to construct region-specific libraries for physical mapping purposes of LLNL and LANL. Finally, we are exploring efficient procedures to use unique sequence microclones to isolate cDNA clones from defined chromosomal regions as valuable resources for identifying expressed gene sequences in the human genome. We believe that we are making important progress under the auspices of this DOE human genome program grant and we will continue to make significant contributions in the coming year. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Turbulence in the Earth's cusp region: k-filtering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Cao, J.; Fu, H.; Liu, W.

    2013-12-01

    On April 13 2002, four Cluster spacecraft with separation up to 127 km measured similar turbulence in the Earth's mid-altitude cusp region during southward IMF Bz. Using the k-filtering technique, we obtain the propagation angle and dispersion relation of the turbulence. The propagation angle is quite large and ranges from 80° to 92°, meaning that the turbulence propagates perpendicularly to the background magnetic field. By comparing the dispersion relationship with the linear solution of the Vlasov kinetic theory obtained by WHAMP, we conclude that the turbulence is Kinetic Alfvén mode (KAWs). The regions of KAWs are located within an inhomogeneous high density plasma background, suggesting that it is the ion drift, not field aligned ion beam that plays an important role in the wave generation. The magnetic flied fluctuation spectrum resembles the classical Kolmogorov power law under the proton gyrofrequency ωci, but breaks and steepens near ωci, indicating that the KAW may be powered by a turbulent cascade transverse to the magnetic field from large MHD scales to proton gyroradius scales.

  15. Regional analysis of the left ventricle of the heart.

    PubMed

    Bernis, François; Léger, Christophe; Eder, Véronique

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a method to analyze the local wall motion of the left ventricle of the heart. Data are sets of points (obtained from various medical imaging modalities) corresponding to surfaces of the left ventricle, which evolve as a function of time. After re-sampling, the surfaces are segmented in order to create regions of equivalent volume. Then, the local cardiac parameters are estimated: evolution of the regional volumes as a function of time, ejection fraction, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, end-diastolic and end-systolic instants. The method has been validated using deformable surfaces synthesized from an ellipsoidal model. It has also been tested in vivo on a set of 59 patients using a specially developed software product, which satisfies severe constraints of robustness, real-time, interactivity and ergonomics. The results obtained are similar to those provided by a reference nuclear medicine examination, but the proposed method is faster and gives a more precise localization of the cardiac wall motion anomalies.

  16. The Environment Analysis in the CE-3 Landing Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Gao, X.; Yan, W.; Zou, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the environment and select detecting objects for the Yutu Rover, NAOC used the DEM and DOM data obtained by CE-2, geological data released by USGS, and high resolution image captured by CE-3 and LRO-NAC to analyze the topographical characteristic, geologic age, Geomorphological feathers and new dust distribution in two scale levels. The first level is 45km×75km, and another one is 4km×4km. The center of the study region is the CE-3 landing site (19.51°W, 44.12°N). The following is the initial conclusions: (1) CE-3 landed on a relatively flat region in the Mare Imbrium with an elevation of -2615m. The geological age of the landing site belongs to young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is just on the intersection area of these two stratums. (2) The landing site lies on the edge of a lunar mountain with a decline tendency from west to east, and the topographic slope and roughness of the landing region is low, which is the typical characteristic of lunar mare. There is a big crater with diameter of 430 meters in the west of the landing site, and lots of stones in different colors on the rim of this crater, shown in the Figure2. (3) By comparing the images captured by LRO-NAC before and after the landing, much lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume during the landing of CE-3. The change scope is about 60m with from east-west and 135m length from south-north. The direction of landing is from south-north, so the length is larger than the width, shown in the figure 3. (4) In the initial stage, the Yutu Rover was suggested to move in south direction and late in north direction, which would get more scientific data and result.

  17. [Analysis of regional anesthetic efficacy in pediatric postop pain].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tellería, A; Cano Serrano, M E; Martínez-Tellería, M J; Castejón Casado, J

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double blind study was carried out in 76 paediatric surgical patients scheduled for herniography or circumcision. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ilioinguinal and iliohipogastric nerve block (group A), penile block (group B), caudal block (group C) or metamizol intravenously (group D). Postoperative pain was evaluated by Objective pain scale at the end of surgical process and at 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6 hours after surgery. Pain free time was also recorded. There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data. We find a significatively less pain scores in the children who received regional anaesthesia. In those groups the administration of any analgesic were not necessary. No side effects were recorded. We conclude that locorregional anaesthesia techniques are safe and effective for minor surgery in children, because they are easy to carry out, comfortable for the patient, and provide a good postoperative analgesia.

  18. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have shocked the modern world (Japan [April 7 2011, Mw 9.0, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, 15,457 deaths 5,389 injured, US300billion loss (Japanese National Police Agency 2011)], New Zealand [21 February 2011, Mw 6.3, 148 killed], Haiti [12 January 2010, Mw 7.0, estimated 316 000 killed and 300 000 injured]. These earthquakes have caused large scale damage to the built environment not to mention the high number of fatalities. The KZN coastal region is also fast developing especially towards the north of Durban CBD (Cornubia [New development near Umhlanga, 25 Billion Rands investment], Gateway/Umhlanga Business District, Moses Mabida Stadium (cost of R3.4 billion ), King Shaka International Airport at a cost of R6.8 billion, Dube Tradeport to be developed next to the airport at a cost of R5 billion, as well as the development of the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone . The KZN is home to 10 million inhabitants with a relatively denser population distribution around the Durban and Pietermaritzburg CBDs. With the increasing amount of investment towards the north coast of Durban, the population distribution will migrate to these areas. These areas now become 'vulnerable' to rare, infrequent and potentially devastating natural disasters like earthquakes. One of the first steps to understand and plan for an earthquake occurrence is through a seismic hazard and risk assessment. The seismic hazard and risk method has well been established since 1968 (see Cornell (1968); Veneziano et al., (1984); Bender and Perkins (1993); McGuire (1993); McGuire and Toro (2008); Kijko and Graham (1998); Kijko and Sellevoll, (1989, 1992)). The components of a seismic risk assessment (SRA) include several building blocks namely: the development of the earthquake catalogue, seismotectonic model, attenuation models, seismic hazard assessment (SHA), vulnerability assessment and seismic risk computations. The seismotectonic

  19. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison between cow and buffalo (including Egyptian buffaloes) mitochondrial displacement-loop regions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I; El-Hefnawi, Mahmoud M

    2008-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has been used extensively for phylogenetic analysis studies and systematics. The displacement loop (D-loop) region inside the mtDNA is a non-coding part whose analysis can indicate variations between closely related populations. This paper reports for the first time the characterization and analysis of the complete sequence of the D-loop region from Egyptian buffaloes and analysis in conjunction with previously published Indian and European Bubalus bubalis and Bos sub-tribe sequences. In the entire D-loop of the Egyptian buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes and nine polymorphic sites from the nine sequenced D-loop regions--while in the studied set of buffaloes we identified 28 polymorphic sites in the entire D-loop, and 49 polymorphic sites in the case of cows. Alignment between buffaloes and cows to evaluate the characteristics of the D-loop region showed that the second region of the conserved sequence block (CSB2) is apparently the most variable region in the D-loop between cows and buffaloes, with four insertions in all buffaloes and two substitutions, followed by the second region of the extended termination associated sequence (ETAS2) with a substitution rate of 1/10. The Egyptian buffaloes were shown to be closest to the Italian counterparts, exemplifying the closeness of ethnicity and the history of civilization of that region.

  20. Shape similarity analysis of regions of interest in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Charisi, Amalia; Latecki, Longin Jan; Gee, James; Megalooikonomou, Vasilis

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a new representation technique of 2D contour shapes and a sequence similarity measure to characterize 2D regions of interest in medical images. First, we define a distance function on contour points in order to map the shape of a given contour to a sequence of real numbers. Thus, the computation of shape similarity is reduced to the matching of the obtained sequences. Since both a query and a target sequence may be noisy, i.e., contain some outlier elements, it is desirable to exclude the outliers in order to obtain a robust matching performance. For the computation of shape similarity, we propose the use of an algorithm which performs elastic matching of two sequences. The contribution of our approach is that, unlike previous works that require images to be warped according to a template image for measuring their similarity, it obviates this need, therefore it can estimate image similarity for any type of medical image in a fast and efficient manner. To demonstrate our method's applicability, we analyzed a brain image dataset consisting of corpus callosum shapes, and we investigated the structural differences between children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and controls. Our findings indicate that our method is quite effective and it can be easily applied on medical diagnosis in all cases of which shape difference is an important clue.

  1. Analysis of urban regions using AVHRR thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Using 1-km AVHRR satellite data, relative temperature difference caused by conductivity and inertia were used to distinguish urban and non urban land covers. AVHRR data that were composited on a biweekly basis and distributed by the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, were used for the classification process. These composited images are based on the maximum normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) of each pixel during the 2-week period using channels 1 and 2. The resultant images are nearly cloud-free and reduce the need for extensive reclassification processing. Because of the physiographic differences between the Eastern and Western United States, the initial study was limited to the eastern half of the United States. In the East, the time of maximum difference between the urban surfaces and the vegetated non urban areas is the peak greenness period in late summer. A composite image of the Eastern United States for the 2-weel time period from August 30-Septmeber 16, 1991, was used for the extraction of the urban areas. Two channels of thermal data (channels 3 and 4) normalized for regional temperature differences and a composited NDVI image were classified using conventional image processing techniques. The results compare favorably with other large-scale urban area delineations.

  2. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  3. Evaluation of the Analysis Influence on Transport in Reanalysis Regional Water Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental regions, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some regions of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the region. One such region is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on regional and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the regional analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.

  4. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  5. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Githeko, A K; Lindsay, S W; Confalonieri, U E; Patz, J A

    2000-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate change on transmission is likely to be observed at the extremes of the range of temperatures at which transmission occurs. For many diseases these lie in the range 14-18 degrees C at the lower end and about 35-40 degrees C at the upper end. Malaria and dengue fever are among the most important vector-borne diseases in the tropics and subtropics; Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Encephalitis is also becoming a public health concern. Health risks due to climatic changes will differ between countries that have developed health infrastructures and those that do not. Human settlement patterns in the different regions will influence disease trends. While 70% of the population in South America is urbanized, the proportion in sub-Saharan Africa is less than 45%. Climatic anomalies associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon and resulting in drought and floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. They have been linked to outbreaks of malaria in Africa, Asia and South America. Climate change has far-reaching consequences and touches on all life-support systems. It is therefore a factor that should be placed high among those that affect human health and survival.

  6. Time series analysis of regional climate model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Oglesby, Robert J.; Lapenta, William M.

    2005-02-01

    Four regional climate models (RegCM2, MM5/BATS, MM5/SHEELS, and MM5/OSU) were intercompared on a fairly small domain covering a relatively homogenous area in Kansas, United States, including the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (SLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) site. The models were integrated for a 2-year period covering 1987 and 1988. The model results are evaluated against data collected during this time period at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site as well as over the summer observation periods of FIFE. The models all captured the proper qualitative behavior of the interannual variability, though the magnitudes varied considerably between models. They also found it particularly difficult to reproduce observed changes in the variance of surface variables. No model performed consistently better, with each model displaying particular strengths and weaknesses of its own. RegCM2 could be improved by including an ice phase in the cloud microphysics parameterization. MM5/BATS and MM5/SHEELS need revision of the formulation of stability dependence of the surface drag coefficients, including the coupling to the wind field, as well as using a total soil depth more representative of the area. MM5/OSU simulates too much resistance to evapotranspiration and fails to close the energy budget. All of the models overestimate runoff and evapotranspiration during winter, creating a dry anomaly which persists throughout the following summer. Development and verification of parameterizations involved in coupling the land surface and atmospheric components of these models together is at least as important as the development and verification of each component individually.

  7. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Githeko, A. K.; Lindsay, S. W.; Confalonieri, U. E.; Patz, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate change on transmission is likely to be observed at the extremes of the range of temperatures at which transmission occurs. For many diseases these lie in the range 14-18 degrees C at the lower end and about 35-40 degrees C at the upper end. Malaria and dengue fever are among the most important vector-borne diseases in the tropics and subtropics; Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Encephalitis is also becoming a public health concern. Health risks due to climatic changes will differ between countries that have developed health infrastructures and those that do not. Human settlement patterns in the different regions will influence disease trends. While 70% of the population in South America is urbanized, the proportion in sub-Saharan Africa is less than 45%. Climatic anomalies associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon and resulting in drought and floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. They have been linked to outbreaks of malaria in Africa, Asia and South America. Climate change has far-reaching consequences and touches on all life-support systems. It is therefore a factor that should be placed high among those that affect human health and survival. PMID:11019462

  8. Analysis of thoracic regional impedance changes using PCA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, M.; Wtorek, J.; Bujnowski, A.; Mierzejewski, L.

    2010-04-01

    A multichannel impedance and one lead electrocardiographic recording system has been developed. The impedance measurement unit is built using a four-electrode technique. It consists of a sinusoidal, 40 kHz, current source and five measurement channels. Circumferential current electrodes have been located at a neck and an abdomen. Voltage measurement disk electrodes formed five two-electrode measurement ports. The impedance change waveforms (ICG) have been recorded simultaneously with ECG. The ICG waveforms have been analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The examinations have been done for different ports configurations in relation to the heart. A dependence of obtained components on ports configurations has been found. Similar results have been obtained when examining healthy (test) persons.

  9. A Study on Regional Rainfall Frequency Analysis for Flood Simulation Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Younghun; Ahn, Hyunjun; Joo, Kyungwon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2014-05-01

    Recently, climate change has been observed in Korea as well as in the entire world. The rainstorm has been gradually increased and then the damage has been grown. It is very important to manage the flood control facilities because of increasing the frequency and magnitude of severe rain storm. For managing flood control facilities in risky regions, data sets such as elevation, gradient, channel, land use and soil data should be filed up. Using this information, the disaster situations can be simulated to secure evacuation routes for various rainfall scenarios. The aim of this study is to investigate and determine extreme rainfall quantile estimates in Uijeongbu City using index flood method with L-moments parameter estimation. Regional frequency analysis trades space for time by using annual maximum rainfall data from nearby or similar sites to derive estimates for any given site in a homogeneous region. Regional frequency analysis based on pooled data is recommended for estimation of rainfall quantiles at sites with record lengths less than 5T, where T is return period of interest. Many variables relevant to precipitation can be used for grouping a region in regional frequency analysis. For regionalization of Han River basin, the k-means method is applied for grouping regions by variables of meteorology and geomorphology. The results from the k-means method are compared for each region using various probability distributions. In the final step of the regionalization analysis, goodness-of-fit measure is used to evaluate the accuracy of a set of candidate distributions. And rainfall quantiles by index flood method are obtained based on the appropriate distribution. And then, rainfall quantiles based on various scenarios are used as input data for disaster simulations. Keywords: Regional Frequency Analysis; Scenarios of Rainfall Quantile Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures

  10. FUNGAL-SPECIFIC PCR PRIMERS DEVELOPED FOR ANALYSIS OF THE ITS REGION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are highly variable sequences of great importance in distinguishing fungal species by PCR analysis. Previously published PCR primers available for amplifying these sequences from environmenta...

  11. Structural analysis of airborne flux estimates over a region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caramori, Paulo; Schuepp, Peter; Desjardins, Raymond; Macpherson, Ian

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft-based observations of turbulence fields of velocity, moisture, and temperature are used to study coherent turbulent structures that dominate turbulent transfer of moisture and heat above three different eco-systems. Flux traces are defragmented, to reconstruct the presumed full size (along the sampled transect) of these structures, and flux traces are simplified by elimination of those that contribute negligibly to the flux estimate. Structures are analyzed in terms of size, spatial distribution, and contribution to the flux, in the four 'quadrant' modes of eddy-covariance transfer (excess up/down and deficit up/down). The effect of nonlinear detrending of moisture and temperature data on this 'structural analysis,' over surfaces with heterogeneous surface wetness, is also examined. Results over grassland, wetland, and moist and dry agricultural land, show that nonlinear detrending may provide a more physically realistic description of structures. Significant differences are observed between structure size and associated relative flux contribution, between moist and dry areas, with smaller structures playing a more important role over the moist areas. Structure size generally increases with height, as spatial reorganization from smaller structures into larger ones takes place. This coincides with a gradual loss of surface 'signature' (position and clustering of plumes above localized source areas). The data are expected to provide a basis for an eventual statistical description of boundary-layer transfer events , and help to interpret the link between boundary-layer transfer and hydrological surface conditions.

  12. Analysis The Potential Implementation And Use Of The Renewable Energy Sources In The Murmansk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the geographical location of the Murmansk region and possibilities of using different renewable energy sources. Present the results of the analysis of using and practicality wind power to wind turbines to generate electricity. The paper presents of average annual consumption of electricity settlements in the Murmansk region, options for replacing the use of diesel fuel by wind energy and recommendations for possible areas of utilization of wind energy.

  13. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    island. A regional aquifer system composed of the Waianae aquifer in the Waianae Volcanics and the Koolau aquifer in the Koolau Basalt is subdivided into well-defined areas by geohydrologic barriers. The aquifers are separated by the Waianae confining unit formed by weathering along the Waianae-Koolau unconformity. In some coastal areas, a caprock of sedimentary deposits overlies and confines the aquifers. The island of Oahu has been divided into seven major ground-water areas delineated by deep-seated structural geohydrologic barriers; these areas are further subdivided by shallower internal barriers to ground-water flow. The Koolau rift zone along the eastern (windward) side of the island and the Waianae rift zone to the west (Waianae area) constitute two of the major ground-water areas. North-central Oahu is divided into three smaller ground-water areas, Mokuleia, Waialua, and Kawailoa. The Schofield ground-water area encompasses much of the Schofield Plateau of central Oahu. Southern Oahu is divided into six areas, Ewa, Pearl Harbor, Moanalua, Kalihi, Beretania, and Kaimuki. Southeastern Oahu is divided into the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai areas. Along the northeast coast of windward Oahu is the Kahuku ground-water area. The aquifers of Oahu contain shallow freshwater and deeper saltwater flow systems. There are five fresh ground-water flow systems: meteoric freshwater flow diverges from ground-water divides that lie somewhere within the Waianae and Koolau rift zones, forming an interior flow system in central Oahu (which is divided into the northern and southern Oahu flow systems) and exterior flow systems in western (Waianae area) Oahu, eastern (windward) Oahu, and southeastern Oahu. Development of the ground-water resources on Oahu began when the first well was drilled near Honouliuli in the summer of 1879. By 1890, 86 wells had been drilled on the island. From about 1891 to about 1910, development increased rapidly with the drilling of a

  14. A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Regional Frequency Analysis of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, B.

    2010-12-01

    Rainfall and runoff frequency analysis is a major issue for the hydrological community. The distribution of hydrological extremes varies in space and possibly in time. Describing and understanding this spatiotemporal variability are primary challenges to improve hazard quantification and risk assessment. This presentation proposes a general approach based on a Bayesian hierarchical model, following previous work by Cooley et al. [2007], Micevski [2007], Aryal et al. [2009] or Lima and Lall [2009; 2010]. Such a hierarchical model is made up of two levels: (1) a data level modeling the distribution of observations, and (2) a process level describing the fluctuation of the distribution parameters in space and possibly in time. At the first level of the model, at-site data (e.g., annual maxima series) are modeled with a chosen distribution (e.g., a GEV distribution). Since data from several sites are considered, the joint distribution of a vector of (spatial) observations needs to be derived. This is challenging because data are in general not spatially independent, especially for nearby sites. An elliptical copula is therefore used to formally account for spatial dependence between at-site data. This choice might be questionable in the context of extreme value distributions. However, it is motivated by its applicability in spatial highly dimensional problems, where the joint pdf of a vector of n observations is required to derive the likelihood function (with n possibly amounting to hundreds of sites). At the second level of the model, parameters of the chosen at-site distribution are then modeled by a Gaussian spatial process, whose mean may depend on covariates (e.g. elevation, distance to sea, weather pattern, time). In particular, this spatial process allows estimating parameters at ungauged sites, and deriving the predictive distribution of rainfall/runoff at every pixel/catchment of the studied domain. An application to extreme rainfall series from the French

  15. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2).

    PubMed

    Rummel, John D; Beaty, David W; Jones, Melissa A; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G; Boston, Penelope J; Chevrier, Vincent F; Clark, Benton C; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P; Gough, Raina V; Hallsworth, John E; Head, James W; Hipkin, Victoria J; Kieft, Thomas L; McEwen, Alfred S; Mellon, Michael T; Mikucki, Jill A; Nicholson, Wayne L; Omelon, Christopher R; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J

    2014-11-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth-including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations of

  16. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the Second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rummel, John D.; Beaty, David W.; Jones, Melissa A.; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G.; Boston, Penelope J.; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Clark, Benton C.; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Gough, Raina V.; Hallsworth, John E.; Head, James W.; Hipkin, Victoria J.; Kieft, Thomas L.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mellon, Michael T.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Omelon, Christopher R.; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J.

    2014-01-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth—including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations

  17. Seismic Hazard analysis of Adjaria Region in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Elashvili, Mikheil

    2014-05-01

    The most commonly used approach to determining seismic-design loads for engineering projects is probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). The primary output from a PSHA is a hazard curve showing the variation of a selected ground-motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period). The design value is the ground-motion level that corresponds to a preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, such as standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic-design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. For more important engineering projects— where the consequences of failure are more serious, such as dams and chemical plants—it is more usual to obtain the seismic-design loads from a site-specific PSHA, in general, using much longer return periods than those governing code based design. Calculation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz, M., Aguilar, A., and Arboleda, J., Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. CRISIS implements a classical probabilistic seismic hazard methodology where seismic sources can be modelled as points, lines and areas. In the case of area sources, the software offers an integration procedure that takes advantage of a triangulation algorithm used for seismic source discretization. This solution improves calculation efficiency while maintaining a reliable description of source geometry and seismicity. Additionally, supplementary filters (e.g. fix a sitesource distance that excludes from calculation sources at great distance) allow the program to balance precision and efficiency during hazard calculation. Earthquake temporal occurrence is assumed to follow a Poisson process, and the code facilitates two types of MFDs: a truncated exponential Gutenberg-Richter [1944] magnitude distribution and a characteristic magnitude

  18. An updated understanding of ``Special Regions'' on Mars: The second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, David; Rummel, John; Jones, Melissa

    This report represents the work of a committee sponsored by the Mars Exploration Planning and Analysis Group (MEPAG) to review and update the technical information that underlies the interpretation of planetary protection Special Regions on Mars as designated in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy. This review and update was conducted with the cooperation of COSPAR and an extensive international Mars exploration community to provide a common understanding of when and where Special Regions do/can occur, based on the most recently available data about Mars environments and the Earth’s organisms—particularly microorganisms capable of withstanding extreme environments (by human standards). A previous analysis of martian special regions was undertaken by a similar committee, which used technical data available through 2006. Since then, however a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005), Phoenix (launched in 2007), and from further data returned by Mars Express and the twin MER landers (both launched in 2003). Additional results were also available from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). Complementing the Mars data gained since 2006 is a considerable body of research carried out in the area of the known environmental limits to life on Earth, including the specific area of the potential of terrestrial microbial life to function under martian environmental conditions. The analysis presented here consists of: 1. Updated information on the known physical limits to life on Earth, particularly experimental results and environmental observations; 2. Evaluation of post-2006 observational data sets and new models from Mars that could be relevant to our understanding of the natural variations on Mars of water activity and temperature; 3. Reconsideration of the current parameters used to define the term “special regions;” and 4. An updated description of the Mars environments that are

  19. Erythrocyte membrane analysis for type II diabetes detection using Raman spectroscopy in high-wavenumber region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect lipid variation occurring in type II diabetic erythrocyte membrane (EM) without using exogenous reagents. In high-wavenumber (HW) region, significant Raman spectral differences between diabetic and normal EM are observed at 2850, 2873, 2885, 2935, and 2965 cm-1, which are mainly related to lipid in EM. Based on principal component analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of HW region for diabetes detection is 98.8%, which is much higher than that of low-wavenumber region (82.9%). The results suggest that EM HW Raman region has great promise for the reagent-free and non-invasive detection of type II diabetes.

  20. Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Soodt, Thomas; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Bickenbach, Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Lung protective ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) focuses on using low tidal volumes and adequate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Identifying optimal pressure is difficult because pressure-volume (PV) relations differ regionally. Precise analysis demands local measurements of pressures and related alveolar morphologies. In a porcine model of surfactant depletion (n=24), we combined measuring static pressures with endoscopic microscopy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to examine regional PV loops and morphologic heterogeneities between healthy (control group; CON) and ALI lungs ventilated with low (LVT) or high tidal volumes (HVT). Quantification included indices for microscopy (Volume Air Index (VAI), Heterogeneity and Circularity Index), EIT analysis and calculation of regional compliances due to generated PV loops. We found that: (1) VAI decreased in lower lobe after ALI, (2) electrical impedance decreased in dorsal regions and (3) PV loops differed regionally. Further studies should prove the potentials of these techniques on individual respiratory settings and clinical outcome.

  1. Improving regions of deviation gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.

    PubMed

    DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    The regions of deviation method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion deviates from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining deviations from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry deviations were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of deviation from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of deviation encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of deviation method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation.

  2. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., environmental analysis and scheduling. 3420.3-4 Section 3420.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis.... Three major categories of consideration shall be used in tract ranking: coal economics; impacts on...

  3. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  4. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 5' upstream region.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Alissa; Sarr, Ousmane; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F

    2005-02-01

    Recent findings indicating a low level of polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum genome have led to the hypothesis that existent polymorphisms are likely to have functional significance. We tested this hypothesis by developing a map of the polymorphism in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene 5' upstream region and assaying its correlation with drug resistance in a sample of field isolates from Dakar, Senegal. A comparison of six geographically diverse laboratory strains showed that the 1.94-kb 5'-untranslated region is highly monomorphic, with a total of four unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being identified. All of the mutations were localized to a 462-basepair region proximal to the transcription start point. Analysis of this region in field isolates shows the prevalence of one SNP throughout the entire population of parasites, irrespective of drug resistance status. The SNP frequency of the pfmdr1 upstream region is lower than that found in the noncoding region of other genes.

  5. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Close, M E; Abraham, P; Humphries, B; Lilburne, L; Cuthill, T; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, <25m, 25 to 100 and >100m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification.

  6. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, M. E.; Abraham, P.; Humphries, B.; Lilburne, L.; Cuthill, T.; Wilson, S.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, < 25 m, 25 to 100 and > 100 m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification.

  7. A comparison of regional flood frequency analysis approaches in a simulation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

    2016-07-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve at ungauged (or scarcely gauged) sites. Different RFA approaches exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest, but it is not clear in the literature if a specific method systematically outperforms the others. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison by building up a virtual environment based on synthetically generated data. The considered regional approaches include: (i) a unique regional curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model where homogeneous subregions are determined through cluster analysis; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially smooth estimation procedure where the parameters of the regional model vary continuously along the space. Virtual environments are generated considering different patterns of heterogeneity, including step change and smooth variations. If the region is heterogeneous, with the parent distribution changing continuously within the region, the spatially smooth regional approach outperforms the others, with overall errors 10-50% lower than the other methods. In the case of a step-change, the spatially smooth and clustering procedures perform similarly if the heterogeneity is moderate, while clustering procedures work better when the step-change is severe. To extend our findings, an extensive sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of sample length, number of virtual stations, return period of the predicted quantile, variability of the scale parameter of the parent distribution, number of predictor variables and different parent distribution. Overall, the spatially smooth approach appears as the most robust approach as its performances are more stable across different patterns of heterogeneity, especially when short records are

  8. Excess Capacity in China’s Power Systems: A Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Karl, Fredrich

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines China’s regional electricity grids using a reliability perspective, which is commonly measured in terms of a reserve margin. Our analysis shows that at the end of 2014, the average reserve margin for China as a whole was roughly 28%, almost twice as high as a typical planning reserve margin in the U.S. However, this national average masks huge variations in reserve margins across major regional power grid areas: the northeastern region has the highest reserve margin of over 60%, followed by the northwestern region at 49%, and the southern grid area at 35%. In this analysis, we also examined future reserve margins for regional electricity grids in China under two scenarios: 1) a low scenario of national annual electricity consumption growth rates of 1.5% between 2015 and 2020 and 1.0% between 2020 and 2025, and 2) a high scenario of annual average growth rates of 3.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Both scenarios suggest that the northeastern, northwestern, and southern regions have significant excess generation capacity, and that this excess capacity situation will continue over the next decade without regulatory intervention. The northern and central regions could have sufficient generation capacity to 2020, but may require additional resources in a higher growth scenario. The eastern region requires new resources by 2020 in both scenarios.

  9. Analysis of dihedral angle preferences for alanine and glycine residues in alpha and beta transmembrane regions.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, K M; Krishnaswamy, S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 50 years, the Ramachandran map has been used effectively to study the protein structure and folding. However, though extensive analysis has been done on dihedral angle preferences of residues in globular proteins, related studies and reports of membrane proteins are limited. It is of interest to explore the conformational preferences of residues in transmembrane regions of membrane proteins which are involved in several important and diverse biological processes. Hence, in the present work, a systematic comparative computational analysis has been made on dihedral angle preferences of alanine and glycine in alpha and beta transmembrane regions (the two major classes of transmembrane proteins) with the aid of the Ramachandran map. Further, the conformational preferences of residues in transmembrane regions were compared with the non-transmembrane regions. We have extracted cation-pi interacting residues present in transmembrane regions and explored the dihedral angle preferences. From our observations, we reveal the higher percentage of occurrences of glycine in alpha and beta transmembrane regions than other hydrophobic residues. Further, we noted a clear shift in ψ-angle preferences of glycine residues from negative bins in alpha transmembrane regions to positive bins in beta transmembrane regions. Also, cation-pi interacting residues in beta transmembrane regions avoid preferring ψ-angles in the range of -59° to -30°. In this article, we insist that the studies on preferences of dihedral angles in transmembrane regions, thorough understanding of structure and folding of transmembrane proteins, can lead to modeling of novel transmembrane regions towards designing membrane proteins.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of the dynamics in the Mexican Pacific seismic region by using visual recurrence plots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Moreno-Torres, Lucía; Flores-Márquez, Elsa

    2013-04-01

    The subduction in the Mexican South Pacific coast might be approximated as a subhorizontal slab bounded at the edge by the steep subduction geometry of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate to the east and of the Rivera plate beneath North America to the west. It has been reported a study that takes into account the geometry of the subducted Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American lithosphere defining, according their geometry, four regions: Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero and Oaxaca. By means of the visual recurrence analysis (VRA), in this work we study some dynamical features of the seismicity occurred for each region, Our analysis shows interesting differences among the recurrence plots of each region indicating a possible correlation between the subduction geometry and the nonlinear dynamical properties of each region.

  11. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  12. Statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel; Early, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report, prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, presents a compilation, summarization, and statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana. These are from youngest to oldest: The alluvial, Pleistocene, Evangeline, Jasper, Catahoula, Cockfield, Sparta, Carrizo, and Wilcox aquifers. Approximately 1,500 aquifer tests in U.S. Geological Survey files in Louisiana were examined and 1,001 were input to a computer file. Analysis of the aquifer test results and plots that describe aquifer hydraulic characteristics were made for each regional aquifer. Results indicate that, on the average, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) generally tends to decrease from the youngest aquifers to the oldest. The most permeable aquifers in Louisiana are the alluvial and Pleistocene aquifers; whereas, the least permeable are the Carrizo and Wilcox aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Regional Scale Meteorological Analysis and Prediction Using GPS Occultation and EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David H.; Shum, C. K.; Zhao, Changyin; Kuo, Bill; Rocken, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research under this award is to improve regional meteorological analysis and prediction for traditionally data limited regions, particularly over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, using the remote sensing observations from current and upcoming GPS radio occultation missions and the EOS instrument suite. The major components of this project are: 1.Develop and improve the methods for retrieving temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles from GPS radio occultation data and EOS radiometer data. 2. Develop and improve a regional scale data assimilation system (MM5 4DVAR). 3. Perform case studies involving data analysis and numerical modeling to investigate the impact of different data for regional meteorological analysis and the importance of data assimilation for regional meteorological simulation over the Antarctic region. 4. Apply the findings and improvements from the above studies to weather forecasting experiments. 5. In the third year of the award we made significant progress toward the remaining goals of the project. The work included carefully evaluating the performance of an atmospheric mesoscale model, the Polar MM5 in Antarctic applications and improving the upper boundary condition.

  14. Analysis of the regions flanking the human insulin gene and sequence of an Alu family member.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G I; Pictet, R; Rutter, W J

    1980-01-01

    The regions around the human insulin gene have been studied by heteroduplex, hybridization and sequence analysis. These studies indicated that there is a region of heterogeneous length located approximately 700 bp before the 5' end of the gene; and that the 19 kb of cloned DNA which includes the 1430 bp insulin gene as well as 5650 bp before and 11,500 bp after the gene is single copy sequence except for 500 bp located 6000 bp from the 3' end of the gene. This 500 bp segment contains a member of the Alu family of dispersed middle repetitive sequences as well as another less highly repeated homopolymeric segment. The sequence of this region was determined. This Alu repeat is bordered by 19 bp direct repeats and also contains an 83 bp sequence which is present twice. The regions flanking the human and rat I insulin genes were compared by heteroduplex analysis to localize homologous sequences in the flanking regions which could be involved in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. The homology between the two genes is restricted to the region encoding preproinsulin and a short region of approximately 60 bp flanking the 5' side of the genes. Images PMID:6253909

  15. The spatial relationship analysis of regional development potential and resource and environment carrying capacity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jianhua; Zeng, Gang; Shen, Qi; Hu, Qing

    2008-10-01

    The main goal in this study is to explore the spatial relationship of Chinese regional development potential (DP) and resource & environment carrying capacity (REC) in 2000 and 2006 by using meta-synthesis of spatial statistical analysis and GIS technique. The results show that: The spatial distribution trend of DP and REC are overall gradient descending from coastal to inland, then to the western provinces. They all demonstrate that spatial agglomeration with global significant, namely high-DP regions aggregated in the east, low-DP regions aggregated in the west. The high-REC of central, eastern and southern China are improved and aggregated, but the low-REC aggregated in northwest. Chinese regional DP and REC are divided into five different kinds of regions based on the results of k-means clustering analysis and spatial clustering, which demonstrate that each area's DP and REC's spatial association measure is not very obviously. Compared to the high-DP region, the low-DP region is more restricted to the REC.

