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  1. Local, Regional, and Spinal Anesthesia in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Misty A

    2016-11-01

    Local, regional, and spinal anesthesias are safe, effective, often more desirable procedures for ruminants than general anesthesia. Many procedures can be performed safely and humanely in ruminants using a combination of physical restraint, mild sedation, and local, regional, or spinal anesthesia. This article focuses on the use of local anesthetics for providing anesthesia for dehorning, procedures of the nose and eye, laparotomy, reproductive procedures, teat repair, and procedures on the distal limb. Local, regional, and spinal anesthesia techniques are safe effective methods for providing anesthesia for common surgical procedures and analgesia for painful conditions in cattle and small ruminants.

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in spinal cord injury: clinical practicability.

    PubMed

    Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-05-01

    Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population.

  3. The cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Zili; Zou, Shuang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Wu, Fenzan; Gong, Fanhua; Zhang, Hongyu; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury induces the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier and triggers a complex array of tissue responses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. However, the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption have not been discussed in acute spinal cord trauma. In the present study, we respectively detected the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury. Besides, we also detected the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress both in vivo and in vitro. ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, were respectively or combinedly administrated in the model of acute spinal cord injury rats. At day 1 after spinal cord injury, blood-spinal cord barrier was disrupted and activation of ER stress and autophagy were involved in the rat model of trauma. Inhibition of ER stress by treating with 4-phenylbutyric acid decreased blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, prevented the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins and reduced autophagy activation after spinal cord injury. On the contrary, inhibition of autophagy by treating with chloroquine exacerbated blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, promoted the loss of TJ proteins and enhanced ER stress after spinal cord injury. When 4-phenylbutyric acid and chloroquine were combinedly administrated in spinal cord injury rats, chloroquine abolished the blood-spinal cord barrier protective effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid by exacerbating ER stress after spinal cord injury, indicating that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress may play a central role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in acute spinal cord injury. The present study illustrates that ER stress induced by spinal cord injury plays a detrimental role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, on the contrary, autophagy induced by spinal cord injury plays a furthersome role in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in

  4. The cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Wu, Yanqing; Liu, Yanlong; He, Zili; Zou, Shuang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Wu, Fenzan; Gong, Fanhua; Zhang, Hongyu; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-03

    Spinal cord injury induces the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier and triggers a complex array of tissue responses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. However, the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption have not been discussed in acute spinal cord trauma. In the present study, we respectively detected the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury. Besides, we also detected the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress both in vivo and in vitro. ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, were respectively or combinedly administrated in the model of acute spinal cord injury rats. At day 1 after spinal cord injury, blood-spinal cord barrier was disrupted and activation of ER stress and autophagy were involved in the rat model of trauma. Inhibition of ER stress by treating with 4-phenylbutyric acid decreased blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, prevented the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins and reduced autophagy activation after spinal cord injury. On the contrary, inhibition of autophagy by treating with chloroquine exacerbated blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, promoted the loss of TJ proteins and enhanced ER stress after spinal cord injury. When 4-phenylbutyric acid and chloroquine were combinedly administrated in spinal cord injury rats, chloroquine abolished the blood-spinal cord barrier protective effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid by exacerbating ER stress after spinal cord injury, indicating that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress may play a central role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in acute spinal cord injury. The present study illustrates that ER stress induced by spinal cord injury plays a detrimental role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, on the contrary, autophagy induced by spinal cord injury plays a furthersome role in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in

  5. Targeting the blood-spinal cord barrier: A therapeutic approach to spinal cord protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji; Yu, Qijing; Xie, Lijie; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-08-01

    One of the principal functions of physical barriers between the blood and central nervous system protects system (i.e., blood brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier) is the protection from toxic and pathogenic agents in the blood. Disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a key role in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI). Following SCIRI, the permeability of the BSCB increases. Maintaining the integrity of the BSCB alleviates the spinal cord injury after spinal cord ischemia. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structure and function of the BSCB and its changes following SCIRI, as well as the prevention and cure of SCIRI and the role of the BSCB.

  6. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practicability

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653

  7. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2016-05-18

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  8. Impaired blood-brain/spinal cord barrier in ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Rodrigues, Maria C O; Haller, Edward; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Mirtyl, Santhia; Sallot, Sebastian; Saporta, Samuel; Borlongan, Cesario V; Sanberg, Paul R

    2012-08-21

    Vascular pathology, including blood-brain/spinal cord barrier (BBB/BSCB) alterations, has recently been recognized as a key factor possibly aggravating motor neuron damage, identifying a neurovascular disease signature for ALS. However, BBB/BSCB competence in sporadic ALS (SALS) is still undetermined. In this study, BBB/BSCB integrity in postmortem gray and white matter of medulla and spinal cord tissue from SALS patients and controls was investigated. Major findings include (1) endothelial cell damage and pericyte degeneration, (2) severe intra- and extracellular edema, (3) reduced CD31 and CD105 expressions in endothelium, (4) significant accumulation of perivascular collagen IV, and fibrin deposits (5) significantly increased microvascular density in lumbar spinal cord, (6) IgG microvascular leakage, (7) reduced tight junction and adhesion protein expressions. Microvascular barrier abnormalities determined in gray and white matter of the medulla, cervical, and lumbar spinal cord of SALS patients are novel findings. Pervasive barrier damage discovered in ALS may have implications for disease pathogenesis and progression, as well as for uncovering novel therapeutic targets.

  9. Effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jianbo; Gu, Zhengsong; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hong

    2016-09-05

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a mouse model. Lycopene inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage as a highly efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Lycopene (4 mg/kg/d) was administrated immediately following SCI. The permeability of the BSCB and water content in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Additionally, levels of expression of tight junction proteins and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined with Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of spinal cord tissue homogenates was performed 48 h after SCI to evaluate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines. In addition, recovery of motor function was assessed 1 d, 2 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 15 d after SCI using the Basso Mouse Scale to score locomotion. Compared to the group with an untreated SCI, mice with an SCI treated with lycopene had significantly reduced spinal cord tissue water content and BSCB permeability. Furthermore, motor function of mice with an SCI was also greatly improved by lycopene administration. The expression of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and NF-kB increased markedly 48 h after SCI, and their upregulation was significantly attenuated by lycopene treatment. The expression of molecules that protect tight junctions, zonula occluden-1 and claudin-5, was upregulated by lycopene treatment after SCI. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that lycopene attenuated SCI by promoting repair of the damaged BSCB, so lycopene is a novel and promising treatment for SCI in humans.