  16. Region of interest analysis; by selecting regions with denuded areas can we detect greater amounts of change?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J.; Li, Ling; YQ, Zhang; Totterman, Saara; Tamez, Jose; Kwoh, C. Kent; Eaton, Charles B.; Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Beals, Chan R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on recent analyses, the measures of short-term responsiveness of MRI derived cartilage morphometry may not be as large as earlier studies had suggested. We examined if by selecting regions of interest with denuded cartilage, if the remaining cartilage within this region of interest was susceptible to greater rates of cartilage loss. METHODS: Subjects included for this analysis are a subset of the approximately 4700 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) Study. Bilateral radiographs and 3T MRI (Siemens Trio) of the knees and clinical data are obtained at baseline and annually in all participants.150 subjects from the OAI Progression subcohort all of whom had both frequent symptoms and, in the same knee, radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA defined as definite tibio-femoral osteophytes on x-ray) based on a screening reading done at the OAI clinics. One knee from each subject was selected for analysis. Using sagittal 3D DESSwe MR images from the baseline and 12 follow-up month visit, a segmentation algorithm was applied to the cartilage plates of the index knee to compute the cartilage volume, normalized cartilage volume (Volume normalized to bone surface interface area), and percent denuded area (Total Cartilage Bone Interface area denuded of cartilage). Summary statistics of the changes (absolute and percentage) from baseline at one year and the standardized response mean (SRM), i.e. mean change divided by the standard deviation of that change were calculated. Analyses are stratified into three groups according to baseline assessment of denuded area: those with no denuded area in the region of interest at baseline, and then 2 groups (intermediate denuded area (≤median) and severe (> median) denuded area) of equal sample size. RESULTS: On average the subjects were 60.9 years of age and obese with a mean BMI of 30.3 kg/m2. For the combined central medial femur and tibia the mean volume change for the whole sample was −48.2 (SD 159

  17. Advantages and Limitations of Cluster Analysis in Interpreting Regional GPS Velocity Fields in California and Elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. Cluster analysis, a venerable data analysis method, offers a simple, visual exploratory tool for the initial organization and investigation of GPS velocities (Simpson et al., 2012 GRL). Here we describe the application of cluster analysis to GPS velocities from three regions, the Mojave Desert and the San Francisco Bay regions in California, and the Aegean in the eastern Mediterranean. Our goal is to illustrate the strengths and shortcomings of the method in searching for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence for and against block-like behavior in these 3 regions. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, is subjective and usually guided by the distribution of known faults. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities provides a completely objective method for identifying groups of observations ranging in size from 10s to 100s of km in characteristic dimension based solely on the similarities of their velocity vectors. In the three regions we have studied, statistically significant clusters are almost invariably spatially coherent, fault bounded, and coincide with elastic, geologically identified structural blocks. Often, higher order clusters that are not statistically significant are also spatially coherent, suggesting the existence of additional blocks, or defining regions of other tectonic importance (e.g. zones of localized elastic strain accumulation near locked faults). These results can be used to both formulate tentative tectonic models with testable consequences and to suggest focused new measurements in under-sampled regions. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities has several potential limitations, aside from the

  18. Analysis of Seismic Activity of the last 15 Years Nearby Puerto Rico and Caribbean Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Torres-Ortíz, D. M.; Fernández-Heredia, A. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    An earthquake catalog of the seismicity occurred during the last 15 years in the Caribbean region, nearby the vicinity of Puerto Rico Island (PRI) was compiled in order to capture the big picture of the regional seismic activity ratio and in particular at the epicentral regions of several historical and instrumentally recorded (during 2008-20015) large to moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred nearby PRI in onshore and offshore, which include the M6.4 earthquake of 01/13/2014, the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally nearby PRI. From the point of view of joint temporal-spatial distribution of epicenters, episodic temporal-spatial seismic activity is clearly seen as temporal-spatial concentrations during certain time intervals in different regions. These localized concentrations of epicenters that occur during certain time intervals in well localized/concentrated regions may suggest "seismic gaps" that shows no regular time interval, neither spatial pattern. In the epicentral region of the M6.4 01/13/2014 earthquake and the historical Mona Passage M7.5 earthquake of 10/11/1918, episodic concentrations in time and space of small magnitude earthquakes epicenters is evident, however do not show temporal pattern. Preliminary results of statistical analysis of an ongoing research in terms of the parameter b (Gutenberg-Richter relationship), and the Omori's law with the aim to relate the tectonic framework of the region (or sub-regions) such as structural heterogeneity stress are here presented/discussed.

  19. Prediction of regional functional impairment following experimental stroke via connectome analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, O; Badurek, S; Liu, W; Wang, Y; Rabiller, G; Kanoke, A; Eipert, P; Liu, J

    2017-04-13

    Recent advances in functional connectivity suggest that shared neuronal activation patterns define brain networks linking anatomically separate brain regions. We sought to investigate how cortical stroke disrupts multiple brain regions in processing spatial information. We conducted a connectome investigation at the mesoscale-level using the neuroVIISAS-framework, enabling the analysis of directed and weighted connectivity in bilateral hemispheres of cortical and subcortical brain regions. We found that spatial-exploration induced brain activation mapped by Fos, a proxy of neuronal activity, was differentially affected by stroke in a region-specific manner. The extent of hypoactivation following spatial exploration is inversely correlated with the spatial distance between the region of interest and region damaged by stroke, in particular within the parietal association and the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting that the closer a region is to a stroke lesion, the more it would be affected during functional activation. Connectome modelling with 43 network parameters failed to reliably predict regions of hypoactivation in stroke rats exploring a novel environment, despite a modest correlation found for the centrality and hubness parameters in the home-caged animals. Further investigation in the inhibitory versus excitatory neuronal networks and microcircuit connectivity is warranted to improve the accuracy of predictability in post-stroke functional impairment.

  20. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  1. A systematic intercomparison of regional flood frequency analysis models in a simulation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganora, Daniele; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve (or other discharge-related variables), based on the fundamental concept of substituting temporal information at a site (no data or short time series) by exploiting observations at other sites (spatial information). Different RFA paradigms exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest. Despite the wide use of such methodology, a systematic comparison between these paradigms has not been performed. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison: we thus synthetically generate data through Monte Carlo simulations for a number of (virtual) stations, following a GEV parent distribution; different scenarios can be created to represent different spatial heterogeneity patterns by manipulating the parameters of the parent distribution at each station (e.g. with a linear variation in space of the shape parameter of the GEV). A special case is the homogeneous scenario where each station record is sampled from the same parent distribution. For each scenario and each simulation, different regional models are applied to evaluate the 200-year growth factor at each station. Results are than compared to the exact growth factor of each station, which is known in our virtual world. Considered regional approaches include: (i) a single growth curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model based on cluster analysis which search for an adequate number of homogeneous subregions; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially-smooth estimation procedure based on linear regressions.. A further benchmark model is the at-site estimate based on the analysis of the local record. A comprehensive analysis of the results of the simulations shows that, if the scenario is homogeneous (no spatial variability), all the regional approaches

  2. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) is developing seamless digital coverages for land cover, vertebrate animal habitat, and land management status for the 5-state region of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. The project is a second generation effor...

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Global and Regional Climate Change in Relation to Atmospheric Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research is the continued development and application of global isentropic modeling and analysis capabilities to describe hydrologic processes and energy exchange in the climate system, and discern regional climate change. This work involves a combination of modeling and analysis efforts involving 4DDA datasets and simulations from the University of Wisconsin (UW) hybrid isentropic-sigma (theta-sigma) coordinate model and the GEOS GCM.

  4. Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2012-01-01

    A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank.

  5. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary vegetation analysis has been undertaken on MSS scene 1085-17294, Oct. 16, 1973 in the Bighorn region. Forest Service maps showing detailed distribution of dominant forest types have been compared with MSS bands 5 and 7 positive transparencies, enlarged positive prints, and color imagery produced on an Addcol viewer. Patterns on the ERTS imagery match those on the Forest Service maps quite well. A tectonic map ovearlay of MSS band 7 of the Bighorn region reveals a strong concentration of linears in the uplift as compared to basins. Folds in the Bighorn Basin are visible where not covered by post-Paleocene deposits. In regions where far less is known of the geology than in this area, it might be possible to predict the subsurface occurrence of folds and lineaments on the basis of imagery analysis and more confidently explore covered areas for concealed oil structures and mineral deposits.

  6. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  7. THE NEVADA GEOSPATIAL DATA BROWSER: A SPATIAL DATA ARCHIVE FOR THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis project (SWReGAP) is a 5-state (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify...

  8. Morphological Analysis of Annual Recurrence of Dark Dune Spots on Southern Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, A.; Ganti, T.; Berczi, Sz.; Gesztesi, A.; Szathmary, E.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the Mars Global Surveyor narrow-angle images of the dark dune spots (DDSs) in three subsequent Martian winters and springs in Southern Polar Region resulted in the recognition that year by year DDSs reappeared on the same place with almost the same configuration. Comparison of the 1999 and 2001 high-resolution images showed a very interest recovery process.

  9. Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia Physodes Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microwave-assisted digestion technique followed by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analysis was used to measure concentrations of 43 elements in Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canad...

  10. Distance Education and the Six Regional Accrediting Commissions: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Baker, Katherine; Zuehl, Jennett; Johansen, Justin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The last comparative analysis of how the six regional accrediting commissions review distance education programs was conducted in 2000. A few months later in March 2001 all six accrediting bodies did something that they hadn't done before, they adopted common standards for reviewing distance education programs. Purpose: The purpose was…

  11. Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Regional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Cummins, M.; Freeman, A.; Ifenthaler, D.; Vardaxis, N.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook Australian Tertiary Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Regional Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and Open Universities Australia to help inform Australian educational leaders about significant developments in technologies supporting teaching,…

  12. Regional analysis of annual maximum rainfall using TL-moments method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabri, Ani Bin; Daud, Zalina Mohd; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd

    2011-06-01

    Information related to distributions of rainfall amounts are of great importance for designs of water-related structures. One of the concerns of hydrologists and engineers is the probability distribution for modeling of regional data. In this study, a novel approach to regional frequency analysis using L-moments is revisited. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the TL-moments method is employed. The results from both methods were then compared. The analysis was based on daily annual maximum rainfall data from 40 stations in Selangor Malaysia. TL-moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized logistic (GLO) distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. TL-moment ratio diagram and Z-test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the two approaches showed that the L-moments and TL-moments produced equivalent results. GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the most suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation was used for performance evaluation, and it showed that the method of TL-moments was more efficient for lower quantile estimation compared with the L-moments.

  13. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Taylor, Josh T; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Henderson, Drew; Kadjo, Akinde F; Roelke, Corey E; Hudak, Paul F; Burton, Taylour; Rifai, Hanadi S; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-07-07

    The exploration of unconventional shale energy reserves and the extensive use of hydraulic fracturing during well stimulation have raised concerns about the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG) on the environment. Most accounts of groundwater contamination have focused primarily on the compositional analysis of dissolved gases to address whether UOG activities have had deleterious effects on overlying aquifers. Here, we present an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas. We detected multiple volatile organic carbon compounds throughout the region, including various alcohols, the BTEX family of compounds, and several chlorinated compounds. These data do not necessarily identify UOG activities as the source of contamination; however, they do provide a strong impetus for further monitoring and analysis of groundwater quality in this region as many of the compounds we detected are known to be associated with UOG techniques.

  15. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  16. SNP discovery and haplotype analysis in the segmentally duplicated DRD5 coding region

    PubMed Central

    HOUSLEY, D. J. E.; NIKOLAS, M.; VENTA, P. J.; JERNIGAN, K. A.; WALDMAN, I. D.; NIGG, J. T.; FRIDERICI, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The dopamine receptor 5 gene (DRD5) holds much promise as a candidate locus for contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders and other diseases influenced by the dopaminergic system, as well as having potential to affect normal behavioral variation. However, detailed analyses of this gene have been complicated by its location within a segmentally duplicated chromosomal region. Microsatellites and SNPs upstream from the coding region have been used for association studies, but we find, using bioinformatics resources, that these markers all lie within a previously unrecognized second segmental duplication (SD). In order to accurately analyze the DRD5 locus for polymorphisms in the absence of contaminating pseudogene sequences, we developed a fast and reliable method for sequence analysis and genotyping within the DRD5 coding region. We employed restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA to eliminate the pseudogenes prior to PCR amplification of the functional gene. This approach allowed us to determine the DRD5 haplotype structure using 31 trios and to reveal additional rare variants in 171 unrelated individuals. We clarify the inconsistencies and errors of the recorded SNPs in dbSNP and HapMap and illustrate the importance of using caution when choosing SNPs in regions of suspected duplications. The simple and relatively inexpensive method presented herein allows for convenient analysis of sequence variation in DRD5 and can be easily adapted to other duplicated genomic regions in order to obtain good quality sequence data. PMID:19397556

  17. ECOREGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national program with the mission of developing key datasets needed to assess biological diversity across the nation. The primary objectives of the Gap Analysis Program are: (1) Land Cover Mapping – to map the distributions of natural communities; (2...

  18. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  19. A precipitation regionalization and regime for Iran based on multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziei, Tayeb

    2017-02-01

    Monthly precipitation time series of 155 synoptic stations distributed over Iran, covering 1990-2014 time period, were used to identify areas with different precipitation time variability and regimes utilizing S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) preceded by T-mode PCA, respectively. Taking into account the maximum loading values of the rotated components, the first approach revealed five sub-regions characterized by different precipitation time variability, while the second method delineated eight sub-regions featured with different precipitation regimes. The sub-regions identified by the two used methods, although partly overlapping, are different considering their areal extent and complement each other as they are useful for different purposes and applications. Northwestern Iran and the Caspian Sea area were found as the two most distinctive Iranian precipitation sub-regions considering both time variability and precipitation regime since they were well captured with relatively identical areas by the two used approaches. However, the areal extents of the other three sub-regions identified by the first approach were not coincident with the coverage of their counterpart sub-regions defined by the second approach. Results suggest that the precipitation sub-region identified by the two methods would not be necessarily the same, as the first method which accounts for the variance of the data grouped stations with similar temporal variability while the second one which considers a fixed climatology defined by the average over the period 1990-2014 clusters stations having a similar march of monthly precipitation.

  20. Northern Powder River basin coal, Montana. Final environmental statement, regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This environmental statement is in two parts: a regional analysis and a site-specific analysis of coal development in the northern Powder River basin region of Montana. The regional analysis addresses cumulative impacts of coal development in the region by 1990, with emphasis on industry proposals that now require or have recently required action by Federal and state authorities. A site-specific analysis of the proposed mining and reclamation plan for the Pearl mine makes up volumes 2 and 4 of this FES. Total annual coal production from the designated region of southeastern Montana is estimated at about 39 million tons by 1980, 50 million tons by 1985, and 53 million tons by 1990. The Big Sky, Pearl, and Spring Creek mines would collectively produce approximately 15% of the total by 1980, 26.5% by 1985, and 25% by 1990. Three impacts were determined to be locally significant. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for total suspended particulates would frequently be exceeded near all three minesites during mine life. Degradation of air quality would cause subtle injury to vegetation within about 1 mile of the mines and about 4 miles of the generating units, slightly reducing vegetative productivity. Wildlife populations, primarily antelope, mule deer, and sage grouse, would be significantly reduced during mine life and probably for several decades after mining. No threatened or endangered species would be adversely affected.Social impacts would be significant in Colstrip and Forsyth - comparable to those experienced during the construction of Colstrip units 1 and 2. At least during the 2 or 3 years of most rapid growth, local governments, formal and informal institutions, and social networks in Colstrip and Forsyth would not be able to meet the demands placed on them. Comment letters and responses are included.

  1. Regional maximum rainfall analysis using L-moments at the Titicaca Lake drainage, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Palomino, Carlos Antonio; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo Sven

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the application of the index flood L-moments-based regional frequency analysis procedure (RFA-LM) to the annual maximum 24-h rainfall (AM) of 33 rainfall gauge stations (RGs) to estimate rainfall quantiles at the Titicaca Lake drainage (TL). The study region was chosen because it is characterised by common floods that affect agricultural production and infrastructure. First, detailed quality analyses and verification of the RFA-LM assumptions were conducted. For this purpose, different tests for outlier verification, homogeneity, stationarity, and serial independence were employed. Then, the application of RFA-LM procedure allowed us to consider the TL as a single, hydrologically homogeneous region, in terms of its maximum rainfall frequency. That is, this region can be modelled by a generalised normal (GNO) distribution, chosen according to the Z test for goodness-of-fit, L-moments (LM) ratio diagram, and an additional evaluation of the precision of the regional growth curve. Due to the low density of RG in the TL, it was important to produce maps of the AM design quantiles estimated using RFA-LM. Therefore, the ordinary Kriging interpolation (OK) technique was used. These maps will be a useful tool for determining the different AM quantiles at any point of interest for hydrologists in the region.

  2. Preserved pontine glucose metabolism in Alzheimer disease: A reference region for functional brain image (PET) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Frey, K.A.; Foster, N.L.; Kuhl, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Our goal was to examine regional preservation of energy metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) and to evaluate effects of PET data normalization to reference regions. Regional metabolic rates in the pons, thalamus, putamen, sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex, and cerebellum (reference regions) were determined stereotaxically and examined in 37 patients with probable AD and 22 normal controls based on quantitative {sup 18}FDG-PET measurements. Following normalization of metabolic rates of the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain to each reference region, distinctions of the two groups were assessed. The pons showed the best preservation of glucose metabolism in AD. Other reference regions showed relatively preserved metabolism compared with the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain, but had significant metabolic reduction. Data normalization to the pons not only enhanced statistical significance of metabolic reduction in the parietotemporal association cortex, but also preserved the presence of global cerebral metabolic reduction indicated in analysis of the quantitative data. Energy metabolism in the pons in probable AD is well preserved. The pons is a reliable reference for data normalization and will enhance diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of quantitative and nonquantitative functional brain imaging. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Detecting Anomaly Regions in Satellite Image Time Series Based on Sesaonal Autocorrelation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.-G.; Tang, P.; Zhou, M.

    2016-06-01

    Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1) it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2) it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level) of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3) it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  4. Regional frequency analysis of extreme rainfalls using partial L moments method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zahrahtul Amani; Shabri, Ani

    2013-07-01

    An approach based on regional frequency analysis using L moments and LH moments are revisited in this study. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the partial L moments (PL moments) method is employed, and a new relationship for homogeneity analysis is developed. The results were then compared with those obtained using the method of L moments and LH moments of order two. The Selangor catchment, consisting of 37 sites and located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is chosen as a case study. PL moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized logistic (GLO), and generalized Pareto distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. PL moment ratio diagram and Z test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the three approaches showed that GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation used for performance evaluation shows that the method of PL moments would outperform L and LH moments methods for estimation of large return period events.

  5. [Optimizing spectral region in using near-infrared spectroscopy for donkey milk analysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Min; Zhang, Lu-Da; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Pang, Kun; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fa-Zheng

    2007-11-01

    Donkey milk has aroused more attention in recent years since its nutrition composition shows a higher similarity to human milk than others. Due to the composition difference between cow milk and donkey milk, the present models available for cow milk analysis could not be applied to donkey milk without modifications. A rapid and reliable analysis method is required to measure the nutrition composition of donkey milk. Near infrared spectroscopy is a newly developed method in food industry, but no literature report was found regarding to its application in the analysis of donkey milk. Protein, fat, ash contents and energy value are the major nutrition factors of milk. In the present paper, these factors of donkey milk were investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. The ranges of protein, fat and ash contents, and energy value in donkey milk samples were 1.15%-2.54%, 0.34%-2.67%, 0.28%-0.57% and 355.87-565.17 cal x kg(-1), respectively. The IR spectra ranged f from 3 899.6 to 12 493.4 cm(-1), with a 1 cm(-1) scanning interval. When the principal least square (PLS) regression algorithm is used for spectral regions information extraction, the additional constraint makes the principal components of matrix X to be related with the components of Y which is to be analyzed. Various spectral regions and data pretreatment methods were selected for principal least square (PLS) regression model development. A comparison of the whole and optimized spectral region NIR indicated that the models of selecting optimum spectral region were better than those of the whole spectral region. It was shown that the protein, fat and ash contents, and energy value in donkey milk obtained by chemical methods were well correlated to the respective values predicted by the NIR spectroscopy quantitative analysis model (alpha = 0.05). The RMSEP values were 0.18, 0.117, 0.040 6 and 23.5 respectively, indicating that these predicted values were reliable. These results

  6. Regional analysis of volumes and reproducibilities of automatic and manual hippocampal segmentations

    PubMed Central

    Vrenken, Hugo; Bijma, Fetsje; Barkhof, Frederik; van Herk, Marcel; de Munck, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Precise and reproducible hippocampus outlining is important to quantify hippocampal atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and to spare the hippocampus in whole brain radiation therapy when performing prophylactic cranial irradiation or treating brain metastases. This study aimed to quantify systematic differences between methods by comparing regional volume and outline reproducibility of manual, FSL-FIRST and FreeSurfer hippocampus segmentations. Materials and methods This study used a dataset from ADNI (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), including 20 healthy controls, 40 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 20 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For each subject back-to-back (BTB) T1-weighted 3D MPRAGE images were acquired at time-point baseline (BL) and 12 months later (M12). Hippocampi segmentations of all methods were converted into triangulated meshes, regional volumes were extracted and regional Jaccard indices were computed between the hippocampi meshes of paired BTB scans to evaluate reproducibility. Regional volumes and Jaccard indices were modelled as a function of group (G), method (M), hemisphere (H), time-point (T), region (R) and interactions. Results For the volume data the model selection procedure yielded the following significant main effects G, M, H, T and R and interaction effects G-R and M-R. The same model was found for the BTB scans. For all methods volumes reduces with the severity of disease. Significant fixed effects for the regional Jaccard index data were M, R and the interaction M-R. For all methods the middle region was most reproducible, independent of diagnostic group. FSL-FIRST was most and FreeSurfer least reproducible. Discussion/Conclusion A novel method to perform detailed analysis of subtle differences in hippocampus segmentation is proposed. The method showed that hippocampal segmentation reproducibility was best for FSL-FIRST and worst for Freesurfer. We also found systematic

  7. Analysis of tissue-specific region in sericin 1 gene promoter of Bombyx mori

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yan; Yu Lian; Guo Xiuyang; Guo Tingqing; Wang Shengpeng; Lu Changde . E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-03-31

    The gene encoding sericin 1 (Ser1) of silkworm (Bombyx mori) is specifically expressed in the middle silk gland cells. To identify element involved in this transcription-dependent spatial restriction, truncation of the 5' terminal from the sericin 1 (Ser1) promoter is studied in vivo. A 209 bp DNA sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site (-586 to -378) is found to be responsible for promoting tissue-specific transcription. Analysis of this 209 bp region by overlapping deletion studies showed that a 25 bp region (-500 to -476) suppresses the ectopic expression of the Ser1 promoter. An unknown factor abundant in fat body nuclear extracts is shown to bind to this 25 bp fragment. These results suggest that this 25 bp region and the unknown factor are necessary for determining the tissue-specificity of the Ser1 promoter.

  8. Genetic and Cytogenetic Analysis of the ADH Region in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Janis; Mandel, Howard C.; Krauss, Marc; Sofer, William

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen Adh-negative mutations were selected with 1-pentyn-3-ol after feeding of formaldehyde. Twelve of the 18 were shown by cytological and genetic analysis to be deletions. Cytological examination of the deletions allowed us to localize the Adh gene to a region including bands 35B3–5 on the left arm of chromosome 2. The deletions were also used to order known visible loci located near Adh.—The vital loci near Adh were also investigated. A total of 109 lethal mutations were generated with EMS and 33 of these, localized within a region defined by the overlap of two of the deletions, were found to belong to 13 complementation groups. If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco), a total of 16 complementation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. PMID:408228

  9. The Crustal Structure Of The Marmara Region Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükakpınar, Pınar; Gürbüz, Cemil; Zor, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara region is a rapidly deforming area with high seismic activity in the northwestern Turkey. In order to further understand the crustal structure in the region, we present results from receiver function analysis using the permanent stations in the region by applying H-κ stacking algorithm which gives crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath a station. 40 land stations between January of 2008 and April of 2012, and 5 cabled Sea Bottom Observatories which were deployed at the end of 2010 by KOERI located between 40.2°- 41.2° N and 26.5°- 30.5° E were included in the analysis. Approximately 250 teleseismic events from a wide range of epicentral distances with magnitudes greater than Mw 5.5 are used to obtain receiver functions. Furthermore, in order to calculate the receiver functions in time domain using iterative deconvolution technique suggested by Ligorria and Ammon (1999). Consequently, the crustal structure of the region has been reasonably defined and compared with the other studies. As a consequence of the receiver function analysis, the Moho depth variation map and Vp/Vs ratio map were plotted. The Moho depth on average is 31 km. There are no sharp changes in the crustal thickness of the Marmara Region except North Marmara Trough because basin structure of the Marmara Sea where crustal thickness reaches up to 26 km in the same region was not observed. Furthermore, we found overall average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.74, for the region but we obtained low Vp/Vs ratios in the stations located near Çınarcık Basin which varies between 1.64 - 1.74 indicating the effect of basin structure in the area and North Marmara where Vp/Vs ratios vary between 1.60 and 1.70 which is related to the sediment structure of the area. We also acquired higher Vp/Vs ratios which are between 1.86 and 1.96 in the Western Marmara Region. This can be due to increasing mafic content in this area. Additionally, an attempt has been made to invert the radial receiver function of the

  10. Functional analysis of the upstream regulatory region of chicken miR-17-92 cluster.

    PubMed

    Min, Cheng; Wenjian, Zhang; Tianyu, Xing; Xiaohong, Yan; Yumao, Li; Hui, Li; Ning, Wang

    2016-08-01

    miR-17-92 cluster plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, animal development and tumorigenesis. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17-92 cluster has been extensively studied in mammals, but not in birds. To date, avian miR-17-92 cluster genomic structure has not been fully determined. The promoter location and sequence of miR-17-92 cluster have not been determined, due to the existence of a genomic gap sequence upstream of miR-17-92 cluster in all the birds whose genomes have been sequenced. In this study, genome walking was used to close the genomic gap upstream of chicken miR-17-92 cluster. In addition, bioinformatics analysis, reporter gene assay and truncation mutagenesis were used to investigate functional role of the genomic gap sequence. Genome walking analysis showed that the gap region was 1704 bp long, and its GC content was 80.11%. Bioinformatics analysis showed that in the gap region, there was a 200 bp conserved sequence among the tested 10 species (Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Possum, Danio rerio, Rana nigromaculata), which is core promoter region of mammalian miR-17-92 host gene (MIR17HG). Promoter luciferase reporter gene vector of the gap region was constructed and reporter assay was performed. The result showed that the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506) was 417 times than that of negative control (empty pGL3 basic vector), suggesting that chicken miR-17-92 cluster promoter exists in the gap region. To further gain insight into the promoter structure, two different truncations for the cloned gap sequence were generated by PCR. One had a truncation of 448 bp at the 5'-end and the other had a truncation of 894 bp at the 3'-end. Further reporter analysis showed that compared with the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506), the reporter activities of the 5'-end truncation and the 3'-end truncation were reduced by 19

  11. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  12. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR) and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A) were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A) with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A) for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55%) and D7 (41%). Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%). Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results. PMID:21050489

  13. Regional Gray Matter Atrophy in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Baseline Analysis of Multi-Center Data

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sushmita; Staewen, Terrell D.; Cofield, Stacy S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Lublin, Fred D.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2015-01-01

    Regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) at disease onset and its temporal variation can provide objective information regarding disease evolution. An automated pipeline for estimating atrophy of various GM structures was developed using tensor based morphometry (TBM) and implemented on a multi-center sub-cohort of 1008 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Four hundred age and gender matched healthy controls were used for comparison. Using the analysis of covariance, atrophy differences between MS patients and healthy controls were assessed on a voxel-by-voxel analysis. Regional GM atrophy was observed in a number of deep GM structures that included thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and cortical GM regions. General linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effects of age, gender, and scanner field strength, and imaging sequence on the regional atrophy. Correlations between regional GM volumes and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, disease duration (DD), T2 lesion load (T2 LL), T1 lesion load (T1 LL), and normalized cerebrospinal fluid (nCSF) were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Thalamic atrophy observed in MS patients compared to healthy controls remained consistent within subgroups based on gender and scanner field strength. Weak correlations between thalamic volume and EDSS (r = −0.133; p < 0.001) and DD (r = −0.098; p = 0.003) were observed. Of all the structures, thalamic volume moderately correlated with T2 LL (r = −0.492; p-value < 0.001), T1 LL (r = −0.473; p-value < 0.001) and nCSF (r = −0.367; p-value < 0.001). PMID:25787188

  14. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  15. Regional frequency analysis of observed sub-daily rainfall maxima over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hemin; Wang, Guojie; Li, Xiucang; Chen, Jing; Su, Buda; Jiang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Based on hourly rainfall observational data from 442 stations during 1960-2014, a regional frequency analysis of the annual maxima (AM) sub-daily rainfall series (1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h rainfall, using a moving window approach) for eastern China was conducted. Eastern China was divided into 13 homogeneous regions: Northeast (NE1, NE2), Central (C), Central North (CN1, CN2), Central East (CE1, CE2, CE3), Southeast (SE1, SE2, SE3, SE4), and Southwest (SW). The generalized extreme value performed best for the AM series in regions NE, C, CN2, CE1, CE2, SE2, and SW, and the generalized logistic distribution was appropriate in the other regions. Maximum return levels were in the SE4 region, with value ranges of 80-270 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) and 108-390 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) for 20- and 100 yr, respectively. Minimum return levels were in the CN1 and NE1 regions, with values of 37-104 mm and 53-140 mm for 20 and 100 yr, respectively. Comparing return levels using the optimal and commonly used Pearson-III distribution, the mean return-level differences in eastern China for 1-24-h rainfall varied from -3-4 mm to -23-11 mm (-10%-10%) for 20-yr events, reaching -6-26 mm (-10%-30%) and -10-133 mm (-10%-90%) for 100-yr events. In view of the large differences in estimated return levels, more attention should be given to frequency analysis of sub-daily rainfall over China, for improved water management and disaster reduction.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Water Infrastructure Development On Example of Eastern Europe Rural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrucha-Urbanik, Katarzyna; Stecko, Justyna; Pękala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the assessment of water supply in rural areas in Poland was performed in aspect of future problems and the necessity of investments. The analysis proposed in this work is a helpful tool in making the ranking of the level of infrastructure development in different regions of the country. The assessment of the water supply network functioning is a very important issue that requires the use of operational experience with the practice of water supply. The analysis was based on data associated with the exploitation of water supply systems. Among others, to illustrate this diversity, the multidimensional comparative analysis was used. The developed analysis will enable decision support in the process of evaluating the economic efficiency of the operation of water supply infrastructure, through established indicators including the water network length development.

  17. A grayscale image color transfer method based on region texture analysis using GLCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanmeng; Wang, Lingxue; Jin, Weiqi; Luo, Yuan; Li, Jiakun

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve the performance of grayscale image colorization based on color transfer, this paper proposes a novel method by which pixels are matched accurately between images through region texture analysis using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). This method consists of six steps: reference image selection, color space transformation, grayscale linear transformation and compression, texture analysis using GLCM, pixel matching through texture value comparison, and color value transfer between pixels. We applied this method to kinds of grayscale images, and they gained natural color appearance like the reference images. Experimental results proved that this method is more effective than conventional method in accurately transferring color to grayscale images.

  18. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Global and Regional Climate Change in Relation to Atmospheric Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    This research was directed to the development and application of global isentropic modeling and analysis capabilities to describe hydrologic processes and energy exchange in the climate system, and discern regional climate change. An additional objective was to investigate the accuracy and theoretical limits of global climate predictability which are imposed by the inherent limitations of simulating trace constituent transport and the hydrologic processes of condensation, precipitation and cloud life cycles.

  20. Automatic backscatter analysis of regional left ventricular systolic function using color kinesis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S L; Cao, Q L; Vannan, M A; Pandian, N G

    1996-06-15

    Assessment of regional wall motion by 2-dimensional echocardiography can be performed by either semiquantitative wall motion scoring or by quantitative analysis. The former is subjective and requires expertise. Quantitative methods are too time-consuming for routine use in a busy clinical laboratory. Color kinesis is a new algorithm utilizing acoustic backscatter analysis. It provides a color encoded map of endocardial motion in real time. In each frame a new color layer is added; the thickness of the color beam represents endocardial motion during that frame. The end-systolic image has multiple color layers, representing regional and temporal heterogeneity of segmental motion. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of color kinesis for semiquantitative analysis of regional left ventricular systolic function and quantitatively in measurement of endocardial excursion. Semiquantitative wall motion scoring was performed in 18 patients using both 2-dimensional echo and color kinesis. Scoring was identical in 74% of segments; there was 84% agreement in definition of normal vs. abnormal. There was less interobserver variability in wall motion scoring using color kinesis. Endocardial excursion was quantified in 21 patients. 70% of the imaged segments were suitable for analysis. Correlation between 2-dimensional echocardiographic measurements and color kinesis was excellent, r = 0.87. The mean difference in excursion as measured by the 2 methods was -0.05 +/- 2.0 mm. In conclusion, color kinesis is a useful method for assessing regional contraction by displaying a color map of systolic endocardial excursion. This algorithm may improve the confidence and accuracy of assessment of segmental ventricular function by echocardiographic methods.