  10. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  11. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-05

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  12. Early radiation-induced endothelial cell loss and blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qing; Chen, Paul; Jain, Vipan; Reilly, Raymond M; Wong, C Shun

    2004-02-01

    Using a rat spinal cord model, this study was designed to characterize radiation-induced vascular endothelial cell loss and its relationship to early blood-brain barrier disruption in the central nervous system. Adult rats were given a single dose of 0, 2, 8, 19.5, 22, 30 or 50 Gy to the cervical spinal cord. At various times up to 2 weeks after irradiation, the spinal cord was processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by morphology and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling combined with immunohistochemical markers for endothelial and glial cells. Image analysis was performed to determine endothelial cell and microvessel density using immunohistochemistry with endothelial markers, namely endothelial barrier antigen, glucose transporter isoform 1, laminin and zonula occludens 1. Blood-spinal cord barrier permeability was assessed using immunohistochemistry for albumin and (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid as a vascular tracer. Endothelial cell proliferation was assessed using in vivo BrdU labeling. During the first 24 h after irradiation, apoptotic endothelial cells were observed in the rat spinal cord. The decrease in endothelial cell density at 24 h after irradiation was associated with an increase in albumin immunostaining around microvessels. The decrease in the number of endothelial cells persisted for 7 days and recovery of endothelial density was apparent by day 14. A similar pattern of blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and recovery of permeability was observed over the 2 weeks, and an increase in BrdU-labeled endothelial cells was seen at day 3. These results are consistent with an association between endothelial cell death and acute blood-spinal cord barrier disruption in the rat spinal cord after irradiation.

  13. Blood flow increase by cervical spinal cord stimulation in middle cerebral and common carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Robaina, Francisco; Clavo, Bernardino; Catalá, Luis; Caramés, Miguel Á; Morera, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) has, in the past, been evaluated by semiquantitative techniques, but has not been used to treat CBF diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cervical SCS on regional blood flow by both semiquantitative and quantitative methods. Thirty-five patients with cervical SCS-implanted devices were enrolled. The following parameters were measured before and after cervical SCS: systolic and diastolic velocity (cm/s) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) and volume blood flow quantification (ml/min) in the common carotid artery (CCA) by color Doppler. During cervical SCS there was a significant and bilateral increase in systolic (21%) and diastolic (26%) velocity in the MCA and in CCA blood flow (50%). We conclude that cervical SCS increases blood flow in the middle cerebral artery and common carotid artery. The consistent increase supports the potential usefulness of cervical SCS as an adjuvant treatment for cerebral blood flow diseases.

  14. The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0481 TITLE: The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...AND SUBTITLE: l The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A majority of males exhibit a profound loss of fertility following

  15. Breakdown of Blood-Brain and Blood-Spinal Cord Barriers During Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Role of Brain Temperature.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often-abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial cell activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, METH-induced leakage of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers is a significant contributor to different types of functional and structural brain abnormalities that determine acute toxicity of this drug and possibly neurotoxicity during its chronic use.

  16. Spinal cord excitability is not influenced by elevated blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; Perciavalle, Valentina; Cicirata, Valentina; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling or with an intravenous infusion, with spinal cord excitability. The study was carried out on 17 male athletes; all the subjects performed a maximal cycling test on a mechanically braked cycloergometer, while 6 of them were submitted to the intravenous infusion of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min). Before the exercise or the injection, also at the end as well as 5 and 10 min after the conclusion, venous blood lactate was measured and excitability of the spinal α-motoneurons was evaluated by using the H reflex technique. In both experimental conditions, it has been observed that an exhaustive exercise is associated with a strong increase of blood lactate (but not of blood glucose) and with a significant reduction of spinal excitability. Since a similar augment of blood lactate induced by an intravenous infusion, in subjects not performing any exercise, is not associated with significant changes of spinal excitability, it can be concluded that the increase of blood lactate levels during a maximal exercise is not per se capable of modifying the excitability of spinal α-motoneurons.

  17. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  18. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  19. Spinal cord stimulation for a woman with complex regional pain syndrome who wished to get pregnant.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shoji; Sugiura, Takeshi; Azami, Takafumi; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sobue, Kazuya

    2013-02-01

    A woman with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the right lower extremity who wished to discontinue medications to get pregnant underwent implantation of a spinal cord stimulation system (SCS). An electrode lead was placed at Th(10-11) in the epidural space, accessed via the L(2-3) interspace with a paramedian approach, and a pulse generator was implanted in the left buttock. She kept the SCS on 24 h a day. After she had experienced several chemical abortions, finally she got pregnant via artificial insemination. She had an uneventful delivery of a healthy baby by cesarean resection under spinal anesthesia. In a patient with CRPS who has an implanted SCS system and wishes to get pregnant, the electrode lead into the low thoracic epidural space should be accessed via the high lumbar intervertebral space in consideration of a future requirement for spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. The generator should be placed in the buttock to prevent impairment of the SCS system being caused by the enlarged abdomen during pregnancy. Although we were apprehensive of adverse effects owing to the electromagnetic field force and change of blood flow in the pelvic viscera, our patient had a successful delivery. SCS is a favorable option for patients with CRPS who wish to get pregnant.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  1. The Blood-testis-barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    dependent male infertility is characterized by a significant reduction in numbers and quality of functional sperm. The mechanism(s) underlying this...term effects on the blood-testis-barrier as a mechanism underlying male infertility following spinal cord injury. Goals/Milestones (Example) CY12/13

  2. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual...finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for...hemorrhage (SAH) in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is

  3. Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine.

  4. Local cooling reduces regional bone blood flow.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, Arne J; Vogt, Stephan; Stöckl, Klaus; Tischer, Thomas; Jost, Philipp J; Thein, Eckart; Imhoff, Andreas B; Anetzberger, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Local cooling is very common after bone and joint surgery. Therefore the knowledge of bone blood flow during local cooling is of substantial interest. Previous studies revealed that hypothermia leads to vasoconstriction followed by decreased blood flow levels. The aim of this study was to characterize if local cooling is capable of inducing reduced blood flow in bone tissue using a stepwise-reduced temperature protocol in experimental rabbits. To examine bone blood flow we utilized the fluorescent microsphere (FM) method. In New Zealand white rabbits one randomly chosen hind limb was cooled stepwise from 32 to 2°C, whereas the contra lateral hind limb served as control. Injection of microspheres was performed after stabilization of bone and muscle temperature at each temperature level. Bones were removed, dissected and fluorescence intensity was determined to calculate blood flow values. We found that blood flow of all cooled regions decreased relative to the applied external temperature. At maximum cooling blood flow was almost completely disrupted, indicating local cooling as powerful regulatory mechanism for regional bone blood flow (RBBF). Postoperative cooling therefore may lead to strongly decreased bone blood flow values. As a result external cooling has capacity to both diminish bone healing and reduce bleeding complications.

  5. Somatotopic arrangement of thermal sensory regions in the healthy human spinal cord determined by means of spinal cord functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Patrick W; Bosma, Rachael L; Tsyben, Anastasia

    2012-09-01

    Previous functional MRI studies of normal sensory function in the human spinal cord, including right-to-left symmetry of activity, have been influenced by order effects between repeated studies. In this study, we apply thermal sensory stimulation to four dermatomes within each functional MRI time-series acquisition. Each of the four dermatomes receives a unique stimulation paradigm, such that the four paradigms form a linearly independent set, enabling detection of each individual stimulus response. Functional MRI data are shown spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem in 10 healthy volunteers. Results of general linear model analysis demonstrate consistent patterns of activity within the spinal cord segments corresponding to each dermatome, and a high degree of symmetry between right-side and left-side stimulation. Connectivity analyses also demonstrate consistent areas of activity and connectivity between spinal cord and brainstem regions corresponding to known anatomy. However, right-side and left-side responses are not at precisely the same rostral-caudal positions, but are offset by several millimeters, with left-side responses consistently more caudal than right-side responses. The results confirm that distinct responses to multiple interleaved sensory stimuli can be distinguished, enabling studies of sensory responses within the spinal cord without the confounding effects of comparing sequential studies.

  6. Propofol protects against blood-spinal cord barrier disruption induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-jie; Huang, Jin-xiu; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Fen; Zhang, Shuang-shuang; Yu, Qi-jing; Hu, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Propofol has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects on the injured spinal cord. However, the effect of propofol on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether propofol could maintain the integrity of the BSCB. Spinal cord IRI (SCIRI) was induced in rabbits by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 minutes. Propofol, 30 mg/kg, was intravenously infused 10 minutes before aortic clamping as well as at the onset of reperfusion. Then, 48 hours later, we performed histological and mRNA/protein analyses of the spinal cord. Propofol decreased histological damage to the spinal cord, attenuated the reduction in BSCB permeability, downregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and upregulated the protein expression levels of occludin and claudin-5. Our findings suggest that propofol helps maintain BSCB integrity after SCIRI by reducing MMP-9 expression, by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway, and by maintaining expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:28250758

  7. Spinal cord blood flow measured by /sup 14/C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography during and after graded spinal cord compression in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, A.; Nystroem, B.G.; Gerdin, B.

    1989-05-01

    The relations between degree of thoracic spinal cord compression causing myelographic block, reversible paraparesis, and extinction of the sensory evoked potential on one hand, and spinal cord blood flow on the other, were investigated. This was done in rats using the blocking weight-technique and /sup 14/C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. A load of 9 g caused myelographic block. Five minutes of compression with that load caused a reduction of spinal cord blood flow to about 25%, but 5 and 60 minutes after the compression spinal cord blood flow was restored to 60% of the pretrauma value. A load of 35 g for 5 minutes caused transient paraparesis. Recovery to about 30% was observed 5 and 60 minutes thereafter. During compression at a load of 55 g, which caused almost total extinction of sensory evoked potential and irreversible paraplegia, spinal cord blood flow under the load ceased. The results indicate that myelographic block occurs at a load which does not cause irreversible paraparesis and that a load which permits sensory evoked potential to be elicited results in potentially salvageable damage.

  8. Cost and utilization of blood transfusion associated with spinal surgeries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Wang, Peter F; Joshi, Ashish V; Asmussen, Mikael; Saunders, William; Kruse, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the utilization and cost of blood transfusion during and post-spinal fusion surgery. A retrospective, observational study of 42,029 inpatients undergoing spinal fusion surgery in United States hospitals participating in the Perspective( Comparative Database for inpatient use was conducted. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were used to describe the factors associated with the use and cost of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). Hospitalization costs were $18,690 (SD=14,159) per patient, erythropoietin costs were $85.25 (SD=3,691.66) per patient, and topical sealant costs were $414.34 (SD=1,020.06) per patient. Sub-analysis of ABT restricted to users revealed ABT costs ranged from $312.24 (SD=543.35) per patient with whole blood to $2,520 (SD=3,033.49) per patient with fresh frozen plasma. Patients that received hypotensive anesthesia (OR,1.61; 95% CI, 1.47-1.77), a volume expander (OR,1.95; 95% CI, 1.75-2.18), autologous blood (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.71-2.42), or an erythropoietic agent (OR=1.64; 95% CI, 1.27-2.12) had a higher risk of ABT. Patients that received cell salvage had a lower risk of transfusion (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.32-0.50). Most blood avoidance techniques have low utilization or do not reduce the burden of transfusion associated with spinal fusion.

  9. Severe blood loss during spinal reconstructive procedures: the potential usefulness of topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Block, Jon E

    2005-01-01

    Complex spinal reconstructive procedures are invariably associated with excessive intraoperative blood loss that significantly increases the risk of severe perioperative complications. In some cases, excessive hemorrhage is equivalent to estimated total blood volume. Unfortunately, widely exposed bony surfaces are not amenable to standard hemostatic maneuvers utilized during soft tissue surgery. This article evaluates the clinical effectiveness of several approaches to blood management in this setting, and hypothesizes that underappreciated topical hemostatic agents may provide benefit by reducing the need for autologous predonation, banked donor blood or antifibrinolytic agents. Topical agents combining collagen, thrombin and fibrin have demonstrated initial promise by inducing platelet aggregation and initiating the clotting cascade when applied directly to bleeding bony sites. Clinical studies are clearly warranted.

  10. Symptomatic Triple-Region Spinal Stenosis Treated with Simultaneous Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Joseph C.; Raudenbush, Brandon L.; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objectives Symptomatic triple-region spinal stenosis (TRSS), defined as spinal stenosis in three different regions of the spine, is extremely rare. To our knowledge, treatment with simultaneous decompressive surgery is not described in the literature. We report a case of a patient with TRSS who was treated successfully with simultaneous decompressive surgery in three separate regions of the spine. Methods A 50-year-old man presented with combined progressive cervical and thoracic myelopathy along with severe lumbar spinal claudication and radiculopathy. He underwent simultaneous decompressive surgery in all three regions of his spine and concomitant instrumented fusion in the cervical and thoracic regions. Results Estimated blood loss for the procedure was 600 mL total (250 mL cervical, 250 mL thoracic, 100 mL lumbar) and operative time was ∼3.5 hours. No changes were noted on intraoperative monitoring. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation on postoperative day (POD) 7 and discharged home on POD 11. At 6-month follow-up, his gait and motor function was improved and returned to normal in all extremities. He remains partially disabled due to chronic back pain. Conclusions This report is the first of symptomatic TRSS treated with simultaneous surgery in three different regions of the spine. Simultaneous triple region stenosis surgery appears to be an effective treatment option for this rare condition, but may be associated with prolonged hospital stay after surgery. PMID:26682102