  1. [Comparative analysis of mortality among population of industrial mono-cities in Sverdlovsky region].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels, with special consideration of mortality with malignancies, among dwellers of Asbest (enterprise forming company town - Pulbic Corporation "Uralasbest" - world leader in extraction and concentration of chrysotile asbestos) and Kamensk-Uralsky (enterprises forming company town - non-ferrous metallurgy plants), agricultural agea and population of Sverdlovsk region over 10 years (1997-2006). Major attention was paid to influence of dust containing chrysotile asbestos fibers.

  2. A study on using texture analysis methods for identifying lobar fissure regions in isotropic CT images.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q; Hu, Y

    2009-01-01

    The major hurdle for segmenting lung lobes in computed tomographic (CT) images is to identify fissure regions, which encase lobar fissures. Accurate identification of these regions is difficult due to the variable shape and appearance of the fissures, along with the low contrast and high noise associated with CT images. This paper studies the effectiveness of two texture analysis methods - the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) - in identifying fissure regions from isotropic CT image stacks. To classify GLCM and GLRLM texture features, we applied a feed-forward back-propagation neural network and achieved the best classification accuracy utilizing 16 quantized levels for computing the GLCM and GLRLM texture features and 64 neurons in the input/hidden layers of the neural network. Tested on isotropic CT image stacks of 24 patients with the pathologic lungs, we obtained accuracies of 86% and 87% for identifying fissure regions using the GLCM and GLRLM methods, respectively. These accuracies compare favorably with surgeons/radiologists' accuracy of 80% for identifying fissure regions in clinical settings. This shows promising potential for segmenting lung lobes using the GLCM and GLRLM methods.

  3. [Mobile Health Units: An Analysis of Concepts and Implementation Requirements in Rural Regions.

    PubMed

    Hämel, K; Kutzner, J; Vorderwülbecke, J

    2015-12-22

    Background: Access to health services in rural regions represents a challenge. The development of care models that respond to health service shortages and pay particular attention to the increasing health care needs of the elderly is an important concern. A model that has been implemented in other countries is that of mobile health units. But until now, there is no overview of their possible objectives, functions and implementation requirements. Method: This paper is based on a literature analysis and an internet research on mobile health units in rural regions. Results: Mobile health units aim to avoid regional undersupply and address particularly vulnerable population groups. In the literature, mobile health units are described with a focus on specific illnesses, as well as those that provide comprehensive, partly multi-professional primary care that is close to patients' homes. The implementation of mobile health units is demanding; the key challenges are (a) alignment to the needs of the regional population, (b) user-oriented access and promotion of awareness and acceptance of mobile health units by the local population, and (c) network building within existing care structures to ensure continuity of care for patients. To fulfill these requirements, a community-oriented program development and implementation is important. Conclusions: Mobile health units could represent an interesting model for the provision of health care in rural regions in Germany. International experiences are an important starting point and should be taken into account for the further development of models in Germany.

  4. Regional climate projections for the MENA-CORDEX domain: analysis of projected temperature and precipitation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsler, Andreas; Weber, Torsten; Eggert, Bastian; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Within the CORDEX initiative a multi-model suite of regionalized climate change information will be made available for several regions of the world. The German Climate Service Center (CSC) is taking part in this initiative by applying the regional climate model REMO to downscale global climate projections of different coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for several CORDEX domains. Also for the MENA-CORDEX domain, a set of regional climate change projections has been established at the CSC by downscaling CMIP5 projections of the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 with the regional model REMO for the time period from 1950 to 2100 to a horizontal resolution of 0.44 degree. In this study we investigate projected changes in future climate conditions over the domain towards the end of the 21st century. Focus in the analysis is given to projected changes in the temperature and rainfall characteristics and their differences for the two scenarios will be highlighted.

  5. Brain regions that show repetition suppression and enhancement: A meta-analysis of 137 neuroimaging experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2017-04-01

    Repetition suppression and enhancement refer to the reduction and increase in the neural responses for repeated rather than novel stimuli, respectively. This study provides a meta-analysis of the effects of repetition suppression and enhancement, restricting the data used to that involving fMRI/PET, visual stimulus presentation, and healthy participants. The major findings were as follows. First, the global topography of the repetition suppression effects was strikingly similar to that of the "subsequent memory" effects, indicating that the mechanism for repetition suppression is the reduced engagement of an encoding system. The lateral frontal cortex effects involved the frontoparietal control network regions anteriorly and the dorsal attention network regions posteriorly. The left fusiform cortex effects predominantly involved the dorsal attention network regions, whereas the right fusiform cortex effects mainly involved the visual network regions. Second, the category-specific meta-analyses and their comparisons indicated that most parts of the alleged category-specific regions showed repetition suppression for more than one stimulus category. In this regard, these regions may not be "dedicated cortical modules," but are more likely parts of multiple overlapping large-scale maps of simple features. Finally, the global topography of the repetition enhancement effects was similar to that of the "retrieval success" effects, suggesting that the mechanism for repetition enhancement is voluntary or involuntary explicit retrieval during an implicit memory task. Taken together, these results clarify the network affiliations of the regions showing reliable repetition suppression and enhancement effects and contribute to the theoretical interpretations of the local and global topography of these two effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1894-1913, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  7. Introduction to an Updated Analysis of Planetary Protection: "Special Regions" on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Rummel, J. D.; Viola, D.

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of human activity in space science and exploration, there has been an appreciation of the negative consequences of transferring life from one planet to another. Given the unknown consequences of contact between two life forms and the fundamental value of studying a new form life, thoughtfulness and caution are warranted. The "special regions" concept is a component of the International Council for Science's Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Planetary Protection Policy, as it applies to Mars. These are regions "within which terrestrial organisms are likely to replicate" as well as "any region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant martian life." Robotic missions planning to have direct contact with such special regions are given planetary protection categorization (IVc), with stringent cleanliness constraints on the portions of the mission contacting such regions. The current, quantitative definition of "special regions based on temperature and water activity limits was adopted by COSPAR in 2008 after a two-year process that included meetings of the Mars Exploration Planning and Analysis Group's (MEPAG) Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG) and COSPAR's Panel on Planetary Protection. In this study, the MEPAG SR-SAG2 will review and update the technical information that underlie NASA's and COSPAR's definition of special regions on Mars, enabling interpretations of when and where they could occur in light of new discoveries since 2007. This will include updates of current understanding in (1) the known physical limits to life on Earth, including low temperature and low water activity, the biological capture/use of vapor-phase water, and survival over long time scales with short periods of growth; (2) observational data sets and new models from Mars that could be relevant to our understanding of the natural variations on Mars of water activity and temperature, including recurring slope lineae (RSL

  8. Evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis with WRF: A regional precipitation recycling study for West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Knoche, Richard; Wei, Jianhui; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional precipitation recycling is the measure of the contribution of local evaporation E to local precipitation. This study provides a set of two methods developed in the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model system for investigating regional precipitation recycling mechanisms: (1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water species originating from evaporation in a source region, ie E-tagging, and (2) three-dimensional budgets of total and tagged atmospheric water species. These methods are used to quantify the effect of return flow and non-well vertical mixing neglected in the computation of the bulk precipitation recycling ratio. The developed algorithms are applied to a WRF simulation of the West African Monsoon 2003. The simulated region is characterized by vertical wind shear condition, i.e. southwesterlies in the low levels and easterlies in the mid-levels, which favours return flow and non-well vertical mixing. Regional precipitation recycling is investigated in 100x100 and 1000x1000 km2 areas. A prerequisite condition for evaporated water to contribute to the precipitation process in both areas is that it is lifted to the mid-levels where hydrometeors are produced. In the 100x100 (1000x1000) km2 area the bulk precipitation recycling ratio is 0.9 (7.3) %. Our budget analysis reveals that return flow and non-well vertically mixed outflow increase this value by about +0.2 (2.9) and +0.2 (1.6) %, respectively, thus strengthening the well-known scale-dependency of regional precipitation recycling.

  9. Analysis of D-Region Absorption via HF Cross-Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental observations performed near the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to implement a new method quantifying the rate of absorption of HF radio waves in the D-region ionosphere. Quantifying the ambient and HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere in the vicinity of ionospheric HF heaters has historically proven to be a difficult task. For example, the electron density in the 60-90 km altitude range is typically too low to employ radio-sounding techniques; LIDAR observations typically require significant temporal averaging, precluding the investigation of physical processes that occur on sub-millisecond time scales; ELF/VLF wave generation experiments typically have difficulty providing reliable spatial resolution and also cannot experimentally distinguish between the spatial distribution of the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by modulated HF heating and that of the current-driving electric fields associated with the auroral electrojet. Yet, the majority of HF signal absorption occurs in this region of the ionosphere, and the ability to characterize HF absorption in this region benefits a wide range of ionospheric HF heating experiments. The technique described and demonstrated in this paper combines ionosonde-style radio sounding with ELF/VLF cross-modulation experiments to identify the altitude of maximum D-region absorption as a function of HF frequency. Observations are presented and compared with the predictions of a theoretical model, demonstrating excellent agreement between experiment and theory and indicating that the technique may be used successfully in practice. Based on the success of this first experiment, another HF cross-modulation experiment has been performed at HAARP and analyzed theoretically. Pulsed-modulation experiments are used to assess the relative absorption as a function of altitude within the D-region ionosphere, and a method to chart the

  10. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY IN NIGERIA: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Adedini, Sunday A; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice N S; Ononokpono, Dorothy N; Ibisomi, Latifat

    2015-03-01

    There are substantial regional disparities in under-five mortality in Nigeria, and evidence suggests that both individual- and community-level characteristics have an influence on health outcomes. Using 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, this study (1) examines the effects of individual- and community-level characteristics on infant/child mortality in Nigeria and (2) determines the extent to which characteristics at these levels influence regional variations in infant/child mortality in the country. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed on a nationally representative sample of 28,647 children nested within 18,028 mothers of reproductive age, who were also nested within 886 communities. The results indicate that community-level variables (such as region, place of residence, community infrastructure, community hospital delivery and community poverty level) and individual-level factors (including child's sex, birth order, birth interval, maternal education, maternal age and wealth index) are important determinants of infant/child mortality in Nigeria. For instance, the results show a lower risk of death in infancy for children of mothers residing in communities with a high proportion of hospital delivery (HR: 0.70, p < 0.05) and for children whose mothers had secondary or higher education (HR: 0.84, p < 0.05). Although community factors appear to influence the association between individual-level factors and death during infancy and childhood, the findings consistently indicate that community-level characteristics are more important in explaining regional variations in child mortality, while individual-level factors are more important for regional variations in infant mortality. The results of this study underscore the need to look beyond the influence of individual-level factors in addressing regional variations in infant and child mortality in Nigeria.

  11. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, Christopher J.; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  12. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  13. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  14. [Analysis of grant of special nephrological help to childrensi in Chernivtsi region].

    PubMed

    Bezruk, V V

    2014-01-01

    Nephrological morbidity is important indicator of the state of the health of children's population. The aim of this study is analysis of the activity of nephrological service care for children's population of the Chernivtsi region. The material for this study is reporting documentation about the condition of the nephrological service care for children's population of the Chernivtsi region in 2008-2012 and the data of The Center of medical statistics of Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The incidence of prevalence of diseases of the urinary system between teenagers of Chernivtsi region during the 2008-2012 period had a wave-like nature and have lower rates comparing general Ukraine rates, with the exception of 2011, when the incidence of child population in the region amounted to 32.60 in 1000 to 29.65 against children 1000 children in Ukraine. The age structure of patients is determined by many factors, including the demographic situation in the region, "continuity" and these primary healthcare units. Value of microbial and inflammatory diseases to nephropathy--2.9:1 (2009), but over the last three years there is a tendency to change its value--3.5-4:1 (2012). Is marked resistance to antibiotic therapy--3/4 of surveyed high school age children and teenagers found mycoplasma pathogens (M. hominis, M. genitalium) and ureaplasma (U. urealyticum) origin, especially against the background of comorbidity of "modern child". Analyzes the main indicators of child nephrology service in Chernivtsi region. The research, carried out by authors, will allow to hold the reasoned medical and rehabilitation events in all stages of rendering of specialized medical care for teenagers with nephrological pathology and to develop the programs, directed on improvement of indicators of health and prevention of disability in children.

  15. Identification of Medically Important Yeast Species by Sequence Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Leaw, Shiang Ning; Chang, Hsien Chang; Sun, Hsiao Fang; Barton, Richard; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by yeasts have increased in previous decades due primarily to the increasing population of immunocompromised patients. In addition, infections caused by less common species such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Saccharomyces spp. have been widely reported. This study extensively evaluated the feasibility of sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for the identification of yeasts of clinical relevance. Both the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 373 strains (86 species), including 299 reference strains and 74 clinical isolates, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequences were compared to reference data available at the GenBank database by using BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) to determine if species identification was possible by ITS sequencing. Since the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some yeasts, the ITS sequences of type (or reference) strains of 15 species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate identification of these species. Strains producing discrepant identifications between the conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were further analyzed by sequencing of the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The rates of correct identification by ITS1 and ITS2 sequence analysis were 96.8% (361/373) and 99.7% (372/373), respectively. Of the 373 strains tested, only 1 strain (Rhodotorula glutinis BCRC 20576) could not be identified by ITS2 sequence analysis. In conclusion, identification of medically important yeasts by ITS sequencing, especially using the ITS2 region, is reliable and can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional identification methods. PMID:16517841

  16. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  17. Analysis of pressure-broadened ozone spectra in the 3 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochaska, Eleanor S.

    1991-01-01

    This work involves the analysis of a series of McMath Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of ozone broadened by mixing with air (four different pressures), nitrogen (three pressures), or oxygen (three pressures). Each spectrum covers the region from 2396 to 4057 cm(-1). This study focused on the 3 sub nu sub 3 band in t 3000 to 3060 cm(-1). The band is analyzed by first dividing its region into small intervals containing a few well isolated absorption lines of reasonable intensity. Each of these small intervals is fit by multiple iterations of the nonlinear least squares program until residuals (the difference between calculated and observed spectrum, as a percent of the strongest intensity in the interval) are minimized to a reasonable value which corresponds to the noise level of the measured spectrum. Position, intensity, and half-width are recorded for later analysis. From the measured half-widths, a pressure broadening coefficient was determined for each absorption line. Pressure shifts were determined by comparing observed line positions in the spectra of the diluted ozone samples to tabulated line positions determined from spectra of pure gas samples. Comparisons to other work on ozone indicate that the broadening and shift coefficients determined in this study are consistent with those determined in other spectral regions.

  18. [Comparative analysis of variable regions in the genomes of variola virus].

    PubMed

    Babkin, I V; Nepomniashchikh, T S; Maksiutov, R A; Gutorov, V V; Babkina, I N; Shchelkunov, S N

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of two extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome were determined. The size of the left segment was 13.5 kbp and of the right, 10.5 kbp. Totally, over 540 kbp were sequenced for 22 variola virus strains. The conducted phylogenetic analysis and the data published earlier allowed us to find the interrelations between 70 variola virus isolates, the character of their clustering, and the degree of intergroup and intragroup variations of the clusters of variola virus strains. The most polymorphic loci of the genome segments studied were determined. It was demonstrated that that these loci are localized to either noncoding genome regions or to the regions of destroyed open reading frames, characteristic of the ancestor virus. These loci are promising for development of the strategy for genotyping variola virus strains. Analysis of recombination using various methods demonstrated that, with the only exception, no statistically significant recombinational events in the genomes of variola virus strains studied were detectable.

  19. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  20. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  1. Analysis of meteorological variables in the Australasian region using ground- and space-based GPS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Choy, Suelynn; Fu, Erjiang Frank; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Liou, Yuei-An; Pavelyev, Alexander G.

    2016-07-01

    Results of analysis of meteorological variables (temperature and moisture) in the Australasian region using the global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) and GPS ground-based observations verified with in situ radiosonde (RS) data are presented. The potential of using ground-based GPS observations for retrieving column integrated precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the Australian continent has been demonstrated using the Australian ground-based GPS reference stations network. Using data from the 15 ground-based GPS stations, the state of the atmosphere over Victoria during a significant weather event, the March 2010 Melbourne storm, has been investigated, and it has been shown that the GPS observations has potential for monitoring the movement of a weather front that has sharp moisture contrast. Temperature and moisture variability in the atmosphere over various climatic regions (the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Antarctic and Australia) has been examined using satellite-based GPS RO and in situ RS observations. Investigating recent atmospheric temperature trends over Antarctica, the time series of the collocated GPS RO and RS data were examined, and strong cooling in the lower stratosphere and warming through the troposphere over Antarctica has been identified, in agreement with outputs of climate models. With further expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) system, it is expected that GNSS satellite- and ground-based measurements would be able to provide an order of magnitude larger amount of data which in turn could significantly advance weather forecasting services, climate monitoring and analysis in the Australasian region.

  2. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  3. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  4. Using simulation and data envelopment analysis to evaluate Iraqi regions in producing strategic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloob, Ibrahim Z.; Ramli, Razamin; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Productivity of the agriculture sector in Iraq has yet to reach an acceptable level. In this paper, we introduce a practical method to help manage Iraqi agriculture sector to control resources and increase production to meet the modern century requirements of good crops. These important resources are identified as water, fertilizer, natural fertilizer, pesticides and labour. The current agricultural patterns in Iraq affect the strategic crops cultivation in the country and lessen agricultural production to some life-threatening limits. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric tool, is proposed to identify solutions that can maximize farmers' net benefit making an optimal use of the five resources. This model also improves optimal mix of the resources. In reference to the production of each one of the three strategic crops in Iraq, the DEA model is used to find the efficiency of one region among four others in its agriculture sector, with the main problem being the constraint in the number of lands available in the situation. Hence, the simulation technique is used to generate additional regions to the four main regions adopted. This is to resolve the constriction of DEA when the decision making unit is less than the number of variables (outputs and inputs). The result is expected to show the efficiency of each of the evaluated region.

  5. Evolution and comparative analysis of the bat MHC-I region

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Justin H. J.; Tachedjian, Mary; Deakin, Janine; Wynne, James W.; Cui, Jie; Haring, Volker; Broz, Ivano; Chen, Honglei; Belov, Katherine; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural hosts to numerous viruses and have ancient origins, having diverged from other eutherian mammals early in evolution. These characteristics place them in an important position to provide insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system and antiviral immunity. We describe the first detailed partial map of a bat (Pteropus alecto) MHC-I region with comparative analysis of the MHC-I region and genes. The bat MHC-I region is highly condensed, yet relatively conserved in organisation, and is unusual in that MHC-I genes are present within only one of the three highly conserved class I duplication blocks. We hypothesise that MHC-I genes first originated in the β duplication block, and subsequently duplicated in a step-wise manner across the MHC-I region during mammalian evolution. Furthermore, bat MHC-I genes contain unique insertions within their peptide-binding grooves potentially affecting the peptide repertoire presented to T cells, which may have implications for the ability of bats to control infection without overt disease. PMID:26876644

  6. Multi-Satellite Synergy for Aerosol Analysis in the Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols represent one of the greatest uncertainties in environmental and climate research, particularly in tropical monsoon regions such as the Southeast Asian regions, where significant contributions from a variety of aerosol sources and types is complicated by unstable atmospheric dynamics. Although aerosols are now routinely retrieved from multiple satellite Sensors, in trying to answer important science questions about aerosol distribution, properties, and impacts, researchers often rely on retrievals from only one or two sensors, thereby running the risk of incurring biases due to sensor/algorithm peculiarities. We are conducting detailed studies of aerosol retrieval uncertainties from various satellite sensors (including Terra-/ Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, SeaWiFS, and Calipso-CALIOP), based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET and other important ground stations, within the online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) framework that was developed recently. Such analyses are aimed at developing a synthesis of results that can be utilized in building reliable unified aerosol information and climate data records from multiple satellite measurements. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of. an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors, particularly focused on the Asian Monsoon region, along with some comparisons from the African Monsoon region.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Oscillations of a Solar Quiet Region Using Multi-Wavelength Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogiannis, I.; Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.

    2010-07-01

    We analyze the temporal behavior of a solar quiet region using a set of multi-wavelength observations obtained during a coordinated campaign. The observations were acquired by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on-board SOHO and the UV filters of the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE). A large range of height in the solar atmosphere, from the deep photosphere to the upper chromosphere is covered by these instruments. We investigate the oscillation properties of the intensities and velocities in distinct regions of the quiet Sun, i.e. internetwork, bright points (NBP) defining the network boundaries and dark mottles forming a well-defined rosette, as observed by the different instruments and in the different heights. The variations of the intensities and velocities are studied with wavelet analysis. The aim of our work is to find similarities and/or differences in the oscillatory phenomena observed in the different examined regions, as well as comprehensive information on the interaction of the oscillations and the magnetic field.

  8. Analysis of tectonic movements utilizing remote sensor products in the Southern Espinhaco (SE) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziani, Paulo; Tavaresdemattos, Juercio; Ohara, Tomoyuki

    1989-06-01

    The area under study, the Southern Espinhaco Region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, comprises metasedimentary sequences of Proterozoic, a typical granite-greenstone belt of Archaean age, gneiss, mignatites, granulites, and metasedimentary, and mafic to felsic units attributed to undifferentiated Precambrian. The region suffered a complex geologic evolution, including polycyclic and polymetamorphic events. Deformations occurred during the deposition of sediments (synsedimentary) due to compressive forces acting repeatedly during the geologic history of the region, resulting in superimposed orogenesis. The ruptile, ruptile-ductile tectonics that were part of different events registered in the petrographic and structural record were analyzed by LANDSAT (MSS, RBV, and TM) and radar images, aeromagnetic data, and field work. The main results of this research are: identification of 7 sets of joint zones which are controlled along N-S, EW and NW-SE directions during the Archaean to Late Proterozoic events; identification of sinistral transcurrent movements along N50-60W lineaments during the compressive phase of Late Proterozoic; occurrence of different tectonic movements (compression and tension) along the main directions of fracturing; finally the analysis of lithostratigraphic and fracturing data permits to envisage the geologic history of Proterozoic evolution of the region characterized by mechanism compatible to intraplate tectonic movements (ensialic environment).

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan mastiffs based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhanjun; Chen, Huiling; Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Chengdong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the number of Tibetan mastiffs, which is a precious germplasm resource and cultural heritage, is decreasing sharply. Therefore, the genetic diversity of Tibetan mastiffs needs to be studied to clarify its phylogenetics relationships and lay the foundation for resource protection, rational development and utilization of Tibetan mastiffs. We sequenced hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 110 individuals from Tibet region and Gansu province. A total of 12 polymorphic sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being identified first. The haplotype diversity (Hd: 0.808), nucleotide diversity (Pi: 0.603%), the average number of nucleotide difference (K: 3.917) of Tibetan mastiffs from Gansu were higher than those from Tibet region (Hd: 0.794; Pi: 0.589%; K: 3.831), which revealed higher genetic diversity in Gansu. In terms of total population, the genetic variation was low. The median-joining network and phylogenetic tree based on the mtDNA hypervariable region I showed that Tibetan mastiffs originated from grey wolves, as the other domestic dogs and had different history of maternal origin. The mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated that Tibetan mastiffs were in genetic equilibrium or in a population decline.

  10. Inductive analysis about the impact of climate warming on regional geomorphic evolution in arid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anayit, Mattohti; Abulizi, Mailiya

    2016-04-01

    Climate change on the surface of earth will produce a chain reaction among so many global natural environmental elements. Namely, all the issues will be affected by the climate change, just like the regional water environment, formation and development of landscape, plants and animals living environment, the survival of microorganisms, the human economic environment and health, and the whole social environment changes at well. But because of slow frequency of climate change and it is volatility change, its influence on other factors and the overall environmental performance is not obvious, and its reflection performs slowly. Using regional weather data, we calculated qualitatively and quantitatively and did analysis the impact of climate warming on Xinjiang (a province of China) geomorphic evolution elements, including the ground weather, erosion rate, collapse change, landslide occurrences changes and impact debris flow, combining the field survey and indoor test methods. Key words: climate change; the geomorphic induction; landscape change in river basin; Xinjiang

  11. Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems analysis; a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.; Martin, Peter; Schluter, R.C.; Woolfenden, L.R.; Downing, Karen; Elliott, A.L.; Maltby, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    A bibliography for the Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis includes references for about 3,500 publications related to the geohydrology of the 75,000 sq-mi region, which encompasses all of southern California except the Central Valley, the Channel Islands and the Pacific Ocean floor off southern California, and parts of adjacent states and Mexico. The report indexes the publications in six geographic categories and induces a list of sources of publications. Because of the large number of references in the bibliography, a system was developed for computer storage and retrieval. References can be retrieved by geographic location, author, or geohydrologic discipline and subject. The computer system allows for updating and addition of references. (USGS)

  12. Fuzzy decision analysis for integrated environmental vulnerability assessment of the mid-Atlantic Region.

    PubMed

    Tran, Liem T; Knight, C Gregory; O'Neill, Robert V; Smith, Elizabeth R; Riitters, Kurt H; Wickham, James

    2002-06-01

    A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators was developed. This was a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method was capable of ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and topography of the Mid-Atlantic region, we were able to point out areas that were in relatively poor condition and/or vulnerable to future deterioration. The method offered an easy and comprehensive way to combine the strengths of fuzzy set theory and the AHP for ecological assessment. Furthermore, the suggested method can serve as a building block for the evaluation of environmental policies.

  13. Recent changes in the global and regional carbon cycle: analysis of first-order diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, P. J.; Stavert, A.; Scholze, M.; Ahlström, A.; Allison, C. E.; Law, R. M.

    2015-02-01

    We analyse global and regional changes in CO2 fluxes using two simple models, an airborne fraction of anthropogenic emissions and a linear relationship with CO2 concentrations. We show that both models are able to fit the non-anthropogenic (hereafter natural) flux over the length of the atmospheric concentration record. Analysis of the linear model (including its uncertainties) suggests no significant decrease in the response of the natural carbon cycle. Recent data points rather to an increase. We apply the same linear diagnostic to fluxes from atmospheric inversions. Flux responses show clear regional and seasonal patterns driven by terrestrial uptake in the northern summer. Ocean fluxes show little or no linear response. Terrestrial models show clear responses, agreeing globally with the inversion responses, however the spatial structure is quite different, with dominant responses in the tropics rather than the northern extratropics.

  14. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  15. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  16. Brain regions involved in human movement perception: a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Beaton, Susan; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-02-01

    Face, hands, and body movements are powerful signals essential for social interactions. In the last 2 decades, a large number of brain imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of the perception of these signals. Formal synthesis is crucially needed, however, to extract the key circuits involved in human motion perception across the variety of paradigms and stimuli that have been used. Here, we used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis approach with random effect analysis. We performed meta-analyses on three classes of biological motion: movement of the whole body, hands, and face. Additional analyses of studies of static faces or body stimuli and sub-analyses grouping experiments as a function of their control stimuli or task employed allowed us to identify main effects of movements and forms perception, as well as effects of task demand. In addition to specific features, all conditions showed convergence in occipito-temporal and fronto-parietal regions, but with different peak location and extent. The conjunction of the three ALE maps revealed convergence in all categories in a region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus as well as in a bilateral region at the junction between middle temporal and lateral occipital gyri. Activation in these regions was not a function of attentional demand and was significant also when controlling for non-specific motion perception. This quantitative synthesis points towards a special role for posterior superior temporal sulcus for integrating human movement percept, and supports a specific representation for body parts in middle temporal, fusiform, precentral, and parietal areas.

  17. Assessing the relative importance of surface ozone influential variables in regional-scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen; Wang, Dong

    The multilayer perceptron (MLP) model is frequently used to assess the relative importance (RI) of surface ozone influential variables when they are used to investigate ozone variation mechanisms. Previous studies, however, suffer from two limitations: 1) indentifying or searching the optimal MLP topology to avoid a biased RI assessment inevitably incurs a heavy computational burden, and 2) the model is suitable only for local-scale analysis of ozone variation mechanisms. To tackle both problems, we selected three typical air-quality monitoring sites in Hong Kong as our study targets, as the ozone variations at these sites are inhomogeneously affected by regional and local factors. An MLP model trained by automatic relevance determination (referred to as MLP-ARD), a Bayesian MLP approach, was employed to assess the RI for both regional and local ozone influential variables. The results indicated the following remarks: 1) The MLP-ARD model, due to its high degree of resistance to both the over-fitting and the under-fitting problems, is exempt from identifying or searching the optimal MLP topology when used to obtain an unbiased RI assessment and thus avoid the heavy computational burden. Furthermore, the RI assessment results obtained with the MLP-ARD method are comparable to those of the best assessment method in the literature. Based on these findings, decision-makers can scientifically promulgate a site-specific air pollution control strategy site; 2) Regional-scale analysis of ozone variation is indispensable, as taking the key regional ozone influential variables into account significantly improves the prediction accuracy of the MLP-ARD model, especially on peak ozone days.

  18. DHPLC-based method for DNA methylation analysis of differential methylated regions from imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Couvert, P; Poirier, K; Carrié, A; Chalas, C; Jouannet, P; Beldjord, C; Bienvenu, T; Chelly, J; Kerjean, A

    2003-02-01

    The bisulfite genomic sequencing method is one of the most widely used techniques for methylation analysis in heterogeneous unbiased PCR, amplifying for both methylated and unmethylated alleles simultaneously. However, it requires labor-intensive and time-consuming cloning and sequencing steps. In the current study, we used a denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) procedure in a complementary way with the bisulfite genomic sequencing to analyze the methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes. We showed reliable and reproducible results in distinguishing overall methylation profiles of DMRs regions of human SNRPN, H19, MEST/PEG1, LIT1, IGF2, TSSC5, WT1 antisense, and mouse H19, Mest/Peg1, Igf2R imprinted genes. These DHPLC profiles were in accordance with bisulfite genomic sequencing data and may serve as a type of "fingerprint," revealing the overall methylation status of DMRs associated with sample heterogeneity. We conclude that DHPLC analysis could be used to increase the throughput efficiency of methylation pattern analysis of imprinted genes after the bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA and unbiased PCR amplification.

  19. [Ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region of returning cropland to lake based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Mao, De-Hua; Hu, Guang-Wei; Liu, Hui-Jie; Li, Zheng-Zui; Li, Zhi-Long; Tan, Zi-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The annual emergy and currency value of the main ecological service value of returning cropland to lake in Dongting Lake region from 1999 to 2010 was calculated based on emergy analysis. The calculation method of ecological compensation standard was established by calculating annual total emergy of ecological service function increment since the starting year of returning cropland to lake, and the annual ecological compensation standard and compensation area were analyzed from 1999 to 2010. The results indicated that ecological compensation standard from 1999 to 2010 was 40.31-86.48 yuan x m(-2) with the mean of 57.33 yuan x m(-2). The ecological compensation standard presented an increase trend year by year due to the effect of eco-recovery of returning cropland to lake. The ecological compensation standard in the research area presented a swift and steady growth trend after 2005 mainly due to the intensive economy development of Hunan Province, suggesting the value of natural ecological resources would increase along with the development of society and economy. Appling the emergy analysis to research the ecological compensation standard could reveal the dynamics of annual ecological compensation standard, solve the abutment problem of matter flow, energy flow and economic flow, and overcome the subjective and arbitrary of environment economic methods. The empirical research of ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region showed that the emergy analysis was feasible and advanced.

  20. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  1. Analysis of a severe prolonged regional haze episode in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengya; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Guoshuai; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2015-02-01

    A severe prolonged regional haze episode occurred over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2 to 14 December 2013. In this paper, we have discussed the probable cause of haze episode and aerosol characteristics. Analysis of visibility and meteorological parameters suggest that the meteorological conditions play a very important role in the accumulation of aerosol particles that cause haze. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is considered as one of the key factors together with other factors in the haze formation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clearly shows accumulation process of air pollutants from vehicular, industrial and anthropogenic sources are major contributors for the haze formation. The aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth - AOD, Ångström exponent - α and Ultra Violet Aerosol Index - UVAI) are analyzed to study the temporal and spatial variations of aerosol loadings. The results show concentrations of fine mode particles during the haze episode, the dust could have been also entered in the region from the northwestern China. Analysis of vertical aerosol profiles indicate that dust aerosols concentrated in the lower part of the haze layers.

  2. Analysis of Aeromagnetic data of the NE region of the Indian sub-continent.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, M.; S. P, A.

    2007-12-01

    clearly defines the edges of the different geological formations. Within the Meghalaya plateau most of the high frequency anomalies are found associated with near surface ultramafic intrusions, mineralized zones etc. and appear to be controlled by the Dudhuni and Kulsi faults. Most of the shallow magnetic sources in the upper Assam and Brahmaputra valley show NW-SE trend and are restricted by the NW-SE Dhansili-Kopili fault. The Eastern Boundary thrust and the Dhubri fault appears to constrain the Grace anomaly highs in the east and west respectively. Through an analysis of the aeromagnetic data we identify extensions of the known fault below thick piles of sediments and presence of same hitherto unknown faults / lineaments. Results of this analysis and its implication for the geodynamic history of the region will be presented.

  3. FFT analysis on NDVI annual cycle and climatic regionality in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrón Juárez, Robinson I.; Liu, William T.

    2001-11-01

    By considering that the climate of Northeast Brazil (NEB) has distinct wet and dry seasons, the mixed radix fast Fourier transform (mrFFT) algorithm, developed at the National Aerospace Centre of the Netherlands, was applied to a monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from July 1981 to June 1993, to generate phase, amplitude and mean NDVI data using a 1-year frequency in order to improve the analysis of its spatial variation.The NDVI mean values varied from >0.7, which occurred in northwest and southeast regions, to <0.3 in the northeast and 0.4 in the southwest regions of the NEB. The 90° phase month at its maximum amplitude occurred in August and was observed in both southeastern and northwestern coasts, located at 10.5°S-37.5°W and 4°S-46°W, respectively. It changed rapidly from August, June to May, moved inland and changed gradually from May through to April and from March to February, then moved towards the centre Dry Polygon area. Then it changed gradually from February to January and ended up in December, and moved further southwards. The annual cycle amplitude varied from <0.075 in northwest and southeast regions to >0.25 in the northeast region. By using spatial variations of phase, amplitude and mean NDVI values, 15 climate types were delineated for the NEB.The spatial distribution of climate types in the NEB delineated by the NDVI FFT analysis agreed mostly with the climatic types presented by Hargreaves (Precipitation dependability and potentials for agricultural production in Northeast Brazil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária-EMBRAPA, Brazil, 1974), except regions with higher spatial variability and limited surface meteorological data. Among the three components: phase, amplitude and mean NDVI, the phase image, informing the initiation and duration of rainy season, was the most important component for climate-type delineation. Nevertheless, while the extreme values of amplitude, inferring a high wet

  4. High Resolution Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Tetradecad Region of Methane 12CH_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A.; Boudon, V.; Wenger, C.; Brown, L. R.; Bauerecker, S.; Albert, S.; Quack, M.