  11. The organization of spinal motor neurons in a monotreme is consistent with a six-region schema of the mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mitchelle, Amer; Watson, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The motor neurons in the spinal cord of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been mapped in Nissl-stained sections from spinal cord segments defined by spinal nerve anatomy. A medial motor column of motor neurons is found at all spinal cord levels, and a hypaxial column is found at most levels. The organization of the motor neuron clusters in the lateral motor column of the brachial (C5 to T3) and crural (L2 to S3) limb enlargements is very similar to the pattern previously revealed by retrograde tracing in placental mammals, and the motor neuron clusters have been tentatively identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. The region separating the two limb enlargements (T4 to L1) contains preganglionic motor neurons that appear to represent the spinal sympathetic outflow. Immediately caudal to the crural limb enlargement is a short column of preganglionic motor neurons (S3 to S4), which it is believed represents the pelvic parasympathetic outflow. The rostral and caudal ends of the spinal cord contain neither a lateral motor column nor a preganglionic column. Branchial motor neurons (which are believed to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles) are present at the lateral margin of the ventral horn in rostral cervical segments (C2-C4). These same segments contain the phrenic nucleus, which belongs to the hypaxial column. The presence or absence of the main spinal motor neuron columns in the different regions echidna spinal cord (and also in that of other amniote vertebrates) provides a basis for dividing the spinal cord into six main regions - prebrachial, brachial, postbrachial, crural, postcrural and caudal. The considerable biological and functional significance of this subdivision pattern is supported by recent studies on spinal cord hox gene expression in chicks and mice. On the other hand, the familiar 'segments' of the spinal cord are defined only by the anatomy of adjacent vertebrae, and are not demarcated by intrinsic gene

  12. Not just the brain: methamphetamine disrupts blood-spinal cord barrier and induces acute glial activation and structural damage of spinal cord cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-01-01

    Acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication induces metabolic brain activation as well as multiple physiological and behavioral responses that could result in life-threatening health complications. Previously, we showed that METH (9 mg/kg) used in freely moving rats induces robust leakage of blood-brain barrier, acute glial activation, vasogenic edema, and structural abnormalities of brain cells. These changes were tightly correlated with drug-induced brain hyperthermia and were greatly potentiated when METH was used at warm ambient temperatures (29°C), inducing more robust and prolonged hyperthermia. Extending this line of research, here we show that METH also strongly increases the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier as evidenced by entry of Evans blue and albumin immunoreactivity in T9-12 segments of the spinal cord. Similar to the blood-brain barrier, leakage of bloodspinal cord barrier was associated with acute glial activation, alterations of ionic homeostasis, water tissue accumulation (edema), and structural abnormalities of spinal cord cells. Similar to that in the brain, all neurochemical alterations correlated tightly with drug-induced elevations in brain temperature and they were enhanced when the drug was used at 29°C and brain hyperthermia reached pathological levels (>40°C). We discuss common features and differences in neural responses between the brain and spinal cord, two inseparable parts of the central nervous system affected by METH exposure.

  13. Whole transcriptome sequencing in blood provides a diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME).

    PubMed

    Kernohan, Kristin D; Frésard, Laure; Zappala, Zachary; Hartley, Taila; Smith, Kevin S; Wagner, Justin; Xu, Hongbin; McBride, Arran; Bourque, Pierre R; Consortium, Care Rare Canada; Bennett, Steffany A L; Dyment, David A; Boycott, Kym M; Montgomery, Stephen B; Warman-Chardon, Jodi

    2017-03-02

    At least 15% of disease-causing mutations affect mRNA splicing. Many splicing mutations are missed in a clinical setting due to limitations of in silico prediction algorithms or their location in non-coding regions. Whole transcriptome sequencing is a promising new tool to identify these mutations; however, it will be a challenge to obtain disease relevant tissue for RNA. Here, we describe an individual with a sporadic atypical spinal muscular atrophy, in whom clinical DNA sequencing reported one pathogenic ASAH1 mutation (c.458A>G;p.Tyr153Cys). Transcriptome sequencing on patient leukocytes identified a highly significant and atypical ASAH1 isoform not explained by c.458A>G(p<10(-16) ). Subsequent Sanger-sequencing identified the splice mutation responsible for the isoform (c.504A>C;p.Lys168Asn) and provided a molecular diagnosis of autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME). Our findings demonstrate the utility of RNA sequencing from blood to identify splice-impacting disease mutations for non-hematological conditions, providing a diagnosis for these otherwise unsolved patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxygen Supplementation is Effective in Attenuating Maternal Cerebral Blood Deoxygenation After Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Noriya; Kondo, Yuko; Maeda, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure changes in maternal cerebral blood oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for 15 min after spinal anesthesia performed for cesarean section, and to determine the efficacy of supplemental oxygen in maintaining maternal cerebral blood oxygenation. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to either receive 100% oxygen via a facemask at a constant flow rate of 3 l/min throughout the study (O2 group), or were evaluated without supplemental oxygen (Air group). Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation were evaluated using the following parameters: oxy-hemoglobin (Hb), deoxy-Hb, and total-Hb concentrations, as well as tissue oxygen index (TOI), measured over the forehead by NIRS. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were also recorded throughout the study. Mean oxy-Hb, total-Hb, TOI, and MAP in both groups decreased significantly from baseline values (P<0.05). The reduction in oxy-Hb and TOI in the Air group was significantly greater than that in the O2 group (oxy-Hb: -4.72 vs. -2.96 μmol/l; P<0.05, TOI: -6.82 vs. -1.68%; P<0.01); however, there were no significant differences in the reduction of total-Hb and MAP between the groups. Mean deoxy-Hb in the Air group was significantly higher than that in the O2 group (0.02 vs. -1.01 μmol/l; P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrate that oxygen supplementation attenuates cerebral blood deoxygenation secondary to the reduction in cerebral blood flow following spinal anesthesia.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical.

  16. De novo and inherited deletions of the 5q13 region in spinal muscular atrophies

    SciTech Connect

    Melki, J.; Lefebvre, S.; Burglen, L.; Burlet, P.; Clermont, O.; Reboullet, S.; Benichou, B.; Zeviani, M. ); Millasseau, P. ); Le Paslier, D. )

    1994-06-03

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) represent the second most common fatal autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis. Childhood spinal muscular atrophies are divided into severe (type I) and mild forms (types II and III). By a combination of genetic and physical mapping, a yeast artificial chromosome contig of the 5q13 region spanning the disease locus was constructed that showed the presence of low copy repeats in this region. Allele segregation was analyzed at the closest genetic loci detected by markers C212 and C272 in 201 SMA families. Inherited and de novo deletions were observed in nine unrelated SMA patients. Moreover, deletions were strongly suggested in at least 18 percent of SMA type I patients by the observation of marked heterozygosity deficiency for the loci studied. These results indicate that deletion events are statistically associated with the severe form of spinal muscular atrophy. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Motor neurons control blood vessel patterning in the developing spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Himmels, Patricia; Paredes, Isidora; Adler, Heike; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Luck, Robert; Marti, Hugo H.; Ermakova, Olga; Rempel, Eugen; Stoeckli, Esther T.; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Formation of a precise vascular network within the central nervous system is of critical importance to assure delivery of oxygen and nutrients and for accurate functionality of neuronal networks. Vascularization of the spinal cord is a highly stereotypical process. However, the guidance cues controlling blood vessel patterning in this organ remain largely unknown. Here we describe a new neuro-vascular communication mechanism that controls vessel guidance in the developing spinal cord. We show that motor neuron columns remain avascular during a developmental time window, despite expressing high levels of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We describe that motor neurons express the VEGF trapping receptor sFlt1 via a Neuropilin-1-dependent mechanism. Using a VEGF gain-of-function approach in mice and a motor neuron-specific sFlt1 loss-of-function approach in chicken, we show that motor neurons control blood vessel patterning by an autocrine mechanism that titrates motor neuron-derived VEGF via their own expression of sFlt1. PMID:28262664

  18. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  19. Spinal projections from the presumptive midbrain locomotor region in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) plays an important role in the control of locomotion, but there is ongoing debate about the anatomy of its connections with the spinal cord. In this study, we have examined the spinal projections of the mouse precuneiform nucleus (PrCnF), which lies within the boundaries of the presumptive MLR. We used both retrograde and anterograde labeling techniques. Small clusters of labeled neurons were seen in the medial portion of the PrCnF following fluoro-gold injections in the upper cervical spinal cord. Fewer labeled neurons were seen in the PrCnF after upper thoracic injections. Following the injection of anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) into the PrCnF, labeled fibers were clearly observed in the spinal cord. These fibers traveled in the ventral and lateral funiculi, and terminated mainly in the medial portions of laminae 7, 8, and 9, as well as area 10, with an ipsilateral predominance. Our observations indicate that projections from the PrCnF to the spinal cord may provide an anatomical substrate for the role of the MLR in locomotion.

  20. Assessment of skin blood content and oxygenation in spinal cord injured subjects during reactive hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Hagisawa, S; Ferguson-Pell, M; Cardi, M; Miller, S D

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the reactive hyperemia response following ischemia in spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals is different from that which occurs in able-bodied (AB) individuals. The reactive hyperemia response was produced by applying a pressure of 150 mmHg for 300 s, 600 s, and 900 s to the skin over the greater trochanter in 10 SCI and 10 AB subjects using a computer-controlled pneumatic indentation system. The changes in blood content and oxygenation in the superficial vessels of the skin, associated with indentation, were monitored using reflectance spectrophotometry. A brief pressure of 80 mmHg, to simulate finger pressing (blanching), was applied to the same site to detect changes in reflow behavior during the hyperemic period. The results indicate that the reactive hyperemia response in SCI group was not substantially different from AB group although the reflow rate after load release was slower in the SCI group compared with the AB group.

  1. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  2. The effect of an NK1 receptor antagonist on blood spinal cord barrier permeability following balloon compression-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anna V; Vink, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is disrupted following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in vasogenic edema and increased intrathecal pressure (ITP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been implicated in the development of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, edema, and increased intracranial pressure following brain injury, although it has not been investigated in SCI. The balloon compression model of experimental SCI has many advantages in that it replicates the "closed" environment observed clinically. Accordingly, this study characterized whether this model produces an increase in BSCB permeability and edema, and whether a SP, NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NAT) reduces such BSCB disruption and edema formation. At 30 min post-injury, animals were administered 2.5 mg/kg NAT or saline. Subgroups of animals were assessed for BSCB permeability (Evan's Blue) and spinal cord edema (wet weight/dry weight). BSCB permeability and edema were significantly increased in injured groups compared with sham (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between vehicle and NAT treatment. We conclude that the balloon compression model of SCI produces significant BSCB disruption although NAT treatment did not attenuate BSCB permeability or edema. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of SP following SCI.

  3. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  4. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  5. Changes of blood flow, oxygen tension, action potential and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the spinal cord in canine model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Shimada, Seiichiro; Guerrero, Alexander Rodríguez; Miyachi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    It is generally considered that the genesis of myelopathy associated with the degenerative conditions of the spine may result from both mechanical compression and circulatory disturbance. Many references about spinal cord tissue ischemic damage can be found in the literature, but not detailed studies about spinal cord microvasculature damage related to congestion or blood permeability. This study investigates the effect of ischemia and congestion on the spinal cord using an in vivo model. The aorta was clamped as an ischemia model of the spinal cord and the inferior vena cava was clamped as a congestion model at the 6th costal level for 30 min using forceps transpleurally. Measurements of blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and conduction velocity in the spinal cord were repeated over a period of 1 h after release of clamping. Finally, we examined the status of blood-spinal cord barrier under fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. Immediately after clamping of the inferior vena cava, the central venous pressure increased by about four times. Blood flow, oxygen tension and action potential were more severely affected by the aorta clamping; but this ischemic model did not show any changes of blood permeability in the spinal cord. The intramedullar edema was more easily produced by venous congestion than by arterial ischemia. In conclusions, venous congestion may be a preceding and essential factor of circulatory disturbance in the compressed spinal cord inducing myelopathy.

  6. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Tim; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Burnett, Angus F; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx), Upper lumbar (ULx) and total lumbar (TLx) spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638), but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p < 0.001). Regional differences in range of motion from reference postures in sitting and standing were evident. BMI accounted for regional differences found in all sitting and some standing measures. LBP was not associated with differences in regional lumbar spine angles or range of motion, with the exception of maximal backward bending range of motion (F = 5.18, p = 0.007). Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load. PMID:19014712

  7. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172

  8. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  9. Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by lithium chloride contributes to the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Zili; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery. Our data indicated that LiCl treatment could attenuates BSCB disruption and improved the recovery of functional locomotion in rats SCI model, reduced the structure damage and number loss of microvessels, increased the expressions of junction proteins, including p120, β-catenin, occludin, and claudin-5, via reversed the upregulated ER stress associated proteins. In addition, LiCl significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of junction proteins in thapsigargin (TG)-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). These findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promote the neurological function recovery after SCI, partly through inhibiting the activation of ER stress. PMID:28386329

  10. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  11. The development of catecholaminergic nerves in the spinal cord of rat. II. Regional development.

    PubMed

    Commissiong, J W

    1983-12-01

    The development of noradrenergic and dopaminergic nerves in 5 regions of the developing spinal cord of rat, from fetal day (FD) 16, to the young adult stage was studied. The normal synthetic capacity of adrenergic nerves in the ventral horn of the cervical and lumbar regions developed at the same time, and at the same rate, despite their spatial separation, and before similar development of the noradrenergic nerves in the dorsal horn and zona intermedia. In the ventral horn, the synthesis of NE from injected L-DOPA, as well as the release and metabolism of NE are well-established at 12 h (ND 0.5) after birth. In the dorsal horn these developments occur later at ND 4. Except in the dorsal horn of the cervical region, there was no easily observable, consistent pattern in the development of regional spinal dopaminergic innervation. The capacity of the developing cord to synthesize dopamine (DA) from injected DOPA is significantly developed at FD 16 (the earliest time studied), and peaked in all regions as early as ND 4. Control experiments indicate that 100%, and only 10% respectively of NE and DA synthetized from injected DOPA, occurred in descending monoaminergic fibers. Norepinephrine is synthesized exclusively in noradrenergic nerves. Cells appear transiently in the developing cord at FD 18, that are capable of synthesizing catecholamines (probably mainly DA) from injected DOPA. During postnatal development of the cord, and to a less extent in the adult, the network of catecholaminergic nerves actually present, is more extensive than that normally revealed during routine fluorescence microscopy. The results are discussed in the context of current attempts to understand the functional importance of catecholaminergic nerves in the mammalian spinal cord, and elsewhere in the CNS.