    2011-06-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of the Tetradecad region of methane 12CH_4 from 2.1 to 1.6 μm (4800 to 6250 Cm-1). New high resolution FTIR spectra measured in a collisional cooling cell at 80 K and at room temperature have allowed us to perform many new assignments. All assigned lines of 12CH_4 in the 0-6200 Cm-1 region have been included in a global fit, extending our previous analysis covering all levels up to and including the Octad (i.e. up to 4800 Cm-1 In the end, 3012 line positions and 1387 intensities of 45 individual subbands were modeled up to J = 14. The root mean square deviations were 0.023 Cm-1 for line positions and 13.86 % for line intensities in the Tetradecad region itself. Although this study is still preliminary, it is already sufficient to characterize the stronger bands throughout the whole of the Tetradecad polyad. The analysis and present success substantially improves our understanding of the methane spectra needed to interpret planetary atmospheres. This work is part of the ANR contract ``CH_4@Titan'' (ref: BLAN08-2_321467). Part of the research described here was also carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Our work is also supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, M. Quack, Chem. Phys., 356, 131--146 (2009).

  5. THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP PROJECT: A DATABASE MODEL FOR REGIONAL LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT, RESOURCE PLANNING, AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. Acquisition of primar...

  6. Regional analysis of drought and heat impacts on forests: current and future science directions.

    PubMed

    Law, Beverly E

    2014-12-01

    Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at regional scales. Predicting future impacts on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent climate sensitivity, such as risk of hydraulic failure from drought. This emphasizes the need for more coordinated in situ and remote sensing observations to track changes in ecosystem function, and to improve model inputs, spatio-temporal diagnosis, and predictions of future conditions, including implications of actions to mitigate climate change.

  7. Regional frequency analysis of multiyear droughts using watershed and climatic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, Edwin G.; Sadeghipour, Jamshid; Dracup, John A.

    1985-04-01

    A regional frequency analysis of hydrologic multiyear droughts is performed using multiple linear regression to estimate characteristics of drought severity, magnitude and duration from indices of watershed geomorphology, and climate. Thirteen characteristics of drought severity, magnitude and duration are used as dependent variables; eleven indices of watershed geomorphology and meteorology are used as independent variables. Results indicate that reasonable estimation accuracy is obtained utilizing Central Valley of California, U.S.A., streamflow data (mean standard errors between 14% and 41%). The proposed regression relations are primarily statistical models, and are not necessarily reliable indicators of cause-and-effect physical relationships.

  8. Quantitative spectral trace element analysis of pathogenic biominerals from residents of the Omsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Bel'Skaya, L. V.; Berezina, N. Yu.

    2006-11-01

    We have used x-ray fluorescence elemental analysis to analyze a collection of 170 kidney stones, 89 dental calculi (tartar), and 120 gallstones from patients in the Omsk region. According to the experimental results, we observed 36 elements in the kidney stones, 14 elements in the tartar, and 13 elements in the gallstones. We used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy to establish the elemental composition of saliva and bile samples. Comparison of the compositions of the saliva and tartar and also comparison of the compositions of the bile and gallstones showed that biological fluids (saliva and bile) are the likely source of trace elements for pathogenic mineralizations.

  9. [Comparison analysis between potential and actual pattern of artificial oases in arid region].

    PubMed

    Jia, B; Ci, L; Yang, X; Yang, J; Pan, B

    2000-12-01

    Based on theoretical analysis and demonstration research, the conception of potential pattern in the agriculture landscape of artificial oases in Xinjiang arid region and its analysis unit were discussed. The potential landscape pattern was defined as the one composed by spatial units with basic characteristics and properties which had no change or less change with the time. In agriculture landscape, soil was found to be a relatively stable element, and hence, different soil classification unit could be used to analyze the potential landscape pattern. A case study was carried out to analyze the potential and actual pattern of the artificial cases in Shihezi reclamation area by using the indexes of diversity, evenness, aggregation, mean patch elongation, patch shape fragmentation and mean patch fractal dimension. The result showed that the landscape pattern changed orderly from the potential to actual pattern, and the potential pattern could be used as the absolute criterion for researches on pattern changes in agriculture landscape.

  10. Regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with Earth-based Magellan radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Wetherill, George

    1993-01-01

    Research on regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with earth-based and Magellan radar images is presented. Over the past two years, the tectonic analysis of Venus performed centered on global properties of the planet, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere of Venus. These include studies pertaining to the original constitutive and thermal character of the planet, as well as the evolution of Venus through time, and the present day tectonics. Parameterized convection models of the Earth and Venus were developed. The parameterized convection code was reformulated to model Venus with an initially hydrous mantle to determine how the cold-trap could affect the evolution of the planet.

  11. The analysis of temporal variations in regional models of the Sargasso Sea from GEOS-3 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Coleman, R.; Hirsch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The dense coverage of short pulse mode GEOS-3 altimeter data in the western North Atlantic provides a basis for studying time variations in the sea surface heights in the Sargasso Sea. Two techniques are utilized: the method of regional models, and the analysis of overlapping passes. An 88 percent correlation is obtained between the location of cyclonic eddies obtained from infrared imagery and sea surface height minima in the altimeter models. This figure drops to 59 percent in the case of correlations with maxima and minima of surface temperature fields. The analysis of overlapping passes provides a better picture of instantaneous sea state through wavelengths greater than 30 km. The variability of the Sargasso Sea through wavelengths between 150 km and 5000 km is estimated at + or - 28 cm. This value is in reasonable agreement with oceanographic estimates and is compatible with the eddy kinetic energy of a wind driven circulation.

  12. Spatio-temporal flow analysis in bileaflet heart valve hinge regions: potential analysis for blood element damage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Hélène A; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Leo, Hwa-Liang; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2007-08-01

    Point-wise velocity measurements have been traditionally acquired to estimate blood damage potential induced by prosthetic heart valves with emphasis on peak values of velocity magnitude and Reynolds stresses. However, the inherently Lagrangian nature of platelet activation and hemolysis makes such measurements of limited predictive value. This study provides a refined fluid mechanical analysis, including blood element paths and stress exposure times, of the hinge flows of a CarboMedics bileaflet mechanical heart valve placed under both mitral and aortic conditions and a St Jude Medical bileaflet valve placed under aortic conditions. The hinge area was partitioned into characteristic regions based on dominant flow structures and spatio-temporal averaging was performed on the measured velocities and Reynolds shear stresses to estimate the average bulk stresses acting on blood elements transiting through the hinge. A first-order estimate of viscous stress levels and exposure times were computed. Both forward and leakage flow phases were characterized in each partition by dynamic flows dependent on subtle leaflet movements and transvalvular pressure fluctuations. Blood elements trapped in recirculation regions may experience exposure times as long as the entire forward flow phase duration. Most calculated stresses were below the accepted blood damage threshold. Estimates of the stress levels indicate that the flow conditions within the boundary layers near the hinge and leaflet walls may be more detrimental to blood cells than bulk flow conditions, while recirculation regions may promote thrombus buildup.

  13. EURO-CORDEX regional climate model analysis for the Greater Alpine Region: Performance and expected future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Simulations from 13 highly resolved regional climate models run within the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment initiative at 0.11° resolution with boundary forcings from five different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global models are employed to derive future climate change signal for the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) and four smaller investigation areas. Evaluation statistics include mean temperature and precipitation, frequency of days with precipitation over 1 mm and over 15 mm, 90% quantile of the frequency distribution, and maximum number of consecutive dry days. The evaluation for the period from 1971 to 2000 indicates that the models reproduce spatial seasonal precipitation patterns. In general, the simulations underestimate the seasonal mean temperature and overestimate the mean precipitation values. In GAR the ensemble seasonal mean temperature bias ranges from -0.8 to -1.9°C. The bias in precipitation varies between +14.8% in summer and +41.6% in the winter season. Larger errors are found for other statistics and in the investigated regions. In general, no significant gains in the quality of reproduction of the observed precipitation and temperature statistics compared to previous experiments can be identified. The temperature calculations for 2071-2100 related to the period from 1971 to 2000 in the GAR area show ensemble mean increases in the seasonal mean 2 m temperature of 2.5°C in fall and winter, 2.4°C in summer, and 1.9°C in spring. In the same area, precipitation is simulated to increase up to 12.3% in winter and 5.7% in spring. Only minor changes of the ensemble mean are predicted with +2.3% in fall and -1.7% in summer.

  14. Regional scale analysis of the topographic signatures of landslide/debris flow dominated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Righetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of alpine headwater basins is strongly influenced by erosion processes. The relationship between landforms and erosion processes has been analyzed based on the relationship between slope and drainage area (Montgomery and Foufoula-Georgiou, 1993), because among parameters derived from a DTM (Digital Terrain Model), slope and drainage area are deemed to be pertinent for studying overall erosion dynamics. Thanks to LiDAR and high resolution topography now is possible to reach a better representation of hillslope morphology, and then recognize in detail the topographic signature of valley incision by landslides and debris flows (Tarolli and Dalla Fontana, 2009). In this work we present a tentative of a regional scale analysis of such signature. In the analysis we derived the slope-area relationship using high-resolution DTMs with 2.5 m cells derived from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. We considered 23 catchments, characterized by soil-mantled landscape, and where several debris flows occurred in the year 2009. The results showed that in 83% catchments the topographic signature of debris flow processes is clearly present, while in the remaining catchments only hillslopes, unchanneled valleys and alluvial channels regions are recognized. The slope-area relationships of few catchments where no debris flows were observed during 2009 events, nor reported in the historical database, were then analyzed. For these basins the slope-area relationship does not evidence the topographic signature of debris flow processes. According to these results the presented methodology really can help for a right preliminary analysis and classification of alpine catchments based on their dominant geomorphological processes. The methodology should be used for a first and quick interpretation, in support to field surveys and more complex physically based modeling analysis.

  15. Regional assessment of trends in vegetation change dynamics using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osunmadewa, B. A.; Csaplovics, E.; R. A., Majdaldin; Adeofun, C. O.; Aralova, D.

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation forms the basis for the existence of animal and human. Due to changes in climate and human perturbation, most of the natural vegetation of the world has undergone some form of transformation both in composition and structure. Increased anthropogenic activities over the last decades had pose serious threat on the natural vegetation in Nigeria, many vegetated areas are either transformed to other land use such as deforestation for agricultural purpose or completely lost due to indiscriminate removal of trees for charcoal, fuelwood and timber production. This study therefore aims at examining the rate of change in vegetation cover, the degree of change and the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data spanning from 1983-2011. The method used for the analysis is the T-mode orientation approach also known as standardized PCA, while trends are examined using ordinary least square, median trend (Theil-Sen) and monotonic trend. The result of the trend analysis shows both positive and negative trend in vegetation change dynamics over the 29 years period examined. Five components were used for the Principal Component Analysis. The results of the first component explains about 98 % of the total variance of the vegetation (NDVI) while components 2-5 have lower variance percentage (< 1%). Two ancillary land use land cover data of 2000 and 2009 from European Space Agency (ESA) were used to further explain changes observed in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The result of the land use data shows changes in land use pattern which can be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as cutting of trees for charcoal production, fuelwood and agricultural practices. The result of this study shows the ability of remote sensing data for monitoring vegetation change in the dry-sub humid region of Nigeria.

  16. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:27084938

  17. Reduction, Analysis, and Properties of Electric Current Systems in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Demoulin, Pascal

    1995-01-01

    The specific attraction and, in large part, the significance of solar vector magnetograms lie in the fact that they give the most important data on the electric currents and the nonpotentiality of active regions. Using the vector magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), we employ a unique technique in the area of data analysis for resolving the 180 degree ambiguity in order to calculate the spatial structure of the vertical electric current density. The 180 degree ambiguity is resolved by applying concepts from the nonlinear multivariable optimization theory. The technique is shown to be of particular importance in very nonpotential active regions. The characterization of the vertical electric current density for a set of vector magnetograms using this method then gives the spatial scale, locations, and magnitude of these current systems. The method, which employs an intermediate parametric function which covers the magnetogram and which defines the local "preferred" direction, minimizes a specific functional of the observed transverse magnetic field. The specific functional that is successful is the integral of the square of the vertical current density. We find that the vertical electric current densities have common characteristics for the extended bipolar beta gamma delta-regions studied. The largest current systems have j(sub z)'s which maximizes around 30 mA per square meter and have a linear decreasing distribution to a diameter of 30 Mm.

  18. Reduction, analysis, and properties of electric current systems in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Demoulin, Pascal

    1995-01-01

    The specific attraction and, in large part, the significance of solar magnetograms lie in the fact that they give the most important data on the electric currents and the nonpotentiality of active regions. Using the vector magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), we employ a unique technique in the area of data analysis for resolving the 180 deg ambiguity in order to calculate the spatial structure of the vertical electric current density. The 180 deg ambiguity is resolved by applying concepts from the nonlinear multivariable optimization theory. The technique is shown to be of particular importance in very nonpotential active regions. The characterization of the vertical electric current density for a set of vector magnetograms using this method then gives the spatial scale, locations, and magnitude of these current systems. The method, which employs an intermediate parametric function which covers the magnetogram and which defines the local `preferred' direction, minimizes a specific functional of the observed transverse magnetic field. The specific functional that is successful is the integral of the square of the vertical current density. We find that the vertical electric current densities have common characteristics for the extended bipolar (beta) (gamma) (delta)-regions studied. The largest current systems have j(sub z)'s which maximizes around 30 mA/sq m and have a linear decreasing distribution to a diameter of 30 Mn.

  19. Crust and upper-mantle discontinuities from analysis of broadband seismological data in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; van der Lee, S.; Giardini, D.

    2001-12-01

    We have analyzed receiver functions to derive simple crustal models for a total of 17 permanent and temporary 3-component broadband seismological stations in the Mediterranean region. The 12 studied temporary stations have been operated under the MIDSEA project. To determine an accurate Moho depth we have reduced the trade-off between crustal velocities and discontinuity depth by using a new grid search method, which is an extension of recently published methods to determine crustal thickness. The values we find for Moho depth range from around 20 km for intra-oceanic islands and extended continental margins to near 45 km in regions where the Eurasian and African continents have collided. The relatively stable north-eastern African margin shows crustal thicknesses close to a standard value of 35 km while the relatively tectonically disturbed margin of north-western Africa shows significantly thinner crust. Modeling of crustal structure shows that all stacked receiver functions can be explained within standard deviations by a 2- or 3-layer model containing a sedimentary layer and/or a mid-crustal discontinuity. Both receiver function analysis and cross-correlation are powerful tools to reveal interfaces in the upper-mantle. For studying upper-mantle discontinuities we use both these methods. We transform the processed signals to the slowness-time domain to highlight P-to-S conversions from interfaces at different depths. The tectonic complexity of the Mediterranean region is found to extend down to the transition zone.

  20. Statistical analysis of the MODIS atmosphere products for the Tomsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, Sergey V.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Engel, Marina V.

    2005-10-01

    The paper presents the results of using the MODIS Atmosphere Products satellite information to study the atmospheric characteristics (the aerosol and water vapor) in the Tomsk Region (56-61°N, 75-90°E) in 2001-2004. The satellite data were received from the NASA Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) through the INTERNET.To use satellite data for a solution of scientific and applied problems, it is very important to know their accuracy. Despite the results of validation of the MODIS data have already been available in the literature, we decided to carry out additional investigations for the Tomsk Region. The paper presents the results of validation of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and total column precipitable water (TCPW), which are in good agreement with the test data. The statistical analysis revealed some interesting facts. Thus, for example, analyzing the data on the spatial distribution of the average seasonal values of AOT or TCPW for 2001-2003 in the Tomsk Region, we established that instead of the expected spatial homogeneity of these distributions, they have similar spatial structures.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Phillips, Ruth B.; Brown, Kim H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one. PMID:26112966

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J; Phillips, Ruth B; Brown, Kim H

    2015-06-25

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one.

  3. Sequence analysis of 21 genes located in the Kartagener syndrome linkage region on chromosome 15q.

    PubMed

    Geremek, Maciej; Schoenmaker, Frederieke; Zietkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Diehl, Scott; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witt, Michal

    2008-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder, which shows extensive genetic heterogeneity and is mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are four genes with a proven pathogenetic role in PCD. DNAH5 and DNAI1 are involved in 28 and 10% of PCD cases, respectively, while two other genes, DNAH11 and TXNDC3, have been identified as causal in one PCD family each. We have previously identified a 3.5 cM (2.82 Mb) region on chromosome 15q linked to Kartagener syndrome (KS), a subtype of PCD characterized by the randomization of body organ positioning. We have now refined the KS candidate region to a 1.8 Mb segment containing 18 known genes. The coding regions of these genes and three neighboring genes were subjected to sequence analysis in seven KS probands, and we were able to identify 60 single nucleotide sequence variants, 35 of which resided in mRNA coding sequences. However, none of the variations alone could explain the occurrence of the disease in these patients.

  4. Analysis of climate projections for the Carpathian Region using dynamical downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Pieczka, Ildiko; Andre, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    Hungarian national climate and adaptation strategies have been recently revised, and a National Adaptation Geo-information System (NAGIS) is currently under development. This platform will serve as a central data collection for various end-users, impact researchers, and decision makers on national level in Hungary. In order to satisfy the demands for climate projection inputs within this framework, RegCM4.3 is one of the regional climate models used to provide results for detailed regional scale analysis and specific impact studies. RegCM is a 3-dimensional, sigma-coordinate, primitive equation model, originally developed by Giorgi et al. Currently, it is available from the ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics). We have already completed experiments with 50 km horizontal resolution covering both the second half of the past century (1951-2005), and the future (i.e., the 21st century, 2006-2100) using HadGEM2 global model outputs as initial and lateral boundary conditions. The outputs of the 50 km runs drive the further downscaling experiments using 10 km as a horizontal resolution for a smaller domain covering Central Europe with special focus on the Carpathian Region. For the future, RCP4.5 scenario run is analysed in this poster, and moreover, preliminary results of the RCP8.5 scenario run are also presented.

  5. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-07-08

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de.

  6. Near-Field Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Metropolitan Tehran Using Region-Specific Directivity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Azad; Nicknam, Ahmad; Dadras, Ehsan Yousefi; Eftekhari, Seyed Nasrollah

    2017-01-01

    Ground motions are affected by directivity effects at near-fault regions which result in low-frequency cycle pulses at the beginning of the velocity time history. The directivity features of near-fault ground motions can lead to significant increase in the risk of earthquake-induced damage on engineering structures. The ordinary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) does not take into account such effects; recent studies have thus proposed new frameworks to incorporate directivity effects in PSHA. The objective of this study is to develop the seismic hazard mapping of Tehran City according to near-fault PSHA procedure for different return periods. To this end, the directivity models required in the modified PSHA were developed based on a database of the simulated ground motions. The simulated database was used in this study because there are no recorded near-fault data in the region to derive purely empirically based pulse prediction models. The results show that the directivity effects can significantly affect the estimate of regional seismic hazard.

  7. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  8. Analysis of Genomic Regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Related to Biomass Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes. PMID:25836973

  9. Forensic analysis of polymorphism and regional stratification of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rebała, Krzysztof; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Bogacheva, Anna V; Kotova, Svetlana A; Mikulich, Alexei I; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Nine loci defining minimal haplotypes and four other Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1 were analysed in 414 unrelated males residing in four regions of Belarus. Haplotypes of 328 males were further extended by 7 additional Y-STRs: DYS388, DYS426, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460 and DYS635. The 13-locus haplotype diversity was 0.9978 and discrimination capacity was 78.7%, indicating presence of identical haplotypes among unrelated males. Seven additional Y-STRs enabled almost complete discrimination of undifferentiated 13-locus haplotypes, increasing haplotype diversity to 0.9998 and discrimination capacity to 97.9%. Analysis of molecular variance of minimal haplotypes excluded the use of a Y-STR database for Belarusians residing in northeastern Poland as representative for the Belarusian population in forensic practice, and revealed regional stratification within the country. However, four additional markers (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1) were shown to eliminate the observed geographical substructure among Belarusian males. The results imply that in case of minimal and PowerPlex Y haplotypes, a separate frequency database should be used for northern Belarus to estimate Y-STR profile frequencies in forensic casework. In case of Yfiler haplotypes, regional stratification within Belarus may be neglected.

  10. Attribution analysis of runoff decline in a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binquan; Liang, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianyun; Wang, Guoqing; Zhao, Weimin; Zhang, Hongyue; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yiming

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability and human activities are two main contributing attributions for runoff changes in the Yellow River, China. In the loess hilly-gully regions of the middle Yellow River, water shortage has been a serious problem, and this results in large-scale constructions of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the past decades in order to retain water for agricultural irrigation and industrial production. This disturbed the natural runoff characteristics. In this paper, we focused on a typical loess hilly-gully region (Wudinghe and Luhe River basins) and investigated the effects of SWC measures and climate variability on runoff during the period of 1961-2013, while the SWC measures were the main representative of human activities in this region. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the changes of annual precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and runoff. The analysis revealed the decrease in precipitation, significant rise in temperature, and remarkable runoff reduction with a rate of more than 0.4 mm per year. It was found that runoff capacity in this region also decreased. Using the change point detection methods, the abrupt change point of annual runoff series was found at 1970, and thus, the study period was divided into the baseline period (1961-1970) and changed period (1971-2013). A conceptual framework based on four statistical runoff methods was used for attribution analysis of runoff decline in the Wudinghe and Luhe River basins (-37.3 and -56.4%, respectively). Results showed that runoff reduction can be explained by 85.2-90.3% (83.3-85.7%) with the SWC measures in the Wudinghe (Luhe) River basin while the remaining proportions were caused by climate variability. The findings suggested that the large-scale SWC measures demonstrated a dominant influence on runoff decline, and the change of precipitation extreme was also a promoting factor of the upward trending of SWC measures' contribution to

  11. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Thorling, L.; Sørensen, B.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-08-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l-1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952-2003, but sampled from 1988

  12. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Thorling, L.; Sørensen, B.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-05-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a~drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55 % from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentration was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48 % of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l-1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33 % of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18 % of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the south-eastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952-2003, but sampled from 1988

  13. Development of a near-infrared/mid-infrared dual-region spectrometer for online process analysis.

    PubMed

    Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Nishii, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-07-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer having two immersion probes, a transmission probe for NIR, and an attenuated total reflection (ATR) probe for mid-IR has been developed for highly reliable process monitoring and deep process understanding. This spectrometer facilitates sequential acquisition of both NIR (10,000-4000 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (5000-1200 cm(-1)) spectra by switching the light path leading to the probes without the need for probe replacement. The use of a single light source and a single beam splitter enables achievement of a permanent alignment of the optical system and sequential data acquisition. The transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR probes designed and developed in the present study facilitate the acquisition of NIR/mid-IR spectra with optimized absorption intensities in both regions by simply placing the probes into a sample solution. The performance of the developed spectrometer was demonstrated in monitoring the ethanol fermentation process. NIR/mid-IR spectra of the fermentation solution with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) represent the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol in both regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the MSC-treated spectra in the regions 6300-5650 cm(-1), 4850-4300 cm(-1), and 3500-2880 cm(-1) to detect the end-point of the fermentation as an example of process monitoring. For all the regions, the score plot of the first principal component (PC) indicates that the fermentation progresses with the fermentation time and stops after 210 minutes and thus the end-point of the fermentation exists at around 210 minutes. The loading plot indicates that all of the first PCs are the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol. This result reveals that the same chemical changes are observed in both transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR spectra. Multiple and simultaneous analysis was also performed, and intensity change in light

  14. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  15. Multi-criteria decision analysis for bioenergy in the Centre Region of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, T. C. J.; Cabral, P.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Teixeira, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    With the consumption of fossil fuels, the resources essential to Man's survival are being rapidly contaminated. A sustainable future may be achieved by the use of renewable energies, allowing countries without non-renewable energy resources to guarantee energetic sovereignty. Using bioenergy may mean a steep reduction and/or elimination of the external dependency, enhancing the countries' capital and potentially reducing of the negative effects that outcome from the use of fossil fuels, such as loss of biodiversity, air, water, and soil pollution, … This work's main focus is to increase bioenergy use in the centre region of Portugal by allying R&D to facilitate determination of bioenergy availability and distribution throughout the study area.This analysis is essential, given that nowadays this knowledge is still very limited in the study area. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was the main tool used to asses this study, due to its unseeingly ability to integrate various types of information (such as alphanumerical, statistical, geographical, …) and various sources of biomass (forest, agricultural, husbandry, municipal and industrial residues, shrublands, used vegetable oil and energy crops) to determine the bioenergy potential of the study area, as well as their spatial distribution. By allying GIS with multi-criteria decision analysis, the initial table-like information of difficult comprehension is transformed into tangible and easy to read results: both intermediate and final results of the created models will facilitate the decision making process. General results show that the major contributors for the bioenergy potential in the Centre Region of Portugal are forest residues, which are mostly located in the inner region of the study area. However, a more detailed analysis should be made to analyze the viability to use energy crops. As a main conclusion, we can say that, although this region may not use only this type of energy to be completely

  16. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; Velde, Oscar A.; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of high-energy background radiation (0.1-2 MeV) enhancements during eight winter thunderstorms and five summer storms in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain is presented. For the first time, high-energy radiation counts, precipitation, radar reflectivity, and very high frequency lightning detections to infer charge regions altitude have been analyzed in order to find out what produces the measured background radiation increments associated with storms. The good agreement between radar reflectivity and precipitation with increases in background radiation counts coupled with the spectrum analysis comparing rain/no rain periods suggests that radon-ion daughters play a major role in the radiation increments reported. No evidence has been found supporting that measured background radiation enhancements can be produced by storm electric fields. Finally, a single case of a high-energy radiation increase was prior to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke, which reinforces the theory that a lower positive charge layer's existence is important for the production of Terrestrial Ground Enhancements.

  17. An enhanced trend surface analysis equation for regional-residual separation of gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obasi, A. I.; Onwuemesi, A. G.; Romanus, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Trend surface analysis is a geological term for a mathematical technique which separates a given map set into a regional component and a local component. This work has extended the steps for the derivation of the constants in the trend surface analysis equation from the popularly known matrix and simultaneous form to a more simplified and easily achievable format. To achieve this, matrix inversion was applied to the existing equations and the outcome was tested for suitability using a large volume of gravity data set acquired from the Anambra Basin, south-eastern Nigeria. Tabulation of the field data set was done using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet, while gravity maps were generated from the data set using Oasis Montaj software. A comparison of the residual gravity map produced using the new equations with its software derived counterpart has shown that the former has a higher enhancing capacity than the latter. This equation has shown strong suitability for application in the separation of gravity data sets into their regional and residual components.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: analysis of the ribosomal RNA region.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, T A; Hegedus, D D; Khachatourians, G G

    1993-01-01

    The 28.5-kbp mitochondrial (mt) genome from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was studied using restriction enzyme analysis, gene probe hybridization, and DNA sequence comparisons. A detailed restriction enzyme map allowed cloning of the entire genome into a number of segments. Hybridization of heterologous gene probes to the mtDNA resulted in the identification of the large ribosomal RNA (lrRNA) and small ribosomal RNA (srRNA) genes. Gene probes derived from several yeasts and fungi failed to identify any additional genes. However, partial DNA sequence analysis revealed the lrRNA and srRNA genes as well as four protein-encoding genes: the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NAD1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NAD6), cytochrome oxidase subunit 3 (CO3), and ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6) genes. The ATPase subunit 9 (ATP9) gene was not identified by hybridization to mtDNA, but could be detected by hybridization to total cellular DNA. The portions of the genes sequenced were homologous to the equivalent genes from yeast and other filamentous fungi, most notably Aspergillus nidulans. No introns were identified in these regions. The organization of the sequenced region of the B. bassiana mt genome more closely resembled that of A. nidulans than that of Podospora anserina or Neurospora crassa.

  19. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  20. Regional movement patterns of a small-bodied shark revealed by stable-isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Munroe, S E M; Heupel, M R; Fisk, A T; Logan, M; Simpfendorfer, C A

    2015-05-01

    This study used stable-isotope analysis to define the nearshore regional residency and movements of the small-bodied Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori. Plasma and muscle δ(13) C and δ(15) N of R. taylori were collected from across five embayments and compared with values of seagrass and plankton from each bay. Linear distances between adjacent bays ranged from 30 to 150 km. There was a positive geographic correlation between R. taylori tissue and environmental δ(13) C values. Populations with the highest tissue δ(15) N were collected from bays that had the highest environmental δ(15) N values. These results suggest that R. taylori did not forage more than 100 km away from their capture location within 6 months to 1 year. The successful application of isotope analysis to define R. taylori movement demonstrates that this technique may be used in addition to traditional methods to study the movement of sharks, even within similar habitats across regionally small spatial scales (<100 km).

  1. Regional land salinization assessment and simulation through cellular automaton-Markov modeling and spatial pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2012-11-15

    Land salinization and desalinization are complex processes affected by both biophysical and human-induced driving factors. Conventional approaches of land salinization assessment and simulation are either too time consuming or focus only on biophysical factors. The cellular automaton (CA)-Markov model, when coupled with spatial pattern analysis, is well suited for regional assessments and simulations of salt-affected landscapes since both biophysical and socioeconomic data can be efficiently incorporated into a geographic information system framework. Our hypothesis set forth that the CA-Markov model can serve as an alternative tool for regional assessment and simulation of land salinization or desalinization. Our results suggest that the CA-Markov model, when incorporating biophysical and human-induced factors, performs better than the model which did not account for these factors when simulating the salt-affected landscape of the Yinchuan Plain (China) in 2009. In general, the CA-Markov model is best suited for short-term simulations and the performance of the CA-Markov model is largely determined by the availability of high-quality, high-resolution socioeconomic data. The coupling of the CA-Markov model with spatial pattern analysis provides an improved understanding of spatial and temporal variations of salt-affected landscape changes and an option to test different soil management scenarios for salinity management.

  2. Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manni, Franz; Leonardi, Pascal; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Rouba, Hassan; Heyer, Evelyne; Klintschar, Michael; McElreavey, Ken; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2002-10-01

    The geographic location of Egypt, at the interface between North Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe, prompted us to investigate the genetic diversity of this population and its relationship with neighboring populations. To assess the extent to which the modern Egyptian population reflects this intermediate geographic position, ten Unique Event Polymorphisms (UEPs), mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, have been typed in 164 Y chromosomes from three North African populations. The analysis of these binary markers, which define 11 Y-chromosome lineages, were used to determine the haplogroup frequencies in Egyptians, Moroccan Arabs, and Moroccan Berbers and thereby define the Y-chromosome background in these regions. Pairwise comparisons with a set of 15 different populations from neighboring European, North African, and Middle Eastern populations and geographic analysis showed the absence of any significant genetic barrier in the eastern part of the Mediterranean area, suggesting that genetic variation and gene flow in this area follow the "isolation-by-distance" model. These results are in sharp contrast with the observation of a strong north-south genetic barrier in the western Mediterranean basin, defined by the Gibraltar Strait. Thus, the Y-chromosome gene pool in the modern Egyptian population reflects a mixture of European, Middle Eastern, and African characteristics, highlighting the importance of ancient and recent migration waves, followed by gene flow, in the region.

  3. [Topological Conflicts in Phylogenetic Analysis of Different Regions of the Sable (Martes zibellina L.) Mitochondrial Genome].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Litvinov, A N

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome of the sable showed the presence of several topologies of phylogenetic trees, but the most statistically significant topology is A-BC, which was obtained as a result of the analysis of the mitochondrial genome as a whole, as well as of the individual CO1, ND4, and ND5 genes. Analysis of the intergroup divergence of the mtDNA haplotypes (Dxy) indicated that the maximum Dxy values between A and BC groups were accompanied by minimum differences between B and C groups only for six genes showing the A-BC topology (12S rRNA; CO1, CO2, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). It is assumed that the topological conflicts observed in the analysis of individual sable mtDNA genes are associated with the uneven distribution of mutations along the mitochondrial genome and the mitochondrial tree. This may be due to random causes, as well as the nonuniform effect of selection.

  4. Receiver Functions Analysis and Regional Tomography at StromboliVolcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, C.; Barberi, G.; Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Castellano, M.; Patane, D.

    2006-12-01

    This study focuses on constraining the crust and upper mantle discontinuities at Stromboli volcano by considering both receiver function (RF) analysis on teleseismic body waveforms and regional tomography. The RF technique utilizes the waveforms of Ps conversions from velocity discontinuities to model variations in Vs beneath a seismic station (e.g. Ammon et al., 1990). The method is sensitive to velocity discontinuities, but it can only detect the velocity-depth product, and not the absolute velocity. Therefore, we use the regional tomographic results as an independent constraint on absolute velocity. In order to improve the velocity model beneath the volcano we reviewed the most recent classical local earthquake tomographies available for the thyrrenian region. Here we show a new lithospheric seismic tomography performed in the northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria, including the Aeolian Archipelago and Stromboli volcano area. The dataset, consisting of P and S arrival times from a thousand of earthquakes located in the studied area between 1994-2003, was inverted by using the standard tomography SimulPS and the double-difference algorithm of TomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) for simultaneous computation of hypocenter parameters and Vp and Vs three dimensional distributions. For RF analysis the seismograms from about 100 teleseismic earthquakes (M greater than 6.0), recorded between 2004 and 2006 at 13 broad-band seismic stations deployed by the INGV, have been considered to compute the receiver function by the Multi-Taper Spectral Correlation (MTSC) technique (Park and Levin, 2000). One key advantage of this method is its resistance to noise, which recommends its use in environments such as ocean sea islands with high noise levels in the seismic bands.