  12. Assessment of skin blood flow following spinal manual therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zegarra-Parodi, Rafael; Park, Peter Yong Soo; Heath, Deborah M; Makin, Inder Raj S; Degenhardt, Brian F; Roustit, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) indexes have been used to describe physiological mechanisms associated with spinal manual therapy (SMT). The aims of the current review were to assess methods for data collection, assess how investigators interpreted SBF changes, and formulate recommendations to advance manual medicine research. A database search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature through April 2014. Articles were included if at least 1 outcome measure was changes in 1 SBF index following SMT. The database search yielded 344 records. Two independent authors applied the inclusion criteria. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Selected studies used heterogeneous methods to assess short-term post-SMT changes in SBF, usually vasoconstriction, which was interpreted as a general sympathoexcitatory effect through central mechanisms. However, this conclusion might be challenged by the current understanding of skin sympathetic nervous activity over local endothelial mechanisms that are specifically controlling SBF. Evaluation of SBF measurements in peripheral tissues following SMT may document physiological responses that are beyond peripheral sympathetic function. Based on the current use of SBF indexes in clinical and physiological research, 14 recommendations for advancing manual medicine research using laser Doppler flowmetry are presented.

  13. Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Susan M.; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L.; Bopp, Anne C.; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2009-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP. PMID:19853381

  14. Effect of spinal cord compression on local vascular blood flow and perfusion capacity by Alshareef M, Krishna V, Ferdous J, Aishareef A, Kindy M, Kolachalama VB, et al.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different degrees of blood flow/vascular compromise occur with anterior, posterior, or circumferential spinal cord compression/spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI is also divided into primary and secondary injury. Primary SCI refers to the original neurological damage to tissues, whereas secondary injury reflects interruption of normal blood flow leading to further inflammatory response/other local changes which contribute to additional neurological injury. Methods: The authors developed a quantitative “3-D finite element fluid structure interaction model” of spinal cord blood flow to better document the mechanisms of secondary ischemic damage occurring in the spinal cord anteriorly, posteriorly, or circumferentially. This included assessment of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) and five arterial branches (L1, L2, L3, R1, R2), but excluded the microvasculature. Results: Different locations of cord compression resulted in alternative patterns of spinal cord ischemia. Anterior spinal artery (ASA) flow was substantially reduced by direct anterior compression, but resulted in the least vascular compromise. Alternatively, posterior compression resulted in a significant and critical reduction of distal ASA blood flow and, therefore, correlated with the greatest susceptibility to acute ischemia. Counterintuitively, they concluded “at equivalent degrees of dural occlusion, the loss of branch blood flow under anterior posterior compression was intermediate to predictions for purely posterior or anterior loading.” Conclusion: Utilizing a computational three-dimensional model, Alshareef et al. observed that anterior cervical cord compression resulted in the least severe compromise of ASA blood flow to the spinal cord, whereas posterior cord compression/SCI maximally reduced distal ASA blood flow potentiating acute ischemia. Therefore, the latter warranted the earliest surgical intervention. PMID:27843686

  15. Barriers to implementing intermittent catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients in Northwest Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, U.K.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Singh, Gurpreet; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L

    2011-01-05

    Intermittent catheterisation is the preferred method of managing the neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury. However, spinal cord physicians experienced problems when trying to implement an intermittent catheterisation regime in some spinal cord injury patients in the northwest of England. We present illustrative cases to describe practical difficulties encountered by patients while trying to adopt an intermittent catheterisation regime. Barriers to intermittent catheterisation are (1) caregivers or nurses are not available to carry out five or six catheterisations a day; (2) lack of time to perform intermittent catheterisations; (3) unavailability of suitable toilet facilities in public places, including restaurants and offices; (4) redundant prepuce in a male patient, which prevents ready access to urethral meatus; (5) urethral false passage; (6) urethral sphincter spasm requiring the use of flexible-tip catheters and á-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs; (7) reluctance to perform intermittent catheterisation in patients >60 years by some health professionals; and (8) difficulty in accessing the urethral meatus for catheterisation while the patient is sitting up, especially in female patients. These cases demonstrate the urgent need for provision of trained caregivers who can perform intermittent catheterisation, and improvement in public facilities that are suitable for performing catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients. Further, vigilance should be exercised during each catheterisation in order to prevent complications, such as urethral trauma and consequent false passages. Health professionals should make additional efforts to implement intermittent catheterisation in female spinal cord injury patients and in those >60 years.

  16. Isolation of cDNA clones from within the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, M.; Roy, N.; Tamai, K.

    1994-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by death of spinal cord {alpha} motor neurons, resulting in skeletal muscle atrophy. The critical SMA disease gene region on 5q13.1 contains families of microsatellite repeat sequences which exist at multiple subloci that are dispersed over a 100 to 200 kbp region. We have detected significant linkage disequilibrium between SMA type 1, the most severe form of the disorder, and two subloci of one such microsatellite, the CATT-1 family of microsatellites. Furthermore, a recombination event in a chromosome of an individual with SMA type 1 mapping between the members of two other extended microsatellite families, including CMS-1, has been observed. Combining this with previously reported recombinants refines the critical SMA region to approximately 300 kbp. P1 artificial chromosome (PAC), YAC and cosmid clones which possess both CMS-1 alleles which bracket this recombination event, as well as CATT-1 alleles showing linkage disequilibrium with SMA, have been used to probe cDNA libraries from human and other mammalian sources in search of genes within this interval; three of these cDNAs are currently being tested as candidates for the SMA gene.

  17. Cardiac cryosurgery: regional myocardial blood flow of ventricular cryolesions

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, W.L.; Ikeshita, M.; Lease, J.G.; Smith, P.K.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Cox, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Cryosurgery is one of three methods introduced recently for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Cryothermic exposure ablates arrhythmogenic ventricular myocardium, and produces a dense fibrous scar with a sharp border to histologically normal tissue. Myocardial blood flow in the region of the cryolesion, however, has not been quantitated. The purpose of this study was to measure regional blood flow within and around the cryolesion in an attempt to identify ischemic zones that might become arrhythmogenic. Left ventricular cryolesions were created in eleven adult dogs. Two weeks later, the animals underwent radioactive tracer microsphere injection for quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow. The fibrotic cryolesion demonstrated a significantly depressed blood flow (0.44 +/- 0.07 ml/min/g) compared to blood flow in control tissue (1.36 +/- 0.12 ml/min/g) (P less than 0.001). A 1-mm strip of myocardium immediately adjacent to the cryolesion, as well as other myocardium surrounding and subjacent to the cryolesion, did not show a significant decrease in regional blood flow. The border between the fibrotic cryolesion and the surrounding myocardium is, therefore, sharply defined not only in terms of histology but also in regards to regional blood flow. These data lend further support to the safe clinical use of cryothermia in the treatment of refractory ventricular tachycardia.