  5. Automated Classification of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia using Regional Volumetric Texture Analysis in High-Resolution CT

    PubMed Central

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Chin, Anne S.; Leung, Ann N.; Terrone, Donato; Bristow, Michael; Rosen, Glenn; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We propose a novel computational approach for the automated classification of classic versus atypical usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Materials and Methods 33 patients with UIP were enrolled in this study. They were classified as classic versus atypical UIP by a consensus of two thoracic radiologists with more than 15 years of experience using the American Thoracic Society evidence–based guidelines for CT diagnosis of UIP. Two cardiothoracic fellows with one year of subspecialty training provided independent readings. The system is based on regional characterization of the morphological tissue properties of lung using volumetric texture analysis of multiple detector CT images. A simple digital atlas with 36 lung subregions is used to locate texture properties, from which the responses of multi-directional Riesz wavelets are obtained. Machine learning is used to aggregate and to map the regional texture attributes to a simple score that can be used to stratify patients with UIP into classic and atypical subtypes. Results We compared the predictions based on regional volumetric texture analysis with the ground truth established by expert consensus. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the proposed score was estimated to be 0.81 using a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with high specificity for classic UIP. The performance of our automated method was found to be similar to that of the two fellows and to the agreement between experienced chest radiologists reported in the literature. However, the errors of our method and the fellows occurred on different cases, which suggests that combining human and computerized evaluations may be synergistic. Conclusions Our results are encouraging and suggest that an automated system may be useful in routine clinical practice as a diagnostic aid for identifying patients with complex lung disease such as classic UIP, obviating the need for invasive surgical lung biopsy and its

  6. Analysis of drought index trends for the Carpathian Basin using regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Sabitz, Judit

    2013-04-01

    As a result of global warming, besides shifts of regional mean climate, the frequency and intensity of different climatological extremes associated to both temperature and precipitation are changing. In this contribution the main focus is on the analysis of past and future drought conditions calculated from monthly time series of different regional climate model (RCM) simulations accomplished for the entire period of 1951-2100 within the frame of the ENSEMBLES program. All the RCM experiments applied 25 km horizontal resolution, and they considered the SRES A1B scenario, for which the estimated CO2 level by 2050 and 2100 is 532 ppm and 717 ppm, respectively. For this complex analysis we use different types of drought indices. (i) Precipitation indices are simple and require solely precipitation data, however, they are suitable for separating dry and wet periods, as well, as determining temporal variability. Simple precipitation index (PI), and standardized precipitation anomaly index (SAI) are used in the present study. (ii) Water balance indices consider other elements of the water balance besides precipitation, mainly evaporation as a function of temperature. Among them Lang's rainfall index (LRI), De Martonne aridity index (MAI), and Thornthwaite aridity index (TAI) are used in the present study. (iii) Recursive indices consider data from preceding period, thus characterise long time periods. A classical example to recursive indices is the Palmer Drought Severity Index, which we did not use in this study due to the complex calculation algorithm. However, Foley's anomaly index (FAI) is used instead. (iv) Soil moisture indices are able to estimate loss in crop yields and water shortage. In the present study Ped's drought index (PDI) is used. The results suggest significant drying in the region, especially, in summer.

  7. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches.

  8. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  9. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Sharleen T.; Arsznov, Bradley M.; Hristova, Ani E.; Yoon, Elise J.; Lundrigan, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  10. DMRT gene cluster analysis in the platypus: new insights into genomic organization and regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; Wakefield, Matthew; Deakin, Janine E; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank; Alsop, Amber; Ezaz, Tariq; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a cluster of platypus DMRT genes and compared their arrangement, location, and sequence across vertebrates. The DMRT gene cluster on human 9p24.3 harbors, in order, DMRT1, DMRT3, and DMRT2, which share a DM domain. DMRT1 is highly conserved and involved in sexual development in vertebrates, and deletions in this region cause sex reversal in humans. Sequence comparisons of DMRT genes between species have been valuable in identifying exons, control regions, and conserved nongenic regions (CNGs). The addition of platypus sequences is expected to be particularly valuable, since monotremes fill a gap in the vertebrate genome coverage. We therefore isolated and fully sequenced platypus BAC clones containing DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1 and then generated multispecies alignments and ran prediction programs followed by experimental verification to annotate this gene cluster. We found that the three genes have 58-66% identity to their human orthologues, lie in the same order as in other vertebrates, and colocate on 1 of the 10 platypus sex chromosomes, X5. We also predict that optimal annotation of the newly sequenced platypus genome will be challenging. The analysis of platypus sequence revealed differences in structure and sequence of the DMRT gene cluster. Multispecies comparison was particularly effective for detecting CNGs, revealing several novel potential regulatory regions within DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1. RT-PCR indicated that platypus DMRT1 and DMRT3 are expressed specifically in the adult testis (and not ovary), but DMRT2 has a wider expression profile, as it does for other mammals. The platypus DMRT1 expression pattern, and its location on an X chromosome, suggests an involvement in monotreme sexual development.

  11. RE-ANALYSIS OF THE RADIO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF GALACTIC H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paladini, R.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; DeZotti, G.

    2009-09-10

    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic H II regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and supergiant H II regions, a significant number of subgiant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered H II regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23 {+-} 0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85 {+-} 0.11 (first quadrant). We also find marginal evidence of a luminosity break at L{sub knee} = 10{sup 23.45} erg s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1} for the LF in the fourth quadrant. We convert radio luminosities into equivalent H{alpha} and Lyman continuum luminosities to facilitate comparisons with extragalactic studies. We obtain an average total H II regions Lyman continuum luminosity of 0.89 {+-} 0.23 x 10{sup 53} s{sup -1}, corresponding to 30% of the total ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy.

  12. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (M<4.5) are realized in the close vicinity of the salt deposit. Local seismological network (LSN) is deployed in the region to monitor the local seismicity. It consists of 6 three component digital stations. A real-time data transfer from LSN stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) is implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  13. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  14. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES AND APPROPRIATE CONSERVATION OF MOIST ENTROPY

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Johnson, Todd Schaack

    2007-06-08

    The research supported by DOE funding addressed the fundamental issues of understanding and modeling of hydrologic processes in relation to regional and global climate change. The emphasis of this research effort was on the application of isentropic modeling and analysis to advance the accuracy of the simulation of all aspects of the hydrologic cycle including clouds and thus the climate state regionally and globally. Simulation of atmospheric hydrologic processes by the UW hybrid isentropic coordinate models provided fundamental insight into global monsoonal circulations, and regional energy exchange in relation to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Inter-comparison of UW hybrid model simulations with those from the NCAR Community Climate Model and other climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models investigated the increased accuracies gained in modeling long-range transport in isentropic coordinates and isolated differences in modeling of the climate state. The inter-comparisons demonstrated advantages in the simulation of the transport of the hydrologic components of the climate system and provided insight into the more general problems of simulating hydrologic processes, aerosols and chemistry for climate. This research demonstrated the viability of the UW isentropic-eta model for long-term integration for climate and climate change studies and documented that no insurmountable barriers exist to simulation of climate utilizing hybrid isentropic coordinate models. The results provide impetus for continued development of hybrid isentropic coordinate models as a means to advance accuracies in the simulation of global and regional climate in relation to transport and the planetary distribution of heat sources and sinks.

  15. Surface Wave Analysis of Regional Earthquakes in the Eastern Rift System (Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, S. J. C.; Guidarelli, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Tanzania Divergence (NTD), the youngest part of the East African Rift System, presents the opportunity to obtain insights about the birth and early stages of rifting before it progresses to mature rifting and seafloor spreading. This region is particularly interesting because the Eastern rift splits into three arms in this area and develops in a region of thick and cold lithosphere, amid the Archaean Tanzanian craton and the Proterozoic orogenic belt (the Masai block). We analyzed about two thousand seismic events recorded by the 39 broadband stations of the CRAFTI network during its two-year deployment in the NTD area in 2013 to 2014. We present the results of surface wave tomographic inversion obtained from fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for short periods (between 4 to 14 seconds). Group velocity dispersion curves obtained via multiple filter analysis are path-averaged and inverted to produce 0.1º x 0.1º nodal grid tomographic maps for discrete periods using a 2D generalization of the Backus and Gilbert method. To quantify our results in terms of S-wave velocity structure the average group velocity dispersion curves are then inverted, using a linearized least-squares inversion scheme, in order to obtain the shear wave velocity structure for the upper 20 km of the crust. Low velocity anomalies are observed in the region 50 km south of Lake Natron, as well as in the area of the Ngorongoro crater. The implications of our results for the local tectonics and the development of the rifting system will be discussed in light of the growing geophysical database from this region.

  16. a Region-Based Multi-Scale Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavzoglu, T.; Yildiz Erdemir, M.; Tonbul, H.

    2016-06-01

    Within the last two decades, object-based image analysis (OBIA) considering objects (i.e. groups of pixels) instead of pixels has gained popularity and attracted increasing interest. The most important stage of the OBIA is image segmentation that groups spectrally similar adjacent pixels considering not only the spectral features but also spatial and textural features. Although there are several parameters (scale, shape, compactness and band weights) to be set by the analyst, scale parameter stands out the most important parameter in segmentation process. Estimating optimal scale parameter is crucially important to increase the classification accuracy that depends on image resolution, image object size and characteristics of the study area. In this study, two scale-selection strategies were implemented in the image segmentation process using pan-sharped Qickbird-2 image. The first strategy estimates optimal scale parameters for the eight sub-regions. For this purpose, the local variance/rate of change (LV-RoC) graphs produced by the ESP-2 tool were analysed to determine fine, moderate and coarse scales for each region. In the second strategy, the image was segmented using the three candidate scale values (fine, moderate, coarse) determined from the LV-RoC graph calculated for whole image. The nearest neighbour classifier was applied in all segmentation experiments and equal number of pixels was randomly selected to calculate accuracy metrics (overall accuracy and kappa coefficient). Comparison of region-based and image-based segmentation was carried out on the classified images and found that region-based multi-scale OBIA produced significantly more accurate results than image-based single-scale OBIA. The difference in classification accuracy reached to 10% in terms of overall accuracy.

  17. Region Templates: Data Representation and Management for High-Throughput Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Klasky, Scott; Saltz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a region template abstraction and framework for the efficient storage, management and processing of common data types in analysis of large datasets of high resolution images on clusters of hybrid computing nodes. The region template abstraction provides a generic container template for common data structures, such as points, arrays, regions, and object sets, within a spatial and temporal bounding box. It allows for different data management strategies and I/O implementations, while providing a homogeneous, unified interface to applications for data storage and retrieval. A region template application is represented as a hierarchical dataflow in which each computing stage may be represented as another dataflow of finer-grain tasks. The execution of the application is coordinated by a runtime system that implements optimizations for hybrid machines, including performance-aware scheduling for maximizing the utilization of computing devices and techniques to reduce the impact of data transfers between CPUs and GPUs. An experimental evaluation on a state-of-the-art hybrid cluster using a microscopy imaging application shows that the abstraction adds negligible overhead (about 3%) and achieves good scalability and high data transfer rates. Optimizations in a high speed disk based storage implementation of the abstraction to support asynchronous data transfers and computation result in an application performance gain of about 1.13×. Finally, a processing rate of 11,730 4K×4K tiles per minute was achieved for the microscopy imaging application on a cluster with 100 nodes (300 GPUs and 1,200 CPU cores). This computation rate enables studies with very large datasets. PMID:26139953

  18. Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal; Husain, Tahir; Lumb, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Water quality indices (WQIs) have been developed to assess the suitability of water for a variety of uses. These indices reflect the status of water quality in lakes, streams, rivers, and reservoirs. The concept of WQIs is based on a comparison of the concentration of contaminants with the respective environmental standards. The number, frequency, and magnitude by which the environmental standards for specific variables are not met in a given time period are reflected in WQIs. Further, the water quality trend analysis predicts the behavior of the water quality parameters and overall water quality in the time domain. In this paper, the concept of WQI was applied to three selected watersheds of Atlantic region: the Mersey River, the Point Wolfe River, and the Dunk River sites. To have robust study, two different water quality indices are used: Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI), and British Columbia Water Quality Index (BWQI). The complete study was conducted in two steps. The first step was to organize and process the data into a format compatible with WQI analysis. After processing the input data, the WQI was calculated. The second step outlined in the paper discusses detailed trend analysis using linear and quadratic models for all the three sites. As per the 25 years trend analysis, overall water quality for agriculture use observed an improving trend at all the three sites studied. Water quality for raw water used for drinking (prior to treatment) and aquatic uses has shown improving trend at Point Wolfe River. It is further observed that pH, SO4, and NO3 concentrations are improving at Dunk River, Mersey River, and Point Wolfe River sites. To ascertain the reliability and significance of the trend analysis, a detailed error analysis and parametric significance tests were also conducted. It was observed that for most of the sites and water uses quadratic trend models were a better fit than the linear models.

  19. Definition of the thermographic regions of interest in cycling by using a factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M.a.

    2016-03-01

    Research in exercise physiology using infrared thermography has increased in the last years. However, the definition of the Regions of Interest (ROIs) varies strongly between studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a factor analysis approach to define highly correlated groups of thermographic ROIs during a cycling test. Factor analyses were performed based on the moment of measurement and on the variation of skin temperatures as a result of the cycling exercise. 19 male participants cycled during 45 min at 50% of their individual peak power output with a cadence of 90 rpm. Infrared thermography was used to measure skin temperatures in sixteen ROIs of the trunk and lower limbs at three moments: before, immediately after and 10 min after the cycling test. Factor analyses were used to identify groups of ROIs based on the skin absolute temperatures at each moment of measurement as well as on skin temperature variations between moments. All the factor analyses performed for each moment and skin temperature variation explained more than the 80% of the variance. Different groups of ROIs were obtained when the analysis was based on the moment of measurement or on the effect of exercise on the skin temperature. Furthermore, some ROIs were grouped in the same way in both analyses (e.g. the ROIs of the trunk), whereas other regions (legs and their joints) were grouped differently in each analysis. Differences between groups of ROIs are related to their tissue composition, muscular activity and capacity of sweating. In conclusion, the resultant groups of ROIs were coherent and could help researchers to define the ROIs in future thermal studies.

  20. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  1. Multi-model analysis of precipitation-related climatological extremes for the Carpathian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Anna; Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit

    2015-04-01

    the 21st century. Before the thorough analysis of several drought- and precipitation-related climate indices (i.e., describing drought events, or intensity of precipitation exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values, respectively), a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw RCM output data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961-2010) served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of the climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) and for three subregions (i.e., Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania) within the entire Carpathian Region. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase in the Carpathian Region, especially, in winter and autumn.

  2. Comparative structural analysis of Bru1 region homeologs in Saccharum spontaneum and S. officinarum

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jisen; Sharma, Anupma; Yu, Qingyi; ...

    2016-06-10

    Here, sugarcane is a major sugar and biofuel crop, but genomic research and molecular breeding have lagged behind other major crops due to the complexity of auto-allopolyploid genomes. Sugarcane cultivars are frequently aneuploid with chromosome number ranging from 100 to 130, consisting of 70-80 % S. officinarum, 10-20 % S. spontaneum, and 10 % recombinants between these two species. Analysis of a genomic region in the progenitor autoploid genomes of sugarcane hybrid cultivars will reveal the nature and divergence of homologous chromosomes. As a result, to investigate the origin and evolution of haplotypes in the Bru1 genomic regions in sugarcanemore » cultivars, we identified two BAC clones from S. spontaneum and four from S. officinarum and compared to seven haplotype sequences from sugarcane hybrid R570. The results clarified the origin of seven homologous haplotypes in R570, four haplotypes originated from S. officinarum, two from S. spontaneum and one recombinant.. Retrotransposon insertions and sequences variations among the homologous haplotypes sequence divergence ranged from 18.2 % to 60.5 % with an average of 33. 7 %. Gene content and gene structure were relatively well conserved among the homologous haplotypes. Exon splitting occurred in haplotypes of the hybrid genome but not in its progenitor genomes. Tajima's D analysis revealed that S. spontaneum hapotypes in the Bru1 genomic regions were under strong directional selection. Numerous inversions, deletions, insertions and translocations were found between haplotypes within each genome. In conclusion, this is the first comparison among haplotypes of a modern sugarcane hybrid and its two progenitors. Tajima's D results emphasized the crucial role of this fungal disease resistance gene for enhancing the fitness of this species and indicating that the brown rust resistance gene in R570 is from S. spontaneum. Species-specific InDel, sequences similarity and phylogenetic analysis of homologous genes can

  3. Immunochip analysis identifies association of the RAD50/IL13 region with human longevity.

    PubMed

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Ellinghaus, David; Gentschew, Liljana; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Caliebe, Amke; Christiansen, Lene; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare; Blanché, Hélène; Deleuze, Jean-François; Derbois, Céline; Galan, Pilar; Büning, Carsten; Brand, Stephan; Peters, Anette; Strauch, Konstantin; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Schreiber, Stefan; Nebel, Almut

    2016-06-01

    Human longevity is characterized by a remarkable lack of confirmed genetic associations. Here, we report on the identification of a novel locus for longevity in the RAD50/IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 using a combined European sample of 3208 long-lived individuals (LLI) and 8919 younger controls. First, we performed a large-scale association study on 1458 German LLI (mean age 99.0 years) and 6368 controls (mean age 57.2 years) by targeting known immune-associated loci covered by the Immunochip. The analysis of 142 136 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed an Immunochip-wide significant signal (PI mmunochip  = 7.01 × 10(-9) ) for the SNP rs2075650 in the TOMM40/APOE region, which has been previously described in the context of human longevity. To identify novel susceptibility loci, we selected 15 markers with PI mmunochip  < 5 × 10(-4) for replication in two samples from France (1257 LLI, mean age 102.4 years; 1811 controls, mean age 49.1 years) and Denmark (493 LLI, mean age 96.2 years; 740 controls, mean age 63.1 years). The association at SNP rs2706372 replicated in the French study collection and showed a similar trend in the Danish participants and was also significant in a meta-analysis of the combined French and Danish data after adjusting for multiple testing. In a meta-analysis of all three samples, rs2706372 reached a P-value of PI mmunochip+Repl  = 5.42 × 10(-7) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.12-1.28). SNP rs2706372 is located in the extended RAD50/IL13 region. RAD50 seems a plausible longevity candidate due to its involvement in DNA repair and inflammation. Further studies are needed to identify the functional variant(s) that predispose(s) to a long and healthy life.

  4. PCA Analysis of the Geomagnetic Field at Mid-Latitude Regions during High Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita

    2016-07-01

    Our study is focused on the analysis of the geomagnetic variability of the H, D and Z components in the Northern hemisphere at mid-latitudes. We analyze two different local times, noon and night, recorded by 22 permanent observatories distributed over Europe and North America during a period of four years of high solar activity comprising 2000-2003. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to identify the spatial and temporal variations of the geomagnetic field components. This technique produces a quite compact representation of the data by defining an orthonormal base derived from correlation within the data set. This helps us to identify possible causes of seasonal variations and anomalies, linking them with already observed currents. In fact, the analysis of PCA amplitudes and modes support our interpretation of the spectral and statistical features of the geomagnetic field. Using the first two modes we reconstruct more than 90% of the original signal for the European and North American region. The obtained results reconfirm the existence of a latitudinal dependence in the geomagnetic components during nighttime hours, associated with the ring current. During noon, the first mode represent the dominant component of the current originated by the ionosphere, while the second mode show the presence of a longitudinal variation at both sides of the longitudes with zero declination for Europe and North America.

  5. ZWD time series analysis derived from NRT data processing. A regional study of PW in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, Christos; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon

    2015-04-01

    ZWD (Zenith Wet/non-hydrostatic Delay) estimates are routinely derived Near Real Time from the new established Analysis Center in the Department of Geodesy and Surveying of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (DGS/AUT-AC), in the framework of E-GVAP (EUMETNET GNSS water vapour project) since October 2014. This process takes place on an hourly basis and yields, among else, station coordinates and tropospheric parameter estimates for a network of 90+ permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations. These are distributed at the wider part of Hellenic region. In this study, temporal and spatial variability of ZWD estimates were examined, as well as their relation with coordinate series extracted from both float and fixed solution of the initial phase ambiguities. For this investigation, Bernese GNSS Software v5.2 was used for the acquisition of the 6 month dataset from the aforementioned network. For time series analysis we employed techniques such as the Generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram and Burg's maximum entropy method due to inefficiencies of the Discrete Fourier Transform application in the test dataset. Through the analysis, interesting results for further geophysical interpretation were drawn. In addition, the spatial and temporal distributions of Precipitable Water vapour (PW) obtained from both ZWD estimates and ERA-Interim reanalysis grids were investigated.

  6. Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (1996-2007): A regional model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manizza, M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C. N.; Key, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid recent decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area increases the flux of solar radiation available for primary production and the area of open water for air-sea gas exchange. We use a regional physical-biogeochemical model of the Arctic Ocean, forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research atmospheric reanalysis, to evaluate the mean present-day CO2 sink and its temporal evolution. During the 1996-2007 period, the model suggests that the Arctic average sea surface temperature warmed by 0.04°C a-1, that sea ice area decreased by ˜0.1 × 106 km2 a-1, and that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon increased. The simulated 1996-2007 time-mean Arctic Ocean CO2 sink is 58 ± 6 Tg C a-1. The increase in ice-free ocean area and consequent carbon drawdown during this period enhances the CO2 sink by ˜1.4 Tg C a-1, consistent with estimates based on extrapolations of sparse data. A regional analysis suggests that during the 1996-2007 period, the shelf regions of the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas experienced an increase in the efficiency of their biological pump due to decreased sea ice area, especially during the 2004-2007 period, consistent with independently published estimates of primary production. In contrast, the CO2 sink in the Barents Sea is reduced during the 2004-2007 period due to a dominant control by warming and decreasing solubility. Thus, the effect of decreasing sea ice area and increasing sea surface temperature partially cancel, though the former is dominant.

  7. Analysis of pressure-broadened ozone spectra in the 3 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochaska, Eleanor S.

    1990-01-01

    The Molecular Spectroscopy Lab at NASA-Langley has been involved in a long term effort to carefully characterize the infrared spectra of small molecules of atmospheric interest, including methane, water vapor, ozone, and their isotopic counterparts. High resolution gas phase infrared spectra are obtained using both a tunable diode laser system, and the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer at the Kitt Peak Solar Observatory. Spectra are obtained at various pressures and temperatures for pure gas samples, and for samples containing mixtures of the species of interest in nitrogen, oxygen, or air. From these spectra, using a nonlinear least squares fitting technique, spectral parameters of position, intensity, and half-width were determined for varying laboratory conditions that approximate atmospheric conditions experienced in remote sensing situations. These parameters are of interest in theoretical studies of these species, as well as in allowing more accurate interpretation of remote sensing data. The current work involves the analysis of a series of McMath FTIR spectra of ozone broadened by mixing with air, nitrogen, or oxygen. Each spectrum covers the region from 2396 to 4057/cm. Each vibrational band is analyzed by first diving its region into small intervals containing a few well isolated absorption lines of reasonable intensity. Each of these small intervals is fit by multiple iterations of the nonlinear least square program until residuals are minimized to a reasonable value which corresponds to the noise level of the measured spectrum. Intervals for the 3 nu(sub 3) ozone band in the region from 3000 to 3060 wavenumbers are being examined.

  8. Analysis of vegetation pasture climate response on Sahel region through 10 years of remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutini, Francesco; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholomé, Etienne; Hoscilo, Agata; Stroppiana, Daniela; Bocchi, Stefano

    2010-10-01

    Studies of impact of human activity on the vegetation dynamics in the Sahel belt of Africa are recently re-invigorated due to a new scientific findings that highlighted the primary role of climate in the drought crises of the 70s-80s. Time series of satellite observations allowed identifying re-greening of the Sahel belt that indicates no sensible human effect on vegetation dynamics at sub continental scale from 80s to late 90s. However, several regional/local crises related to natural resources occurred in the last decades underling that more detailed studies are needed. This study contribute to the understanding of climate/human impact on pasture vegetation status in the Sahel region in the last decade (1999- 2008). The use of a time-series of SPOT-VGT NDVI and FEWS-RFE rainfall estimates allowed to analyze vegetation and rainfall trends and identify local anomalous situation in the region. Trend analysis has been conducted to map a) areas where vegetation has been significantly decreased or increased due to rainfall pattern and b) anomalous zones where vegetation dynamics could not be fully explained by rainfall pattern by. The identified hot-spots areas have been compared with spatial information on the reported humanitarian-food crisis events in order to understand chronic situation where ecosystems carrying capacity is endangered. The results of this study show that even if a general positive re-greening situation is evident for the entire Sahel, some serious hot spots exist in areas where cropping system and pasture activity are conflicting.

  9. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed.

  10. An integrative analysis of regional gene expression profiles in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Myers, Emma M; Bartlett, Christopher W; Machiraju, Raghu; Bohland, Jason W

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the brain's transcriptome have become prominent in recent years, resulting in an accumulation of datasets with somewhat distinct attributes. These datasets, which are often analyzed only in isolation, also are often collected with divergent goals, which are reflected in their sampling properties. While many researchers have been interested in sampling gene expression in one or a few brain areas in a large number of subjects, recent efforts from the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences and others have focused instead on dense neuroanatomical sampling, necessarily limiting the number of individual donor brains studied. The purpose of the present work is to develop methods that draw on the complementary strengths of these two types of datasets for study of the human brain, and to characterize the anatomical specificity of gene expression profiles and gene co-expression networks derived from human brains using different specific technologies. The approach is applied using two publicly accessible datasets: (1) the high anatomical resolution Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA, Hawrylycz et al., 2012) and (2) a relatively large sample size, but comparatively coarse neuroanatomical dataset described previously by Gibbs et al. (2010). We found a relatively high degree of correspondence in differentially expressed genes and regional gene expression profiles across the two datasets. Gene co-expression networks defined in individual brain regions were less congruent, but also showed modest anatomical specificity. Using gene modules derived from the Gibbs dataset and from curated gene lists, we demonstrated varying degrees of anatomical specificity based on two classes of methods, one focused on network modularity and the other focused on enrichment of expression levels. Two approaches to assessing the statistical significance of a gene set's modularity in a given brain region were studied, which provide complementary information about the anatomical specificity of a gene

  11. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  12. Engineering graduates' skill sets in the MENA region: a gap analysis of industry expectations and satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadi, Eric; Ramadi, Serge; Nasr, Karim

    2016-01-01

    This study explored gaps between industry expectations and perceptions of engineering graduates' skill sets in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study measured the importance that managers of engineers placed on 36 skills relevant to engineers. Also measured was managers' satisfaction with engineering graduates' skill sets. Importance and satisfaction were used to calculate skill gaps for each skill. A principal components analysis was then performed, consolidating the 36 skills into 8 categories. The means of importance, satisfaction, and skill gaps were ranked to determine the areas in which graduates needed improvement. Results showed significant gaps between managers' expectations of and satisfaction with all 36 skills. The areas in which managers felt that graduates needed most improvement were communication, time management, and continuous learning. Managers reported that recent engineering graduates exhibited low overall preparedness for employment. These findings may help to inform curricular reform in engineering education.

  13. D-region blunt probe data analysis using hybrid computer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhard, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of performing data reduction techniques with a hybrid computer was studied. The data was obtained from the flight of a parachute born probe through the D-region of the ionosphere. A presentation of the theory of blunt probe operation is included with emphasis on the equations necessary to perform the analysis. This is followed by a discussion of computer program development. Included in this discussion is a comparison of computer and hand reduction results for the blunt probe launched on 31 January 1972. The comparison showed that it was both feasible and desirable to use the computer for data reduction. The results of computer data reduction performed on flight data acquired from five blunt probes are also presented.

  14. On the use of stability regions in the numerical analysis of initial value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenferink, H. W. J.; Spijker, M. N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper deals with the stability analysis of one-step methods in the numerical solution of initial (-boundary) value problems for linear, ordinary, and partial differential equations. Restrictions on the stepsize are derived which guarantee the rate of error growth in these methods to be of moderate size. These restrictions are related to the stability region of the method and to numerical ranges of matrices stemming from the differential equation under consideration. The errors in the one-step methods are measured in arbitrary norms (not necessarily generated by an inner product). The theory is illustrated in the numerical solution of the heat equation and some other differential equations, where the error growth is measured in the maximum norm.

  15. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  16. Automated identification of mitochondrial regions in complex intracellular space by texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing and quantification of biological images have been rapidly increasing the attention of researchers in image processing and pattern recognition because the roles of computerized image and pattern analyses are critical for new biological findings and drug discovery based on modern high-throughput and highcontent image screening. This paper presents a study of the automated detection of regions of mitochondria, which are a subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells, in microscopy images. The automated identification of mitochondria in intracellular space that is captured by the state-of-the-art combination of focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope imaging reported here is the first of its type. Existing methods and a proposed algorithm for texture analysis were tested with the real intracellular images. The high correction rate of detecting the locations of the mitochondria in a complex environment suggests the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  17. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease.

  18. Biofacies analysis of Upper Cretaceous deposits in the Ust-Yenisei region: Implications of palynomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, N. K.

    2008-04-01

    The results of palynomorph biofacies analysis in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Ust-Yenisei region are presented. The established facies confinement and indicative features of separate palynomorph groups are used, along with identified dinocyst morphotypes and taxa, in paleogeographic reconstructions. Seven palynomorph associations characterizing continental, coastal-marine, shallow-and deep-water facies are distinguished based on quantitative proportions between morphological groupings and individual taxa. As boundaries between distinguishable biostratigraphic and facies subdivisions do not coincide, dinocysts were likely insignificantly dependent in distribution on facies in the West Siberian epicontinental basin at least. On the other hand, distribution trends of particular dinocyst morphotypes and other microphytofossils are correlative with transgressive-regressive cycles and can be used for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  19. Numerical analysis of thermogravitational turbulent convection in a closed rectangular region with radiation source of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Nee, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    The mathematical modeling of the conjugate heat transfer in a closed rectangular region has been carried out under the conditions of the radiation supply of energy. The temperature and stream function fields obtained by the modeling illustrate a substantially unsteady nature of the conjugate heat exchange process under study. An analysis of temperature distributions in typical cross sections of the solution domain has shown a considerable inhomogeneity of the temperature field. It is found that an increase in the Rayleigh number leads to substantial modifications of the temperature and stream function fields. The influence of the distribution of radiation fluxes over the internal interfaces on the temperature fields and the airflow character is shown. The influence of the turbulization on the heat transfer intensity near the interfaces between media has been estimated. Comparisons of the obtained numerical results with experimental data have shown their good agreement.

  20. Microscopic analysis of nuclear quantum phase transitions in the N{approx_equal}90 region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-05-15

    The analysis of shape transitions in Nd isotopes, based on the framework of relativistic energy-density functionals and restricted to axially symmetric shapes in T. Niksic, D. Vretenar, G. A. Lalazissis, and P. Ring [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092502 (2007)], is extended to the region Z=60,62,64 with N{approx_equal}90 and includes both {beta} and {gamma} deformations. Collective excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N=90 that can be approximately characterized by the X(5) analytic solution at the critical point of the first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  1. Large-scale data analysis of power grid resilience across multiple US service regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chuanyi; Wei, Yun; Mei, Henry; Calzada, Jorge; Carey, Matthew; Church, Steve; Hayes, Timothy; Nugent, Brian; Stella, Gregory; Wallace, Matthew; White, Joe; Wilcox, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Severe weather events frequently result in large-scale power failures, affecting millions of people for extended durations. However, the lack of comprehensive, detailed failure and recovery data has impeded large-scale resilience studies. Here, we analyse data from four major service regions representing Upstate New York during Super Storm Sandy and daily operations. Using non-stationary spatiotemporal random processes that relate infrastructural failures to recoveries and cost, our data analysis shows that local power failures have a disproportionally large non-local impact on people (that is, the top 20% of failures interrupted 84% of services to customers). A large number (89%) of small failures, represented by the bottom 34% of customers and commonplace devices, resulted in 56% of the total cost of 28 million customer interruption hours. Our study shows that extreme weather does not cause, but rather exacerbates, existing vulnerabilities, which are obscured in daily operations.

  2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER MASERS IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CEPHEUS A AND W75 N

    SciTech Connect

    Uscanga, L.; Gomez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Canto, J.; Curiel, S.; Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N. A.; Raga, A. C. E-mail: jfg@iaa.e E-mail: scuriel@astroscu.unam.m E-mail: npatel@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-05-20

    We have done a statistical analysis of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data of water masers in the star-forming regions (SFRs) Cepheus A and W75 N, using correlation functions to study the spatial clustering and Doppler-velocity distribution of these masers. Two-point spatial correlation functions show a characteristic scale size for clusters of water maser spots {approx_lt}1 AU, similar to the values found in other SFRs. This suggests that the scale for water maser excitation tends to be {approx_lt}1 AU. Velocity correlation functions show power-law dependences with indices that can be explained by regular velocity fields, such as expansion and/or rotation. These velocity fields are similar to those indicated by the water maser proper-motion measurements; therefore, the velocity correlation functions appear to reveal the organized motion of water maser spots on scales larger than 1 AU.

  3. Regional distribution of lung compliance by image analysis of computed tomograms.

    PubMed

    Perchiazzi, Gaetano; Rylander, Christian; Derosa, Savino; Pellegrini, Mariangela; Pitagora, Loredana; Polieri, Debora; Vena, Antonio; Tannoia, Angela; Fiore, Tommaso; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2014-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) can yield quantitative information about volume distribution in the lung. By combining information provided by CT and respiratory mechanics, this study aims at quantifying regional lung compliance (CL) and its distribution and homogeneity in mechanically ventilated pigs. The animals underwent inspiratory hold maneuvers at 12 lung volumes with simultaneous CT exposure at two end-expiratory pressure levels and before and after acute lung injury (ALI) by oleic acid administration. CL and the sum of positive voxel compliances from CT were linearly correlated; negative compliance areas were found. A remarkably heterogeneous distribution of voxel compliance was found in the injured lungs. As the lung inflation increased, the homogeneity increased in healthy lungs but decreased in injured lungs. Image analysis brought novel findings regarding spatial homogeneity of compliance, which increases in ALI but not in healthy lungs by applying PEEP after a recruitment maneuver.