  18. Wnts Are Expressed in the Ependymal Region of the Adult Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Carlos; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodriguez, Francisco J; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2016-10-08

    The Wnt family of proteins plays key roles during central nervous system development and in several physiological processes during adulthood. Recently, experimental evidence has linked Wnt-related genes to regulation and maintenance of stem cells in the adult neurogenic niches. In the spinal cord, the ependymal cells surrounding the central canal form one of those niches, but little is known about their Wnt expression patterns. Using microdissection followed by TaqMan® low-density arrays, we show here that the ependymal regions of young, mature rats and adult humans express several Wnt-related genes, including ligands, conventional and non-conventional receptors, co-receptors, and soluble inhibitors. We found 13 genes shared between rats and humans, 4 exclusively expressed in rats and 9 expressed only in humans. Also, we observed a reduction with age on spontaneous proliferation of ependymal cells in rats paralleled by a decrease in the expression of Fzd1, Fzd8, and Fzd9. Our results suggest a role for Wnts in the regulation of the adult spinal cord neurogenic niche and provide new data on the specific differences in this region between humans and rodents.

  19. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  20. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  1. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D

    2004-01-01

    Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547

  2. Blood detection in the spinal column of whole cooked chicken using an optical fibre based sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; O'Farrell, M.; Lyons, W. B.; Lewis, E.; Flanagan, C.; Jackman, N.

    2005-01-01

    An optical fibre based sensor has been developed to aid the quality assurance of food cooked in industrial ovens by monitoring the product in situ as it cooks. The sensor measures the product colour as it cooks by examining the reflected visible light from the surface as well as the core of the product. This paper examines the use of the sensor for the detection of blood in the spinal area of cooked whole chickens. The results presented here show that the sensor can be successfully used for this purpose.

  3. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  4. Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation. [/sup 60/Co; x ray

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, B.R.; Griffin, T.W.; Tong, D.Y.K.; Russell, A.H.; Kurtz, J.; Laramore, G.E.; Groudine, M.

    1981-05-01

    Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment.

  5. Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Kleyn, P W; Wang, C H; Lien, L L; Vitale, E; Pan, J; Ross, B M; Grunn, A; Palmer, D A; Warburton, D; Brzustowicz, L M

    1993-01-01

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8341701

  6. Construction of a yeast artifical chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kleyn, P.W.; Wang, C.H.; Vitale, E.; Pan, J.; Ross, B.M.; Grunn, A.; Palmer, D.A.; Warburton, D.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.G. ); Lien, L.L.; Kunkel, L.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery.

  8. Isolation of cDNAs from the spinal muscular atrophy gene region with yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.X.; He, X.X.; Hung, W.Y.

    1994-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells, leading to progressive paralysis of voluntary muscles. The SMA gene(s) is located at 5q11.2-q13.3, between D5S435 and D5S112. To isolate potential candidate gene(s) responsible for SMA, we used the YACs within the SMA gene region as probes to screen a human brainstem cDNA library. Thirteen cDNA clones were isolated. Their sizes range from 0.7 kb to 5 kb. Seven clones were found to be unique in sequence; the remaining six clones contain repetitive sequences. Five out of these seven unique clones have been used as probes to screen a phage genomic DNA library. Phage genomic clones isolated with individual unique cDNA were used for fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify the origin of cDNAs. These five unique sequences are all located in the 5q13 region, indicating the reliability of our screening method. All the thirteen clones have been partially sequenced (about 300 bp) from each end. No homology has been found with any known EST or known genes. No cross hybridization was detected among the unique clones, suggesting that there may be distinct new genes encoded in this region.

  9. Spinal cord stimulation, conception, pregnancy, and labor: case study in a complex regional pain syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Segal, R

    1999-01-01

    Introduction. Interventional modalities for pain treatment are reserved for patients failing multidisciplinary pain management, including psychological, physical, pharmacological, and anesthetic techniques. Objective. Medications for intractable pain may be unacceptable because the risk of teratogenic effects. The purpose of this study is to find out whether spinal cord stimulation may be safe during conception, pregnancy, and delivery. Materials and Methods. We report a 30-year old, female, neonatal nurse who developed left hand burning pain, swelling, coldness, and weakness following a mild brachial plexus injury in a motor vehicle accident. The patient responded well to a combination of Neurontin, Trazadone, Ultram, and Vicodin. A year later, the patient married and wanted to become pregnant but was afraid of possible teratogenic effects of the medications. Therefore, she requested an interventional modality for control of her symptoms. We recommended spinal cord stimulation (SCS) based on our excellent experience with this modality in the management of complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). However, we did inform the patient that no data had been published regarding the safety of this modality in pregnancy and labor. Results. Cervical SCS resulted in excellent pain control and discontinuation of the medications. Thirteen months later, she delivered a healthy five pound baby girl. Mother and baby were discharged home in two days. The SCS was not turned off at any time during the labor and delivery. Conclusion. SCS was safe for implantation in our case study of a pregnant woman. This may constitute a new indication for SCS in patients otherwise successfully managed with non-interventional modalities for pain control.

  10. SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bonte, F.J.; Ross, E.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Devous, M.D. Sr.

    1986-07-01

    A common cause of dementia in late midlife and old age is Alzheimer disease (AD), which affects more than one in 20 individuals over the age of 65. Past studies of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD here suggested blood flow abnormalities, but findings have differed. We have studied 37 patients diagnosed as having AD with inhalation and washout of /sup 133/Xe and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), obtaining evidence of abnormal rCBF patterns in 19. Flow reductions were most common in the temporoparietal regions and were occasionally found in the frontal areas. Investigators using positron-emission tomography (PET) have identified similar findings with respect to rCBF and regional oxygen, glucose, and protein metabolism. The SPECT determination of rCBF, which gives information similar to that provided by PET, may assume importance in the diagnosis of AD and in the differential diagnosis of the dementias.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE).

    PubMed

    Gückel, Friedemann J; Brix, Gunnar; Hennerici, Michael; Lucht, Robert; Ueltzhöffer, Christine; Neff, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was a detailed analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 26 patients with SAE and a group of 16 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined. Using a well-established dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI method, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) were quantified for each subject in 12 different regions in the brain parenchyma. As compared to healthy volunteers, patients with SAE showed significantly reduced rCBF and rCBV values in white matter regions and in the occipital cortex. Regions containing predominantly grey matter show almost normal rCBF and rCBV values. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of rCBF and rCBV values demonstrates clearly that SAE is a disease that is associated with a reduced microcirculation predominantly in white matter.