  4. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  5. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    PubMed

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  6. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity. PMID:27507984

  7. Analysis of maxillofacial prosthetics at university dental hospitals in the capital region of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic patterns of maxillofacial prosthetic treatment to identify the characteristics and geographic distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetics in the capital region of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective analytical multicenter study was performed by chart reviews. This study included patients who visited the department of prosthodontics at four university dental hospitals for maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. Patients with facial and congenital defects or with insufficient medical data were excluded. The patients were classified into three categories based on the location of the defect. Patients' sex, age, and residential area were analyzed. Pearson's chi-square test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to analyze the variables. RESULTS Among 540 patients with maxillofacial prosthetics, there were 284 (52.59%) male patients and 256 (47.41%) female patients. The number of the patients varied greatly by hospital. Most patients were older than 70, and the most common defect was a hard palate defect. Chi-square analysis did not identify any significant differences in sex, age, and distance to hospital for any defect group (P>.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study indicated that there was imbalance in the distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetic among the hospitals in the capital region of Korea. Considerations on specialists and insurance policies for the improvement of maxillofacial prosthetics in Korea are required. PMID:27350859

  8. Regional frequency analysis at ungauged sites using a two-stage resampling generalized ensemble framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad H.; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Chebana, Fateh

    2015-10-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) deals with the estimation of hydrological characteristics at sites where little or no data is available. Recently, machine learning applications to RFA have received considerable attention in terms of their flexibility in modeling as well as superior generalization ability compared to conventional approaches. The proper application of machine learning techniques, however, requires good understanding of the available information about system's dynamics, i.e. system variables. This paper presents two contributions to the literature. First, novel ensemble architecture, using a unique two-stage resampling approach, is proposed. The objective of the proposed ensemble model is to promote diversity within the individual learners and reduce over fitting. Second, the application of the proposed model is demonstrated in RFA case study to obtain improved regional flood quantile estimates at ungauged sites. A jackknife validation procedure is used for the evaluation of the model's performance. The method is applied to data from the province of Quebec, Canada. The model showed similar performance and generalization compared to major ensemble models in the literature, which were investigated in previous studies using the same data set. The proposed model confirmed the diversity requirement in ensemble modeling and, in the same time, validated the proposed model adherence to ensemble learning theory.

  9. Description of data files compiled for the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    1989-01-01

    Several types of geologic and hydrologic data were collected and compiled as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. The study described the hydrology of Cambrian-age through Cretaceous-age rocks in all of Kansas and Nebraska and parts of eight other states. Information from both water wells and petroleum wells was obtained from numerous State, Federal, and private sources. The completeness, quality, and distribution of the data varies considerably. Most data files contain data selected to represent the regional scope of the study. The log data file contains about 850 lithologic logs and about 750 geophysical logs. The hydraulic-head data file contains about 1 ,400 measured water levels and about 2,600 values of equivalent freshwater head derived from drill-stem-test analyses. The hydrochemical data file contains about 2,900 water quality analyses. The aquifer-property data file contains about 1,050 values. In addition to site-specific data, areal information in the form of model-data arrays is available for initial hydraulic head, transmissivity, and vertical leakance. These data describe the major geohydrologic units studied in terms of a three-dimensional grid, 28 rows x 33 columns x 5 layers. Parts of the hydraulic-head, hydrochemical, and aquifer-property data files are proprietary. The fluid-withdrawal data file was developed for study use only. Most other data described herein are available on magnetic tape from the U.S. Geological Survey in Lawrence, Kansas. (USGS)

  10. Source region and growth analysis of narrowband Z-mode emission at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Yoon, P. H.; Písa, D.; Ye, S.-Y.; Santolík, O.; Arridge, C. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Intense Z-mode emission is observed in the lower density region near the inner edge of the Enceladus torus at Saturn, where these waves may resonate with MeV electrons. The source mechanism of this emission, which is narrow-banded and most intense near 5 kHz, is not well understood. We survey the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science data to isolate several probable source regions near the inner edge of the Enceladus density torus. Electron phase space distributions are obtained from the Cassini Electron Spectrometer, part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer investigation. We perform a plasma wave growth analysis to conclude that an electron temperature anisotropy and possibly a weak loss cone can drive the Z mode as observed. Electrostatic electron acoustic waves and perhaps weak beam modes are also found to be unstable coincident with the Z mode. Quasi-steady conditions near the Enceladus density torus may result in the observations of narrowband Z-mode emission at Saturn.

  11. Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions

    PubMed Central

    Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results. PMID:24027444

  12. Analysis of alumina/water nanofluid in thermally developing region of a circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Rahim; Ozbek, Arif; Bilgili, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of Al2O3/water nanofluid flow in thermally developing region of a circular tube is the subject of present numerical study. In order to consider the hydrodynamically fully developed condition in the tube, a fully developed velocity profile is defined in the inlet section of tube. Three-dimensional computations are performed for a wide variety of nanoparticle concentrations (1 ≤ γ ≤ 10%). On the other hand, for examination of nanoparticle size, effects on the thermal characteristics, two different particle sizes of d p = 25 and 75 nm are applied. The resulting governing equations are solved numerically by means of the finite volume method. For enhanced visualization, different results are presented in thermally developing region. It is obtained that suspending the Al2O3 nanoparticles in pure water increases the thermal boundary layer growing rate. In addition, an increase on the heat transfer rate is observed in thermal boundary layer using the Al2O3 nanoparticles in which this enhancement varies as a function of nanoparticle size and nanoparticle volume concentration. However, it is found that the role of nanoparticle volume concentration on the thermal characteristics such as thermal boundary layer growing rate, temperature gradient, and heat transfer enhancement is significantly important comparing to the nanoparticle size.

  13. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  14. Regional investigations of soil and overburden analysis and plant uptake of metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Regional studies on the bioavailability of metals at native and disturbed sites were conducted over the past seven years by the USGS. The work was concentrated in the Fort Union, Powder River, and Green River coal resource regions where measures of extractable metals in soils were found to have limited use in predicting metal levels in plants. Correlations between Cu, Fe, and Zn in plants and extractable (DTPA, EDTA, and oxalate) or total levels in native A- and C-horizons of soil were occasionally significant. A simple linear model is generally not adequate, however, in estimating element uptake by plants. Prediction capabilities were improved when a number of soil chemical and physical parameters were included as independent variables in a stepwise linear multiple regression analysis; however, never more than 54% of the total variability in the data was explained by the equations for these metals. Soil pH was the most important variable relating soil chemistry to plant chemistry. This relation was always positive and apparently a response to soil levels of metal carbonates and not Fe and Mn oxides. Studies that compared the metal uptake by rehabilitation species to extractable (DTPA) metal levels in mice soils produced similar results. ?? 1984 Science and Technology Letters.

  15. Critical anatomic region of nasopalatine canal based on tridimensional analysis: cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan Antonio; Muinelo-Lorenzo, Juan; Varela-Mallou, Jesús; Smyth Chamosa, Ernesto; Suárez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2015-08-06

    The study aim of this was to define the critical anatomic region of the premaxilla by evaluating dimensions of nasopalatine canal, buccal bone plate (BBP) and palatal bone plate (PBP). 230 CBCTs were selected with both, one or no upper central incisors present (+/+, -/+, -/-) and periodontal condition was evaluated. T-student test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and a multivariant-linear regression model (MLRM) were used. Regarding gender, significant differences at level 1 (lower NC) were found for: buccal-palatal, transversal and sagittal NC diameters, and NC length (NCL). Regarding dental status, significant differences were found for: total BBP length (tBL) and PBP width (PW2) at level 2 (NCL midpoint). NCL was correlated with PW2, tBL, and PBP length at level 3 (foramina of Stenson level). An MLRM had a high prediction value for NCL (69.3%). Gender is related to NC dimensions. Dental status has an influence on BBP dimensions, but does not influence on NC and PBP. Periodontal condition should be evaluated for precise premaxillae analysis NC diameters at the three anatomical planes are related to each other, while NCL is related to BBP and PBP lengths. A third of premaxilla is taken up by NC, thus, establishing the critical anatomic region.

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Indonesia Solanaceae based on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Topik; Priyandoko, Didik; Islami, Dina Karina; Wardiny, Putri Yunitha

    2016-02-01

    Solanaceae is one of largest family in Angiosperm group with highly diverse in morphological character. In Indonesia, this group of plant is very popular due to its usefulness as food, ornamental and medicinal plants. However, investigation on phylogenetic relationship among the member of this family in Indonesia remains less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetics relationship of the family especially distributed in Indonesia. DNA sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of 19 species of Solanaceae and three species of outgroup, which belongs to family Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, and Plantaginaceae, were isolated, amplified, and sequenced. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on parsimony method was conducted with using data derived from the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2, separately, and the combination of all. Results indicated that the phylogenetic tree derived from the combined data established better pattern of relationship than separate data. Thus, three major groups were revealed. Group 1 consists of tribe Datureae, Cestreae, and Petunieae, whereas group 2 is member of tribe Physaleae. Group 3 belongs to tribe Solaneae. The use of the ITS region as a molecular markers, in general, support the global Solanaceae relationship that has been previously reported.

  17. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity.

  18. Integrating disparate lidar datasets for a regional storm tide inundation analysis of Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, J.M.; Tyler, D.J.; Turnipseed, D.P.; Van Wilson, Jr.; Oimoen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the largest natural disasters in U.S. history. Due to the sheer size of the affected areas, an unprecedented regional analysis at very high resolution and accuracy was needed to properly quantify and understand the effects of the hurricane and the storm tide. Many disparate sources of lidar data were acquired and processed for varying environmental reasons by pre- and post-Katrina projects. The datasets were in several formats and projections and were processed to varying phases of completion, and as a result the task of producing a seamless digital elevation dataset required a high level of coordination, research, and revision. To create a seamless digital elevation dataset, many technical issues had to be resolved before producing the desired 1/9-arc-second (3meter) grid needed as the map base for projecting the Katrina peak storm tide throughout the affected coastal region. This report presents the methodology that was developed to construct seamless digital elevation datasets from multipurpose, multi-use, and disparate lidar datasets, and describes an easily accessible Web application for viewing the maximum storm tide caused by Hurricane Katrina in southeastern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  19. An analysis of scientific potential of northern Oceanus Procellarum region for sample return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Liu, J.; Li, C.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate the science potential of northern Oceanus Procellarum as a candidate site for future Chang'e sample return mission. This region is characterized by relatively young basaltic lavas, estimated at approximately 2.5-3.75 Ga [e.g., 1], thus may potentially yield information on mare evolution and cratering rate not retrievable from Apollo and Lunar samples. Mons Rümker, a large (65 km diameter) volcanic edifice centered at 40.8°N 58.1°W, consists of multiple mare domes. Previous modeling suggests low effusion rates and varied lava eruption temperatures and varied degrees of crystallization for these domes [2]. Samples from Mons Rümker would provide information on its composition, eruption style, rheological properties, and evolution. In addition, Rima Sharp (46.7°N 50.5°W), a 107 km long, approximate 1 km wide rille, winds through this region. We present stratigraphical and compositional study of northern Oceanus Procellarum based on Kaguya and Chang'e 2 multispectral and image data. We will also present analysis on elevation, rock abundance and other engineering parameters of importance to landing safety. References: [1] Heisinger et al. J. Geophys. Res., 108, E7, 1-27, 2003. [2] Wöhler et al. Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXVIII, #1091, 2007.

  20. Comparative anatomical analysis of the cotyledonary region in three Mediterranean Basin Quercus (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Pascual, Gemma; Molinas, Marisa; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2002-03-01

    Anatomical changes at the cotyledonary node from the embryo to the seedling stage in Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Mature embryos of Q. humilis possess 2-3 pairs of leaf primordia and a pair of cotyledonary buds, whereas in Q. coccifera and Q. ilex there are two incipient primordia, and cotyledonary buds are not observed until 1 wk after germination. In all three species the cotyledonary buds multiply, forming bud clusters, and a vascular connection is well established within 5-6 wk after germination. As development proceeds, the cotyledonary region becomes woody, but buds, which are exogenous in origin, never become embedded in the periderm. In comparison with Q. suber, another native Mediterranean Basin oak, the cotyledonary node is short and axillary buds are not present below the insertion of cotyledons. In addition, starch accumulation in the cotyledonary region is not observed from histological analysis in the three oaks. Therefore, in Q. coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis seedlings the cotyledonary node can be considered to be an important regenerative structure enabling them to resprout after the elimination of the shoot above the cotyledons, despite the absence of a lignotuberous structure.

  1. Haplotype analysis of the 4p16.3 region in Portuguese families with Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S.; Lee, Jong‐Min; Gögele, Martin; D'Elia, Yuri; Pichler, Irene; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Gusella, James F.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary choreic movements, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes, caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in HTT. We characterized the genetic diversity of the HD mutation by performing an extensive haplotype analysis of ∼1Mb region flanking HTT in over 300 HD families of Portuguese origin. We observed that haplotype A, marked by HTT delta2642, was enriched in HD chromosomes and carried the two largest expansions reported in the Portuguese population. However, the most frequent HD haplotype B carried one of the largest (+12 CAGs) expansions, which resulted in an allele class change to full penetrance. Despite having a normal CAG distribution skewed to the higher end of the range, these two core haplotypes had similar expanded CAG repeat sizes compared to the other major core haplotypes (C and D) and there was no statistical difference in transmitted repeat instability across haplotypes. We observed a diversity of HTT region haplotypes in both normal and expanded chromosomes, representative of more than one ancestral chromosome underlying HD in Portugal, where multiple independent events on distinct chromosome 4 haplotypes have given rise to expansion into the pathogenic range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656686

  2. Characterization and functional analysis of the 5' flanking region of Sparus aurata myostatin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Funkenstein, Bruria; Balas, Viki; Rebhan, Yanai; Pliatner, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Although several MSTN promoters were described in fish, no functional analysis was reported so far. Here, the 5' flanking region (1372 bp) of the MSTN-1 gene of the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-1) was cloned, sequenced and characterized. It contains two consensus sequences for TATA box (TATAA), a CAAT box, ten putative E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) and two putative binding sites to TF Myocyte enhancing factor-2 (MEF2). In addition, it has several putative binding sites to TF Pit-1a and several response elements to nuclear receptors (GRE, ERE, PRE, ARE, TRE, RARE and PPARRE) and cAMP-response elements. Transcriptional activity of five genomic fragments (truncated at their upstream region) of 372, 941, 972, 1113 and 1355 bp was studied in vitro, using transient transfection in A204 cells. All constructs directed luciferase activity, with the highest activity obtained by the 1113 bp fragment. These experiments show that all five genomic fragments are functional MSTN promoters and differences in promoter activity might be due to presence of enhancers and/or repressor sequences, regulating MSTN promoter activity.

  3. Characterizing the interaction between uranyl ion and fulvic acid using regional integration analysis (RIA) and fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bingqi; Ryan, David K

    2016-03-01

    The development of chemometric methods has substantially improved the quantitative usefulness of the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) in the analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, Regional Integration Analysis (RIA) was used to quantitatively interpret EEMs and assess fluorescence quenching behavior in order to study the binding between uranyl ion and fulvic acid. Three fulvic acids including soil fulvic acid (SFA), Oyster River fulvic acid (ORFA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were used and investigated by the spectroscopic techniques. The EEM spectra obtained were divided into five regions according to fluorescence structural features and two distinct peaks were observed in region III and region V. Fluorescence quenching analysis was conducted for these two regions with the stability constants, ligand concentrations and residual fluorescence values calculated using the Ryan-Weber model. Results indicated a relatively strong binding ability between uranyl ion and fulvic acid samples at low pH (log K value varies from 4.11 to 4.67 at pH 3.50). Fluorophores in region III showed a higher binding ability with fewer binding sites than in region V. Stability constants followed the order, SFA > ORFA > SRFA, while ligand concentrations followed the reverse order, SRFA > ORFA > SFA. A comparison between RIA and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) data treatment methods was also performed and good agreement between these two methods (less than 4% difference in log K values) demonstrates the reliability of the RIA method in this study.

  4. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  5. Compatibility analysis of material and energy recovery in a regional solid waste management system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2003-01-01

    The rising prices of raw materials and concerns about energy conservation have resulted in an increasing interest in the simultaneous recovery of materials and energy from waste streams. Compatibility exists for several economic, environmental, and managerial reasons. Installing an on-site or off-site presorting facility before an incinerator could be a feasible alternative to achieve both goals if household recycling programs cannot succeed in local communities. However, the regional impacts of presorting solid waste on a waste-to-energy facility remain unclear because of the inherent complexity of solid waste compositions and properties over different areas. This paper applies a system-based approach to assess the impact of installing a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) process before an incinerator. Such an RDF process, consisting of standard unit operations of shredding, magnetic separation, trommel screening, and air classification, might be useful for integrating the recycling and presorting efforts for a large-scale municipal incinerator from a regional sense. An optimization modeling analysis is performed to characterize such integration potential so that the optimal size of the RDF process and associated shipping patterns for flow control can be foreseen. It aims at exploring how the waste inflows with different rates of generation, physical and chemical compositions, and heating values collected from differing administrative districts can be processed by either a centralized presorting facility or an incinerator to meet both the energy recovery and throughput requirements. A case study conducted in Taipei County, which is one of the most densely populated metropolitan areas in Taiwan, further confirms the application potential of such a cost-benefit analysis.

  6. Molecular Analysis of Fungal Populations in Patients with Oral Candidiasis Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    PubMed Central

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection. PMID:24979710

  7. Statistical analysis of the horizontal divergent flow in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Hayashi, Keiji; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2014-10-10

    Solar active regions (ARs) are thought to be formed by magnetic fields from the convection zone. Our flux emergence simulations revealed that a strong horizontal divergent flow (HDF) of unmagnetized plasma appears at the photosphere before the flux begins to emerge. In our earlier study, we analyzed HMI data for a single AR and confirmed presence of this precursor plasma flow in the actual Sun. In this paper, as an extension of our earlier study, we conducted a statistical analysis of the HDFs to further investigate their characteristics and better determine the properties. From SDO/HMI data, we picked up 23 flux emergence events over a period of 14 months, the total flux of which ranges from 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 22} Mx. Out of 23 selected events, 6 clear HDFs were detected by the method we developed in our earlier study, and 7 HDFs detected by visual inspection were added to this statistic analysis. We found that the duration of the HDF is on average 61 minutes and the maximum HDF speed is on average 3.1 km s{sup –1}. We also estimated the rising speed of the subsurface magnetic flux to be 0.6-1.4 km s{sup –1}. These values are highly consistent with our previous one-event analysis as well as our simulation results. The observation results lead us to the conclusion that the HDF is a rather common feature in the earliest phase of AR emergence. Moreover, our HDF analysis has the capability of determining the subsurface properties of emerging fields that cannot be directly measured.

  8. Joint NASA/EPA AVIRIS Analysis in the Chesapeake Bay Region: Plans and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee; Stokely, Peter; Lobitz, Brad; Shelton, Gary

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center is performing an AVIRIS demonstration project in conjunction with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 3). NASA and EPA scientists have jointly defined a Study Area in eastern Virginia to include portions of the Chesapeake Bay, southern Delmarva Peninsula, and the mouths of the York and James Rivers. Several environmental issues have been identified for study. These include, by priority: 1) water constituent analysis in the Chesapeake Bay, 2) mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay, 3) detection of vegetation stress related to Superfund sites at the Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, and 4) wetland species analysis in the York River vicinity. In support of this project, three lines of AVIRIS data were collected during the Wallops Island deployment on 17 August 1997. The remote sensing payload included AVIRIS, MODIS Airborne Simulator and an RC-10 color infrared film camera. The AVIRIS data were delivered to Ames from the JPL AVIRIS Data Facility, on 29 September 1997. Quicklook images indicate nominal data acquisition, and at the current time an atmospheric correction is being applied. Water constituent analysis of the Bay is our highest priority based on EPA interest and available collateral data, both from the surface and from other remote sensing instruments. Constituents of interest include suspended sediments, chlorophyll-a and accessory pigments, Analysis steps will include: verification of data quality, location of study sites in imagery, incorporation of relevant field data from EPA and other Chesapeake Bay cooperators, processing of imagery to show phenomenon of interest, verification of results with cooperators. By 1st quarter CY98 we plan to circulate initial results to NASA and EPA management for review. In the longer term we will finalize documentation, prepare results for publication, and complete any needed technology transfer to EPA remote sensing personnel.

  9. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers. This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream. Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted. Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed (eg. Emmer and Vilimek 2014; Wang, et al. 2011), but as yet they have only been applied to a few select lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. This study uses remotely sensed data to study all of the lakes of the Glacial Lake Inventory published by the Glaciology and Water Resources Unit of Peru's National Water Authority (UGRH 2011). The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines. These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics

  10. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  11. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard

    2015-04-01

    Many numerical studies have shown that the West African monsoon is highly sensitive to the state of the land surface. It is however questionable to which extend a local change of land surface properties would affect the local climate, especially with respect to precipitation. This issue is traditionally addressed with the concept of precipitation recycling, defined as the contribution of local surface evaporation to local precipitation. For this study the West African monsoon has been simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using explicit convection, for the domain (1°S-21°N, 18°W-14°E) at a spatial resolution of 10 km, for the period January-October 2013, and using ERA-Interim reanalyses as driving data. This WRF configuration has been selected for its ability to simulate monthly precipitation amounts and daily histograms close to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. In order to investigate precipitation recycling in this WRF simulation, surface evaporation tagging has been implemented in the WRF source code as well as the budget of total and tagged atmospheric water. Surface evaporation tagging consists in duplicating all water species and the respective prognostic equations in the source code. Then, tagged water species are set to zero at the lateral boundaries of the simulated domain (no inflow of tagged water vapor), and tagged surface evaporation is considered only in a specified region. All the source terms of the prognostic equations of total and tagged water species are finally saved in the outputs for the budget analysis. This allows quantifying the respective contribution of total and tagged atmospheric water to atmospheric precipitation processes. The WRF simulation with surface evaporation tagging and budgets has been conducted two times, first with a 100 km2 tagged region (11-12°N, 1-2°W), and second with a 1000 km2 tagged region (7-16°N, 6°W -3°E). In this presentation we will investigate hydro

  12. Spatial Analysis Spotlighting Early Childhood Leprosy Transmission in a Hyperendemic Municipality of the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Bisanzio, Donal; Guimarães, Layana de Souza; Spencer, John Stewart; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Kitron, Uriel; Salgado, Claudio Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. Methodology We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal). Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. Principal Findings The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01). Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26–6.59; p<0.0001). Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3%) lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8%) were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5%) showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer) of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8%) were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area). Conclusions/Significance Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  13. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  14. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion

  15. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis using Support Vector Regression under historical and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizaw, Mesgana Seyoum; Gan, Thian Yew

    2016-07-01

    Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA) is a statistical method widely used to estimate flood quantiles of catchments with limited streamflow data. In addition, to estimate the flood quantile of ungauged sites, there could be only a limited number of stations with complete dataset are available from hydrologically similar, surrounding catchments. Besides traditional regression based RFFA methods, recent applications of machine learning algorithms such as the artificial neural network (ANN) have shown encouraging results in regional flood quantile estimations. Another novel machine learning technique that is becoming widely applicable in the hydrologic community is the Support Vector Regression (SVR). In this study, an RFFA model based on SVR was developed to estimate regional flood quantiles for two study areas, one with 26 catchments located in southeastern British Columbia (BC) and another with 23 catchments located in southern Ontario (ON), Canada. The SVR-RFFA model for both study sites was developed from 13 sets of physiographic and climatic predictors for the historical period. The Ef (Nash Sutcliffe coefficient) and R2 of the SVR-RFFA model was about 0.7 when estimating flood quantiles of 10, 25, 50 and 100 year return periods which indicate satisfactory model performance in both study areas. In addition, the SVR-RFFA model also performed well based on other goodness-of-fit statistics such as BIAS (mean bias) and BIASr (relative BIAS). If the amount of data available for training RFFA models is limited, the SVR-RFFA model was found to perform better than an ANN based RFFA model, and with significantly lower median CV (coefficient of variation) of the estimated flood quantiles. The SVR-RFFA model was then used to project changes in flood quantiles over the two study areas under the impact of climate change using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate projections of five Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) GCMs (Global Climate Models) for the 2041

  16. Subpeak regional analysis of intracranial pressure waveform morphology based on cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in the cerebral aqueduct and prepontine cistern.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert B; Baldwin, Kevin; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse waveform morphology and selected hydrodynamic metrics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement using a novel method for ICP pulse pressure regional analysis based on the Morphological Clustering and Analysis of Continuous Intracranial Pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm.

  17. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  18. Planning report for the southwest alluvial basins (east) regional aquifer-system analysis, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Scott, W.B.; Kaehler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the Southwest alluvial basins (east) will involve an analysis of the regional aquifer system in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. This area has been divided into 22 basins. The study of the alluvial aquifer-system will be made in the following stages: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches, (3) compiling existing data, (4) data collection, (5) basin modeling, (6) regional aquifer modeling, and (7) reports. The regional aquifer study will be accomplished through studying each of the 22 basins. Data compilation and limited data collection will be part of each basin study. Digital computer models will be made for those basins where data are sufficient. A regional aquifer model will be developed from the basin models. In addition to this report, there will be basin hydrology reports and the final regional report. Included in the final report will be a description of the regional hydrology and geology. (USGS)

  19. Geospatial Analysis of Near-Surface Soil Moisture Time Series Data Over Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwal, P.; Murthy, C. S.; Raju, P. V.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.

    2016-06-01

    The present study has developed the time series database surface soil moisture over India, for June, July and August months for the period of 20 years from 1991 to 2010, using data products generated under Climate Change Initiative Programme of European Space Agency. These three months represent the crop sowing period in the prime cropping season in the country and the soil moisture data during this period is highly useful to detect the drought conditions and assess the drought impact. The time series soil moisture data which is in 0.25 degree spatial resolution was analyzed to generate different indicators. Rainfall data of same spatial resolution for the same period, generated by India Meteorological Department was also procured and analyzed. Geospatial analysis of soil moisture and rainfall derived indicators was carried out to study (1) inter annual variability of soil moisture and rainfall, (2) soil moisture deviations from normal during prominent drought years, (3) soil moisture and rainfall correlations and (4) drought exposure based on soil moisture and rainfall variability. The study has successfully demonstrated the potential of these soil moisture time series data sets for generating regional drought surveillance information products, drought hazard mapping, drought exposure analysis and detection of drought sensitive areas in the crop planting period.

  20. Introducing comparative analysis to the LEED system: A case forrational and regional application

    SciTech Connect

    Eijadi, David; Vaidya, Prausad; Reinertsen, James; Kumar, Satish

    2002-06-01

    The LEED(TM) system awards points for prescriptive andperformance based environmental strategies; rightly giving more weight todecisions affecting building operations, since environmental impacts overthe life of a building exceed the one-time environmental impacts affectedby the building s construction. The environmental benefits of LEED(TM)strategies are considered implicit and the point system is not a metricof environmental performance. Thus, guideline strategies that achieve thesame points may not have analogous environmental performance. This paperdraws from our LEED(TM) project experience as certified consultants to anumber of design teams. We applied analysis to those experiences andargue that -The relative environmental value of the same LEED(TM)strategy may vary by geographical region and by building type. -Scoringsuccessive LEED(TM) points beyond a 'standard practice design'significantly increases design effort and capital costs for construction.-Without comparative analysis of the costs of alternate LEED(TM)strategies and their corresponding environmental benefit, designers willnot necessarily invest capital in strategies that most profoundlyminimize the environmental impacts of a building. -For design teams andowners interested in the least expensive LEED(TM) certification, gamingthe point system could drive investment away from sound environmentalperformance strategies such as energy efficiency. Using these arguments,this paper makes a case to enhance the LEED(TM) system by -CategorizingLEED(TM) strategies by their direct or indirect value towardsEnvironmental Benefit, Healthy Buildings (Places), and Profitability.-Reformulating prescriptive requirements into performance basedrequirements wherever possible. -Customizing LEED(TM) guidelines byregion.

  1. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    PubMed

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  2. Development of Distributed Research Center for analysis of regional climatic and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E.; Shiklomanov, A.; Okladnikov, I.; Prusevich, A.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach and first results of a collaborative project being carried out by a joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center UNH, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software platform prototype of a Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes in the Northern extratropical areas. The DRC should provide the specialists working in climate related sciences and decision-makers with accurate and detailed climatic characteristics for the selected area and reliable and affordable tools for their in-depth statistical analysis and studies of the effects of climate change. Within the framework of the project, new approaches to cloud processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) inherent to climate change studies are developed and deployed on technical platforms of both institutions. We discuss here the state of the art in this domain, describe web based information-computational systems developed by the partners, justify the methods chosen to reach the project goal, and briefly list the results obtained so far.

  3. Evolutionary analysis of DNA-protein-coding regions based on a genetic code cube metric.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy

    2014-01-01

    The right estimation of the evolutionary distance between DNA or protein sequences is the cornerstone of the current phylogenetic analysis based on distance methods. Herein, it is demonstrated that the Manhattan distance (dw), weighted by the evolutionary importance of the nucleotide bases in the codon, is a naturally derived metric in the standard genetic code cube inserted into the three-dimensional Euclidean space. Based on the application of distance dw, a novel evolutionary model is proposed. This model includes insertion/deletion mutations that are very important for cancer studies, but usually discarded in classical evolutionary models. In this study, the new evolutionary model was applied to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA protein-coding regions of 13 mammal mitochondrial genomes and of four cancer genetic- susceptibility genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53) from nine mammals. The opossum (a marsupial) was used as an out-group species for both sets of sequences. The new evolutionary model yielded the correct topology, while the current models failed to separate the evolutionarily distant species of mouse and opossum.

  4. Radiation and Thermal Analysis of Superconducting Quadrupoles in the Interaction Region of Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-10-14

    Radiation heat deposition in the superconducting magnets of the Interaction Region (IR) of a linear collider can be a serious issue that limits the magnet operating margins and shortens the material lifetime. Radiation and thermal analyses of the IR quadrupoles in the incoming and extraction beam lines of the ILC are performed in order to determine the magnet limits. This paper presents an analysis of the radial, azimuthal and longitudinal distributions of heat deposition in the incoming and disrupted beam doublets. Operation margins of the magnets based on NbTi superconductor are calculated and compared. The radiation and thermal analysis of the ILC IR quadrupoles based on Rutherford type cables was performed. It was found that the peak radiation heat deposition takes place in the second extraction quadrupole QFEX2. The maximum power density in the coil is {approx}17mW/g. This is rather high, comparing to the proton machines (LHC). However, the fast radial decay of the heat deposition together with the high thermal conductivity of the Rutherford type cable limits the coil temperatures to a moderate level. It was determined that both 2-layer and 4-layer QFEX2 magnet designs have thermal margins of a factor of {approx}4 at the nominal gradient of 31.3 T/m. Because of the large margins, these magnets can easily accommodate possible changes in the IR optics and heat deposition levels.

  5. Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2013-07-01

    An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle θD of the dee electrode, the span angle θF from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio RV of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of θF for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and θD, which is 90°/h+θD/2≤θF≤180°/h+θD/2, and sin θF>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

  6. Region of interest extraction based on multiscale visual saliency analysis for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinggang; Zhang, Libao; Yu, Xianchuan

    2015-01-01

    Region of interest (ROI) extraction is an important component of remote sensing image processing. However, traditional ROI extraction methods are usually prior knowledge-based and depend on classification, segmentation, and a global searching solution, which are time-consuming and computationally complex. We propose a more efficient ROI extraction model for remote sensing images based on multiscale visual saliency analysis (MVS), implemented in the CIE L*a*b* color space, which is similar to visual perception of the human eye. We first extract the intensity, orientation, and color feature of the image using different methods: the visual attention mechanism is used to eliminate the intensity feature using a difference of Gaussian template; the integer wavelet transform is used to extract the orientation feature; and color information content analysis is used to obtain the color feature. Then, a new feature-competition method is proposed that addresses the different contributions of each feature map to calculate the weight of each feature image for combining them into the final saliency map. Qualitative and quantitative experimental results of the MVS model as compared with those of other models show that it is more effective and provides more accurate ROI extraction results with fewer holes inside the ROI.

  7. Regional flood frequency analysis using spatial proximity and basin characteristics: Quantile regression vs. parameter regression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Palmer, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite wide use of regression-based regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) methods, the majority are based on either ordinary least squares (OLS) or generalized least squares (GLS). This paper proposes 'spatial proximity' based RFFA methods using the spatial lagged model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM). The proposed methods are represented by two frameworks: the quantile regression technique (QRT) and parameter regression technique (PRT). The QRT develops prediction equations for flooding quantiles in average recurrence intervals (ARIs) of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 years whereas the PRT provides prediction of three parameters for the selected distribution. The proposed methods are tested using data incorporating 30 basin characteristics from 237 basins in Northeastern United States. Results show that generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution properly represents flood frequencies in the study gages. Also, basin area, stream network, and precipitation seasonality are found to be the most effective explanatory variables in prediction modeling by the QRT and PRT. 'Spatial proximity' based RFFA methods provide reliable flood quantile estimates compared to simpler methods. Compared to the QRT, the PRT may be recommended due to its accuracy and computational simplicity. The results presented in this paper may serve as one possible guidepost for hydrologists interested in flood analysis at ungaged sites.

  8. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 female primary infertility patients and 1100 female secondary infertility patients were included in this study, as well as 627 healthy female controls. The above autoantibodies were tested and the positive rates in each group were calculated. Results: the positive rate of ASAb were significantly higher in primary infertility female than that in male, further analysis revealed that primary infertility population all exhibit significant higher positive rate of EMAb, AOAb, AZP and ACA compared with control group. Furthermore, the positive rates of all the antibodies in primary infertility female were significantly higher than those in secondary infertility female. Conclusions: Our study thus indicates that these autoantibodies might be associated with immunological related primary infertility and may have clinical significance in its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26550366

  9. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  10. Performance analysis of landslide early warning systems at regional scale: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piciullo, Luca; Calvello, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) reduce landslide risk by disseminating timely and meaningful warnings when the level of risk is judged intolerably high. Two categories of LEWSs, can be defined on the basis of their scale of analysis: "local" systems and "regional" systems. LEWSs at regional scale (ReLEWSs) are used to assess the probability of occurrence of landslides over appropriately-defined homogeneous warning zones of relevant extension, typically through the prediction and monitoring of meteorological variables, in order to give generalized warnings to the public. Despite many studies on ReLEWSs, no standard requirements exist for assessing their performance. Empirical evaluations are often carried out by simply analysing the time frames during which significant high-consequence landslides occurred in the test area. Alternatively, the performance evaluation is based on 2x2 contingency tables computed for the joint frequency distribution of landslides and alerts, both considered as dichotomous variables. In all these cases, model performance is assessed neglecting some important aspects which are peculiar to ReLEWSs, among which: the possible occurrence of multiple landslides in the warning zone; the duration of the warnings in relation to the time of occurrence of the landslides; the level of the warning issued in relation to the landslide spatial density in the warning zone; the relative importance system managers attribute to different types of errors. An original approach, called EDuMaP method, is proposed to assess the performance of landslide early warning models operating at regional scale. The method is composed by three main phases: Events analysis, Duration Matrix, Performance analysis. The events analysis phase focuses on the definition of landslide (LEs) and warning events (WEs), which are derived from available landslides and warnings databases according to their spatial and temporal characteristics by means of ten input parameters. The

  11. A Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the 46c Chromosomal Region Surrounding the Fmrfamide Neuropeptide Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, M. A.; Roberts, M. S.; Taghert, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene region of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene maps to the 46C region of chromosome 2R; this interval previously was not well characterized. For this genetic and molecular analysis, we have used X-ray mutagenesis, EMS mutagenesis, and the recently reported local P element transposition method. We identified four overlapping deletions, two of which have proximal breakpoints that define a 50-60-kb region surrounding the FMRFamide gene in 46C. To this small region, we mapped three lethal complementation groups; 10 additional lethal complementation groups were mapped to more distal regions of 46CD. One of these groups corresponds to even-skipped, the other 12 are previously unidentified. Using various lines of evidence we excluded the possibility that FMRFamide corresponds to any of the three lethal complementation groups mapping to its immediate 50-60-kb vicinity. The positions of two of the three lethal complementation groups were identified with P elements using a local transposition scheme. The third lethal complementation group was excluded as being FMRFamide mutants by sequence analysis and by immunocytochemistry with proFMRFamide precursor-specific antibodies. This analysis has (1) provided a genetic map of the 46CD chromosomal region and a detailed molecular map of a portion of the 46C region and (2) provided additional evidence of the utility of local transposition for targeting nearby genes. PMID:8056304

  12. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  13. Preliminary Analysis of Observations on the Ultra-Low Frequency Electric Field in the Beijing Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Vere-Jones, David; Guan, Huaping; Ogata, Yosihiko; Ma, Li

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of observations on ultra-low frequency ground electric signals from stations operated by the China Seismological Bureau over the last 20 years. A brief description of the instrumentation, operating procedures and data processing procedures is given. The data analyzed consists of estimates of the total strengths (cumulated amplitudes) of the electric signals during 24-hour periods. The thresholds are set low enough so that on most days a zero observation is returned. Non-zero observations are related to electric and magnetic storms, occasional man-made electrical effects, and, apparently, some pre-, co-, or postseismic signals. The main purpose of the analysis is to investigate the extent that the electric signals can be considered as preseismic in character. For this purpose the electric signals from each of five stations are jointly analyzed with the catalogue of local earthquakes within circular regions around the selected stations. A version of Ogata’s Lin-Lin algorithm is used to estimate and test the existence of a pre-seismic signal. This model allows the effect of the electric signals to be tested, even after allowing for the effects of earthquake clustering. It is found that, although the largest single effect influencing earthquake occurrence is the clustering tendency, there remains a significant preseismic component from the electrical signals. Additional tests show that the apparent effect is not postseismic in character, and persists even under variations of the model and the time periods used in the analysis. Samples of the data are presented and the full data sets have been made available on local websites.

  14. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  15. Automated region of interest analysis of dynamic Ca2+ signals in image sequences

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Michael; Qian, Xun; Charbel, Chimène; Ledoux, Jonathan; Parker, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are commonly measured using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators and microscopy techniques, but manual analysis of Ca2+ measurements is time consuming and subject to bias. Automated region of interest (ROI) detection algorithms have been employed for identification of Ca2+ signals in one-dimensional line scan images, but currently there is no process to integrate acquisition and analysis of ROIs within two-dimensional time lapse image sequences. Therefore we devised a novel algorithm for rapid ROI identification and measurement based on the analysis of best-fit ellipses assigned to signals within noise-filtered image sequences. This algorithm was implemented as a plugin for ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). We evaluated the ability of our algorithm to detect synthetic Gaussian signal pulses embedded in background noise. The algorithm placed ROIs very near to the center of a range of signal pulses, resulting in mean signal amplitude measurements of 99.06 ± 4.11% of true amplitude values. As a practical application, we evaluated both agonist-induced Ca2+ responses in cultured endothelial cell monolayers, and subtle basal endothelial Ca2+ dynamics in opened artery preparations. Our algorithm enabled comprehensive measurement of individual and localized cellular responses within cultured cell monolayers. It also accurately identified characteristic Ca2+ transients, or Ca2+ pulsars, within the endothelium of intact mouse mesenteric arteries and revealed the distribution of this basal Ca2+ signal modality to be non-Gaussian with respect to amplitude, duration, and spatial spread. We propose that large-scale statistical evaluations made possible by our algorithm will lead to a more efficient and complete characterization of physiologic Ca2+-dependent signaling. PMID:22538238

  16. Regional-specific Stochastic Simulation of Spatially-distributed Ground-motion Time Histories using Wavelet Packet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of spatially distributed ground-motion time histories is important for performance-based earthquake design of geographically distributed systems. In this study, we develop a novel technique to stochastically simulate regionalized ground-motion time histories using wavelet packet analysis. First, a transient acceleration time history is characterized by wavelet-packet parameters proposed by Yamamoto and Baker (2013). The wavelet-packet parameters fully characterize ground-motion time histories in terms of energy content, time- frequency-domain characteristics and time-frequency nonstationarity. This study further investigates the spatial cross-correlations of wavelet-packet parameters based on geostatistical analysis of 1500 regionalized ground motion data from eight well-recorded earthquakes in California, Mexico, Japan and Taiwan. The linear model of coregionalization (LMC) is used to develop a permissible spatial cross-correlation model for each parameter group. The geostatistical analysis of ground-motion data from different regions reveals significant dependence of the LMC structure on regional site conditions, which can be characterized by the correlation range of Vs30 in each region. In general, the spatial correlation and cross-correlation of wavelet-packet parameters are stronger if the site condition is more homogeneous. Using the regional-specific spatial cross-correlation model and cokriging technique, wavelet packet parameters at unmeasured locations can be best estimated, and regionalized ground-motion time histories can be synthesized. Case studies and blind tests demonstrated that the simulated ground motions generally agree well with the actual recorded data, if the influence of regional-site conditions is considered. The developed method has great potential to be used in computational-based seismic analysis and loss estimation in a regional scale.

  17. A Mutational Analysis Identifies Three Functional Regions of the Spindle Pole Component Spc110p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Holly A.; Davis, Trisha N.

    1997-01-01

    The central coiled coil of the essential spindle pole component Spc110p spans the distance between the central and inner plaques of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle pole body (SPB). The carboxy terminus of Spc110p, which binds calmodulin, resides at the central plaque, and the amino terminus resides at the inner plaque from which nuclear microtubules originate. To dissect the functions of Spc110p, we created temperature-sensitive mutations in the amino and carboxy termini. Analysis of the temperature-sensitive spc110 mutations and intragenic complementation analysis of the spc110 alleles defined three functional regions of Spc110p. Region I is located at the amino terminus. Region II is located at the carboxy-terminal end of the coiled coil, and region III is the previously defined calmodulin-binding site. Overexpression of SPC98 suppresses the temperature sensitivity conferred by mutations in region I but not the phenotypes conferred by mutations in the other two regions, suggesting that the amino terminus of Spc110p is involved in an interaction with the γ-tubulin complex composed of Spc97p, Spc98p, and Tub4p. Mutations in region II lead to loss of SPB integrity during mitosis, suggesting that this region is required for the stable attachment of Spc110p to the central plaque. Our results strongly argue that Spc110p links the γ-tubulin complex to the central plaque of the SPB. PMID:9398677

  18. Quantitative analysis of properties and spatial relations of fuzzy image regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.; Ma, Yibing

    1992-01-01

    Properties of objects and spatial relations between objects play an important role in rule-based approaches for high-level vision. The partial presence or absence of such properties and relationships can supply both positive and negative evidence for region labeling hypotheses. Similarly, fuzzy labeling of a region can generate new hypotheses pertaining to the properties of the region, its relation to the neighboring regions, and finally, the labels of the neighboring regions. In this paper, we present a unified methodology to characterize properties and spatial relationships of object regions in a digital image. The proposed methods can be used to arrive at more meaningful decisions about the contents of the scene.

  19. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

    2012-12-01

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.001). Region, education, religion, residence, nutritional status, age at first sexual intercourse and children ever born were significantly associated with timing of first marriage (p < 0.001). Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% married too early (less than 15 years). Early marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p < 0.001). Muslim women married early (H.R = 1.34; C.I = 1.29-1.39) than Christians. Three models were generated from the data. Women married too early in Nigeria with Teenage marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria.

  20. Meta-analysis of depleted uranium levels in the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Besic, Larisa; Muhovic, Imer; Asic, Adna; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina

    2017-04-07

    In recent years, contradicting data has been published on the connection between the presence of depleted uranium and an increased cancer incidence among military personnel deployed in the Balkans during the 1992-1999 wars. This has led to numerous research articles investigating possible depleted uranium contamination of the afflicted regions of the Balkan Peninsula, namely Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The aim of this study was to collect data from previously published reports investigating the levels of depleted uranium in the Balkans and to present the data in the form of a meta-analysis. This would provide a clear image of the extent of depleted uranium contamination after the Balkan conflict. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the levels of depleted uranium and the assumed depleted uranium-related health effects. Our results suggest that the majority of the examined sites contain natural uranium, while the area of Kosovo appears to be most heavily afflicted by depleted uranium pollution, followed by Bosnia & Herzegovina. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is not possible to make a valid correlation between the health effects and depleted uranium-contaminated areas. We therefore suggest a structured collaborative plan of action where long-term monitoring of the residents of depleted uranium-afflicted areas would be performed. In conclusion, while the possibility of depleted uranium toxicity in post-conflict regions appears to exist, there currently exists no definitive proof of such effects, due to insufficient studies of potentially afflicted populations, in addition to the lack of a common epidemiological approach in the reviewed literature.

  1. Do university hospitals perform better than general hospitals? A comparative analysis among Italian regions

    PubMed Central

    Grillo Ruggieri, Tommaso; Podetti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research was to investigate how university hospitals (UHs) perform compared with general hospitals (GHs) in the Italian healthcare system. Design and setting 27 indicators of overall performance were selected and analysed for UHs and GHs in 10 Italian regions. The data refer to 2012 and 2013 and were selected from two performance evaluation systems based on hospital discharge administrative data: the Inter-Regional Performance Evaluation System developed by the Management and Health Laboratory of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa and the Italian National Outcome Evaluation Programme developed by the National Agency for Healthcare Services. The study was conducted in 2 stages and by combining 2 statistical techniques. In stage 1, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was carried out to compare the performance of UHs and GHs on the selected set of indicators. In stage 2, a robust equal variance test between the 2 groups of hospitals was carried out to investigate differences in the amount of variability between them. Results The overall analysis gave heterogeneous results. In general, performance was not affected by being in the UH rather than the GH group. It is thus not possible to directly associate Italian UHs with better results in terms of appropriateness, efficiency, patient satisfaction and outcomes. Conclusions Policymakers and managers should further encourage hospital performance evaluations in order to stimulate wider competition aimed at assigning teaching status to those hospitals that are able to meet performance requirements. In addition, UH facilities could be integrated with other providers that are responsible for community, primary and outpatient services, thereby creating a joint accountability for more patient-centred and integrated care. PMID:27507233

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Antrodia species and Antrodia camphorata inferred from internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    The species of Antrodia are one of the difficult-to-classify and obscure groups of poroid Aphyllophorales based on morphological appearance. However, it is becoming increasingly important to reliably identify the entire suite of Antrodia camphorata strains and Antrodia species due to the potential pharmaceutical value of their biologically active ingredients. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed in a number of Antrodia fungal species and strains. ITS amplicons from the Antrodia species tested ranged in size from 543 to 610 bp; the size of the ITS of A. camphorata strains ranged from 592 to 596 bp. The overall sizes of ITS2 and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene of all A. camphorata strains tested in this study were shown to be 217 and 158 bp, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS data generated, which included sequences of 11 A. camphorata strains and nine other Antrodia species, showed three clearly distinct groups. Group 1 includes A. camphorata, Antrodia salmonea, and Antrodia carbinca strains. Within Group 2, Antrodia sinuosa and Antrodia xantha were clustered together. Group 3 contained Antrodia albida, A. heteromorpha, A. serialis, and A. malicola. The observed sequence diversity among ITS alleles provided an effective tool for differentiating strains of A. camphorata, A. salmonea, A. xantha, A. sinuosa, or A. serialis. Polymorphisms arising within the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region can provide practical markers for establishing a foundation for the further expansion of an ITS sequence database of medically important fungi.

  3. Analysis and modeling of the variable region of camelid single-domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Aroop; Sanni, Kayode A; Shi, Jiye; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2011-06-01

    Camelids have a special type of Ab, known as heavy chain Abs, which are devoid of classical Ab light chains. Relative to classical Abs, camelid heavy chain Abs (cAbs) have comparable immunogenicity, Ag recognition diversity and binding affinities, higher stability and solubility, and better manufacturability, making them promising candidates for alternate therapeutic scaffolds. Rational engineering of cAbs to improve therapeutic function requires knowledge of the differences of sequence and structural features between cAbs and classical Abs. In this study, amino acid sequences of 27 cAb variable regions (V(H)H) were aligned with the respective regions of 54 classical Abs to detect amino acid differences, enabling automatic identification of cAb V(H)H CDRs. CDR analysis revealed that the H1 often (and sometimes the H2) adopts diverse conformations not classifiable by established canonical rules. Also, although the cAb H3 is much longer than classical H3 loops, it often contains common structural motifs and sometimes a disulfide bond to the H1. Leveraging these observations, we created a Monte Carlo-based cAb V(H)H structural modeling tool, where the CDR H1 and H2 loops exhibited a median root-mean-square deviation to natives of 3.1 and 1.5 Å, respectively. The protocol generated 8-12, 14-16, and 16-24 residue H3 loops with a median root-mean-square deviation to natives of 5.7, 4.5, and 6.8 Å, respectively. The large deviation of the predicted loops underscores the challenge in modeling such long loops. cAb V(H)H homology models can provide structural insights into interaction mechanisms to enable development of novel Abs for therapeutic and biotechnological use.

  4. Analysis of Swine Movement in Four Canadian Regions: Network Structure and Implications for Disease Spread.

    PubMed

    Thakur, K K; Revie, C W; Hurnik, D; Poljak, Z; Sanchez, J

    2016-02-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among animal holdings are important in the spread of infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to describe networks of pig movements and the sharing of trucks used for those movements between swine farms in four Canadian regions using network analysis tools and to obtain contact parameters for infectious disease spread simulation models. Four months of swine movement data from a pilot pig traceability programme were used. Two types of networks were created using three time scales (weekly, monthly and the full study period): one-mode networks of farm-to-farm direct contact representing animal shipments and two-mode networks representing the sharing of trucks between farms. Contact patterns among farms were described by estimating a range of relevant network measures. The overall network neglecting the four regions consisted of 145 farms, which were connected by 261 distinct links. A total of 184 trucks were used to transport 2043 shipments of pigs during the study period. The median in- and out-degree for the overall one-mode network was 1 and ranged from 0 to 26 and 0 to 10, respectively. The overall one-mode network had heterogeneous degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient and shorter average path length than would be expected for randomly generated networks of similar size. On average one truck was shared by four farms in the overall network, or by three farms when considered the monthly and weekly networks. Degree distribution of the two-mode overall network demonstrated characteristics of power-law distribution. For more than 50% of shipments on any given day, the same truck was used for at least one other shipment. Findings from this study are in agreement with previous work, which suggested that swine movement networks exhibit small-world and scale-free topologies. Furthermore, trucks used for the shipment of pigs can play an important role in connecting otherwise unconnected farms and may increase the

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions.

    PubMed

    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas.

  6. Regional analysis techniques for integrating experimental and numerical measurements of transport properties of reservoir rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, S. M.; Latham, S.; Middleton, J.; Limaye, A.; Senden, T. J.; Arns, C. H.

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the mechanisms of micro-structural change and their effect on transport properties using digital core analysis requires balancing field of view and resolution. This typically leads to the compromise of working with relatively small samples, where boundary effects can be substantial. A direct comparison with experiment, as e.g. desirable to eliminate unknown parameters and integrate numerical and physical experiments, needs to consider these boundary effects. Here we develop a workflow to define measuring windows within a sample where these boundary effects are minimised allowing the integration of physical and numerical experiment. We consider in particular sleeve leakage and use a radial partitioning of the solutions to various transport equations to derive relevant regional measures, which may be used for the development of cross-correlations between physical properties. Samples of Bentheimer and Castlegate sandstone as well as Mt. Gambier limestone and a sucrosic dolomite are considered. The sample plugs are encased in rubber sleeves and micro-CT images acquired at ambient conditions. Using these high-resolution images we calculate transport properties, namely permeability and electrical conductivity, and analyse the resulting field solutions with regard to flux across different regions of interest. The latter are selected on the basis of distance to the sample sleeve inner surface. Clear bypassing at the sleeve-sample interface in terms of elevated fluxes is observed for all samples, although to different extent. We consider different sleeve boundary conditions to define a measuring window minimising these effects, use the procedure to compare flux averages defined over these measuring windows with conventional choices of simulation domains, and compare resulting physical cross-correlations.

  7. Dynamical investigation and parameter stability region analysis of a flywheel energy storage system in charging mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Ya; Li, Yong-Li; Chang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Nan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behavior analysis of the electromechanical coupling characteristics of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with a permanent magnet (PM) brushless direct-current (DC) motor (BLDCM) is studied. The Hopf bifurcation theory and nonlinear methods are used to investigate the generation process and mechanism of the coupled dynamic behavior for the average current controlled FESS in the charging mode. First, the universal nonlinear dynamic model of the FESS based on the BLDCM is derived. Then, for a 0.01 kWh/1.6 kW FESS platform in the Key Laboratory of the Smart Grid at Tianjin University, the phase trajectory of the FESS from a stable state towards chaos is presented using numerical and stroboscopic methods, and all dynamic behaviors of the system in this process are captured. The characteristics of the low-frequency oscillation and the mechanism of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated based on the Routh stability criterion and nonlinear dynamic theory. It is shown that the Hopf bifurcation is directly due to the loss of control over the inductor current, which is caused by the system control parameters exceeding certain ranges. This coupling nonlinear process of the FESS affects the stability of the motor running and the efficiency of energy transfer. In this paper, we investigate into the effects of control parameter change on the stability and the stability regions of these parameters based on the averaged-model approach. Furthermore, the effect of the quantization error in the digital control system is considered to modify the stability regions of the control parameters. Finally, these theoretical results are verified through platform experiments.

  8. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian, Waris, Abdul; Ismail, Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by convertion rasio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loding scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  9. Assimilation of SCIAMACHY total column CO observations: Global and regional analysis of data impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Stajner, Ivanka; Buchwitz, Michael; Khlystova, Iryna; Pawson, Steven; Burrows, John; Hudman, Rynda; Nedelec, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) total column observations from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) on board Envisat-1 are assimilated into the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office constituent assimilation system for the period 1 April to 20 December 2004. The impact of the assimilation on CO distribution is evaluated using independent surface flask observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ESRL global cooperative air sampling network and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) in situ CO profiles. Assimilation of SCIAMACHY data improves agreement of CO assimilation with both of these data sets on both global and regional scales compared to the free-running model. Regional comparisons with MOZAIC profiles made in western Europe, the northeastern United States, and the Arabian Peninsula show improvements at all three locations in the free troposphere and into the boundary layer over Arabia and the northeastern United States. Comparisons with NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory data improve at about two thirds of the surface observation sites. The systematic model errors related to the uncertainty of CO surface sources and the chemistry of CO losses are investigated through experiments with increased surface CO emissions over the Arabian Peninsula and/or globally reduced hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations. Both model changes decrease mean CO errors at all altitudes in comparison to MOZAIC data over Dubai and Abu Dhabi. In contrast, errors in the assimilated CO are reduced by the increased emissions for pressures ≥800 hPa and by the reduced OH for pressures ≤600 hPa. Our analysis suggests that CO emissions over Dubai in 2004 are more than double those in the 1998 emissions inventory.

  10. The use of multiobjective calibration and regional sensitivity analysis in simulating hyporheic exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Stone, Mark; Davis, Clinton; McKay, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We describe an approach for calibrating a two-dimensional (2-D) flow model of hyporheic exchange using observations of temperature and pressure to estimate hydraulic and thermal properties. A longitudinal 2-D heat and flow model was constructed for a riffle-pool sequence to simulate flow paths and flux rates for variable discharge conditions. A uniform random sampling approach was used to examine the solution space and identify optimal values at local and regional scales. We used a regional sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of parameter correlation and nonuniqueness commonly encountered in multidimensional modeling. The results from this study demonstrate the ability to estimate hydraulic and thermal parameters using measurements of temperature and pressure to simulate exchange and flow paths. Examination of the local parameter space provides the potential for refinement of zones that are used to represent sediment heterogeneity within the model. The results indicate vertical hydraulic conductivity was not identifiable solely using pressure observations; however, a distinct minimum was identified using temperature observations. The measured temperature and pressure and estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity values indicate the presence of a discontinuous low-permeability deposit that limits the vertical penetration of seepage beneath the riffle, whereas there is a much greater exchange where the low-permeability deposit is absent. Using both temperature and pressure to constrain the parameter estimation process provides the lowest overall root-mean-square error as compared to using solely temperature or pressure observations. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining continuous temperature and pressure for simulating hyporheic exchange and flow in a riffle-pool sequence. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  12. An analysis of seasonal forecasts from POAMA and SCOPIC in the Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrill, Andrew; Charles, Andrew; Kuleshov, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), as part of the Pacific Island Climate Prediction Project (PI-CPP), has developed seasonal forecasts for ten National Meteorological Services (NMS) in the Pacific region for nearly a decade, to improve seasonal forecast services to local communities and industry. As part of this project, a new statistical model called SCOPIC (Seasonal Climate Outlooks for Pacific Island Countries) was developed to provide partner countries with the ability to produce their own seasonal climate outlooks. In 2010, as part of the Pacific Adaptation Strategy and Assistance Programme (PASAP), the BoM developed a seasonal outlook portal for Pacific NMS as an alternative source of seasonal forecasts based on the Bureau's dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia). This dynamical model is a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, which has been developed by the Bureau for over ten years for forecasting research in Australia. However, no formal assessment of the skill of the two forecast systems (POAMA and SCOPIC) has been carried out using a number of skill metrics for the Pacific region. Although the skill of POAMA in the Australian region is now well documented, the forecast skill is even higher in the Pacific region due to its proximity to the tropical ocean, where the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) provides the main source of tropical climate variability and predictability on seasonal time scales. The statistical model (SCOPIC) uses discriminant analysis (multiple linear regression) and the relationships of sea surface temperatures (SST) or the Southern Oscillation Index (predictors) and monthly rainfall (predictands) to predict rainfall at various lead times. In contrast, POAMA uses the current state of the climate (initial ocean and atmospheric conditions) and model physics to predict forecasts of many climate variables at all locations across the globe and also at various lead times. Here we demonstrate the skill

  13. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low

  14. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-04-01

    We have analysed increments of background radiation during thunderstorm in the energy range 0.1 - 2 MeV in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain. We present 8 episodes, 3 summer cases and 5 winter cases. The increments of the measured high-energy radiation have been analysed and compared with measurements of electric field, precipitation, radar reflectivity, lightning activity a charge regions altitude. For the first time, measurements of high-energy radiation associated with thunderstorms are compared with radar reflectivity and lightning detected by a LMA network. The aim of this paper is to discern if the high-energy radiation increments measured are related with the storm electrification, like reported in previous publications, or other factors like precipitation. As summary these are the main results: • The comparative of energy spectra of 1 hour period with rain and 1 hour period without rain shows that radon-ion daughters are quite important in the increase of the measured high-energy radiation. • The analysis of the time normalized cumulative curves of radiation counts, radar reflectivity and lightning activity (LINET and LMA detections) shows that that high-energy radiation increments are time related with radar reflectivity rather than lightning activity. • The calculated altitude of the negative charge regions of the different thunderstorms analayzed is too high for the photons produced at those altitudes by Bremmstrahlung effect to overcome atmospheric attenuation and reach the scintillator placed at sea level. These results lead us to conclude, as a contribution in addition to previous works, that the measured increments of high-energy analysed on this paper are associated with radon-ion daughters rather than storm electrification. However, the use of a detector in an energy from 0.1 MeV to 2 Mev does not allow to completely exclude the possibility that part of the high-energy radiation reported should be related storm electrification

  15. Risk prediction of Critical Infrastructures against extreme natural hazards: local and regional scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, Vittorio; Hounjet, Micheline; Burzel, Andreas; Di Pietro, Antonio; Tofani, Alberto; Pollino, Maurizio; Giovinazzi, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    . The regional output of cascading effects can be used as an input model for more detailed analyses within urban areas for instance. The DSS weights the overall expected Crisis Scenario by also considering, through an appropriate Consequences Analysis, the number of citizens affected by the Service(s) outages, the expected economic losses of the major industrial activities hit by the unavailability of relevant Services (electricity, water, telecommunications etc.) and the influence of outages of the availability of Public Services (hospitals, schools, public offices etc.) [1] S.Giovinazzi, S. Lagomarsino: A macroseismic method for the vulnerability assessment of buildings. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada (2004) [2] S. Lagomarsino, S.Giovinazzi: Macroseismic and mechanical models for the vulnerability and damage assessment of current buildings. Bull Earthquake Eng., 4:415-443 (2006)

  16. Correlates of physician burnout across regions and specialties: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care organizations globally realize the need to address physician burnout due to its close linkages with quality of care, retention and migration. The many functions of health human resources include identifying and managing burnout risk factors for health professionals, while also promoting effective coping. Our study of physician burnout aims to show: (1) which correlates are most strongly associated with emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP), and (2) whether the associations vary across regions and specialties. Methods Meta-analysis allowed us to examine a diverse range of correlates. Our search yielded 65 samples of physicians from various regions and specialties. Results EE was negatively associated with autonomy, positive work attitudes, and quality and safety culture. It was positively associated with workload, constraining organizational structure, incivility/conflicts/violence, low quality and safety standards, negative work attitudes, work-life conflict, and contributors to poor mental health. We found a similar but weaker pattern of associations for DP. Physicians in the Americas experienced lower EE levels than physicians in Europe when quality and safety culture and career development opportunities were both strong, and when they used problem-focused coping. The former experienced higher EE levels when work-life conflict was strong and they used ineffective coping. Physicians in Europe experienced lower EE levels than physicians in the Americas with positive work attitudes. We found a similar but weaker pattern of associations for DP. Outpatient specialties experienced higher EE levels than inpatient specialties when organization structures were constraining and contributors to poor mental health were present. The former experienced lower EE levels when autonomy was present. Inpatient specialties experienced lower EE levels than outpatient specialties with positive work attitudes. As above, we found a similar but weaker

  17. Using scaling fluctuation analysis to quantify anthropogenic changes in regional and global precipitation, including extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    Anthropic precipitation changes affect the mean and the magnitude and frequency of extreme events, and therefore potentially have severe consequences in all aspects of human life. Unfortunately, - unlike the anthropic temperature changes - precipitation changes of anthropic origin have been proven difficult to establish with high statistical significance. For example, when changes have been established for individual precipitation products, the serious divergences found between products reflect our limited ability to estimate areal precipitation even at global scales. In addition to data issues, the usual approaches to assessing changes in precipitation also have methodological issues that hamper their identification. Here we discuss how the situation can be clarified by the systematic application of scaling fluctuation analysis - for example, to determine the scales at which the anthropogenic signal exceeds the natural variability noise (we find that it is roughly 20 years). Following a recent approach for estimating anthropogenic temperature changes we directly determine the effective sensitivity of the precipitation rate to a doubling of CO2. The novelty in this approach is that it takes CO2 as a surrogate for all anthropogenic forcings and estimates the trend based on the forcing rather than time - the usual approach. This leads both to an improved signal to noise ratio and, when compared to the usual estimates of trends, it augments their statistical significance; we further improve the signal to noise ratio by considering precipitation over the ocean where anthropogenic increases are strongest, finding that there are statistically significant trends at the 3 to 4 standard deviation level. This approach also permits the first direct estimate of the increases in global precipitation with temperature: we find 1.71±0.62 %/K which is close to that found by GCM's (2 - 3%/K) and is well below the value of ≈ 6 - 7%/K predicted on the basis of increases in humidity

  18. Climate and landscape controls on chemical weathering - regional to pedon-scale analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C.; Lybrand, R.; Jardine, A. B.; Heidbuechel, I.; Troch, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the linkages among climate, erosion and weathering is central to quantifying pedogenesis and critical zone evolution. We approach these linkages through a combination of regional scale synthesis of climate, erosion and regolith geochemical data for upland terrain, in addition to detailed studies on climate and landscape position controls on local- and pedon-scale regolith weathering patterns across the steep semiarid climate gradient encompassed by the Santa Catalina Mountain (SCM) Critical Zone Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The regional analysis indicated strong correlation between regolith plagioclase depletion and total Na mass loss with both total precipitation and the annual water balance as quantified using a humidity index (precipitiaton/potential evapotranspiration). Plagioclase depletion increased exponentially with water availability for sites with annual temperature greater than 5°C and erosion rates greater than 10 g/m2/yr, suggesting second order control of temperature and erosion on plagioclase weathering. The local- and pedon-scale SCM study sites span a steep environmental gradient on granitic and metamorphic parent materials: mean annual air temperature decreases (20-10°C) and mean annual precipitation increases (25-95 cm) with elevation, with concomitant changes in vegetation from desert-scrub to mixed conifer forest. We sampled full regolith profiles from each vegetation community across the climate gradient on spatially coupled divergent and convergent landscape positions. Pedon geochemical and mineralogical data, when coupled with cosmogenic nuclide derived denudation rates, indicated strong linkages among water availability, regolith mass loss and mineral weathering reactions. Specifically, divergent landscape positions demonstrated a pattern similar to that noted in the regional scale synthesis of increasing weatherable mineral mass loss with greater water availability. In contrast, convergent landscape positions

  19. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Xq critical regions in premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the frequent reasons for unsuccessful conception is premature ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency (POF/POI) that is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years. Among the genetic causes the most common one involves the X chromosome, as in Turner syndrome, partial X deletion and X-autosome translocations. Here we report a case of a 27-year-old female patient referred to genetic counselling because of premature ovarian failure. The aim of this case study to perform molecular genetic and cytogenetic analyses in order to identify the exact genetic background of the pathogenic phenotype. Results For premature ovarian failure disease diagnostics we performed the Fragile mental retardation 1 gene analysis using Southern blot technique and Repeat Primed PCR in order to identify the relationship between the Fragile mental retardation 1 gene premutation status and the premature ovarion failure disease. At this early onset, the premature ovarian failure affected patient we detected one normal allele of Fragile mental retardation 1 gene and we couldn’t verify the methylated allele, therefore we performed the cytogenetic analyses using G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods and a high resolution molecular cytogenetic method, the array comparative genomic hybridization technique. For this patient applying the G-banding, we identified a large deletion on the X chromosome at the critical region (ChrX q21.31-q28) which is associated with the premature ovarian failure phenotype. In order to detect the exact breakpoints, we used a special cytogenetic array ISCA plus CGH array and we verified a 67.355 Mb size loss at the critical region which include total 795 genes. Conclusions We conclude for this case study that the karyotyping is definitely helpful in the evaluation of premature ovarian failure patients, to identify the non submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangement, and using the array CGH technique we can

  20. InSAR and GPS time series analysis: Crustal deformation in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Plag, H.

    2010-12-01

    Several previous studies have successfully demonstrated that long time series (e.g. >5 years) of GPS measurements can be employed to detect tectonic signals with a vertical rate greater than 0.3 mm/yr (e.g. Hill and Blewitt, 2006; Bennett et al. 2009). However, GPS stations are often sparse, with spacing from a few kilometres to a few hundred kilometres. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can complement GPS by providing high horizontal spatial resolution (e.g. meters to tens-of metres) over large regions (e.g. 100 km × 100 km). A major source of error for repeat-pass InSAR is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere. The portion of this attributable to tropospheric water vapour causes errors as large as 10-20 cm in deformation retrievals. InSAR Time Series analysis with Atmospheric Estimation Models (InSAR TS + AEM), developed at the University of Glasgow, is a robust time series analysis approach, which mainly uses interferograms with small geometric baselines to minimise the effects of decorrelation and inaccuracies in topographic data. In addition, InSAR TS + AEM can be used to separate deformation signals from atmospheric water vapour effects in order to map surface deformation as it evolves in time. The principal purposes of this study are to assess: (1) how consistent InSAR-derived deformation time series are with GPS; and (2) how precise InSAR-derived atmospheric path delays can be. The Yucca Mountain, Nevada region is chosen as the study site because of its excellent GPS network and extensive radar archives (>10 years of dense and high-quality GPS stations, and >17 years of ERS and ENVISAT radar acquisitions), and because of its arid environment. The latter results in coherence that is generally high, even for long periods that span the existing C-band radar archives of ERS and ENVISAT. Preliminary results show that our InSAR LOS deformation map agrees with GPS measurements to within 0.35 mm/yr RMS misfit at the stations which is the

  1. Regional aquifer geochemistry below the Boom Clay (NE-Belgium): data analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Leterme, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    For more than 35 years, SCK•CEN has been investigating the possibility of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium, including the study of the regional hydrogeology and geochemistry of the aquifer systems surrounding the Boom Clay. This study presents the analysis and modelling of groundwater geochemistry in the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium. This so-called deep aquifer system includes, with increasing depth, parts of the Oligocene Aquifer System, The Bartoon Aquitard System and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian Aquifer System. At the end of the Neogene period, during which several marine transgressions and regressions took place, the sea definitely drew back after having deposited shallow marine and estuarine sands and some clay. The original seawater in the pores of the sediments was in first instance gradually diluted as the aquifer was flushed by recharge (fresh) water. Afterwards, water-rock interactions, including cation exchange, began to play a role in the deep aquifer system. This led to changes in groundwater composition over time. Geochemical data (major ions, stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases) have been collected at a regional scale from the piezometric network in the deep aquifer system. Several measurement campaigns have been performed between 1980 and 2010. Groundwater is currently mainly of Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl type water, and because of the low groundwater velocity, re-equilibration with the host formations generally occurs. The main geochemical indicators (salinity, stable isotopes) point to a mixture between saline water (to the NW) and fresh recharge water (from SE). SE-NW gradients of ion concentrations are observed and can be explained in agreement with the pattern of natural groundwater flow. Building on the concepts emerging from the geochemical data analysis and recent groundwater modelling, a geochemical model was developed in PhreeqC, using geochemical and

  2. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  3. An Analysis of the Economic Structure and Industrial Potential of the Four Corners Region. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshall, Charles W.; And Others

    The overall objective of this 4-phase study was to provide the Four Corners Regional Commission with an evaluation of industries best suited for the region. In order to satisfy this objective, 100 industries and products were identified which have the highest potential for development in the total region, as well as in specific subregions. The…

  4. The Evolution of Well-Being in Spain (1980?2001): A Regional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchante, Andres J.; Sanchez, Jose; Ortega, Bienvenido

    2006-01-01

    Evaluations of regional welfare conventionally rely on Gross Value Added (GVA) per capital as an indicator of well-being. This paper attempts to re-address the regional welfare issue using alternative indicators to per capital income. With this aim, a database for the Spanish regions (NUTS II) has been constructed for the period 1980-2001 and an…

  5. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species.

  6. An efficient visual saliency analysis model for region-of-interest extraction in high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Shiyi; Zhang, Libao

    2016-10-01

    Accurate region of interest (ROI) extraction is a hotspot of remote sensing image analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel ROI extraction method based on multi-scale hybrid visual saliency analysis (MHVSA) that can be divided into two sub-models: the frequency feature analysis (FFA) model and the multi-scale region aggregation (MRA) model. In the FFA sub-model, we utilize the human visual sensitivity and the Fourier transform to produce the local saliency map. In the MRA sub-model, saliency maps of various scales are generated by aggregating regions. A tree-structure graphical model is suggested to fuse saliency maps into one global saliency map. We obtain two binary masks by segmenting the local and global saliency maps and perform the logical AND operation on the two masks to acquire the final mask. Experimental results reveal that the MHVSA model provides more accurate extraction results.

  7. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The smart cluster method - Adaptive earthquake cluster identification and analysis in strong seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas M.; Daniell, James E.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-03-01

    Earthquake clustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. This study introduces the Smart Cluster Method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal cluster identification. It utilises the magnitude-dependent spatio-temporal earthquake density to adjust the search properties, subsequently analyses the identified clusters to determine directional variation and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010-2011 Darfield-Christchurch sequence, a reclassification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures using near-field searches, nearest neighbour classification and temporal splitting. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It has been tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. A total of more than 1500 clusters have been found in both regions since 1980 with M m i n = 2.0. Utilising the knowledge of cluster classification, the method has been adjusted to provide an earthquake declustering algorithm, which has been compared to existing methods. Its performance is comparable to established methodologies. The analysis of earthquake clustering statistics lead to various new and updated correlation functions, e.g. for ratios between mainshock and strongest aftershock and general aftershock activity metrics.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  10. Health financing in the African Region: 2000–2009 data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to raise African countries probability of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015, there is need to increase and more efficiently use domestic and external funding to strengthen health systems infrastructure in order to ensure universal access to quality health care. The objective of this paper is to examine the changes that have occurred in African countries on health financing, taking into account the main sources of funding over the period 2000 to 2009. Methods Our analysis is based on the National Health Accounts (NHA) data for the 46 countries of the WHO African Region. The data were obtained from the WHO World Health Statistics Report 2012. Data for Zimbabwe was not available. The analysis was done using Excel software. Results Between 2000 and 2009, number of countries spending less than 5% of their GDP on health decreased from 24 to 17; government spending on health as a percentage of total health expenditure increased in 31 countries and decreased in 13 countries; number of countries allocating at least 15% of national budgets on health increased from 2 to 4; number of countries partially financing health through social security increased from 19 to 21; number of countries where private spending was 50% and above of total health expenditure decreased from 29 (64%) to 23 (51%); over 70% of private expenditure on health came from household out-of-pocket payments (OOPS) in 32 (71%) countries and in 27 (60%) countries; number of countries with private prepaid plans increased from 29 to 31; number of countries financing more than 20% of their total health expenditure from external sources increased from 14 to 19; number of countries achieving the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health recommendation of spending at least US$34 per person per year increased from 11 to 29; number of countries achieving the International Taskforce on Innovative Financing recommendation of spending at least US$44 per person per year

  11. Process-based image analysis for agricultural mapping: A case study in Turkgeldi region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damla Uca Avci, Z.; Sunar, Filiz

    2015-10-01

    The need for timely, accurate, and interoperable geospatial information is steadily increasing. In this context, process-based image processing systems will be the initial segment for future's automatic systems. A process-based system is believed to be a good approach for agricultural purpose because agricultural activities are carried out according to a periodic (annual) cycle. Therefore, a process-based image analysis procedure was designed for routine crop classification for an agricultural region in Kırklareli, Turkey. The process tree developed uses a multi-temporal image data set as an input and gives the final crop classification as an output by using an incremental rule set. The test data set was composed of five images of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre 4 (SPOT 4) data acquired in 2007. Basically, image objects were first extracted and then classified. A rule set was structured depending on class definitions. A decision-based process was executed and formed a multilevel image classification system. The final classification was obtained by merging classes from the appropriate levels where they were extracted. To evaluate the success of the application the accuracy of the classification was assessed. The overall accuracy and kappa index of agreement was found to be 80% and 0.78, respectively. At the end of the study, problems of segmentation and classification operations were discussed and solution approaches were outlined. To assess the process in terms of its scope for automation, the efficiency and success of the rule set were also discussed.

  12. Controlling for exogenous environmental variables when using data envelopment analysis for regional environmental assessments.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alexander J; Principe, Peter P; Shao, Yang

    2013-04-15

    Researchers are increasingly using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of environmental policies and resource allocations. An assumption of the basic DEA model is that decisionmakers operate within homogeneous environments. But, this assumption is not valid when environmental performance is influenced by variables beyond managerial control. Understanding the influence of these variables is important to distinguish between characterizing environmental conditions and identifying opportunities to improve environmental performance. While environmental assessments often focus on characterizing conditions, the point of using DEA is to identify opportunities to improve environmental performance and thereby prevent (or rectify) an inefficient allocation of resources. We examine the role of exogenous variables such as climate, hydrology, and topography in producing environmental impacts such as deposition, runoff, invasive species, and forest fragmentation within the United States Mid-Atlantic region. We apply a four-stage procedure to adjust environmental impacts in a DEA model that seeks to minimize environmental impacts while obtaining given levels of socioeconomic outcomes. The approach creates a performance index that bundles multiple indicators while adjusting for variables that are outside management control, offering numerous advantages for environmental assessment.

  13. Analysis of ICESat/GLAS waveform data for characterizing forests in a hilly region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Claudia; Schmullius, Christiane; Zink, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    ICESat/GLAS data for a temperate forest in a hilly region were analysed regarding the potential to retrieve maximum canopy height using a direct approach. The GLAS height was derived by calculating the range of the waveform Signal Begin and the Ground Peak. The comparison with an inventory data base and airborne lidar based heights revealed that the GLAS height overestimates the reference heights by on average 5 m and 7 m, respectively (Std=6 m and Std=5 m). The GLAS waveforms were further investigated regarding the canopy structure and the ground surface topography. It was found that the waveforms are most influenced by the ground surface topography. The topography clearly affects the waveform shape and therefore also the accuracy of the GLAS height estimation. Waveforms corresponding to footprints with a mean slope up to 10° have a high potential to derive tree height. The correlation between the GLAS and reference heights is still fair for waveforms of moderate slope 10-15°. Higher slopes clearly challenge the analysis of the waveform structure and the derivation of forest parameters.

  14. Online extraction and single trial analysis of regions contributing to erroneous feedback detection.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Matthew; Thomas, Eoin; Casini, Laurence; Burle, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how the brain processes errors is an essential and active field of neuroscience. Real time extraction and analysis of error signals provide an innovative method of assessing how individuals perceive ongoing interactions without recourse to overt behaviour. This area of research is critical in modern Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) design, but may also open fruitful perspectives in cognitive neuroscience research. In this context, we sought to determine whether we can extract discriminatory error-related activity in the source space, online, and on a trial by trial basis from electroencephalography data recorded during motor imagery. Using a data driven approach, based on interpretable inverse solution algorithms, we assessed the extent to which automatically extracted error-related activity was physiologically and functionally interpretable according to performance monitoring literature. The applicability of inverse solution based methods for automatically extracting error signals, in the presence of noise generated by motor imagery, was validated by simulation. Representative regions of interest, outlining the primary generators contributing to classification, were found to correspond closely to networks involved in error detection and performance monitoring. We observed discriminative activity in non-frontal areas, demonstrating that areas outside of the medial frontal cortex can contribute to the classification of error feedback activity.

  15. Analysis of Future High Temperature Region in Urban Area under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Jeong, W.; Sung, S.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    Urban air temperature is higher than surrounding air temperature. It is called Urban Heat Island. Furthermore, according to climate change, Urban air temperature is expected to be increased in the future. Therefore, Preparing for high temperature event result from climate change is important as well as preparing for presence of the urban heat. In this study, we analyzed Seoul temperature change according to the climate change scenarios, and suggested some strategies to fight against climate change and urban heat island. For doing this, Firstly, Seoul was divided into 1km² cells which matches the climate change scenario resolution. Then, future temperature distribution was analyzed. In this time, future temperature means distribution means the average temperature in August 2010~2100 from Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Secondly, Cells where temperature is over 33℃ are selected as the "high temperature region (HTR)". For identifying HTUR characteristics, we did regression analysis with terrain, land cover, distance from rivers and mountains variables. As a result, most of the HTR was distributed to the industrial and business districts, and appeared as far away from the rivers and mountains. These result can be used in the further urban heat island studies, especially identifying urban type which vulnerable to climate change. Also, it can be helpful in establishing strategies corresponding to the future climate.

  16. Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.

    2017-02-01

    The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Fosterella L.B. Sm. (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae) based on four chloroplast DNA regions.

    PubMed

    Rex, Martina; Schulte, Katharina; Zizka, Georg; Peters, Jule; Vásquez, Roberto; Ibisch, Pierre L; Weising, Kurt

    2009-06-01

    The about 31 species of Fosterella L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) are terrestrial herbs with a centre of diversity in the central South American Andes. To resolve infra- and intergeneric relationships among Fosterella and their putative allies, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data from four chloroplast DNA regions (matK gene, rps16 intron, atpB-rbcL and psbB-psbH intergenic spacers). Sequences were generated for 96 accessions corresponding to 60 species from 18 genera. Among these, 57 accessions represented 22 of the 31 recognized Fosterella species and one undescribed morphospecies. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods yielded well-resolved phylogenies. The monophyly of Fosterella was strongly supported, as was its sister relationship with a clade comprising Deuterocohnia, Dyckia and Encholirium. Six distinct evolutionary lineages were distinguished within Fosterella. Character mapping indicated that parallel evolution of identical character states is common in the genus. Relationships between species and lineages are discussed in the context of morphological, ecological and biogeographical data as well as the results of a previous amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) study.

  18. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-11-18

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of {sup 137}Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs over an area covering 40 km{sup 2} (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area.

  19. Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.

  20. Identification, N-terminal region sequencing and similarity analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A F; Sousa, M V; Silva, S P; Jesuíno, R S; Soares, C M; Felipe, M S

    1999-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis in Latin America. This human pathogen is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelium (26 degrees C) and in infected tissues as a yeast form (36 degrees C). The in vitro differentiation process is reversible and dependent on temperature shift. In the present study, the total proteins from both forms of P. brasiliensis (isolate Pb01) were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified. Two of these proteins, PbM46 (mycelium) and PbY20 (yeast), were submitted to automated protein sequencing of their N-terminal regions. The 15 amino acid residue sequence of PbM46, AITKIFALKVYDSSG, is similar to enolases from several sources, and specially those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (80%) and Candida albicans (67%), when compared to the NR database at NCBI using the BLASTP program. The 34 amino acid residue sequence of PbY20, APKIAIVFYSLYGHIQKLAEAQKKGIEAAGGTAD, could probably represent an allergen protein since it is very similar (90%) to the minor allergen protein of Alternaria alternata and 82% similar to the allergen protein of Cladosporium herbarum. This comparative analysis of proteins from mycelium and yeast forms has allowed the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins, probably related to differential gene expression in P. brasiliensis.

  1. A geospatial analysis of soil lead concentrations around regional Oklahoma airports.

    PubMed

    McCumber, Alexander; Strevett, K A

    2017-01-01

    Lead has been banned from automobile gasoline since 1995; however, lead is still used as an additive to aviation gasoline (avgas). Airports are now one of the greatest sources of lead air emission in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate soil lead levels radially from three regional airports; (2) collect historical meteorological data; (3) examine the soil organic matter content and (4) develop correlation coefficients to evaluate correlations among variables. Soil samples were collected from 3 different airports in Oklahoma and the soil lead concentration was measured using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). The measured soil lead concentrations were plotted with the corresponding GPS location in ArcGIS and Inverse Distance Weight spatial analysis was used to create modeled isopleths of soil lead concentrations. One of the three airports was found to have soil lead concentrations that correlate with soil organic matter with one other showing correlation between soil lead concentration and distance from the airport. The spatial modeled isopleths showed elevated soil lead concentrations in the direction of prevailing winds with "hot spots" near the avgas fueling stations.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Aerosol Retrievals from MODIS, OMI and MISR Over Sahara Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Hsu, C.; Terres, O.; Leptoukh, G.; Kalashnikova, O.; Korkin, S.

    2011-01-01

    MODIS is a wide field-of-view sensor providing daily global observations of the Earth. Currently, global MODIS aerosol retrievals over land are performed with the main Dark Target algorithm complimented with the Deep Blue (DB) Algorithm over bright deserts. The Dark Target algorithm relies on surface parameterization which relates reflectance in MODIS visible bands with the 2.1 micrometer region, whereas the Deep Blue algorithm uses an ancillary angular distribution model of surface reflectance developed from the time series of clear-sky MODIS observations. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm has been developed for MODIS. MAIAC uses a time series and an image based processing to perform simultaneous retrievals of aerosol properties and surface bidirectional reflectance. It is a generic algorithm which works over both dark vegetative surfaces and bright deserts and performs retrievals at 1 km resolution. In this work, we will provide a comparative analysis of DB, MAIAC, MISR and OMI aerosol products over bright deserts of northern Africa.

  3. Region of interest extraction based on saliency detection and contrast analysis for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jing; Zhang, Libao; Wang, Shuang

    2016-10-01

    Region of Interest (ROI) extraction is an important component in remote sensing images processing, which is useful for further practical applications such as image compression, image fusion, image segmentation and image registration. Traditional ROI extraction methods are usually prior knowledge-based and depend on a global searching solution which are time consuming and computational complex. Saliency detection which is widely used for ROI extraction from natural scene images in these years can effectively solve the problem of high computation complexity in ROI extraction for remote sensing images as well as retain accuracy. In this paper, a new computational model is proposed to improve the accuracy of ROI extraction in remote sensing images. Considering the characteristics of remote sensing images, we first use lifting wavelet transform based on adaptive direction evaluation (ADE) to obtain multi-scale orientation contrast feature map (MF). Secondly, the features of color are exploited using the information content analysis to provide a color information map (CIM). Thirdly, feature fusion is used to integrate multi-scale orientation contrast features and color information for generating a saliency map. Finally, an adaptive threshold segmentation algorithm is employed to obtain the ROI. Compared with existing models, our method can not only effectively extract detail of the ROIs, but also effectively remove mistaken detection of the inner parts of the ROIs.

  4. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS scene 1085-17294 of the Big Horn region has been subjected to detailed structural analysis. Band 7 is particularly good for revealing structural and drainage patterns because of enhance topographic detail and the subdued vegetational contrasts. Considerable stereo coverage through sidelap with adjoining scenes adds to the effectiveness of the study and has been used on both positive transparencies and enlarged prints. Negative prints of Band 7 positive transparencies have proven to be much more useful than positive prints because the higher resolution of the positive transparencies can be maintained. The Bighorn Mountains are crisscrossed by a number of prominent topographic linears, most of which can be correlated with known fault and shear zones in the Precambrian crystalline core. Many of these do not appear to continue into the flanking sedimentary rocks and a few that do (Tensleep, Tongue River lineaments) are very difficult to trace farther out into the basins. The Tongue River lineament, long a source of speculation and uncertainty as to its existence, appears as a very prominent discontinuity in the imagery.

  5. [Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.

  6. Multi-Region Boundary Element Analysis for Coupled Thermal-Fracturing Processes in Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Baotang; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Park, Eui-Seob; Kim, Taek-Kon; Wuttke, Manfred W.; Rinne, Mikael; Backers, Tobias; Stephansson, Ove

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a boundary element code development on coupled thermal-mechanical processes of rock fracture propagation. The code development was based on the fracture mechanics code FRACOD that has previously been developed by Shen and Stephansson (Int J Eng Fracture Mech 47:177-189, 1993) and FRACOM (A fracture propagation code—FRACOD, User's manual. FRACOM Ltd. 2002) and simulates complex fracture propagation in rocks governed by both tensile and shear mechanisms. For the coupled thermal-fracturing analysis, an indirect boundary element method, namely the fictitious heat source method, was implemented in FRACOD to simulate the temperature change and thermal stresses in rocks. This indirect method is particularly suitable for the thermal-fracturing coupling in FRACOD where the displacement discontinuity method is used for mechanical simulation. The coupled code was also extended to simulate multiple region problems in which rock mass, concrete linings and insulation layers with different thermal and mechanical properties were present. Both verification and application cases were presented where a point heat source in a 2D infinite medium and a pilot LNG underground cavern were solved and studied using the coupled code. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results, analytical solutions and in situ measurements which validates an applicability of the developed coupled code.

  7. Thermal/structural analysis of the shaft-disk region of a fan drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Holland, Anne D.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1989, a mishap occurred in the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA-Langley. It is believed that the failure of an insulation retainer holding foam insulation around the exterior of the fan drive shaft resulted in the subsequent damage to other components in the tunnel. The effect was determined of removing the external thermal insulation on the shaft would have on the stresses on the shaft, disk and bolts holding the two together. To accomplish this, a detailed thermal/structural finite element analysis of the shaft-disk interface was performed. The maximum stresses on the three components were determined for several configurations and conditions with and without the external thermal insulation, and then these results were compared to the original analyses to access the effect of removing the external thermal insulation on the proposed future operation of the shaft/disk structures of the fan drive system. Although the stresses were higher without the external insulation, the stresses did meet all stress criteria. In addition, all stresses were within the infinite life regime of the Modified Goodman diagram. Therefore, it was determined that the structural integrity of the shaft-disk region is not compromised if the external insulation is removed.

  8. Analysis of the CODIS autosomal STR loci in four main Colombian regions.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Manuel; Galindo, Aida; Bernal, Margarita; Avila, Sandra; Andrade, Diana; Vergara, Carlos; Rincón, Magner; Romero, Rosa Elena; Navarrete, Mayda; Cárdenas, Martha; Ortega, Janeth; Suarez, Dayana; Cifuentes, Adriana; Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel

    2003-10-14

    Genotype polymorphism studies at the 13 loci STRs included in the combined DNA index system [CODIS and PCR-based short tandem repeat loci, in: Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Human Identification, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, 1998, pp. 73-88; J. Forensic Sci. 46 (2001) 453] (CODIS: D3S1358, HUMvWA31, HUMFGA, D8S1179 D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, HUMTH01, HUMTPOX, HUMCSF1PO and D16S539) were carried out in a sample of 1429 unrelated Colombian individuals belonging to 25 different departments. As many other countries in Latino-America, Colombia shows an important admixture component, basically integrated by Amerindians, European-descendants and African-descendants. Due to the fact that only partial population analyses have been carried out in the country, the main aim of the present analysis is to establish a database of forensic interest based on the widely used CODIS systems covering the main Colombian regions.

  9. Molecular analysis of region 1 of the Escherichia coli K5 antigen gene cluster: a region encoding proteins involved in cell surface expression of capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzani, C; Rosenow, C; Boulnois, G J; Bronner, D; Jann, K; Roberts, I S

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of region 1 of the K5 antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli was determined. This region is postulated to encode functions which, at least in part, participate in translocation of polysaccharide across the periplasmic space and onto the cell surface. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed five genes that encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 75.7, 60.5, 44, 43, and 27 kDa. The 27-kDa protein was 70.7% homologous to the CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase enzyme encoded by the E. coli kdsB gene, indicating the presence of a structural gene for a similar enzyme within the region 1 operon. The 43-kDa protein was homologous to both the Ctrb and BexC proteins encoded by the Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae capsule gene clusters, respectively, indicating common stages in the expression of capsules in these gram-negative bacteria. However, no homology was detected between the 75.7, 60.5-, and 44-kDa proteins and any of the proteins so far described for the H. influenzae and N. meningitidis capsule gene clusters. Images PMID:8397187

  10. Comparison of analytical and numerical analysis of the reference region model for DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonsang; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Pagel, Mark D; Platt, Simon; Kent, Marc; Zhao, Qun

    2014-09-01

    This study compared three methods for analyzing DCE-MRI data with a reference region (RR) model: a linear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (LLSQ-N), a nonlinear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (NLSQ-N), and an analytical analysis (NLSQ-A). The accuracy and precision of estimating the pharmacokinetic parameter ratios KR and VR, where KR is defined as a ratio between the two volume transfer constants, K(trans,TOI) and K(trans,RR), and VR is the ratio between the two extracellular extravascular volumes, ve,TOI and ve,RR, were assessed using simulations under various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and temporal resolutions (4, 6, 30, and 60s). When no noise was added, the simulations showed that the mean percent error (MPE) for the estimated KR and VR using the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods ranged from 1.2% to 31.6% with various temporal resolutions while the NLSQ-A method maintained a very high accuracy (<1.0×10(-4) %) regardless of the temporal resolution. The simulation also indicated that the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods appear to underestimate the parameter ratios more than the NLSQ-A method. In addition, seven in vivo DCE-MRI datasets from spontaneously occurring canine brain tumors were analyzed with each method. Results for the in vivo study showed that KR (ranging from 0.63 to 3.11) and VR (ranging from 2.82 to 19.16) for the NLSQ-A method were both higher than results for the other two methods (KR ranging from 0.01 to 1.29 and VR ranging from 1.48 to 19.59). A temporal downsampling experiment showed that the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (8.45%) was lower than the other two methods (22.97% for LLSQ-N and 65.02% for NLSQ-N) for KR, and the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (6.33%) was lower than the other two methods (6.57% for LLSQ-N and 13.66% for NLSQ-N) for VR. Using simulations, we showed that the NLSQ-A method can estimate the ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters more accurately and precisely than the NLSQ-N and

  11. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad

    2016-04-01

    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  12. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  13. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  14. Comparative analysis of chicken chromosome 28 provides new clues to the evolutionary fragility of gene-rich vertebrate regions

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Laurie; Yang, Shan; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Baggott, Dan; Christensen, Mari; Hamilton, Aaron; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Lucas, Susan; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Stubbs, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The chicken genome draft sequence has provided a valuable resource for studies of an important agricultural and experimental model species and an important data set for comparative analysis. However, some of the most gene-rich segments are missing from chicken genome draft assemblies, limiting the analysis of a substantial number of genes and preventing a closer look at regions that are especially prone to syntenic rearrangements. To facilitate the functional and evolutionary analysis of one especially gene-rich, rearrangement-prone genomic region, we analyzed sequence from BAC clones spanning chicken microchromosome GGA28; as a complement we also analyzed a gene-sparse, stable region from GGA11. In these two regions we documented the conservation and lineage-specific gain and loss of protein-coding genes and precisely mapped the locations of 31 major human-chicken syntenic breakpoints. Altogether, we identified 72 lineage-specific genes, many of which are found at or near syntenic breaks, implicating evolutionary breakpoint regions as major sites of genetic innovation and change. Twenty-two of the 31 breakpoint regions have been reused repeatedly as rearrangement breakpoints in vertebrate evolution. Compared with stable GC-matched regions, GGA28 is highly enriched in CpG islands, as are break-prone intervals identified elsewhere in the chicken genome; evolutionary breakpoints are further enriched in GC content and CpG islands, highlighting a potential role for these features in genome instability. These data support the hypothesis that chromosome rearrangements have not occurred randomly over the course of vertebrate evolution but are focused preferentially within “fragile” regions with unusual DNA sequence characteristics. PMID:17921355

  15. Attenuation of seismic waves obtained by coda waves analysis in the West Bohemia earthquake swarm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    with depth, where 1/Qc seems to be frequency independent in depth range of upper lithosphere. Lateral changes of 1/Qc were also reported - it decreases in the south-west direction from the Novy Kostel focal zone, where the attenuation is the highest. Results from more advanced methods that allow for separation of scattering and intrinsic loss show that intrinsic loss is a dominant factor for attenuating of seismic waves in the region. Determination of attenuation due to scattering appears ambiguous due to small hypocentral distances available for the analysis, where the effects of scattering in frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz are not significant.

  16. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  17. Fungal-specific PCR primers developed for analysis of the ITS region of environmental DNA extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kendall J; Rygiewicz, Paul T

    2005-01-01

    Background The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are highly variable sequences of great importance in distinguishing fungal species by PCR analysis. Previously published PCR primers available for amplifying these sequences from environmental samples provide varying degrees of success at discriminating against plant DNA while maintaining a broad range of compatibility. Typically, it has been necessary to use multiple primer sets to accommodate the range of fungi under study, potentially creating artificial distinctions for fungal sequences that amplify with more than one primer set. Results Numerous sequences for PCR primers were tested to develop PCR assays with a wide range of fungal compatibility and high discrimination from plant DNA. A nested set of 4 primers was developed that reflected these criteria and performed well amplifying ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Primers in the 5.8S sequence were also developed that would permit separate amplifications of ITS1 and ITS2. A range of basidiomycete fruiting bodies and ascomycete cultures were analyzed with the nested set of primers and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting to demonstrate the specificity of the assay. Single ectomycorrhizal root tips were similarly analyzed. These primers have also been successfully applied to Quantitative PCR (QPCR), Length Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of fungi. A set of wide-range plant-specific primers were developed at positions corresponding to one pair of the fungal primers. These were used to verify that the host plant DNA was not being amplified with the fungal primers. Conclusion These plant primers have been successfully applied to PCR-RFLP analyses of forest plant tissues from above- and below-ground samples and work well at distinguishing a selection of plants to the species level. The complete set of primers was developed with an emphasis on

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker.

    PubMed

    Fopa Fomeju, Berline; Falentin, Cyril; Lassalle, Gilles; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Delourme, Régine

    2015-01-01

    All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U, and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling, or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the resistance phenotype.

  19. Advantages and disadvantages in usage of bioinformatic programs in promoter region analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Kacper; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    An important computational challenge is finding the regulatory elements across the promotor region. In this work we present the advantages and disadvantages from the application of different bioinformatics programs for localization of transcription factor binding sites in the upstream region of genes connected with sex determination in cucumber. We use PlantCARE, PlantPAN and SignalScan to find motifs in the promotor regions. The results have been compared and possible function of chosen motifs has been described.

  20. A climatology and oceanographic analysis of the California Pacific Outer Continental Shelf region. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.; Reeves, R.W.; Godshall, F.A.; Fehler, S.W.; Pytlowany, P.J.

    1980-09-01

    The results of an environmental study of the California Pacific Offshore Continental Shelf (CPOCS) region are presented. The CPOCS region is defined as the area between the Mexican border to the Oregon State boundary and seaward to the shelf edge or 200 km. A larger region was examined in several components of the study to describe conditions upstream and downstream of potential leasing areas. Individual chapters focus on meteorological factors, ocean circulation, water masses and physical properties, nutrient chemistry and water elevations.

  1. Analysis of heat wave occurrences in the Carpathian basin using regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartha, E. B.; Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.

    2012-04-01

    Human health is very likely affected by regional consequences of global warming. One of the most severe impacts is probably associated to temperature-related climatological extremes, such as heat waves. In the coming decades hot conditions in most regions of the world are very likely to occur more frequently and more intensely than in the recent decades. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies on local scale, it is essential to analyze the projected changes related to warming climatic conditions including heat waves. In 2004, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in Hungary on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. In the frame of this recently introduced Health Watch System, three levels of heat wave warning are applied. They are associated to the daily mean temperature values, and defined as follows: - Warning level 1 (advisory for internal use) is issued when the daily mean temperature exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 2 (heat wave watch) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 3 (heat wave alert) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 27 °C. In the present study, frequency of the above climatic conditions are analyzed using regional climate model (RCM) experiments are analyzed for the recent past and the coming decades (1961-2100) for the Carpathian basin. At the Dept. of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University two different RCMs have been adapted: RegCM (with 10 km horizontal resolution, originally developed by Giorgi et al., currently, available from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP) and PRECIS (with 25 km horizontal resolution, developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre). Their initial and lateral boundary conditions have been provided by global climate models ECHAM and HadCM3, respectively. For

  2. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  3. Application of a PC analysis of remote sensing spectral reflectance data to determine source regions for dust storms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. E.; Zhou, L.; Sokolik, I.

    2006-12-01

    The source regions of deserts over which dust is lifted into the air occur on relatively small scales and hve been difficult to characterize geographically. The research programs supporting NASA's terra and aqua satellites have pioneered the development of quality controlled climatologies of surface information, that should include features characteristic of dust source regions. With quality satellite data, patterns can be distinguished that are likely to indicate real geophysical features. Zhou et al. (2005) applied a principle component (PC) analysis to the North African desert that revealed intriguing spatial structures. It represents the spatial patterns with a limited number of PC's that maximize the covariances between spectral bands averaged over space. Such analysis acts as a filter of nonphysical information and should highlight commonly occurring small scale features, some of which are likely connected to dust source regions. We present a new such analysis for the Taklamakan desert of China. The first 2 or 3 modes are removed as being of too coarse a spatial scale to represent source regions. Features of the remaining 3 or 4 patterns of significant amplitude are examined for their possible relevancy to dust uplifting. In particular, patterns that show seasonality of vegetation are deemed unlikely to be so relevant. Distinctions in the spectral patterns and MODIS BRDF kernels of remaining terms are examined for their likely indication of a dust source region.

  4. Regional flux analysis for discovering and quantifying anatomical changes: An application to the brain morphometry in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, M; Ayache, N; Pennec, X

    2015-07-15

    In this study we introduce the regional flux analysis, a novel approach to deformation based morphometry based on the Helmholtz decomposition of deformations parameterized by stationary velocity fields. We use the scalar pressure map associated to the irrotational component of the deformation to discover the critical regions of volume change. These regions are used to consistently quantify the associated measure of volume change by the probabilistic integration of the flux of the longitudinal deformations across the boundaries. The presented framework unifies voxel-based and regional approaches, and robustly describes the volume changes at both group-wise and subject-specific level as a spatial process governed by consistently defined regions. Our experiments on the large cohorts of the ADNI dataset show that the regional flux analysis is a powerful and flexible instrument for the study of Alzheimer's disease in a wide range of scenarios: cross-sectional deformation based morphometry, longitudinal discovery and quantification of group-wise volume changes, and statistically powered and robust quantification of hippocampal and ventricular atrophy.

  5. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  6. Surface-wave analysis and its application to determining crustal and mantle structure beneath regional arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ge

    We develop several new techniques to better retrieve Earth's structure by analyzing seismic surface waves. These techniques are applied in regional studies to understand a variety of tectonic structures and geodynamic processes in Earth's crust and upper mantle. We create an automated method to retrieve surface-wave phase velocities using dense seismic arrays. The method is based on the notion of using cross-correlation to measure phase variations between nearby stations. Frequency-dependent apparent phase velocities are inverted from the phase-variation measurements via the Eikonal equation. The multi-pathing interference is corrected using amplitude measurements via the Helmholtz equation. The coherence between nearby-station waveforms, together with other data-selection criteria, helps to automate the entire process. We build up the Automated Surface-Wave Measuring System (ASWMS) that retrieves structural phase velocity directly from raw seismic waveforms for individual earthquakes without human intervention. This system is applied on the broad-band seismic data recorded by the USArray from 2006-2014, and obtain Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at the periods of 20-100~s. In total around half million seismograms from 850 events are processed, generating about 4 million cross-correlation measurements. The maps correlate well with several published studies, including ambient-noise results at high frequency. At all frequencies, a significant contrast in Rayleigh-wave phase velocity between the tectonically active western US and the stable eastern US can be observed, with the phase-velocity variations in the western US being 1-2 times greater. The Love wave phase-velocity maps are also calculated. We find that overtone interference may produce systematic bias for the Love-wave phase-velocit