  12. Refined linkage map of chromosome 5 in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melki, J.; Burlet, P.; Clermont, O.; Pascal, F.; Paul, B.; Abdelhak, S.; Munnich, A. ); Sherrington, R.; Gurling, H. Middlesex School of Medicine, London ); Nakamura, Yusuke ); Weissenbach, J. Genethon, Evry ); Lathrop, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The genetic map in the region of human chromosome 5 that harbors the gene for autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been refined by a multilocus linkage study in 50 SMA-segregating families. Among six markers spanning 8 cM for combined sexes, four were shown to be tightly linked to the SMA locus. Multipoing linkage analysis was used to establish the best estimate of the SMA gene location. The data suggest that the most likely location for the SMA locus is between blocks AFM114ye7 (D5S465)/EF5.15 (D5S125) and MAP-1B/JK53 (D5S112) at a sex-combined genetic distance of 2.4 and 1.7 cM, respectively. Thus the SMA gene lies in the 4-cM region between these two blocks. This information is of primary importance for designing strategies for isolating the SMA gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P < 0.05 for all DTI parameters except MD), as well as between white matter sub-regions (P < 0.05 for most DTI parameters except radial diffusivity, MD and planar index). DTI-based sub-regional analysis of white and grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  14. Human placental lactogen decreases regional blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Mary, D A S G; Ribichini, F; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    2006-01-01

    In 22 pigs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in blood flow caused by infusion of human placental lactogen into the left renal, external iliac, and anterior descending coronary arteries were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In 17 pigs, infusion of human placental lactogen whilst keeping the heart rate and arterial pressure constant decreased coronary, renal and iliac flow. In 5 additional pigs, increasing the dose of human placental lactogen produced a dose-related decrease in regional blood flow. The mechanisms of the above response were studied in 15 of the 17 pigs by repeating the experiment of infusion. The human placental lactogen-induced decrease in regional blood flow was not affected by blockade of cholinergic receptors (5 pigs) or of alpha-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs), but it was abolished by blockade of beta2-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs). The present study showed that intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen primarily decreased coronary, renal and iliac blood flow. The mechanism of this response was shown to be due to the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect.

  15. Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia.

  16. Meso-diencephalic regions projecting to spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex in the hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of neurons projecting to the spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex was investigated in the mesodiencephalic regions of the lesser hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora) by using the retrograde flow technique. While only few neurons projected to the dorsal column nuclear complex, numerous cells were found to give rise to spinal projections. Rubro-spinal neurons of various sizes were distributed over the entire rostrocaudal extent of the contra-lateral nucleus; a few neurons were also located ipsilaterally, Unlike that of the opossum, the projection appeared to be somatotopically organised. Interstitio-spinal neurons were differentiated into several subpopulations according to their location and laterality of projection. In the ipsilateral periventricular grey, in addition, there was a distinct population of cells possibly corresponding to the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. The mesencephalic central grey contained relatively few labeled neurons, the great majority of them being mesencephalic trigeminal, ectopic cuneiform or midline cells. Labeled cuneiform and midline cells, on the other hand, were quite numerous, extending both from a level just caudal to the trochlear nucleus to levels far beyond the rostral tip of the somatic oculomotor nucleus. The discrepancy between the poorly differentiated oculomotor nuclei and the apparently well-developed Edinger-Westphal complex is discussed. Hypothalamo-spinal neurons were essentially restricted to dorsal regions: the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PAV), the dorso-medial (DmHy) and dorso-intermediate cell groups as well as the lateral hypothalamic zone. The latter two cell groups were bilaterally labeled, while the labeled neurons in DmHy and PAV were located predominantly ipsilaterally. Labeled neurons in the amygdala, colliculus superior and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were only found following cervical injections; all other mentioned areas and the posterior commissure complex

  17. Patients' perceptions of their roles in goal setting in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Draaistra, Harriett; Singh, Mina D; Ireland, Sandra; Harper, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Goal setting is a common practice in rehabilitation, yet there is a paucity of literature exploring patients' perceptions of their roles in this process. This study was conducted using a qualitative descriptive methodology to explore patients' perceptions of their roles in setting goals in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program. Imogene King's theory of goal attainment was used to frame the study. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed using a content analysis. The results revealed four themes: Visioning, Redefining, Brainstorming, and Rebuilding Participants (n = 13) envisioned their roles as setting an overarching priority goal, defining detailed rehabilitation goals, sharing knowledge with the team, and rebuilding skills to attain goals. Implications for nursing practice include the need to understand patients' experiences and perceptions, share knowledge, and support effective communication to promote collaborative goal setting. A need to enhance health professionals' education to fully understand factors influencing patients' abilities to set rehabilitation goals, and future research in methods to promote patients' engagement in goal setting was also clearly indicated.

  18. Massive Blood Transfusion during Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty under Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kandemir, Tünay; Kandemir, Erbin; Aşkın, Tuğba; Dal, Tülay; Kılıç, Yeliz; Ünver, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an orthopaedic surgery that is known to be associated with excessive bleeding. The rates of mortality and morbidity are high in patients with massive haemorrhage. The patient in this study was administered blood products with high fresh frozen plasma/red blood cell (RBC) suspension ratio and high platelet/RBC suspension ratio without waiting for haemostasis test results. This study suggests that this approach might prove beneficial in reducing the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. this study presents our experience with a patient who underwent THA and required a transfusion that was three times her estimated total blood volume. The patient was successfully managed with close monitoring of haemorrhage and timely administration of blood and blood products before hypotension and loss of consciousness occurred. PMID:27366558

  19. [Hemodynamic and respiratory conditions of patients with obstetric fistulae operated under spinal anesthesia at the Regional Reference Hospital in Manakara, Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Martinetti, Andrianimaro Florelia; Franklin, Rabenjarison; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Judicael, Harioly Nirina Marie Osé; Yvonne, Rasolonjatovo Tsiorintsoa; Andriambelo, Rajaonera Tovohery; Nicole, Rakotoarison Ratsaraharimanana Catherine; Enintsoa, Raveloson Nasolotsiry; Edwige, Ravaomanana

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the hemodynamic and respiratory conditions of patients who had undergone obstetric fistula surgery and to report our experience in the management of these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in the Operating Room and Intensive Care Unit of the Regional Reference Hospital in Manakara from 20 to 30 August 2013. All patients who had undergone obstetric fistula surgery under spinal anesthesia were included in the study. We excluded patients classified as ASA> 2 and those with cardiovascular or respiratory disorders. After pre-anesthetic consultation and preoperative assessments, patients received bupivacaine 12.5 mg with adrenaline 0,5% isobar intrathecal. They were placed in the Trendelenburg position for 5 minutes after the injection of anesthesia and during surgery. Intraoperative sensory level, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded. 57 patients were retained. The sensory and motor block were excellent in all patients. A metameric level higher than T6 was achieved in 56.36% of patients. Despite a few episodes of hypertension and tachycardia, no patient had respiratory or cardiovascular problems associated with Trendelenburg position. Only sensory level and respiratory rate showed a correlation with Trendelenburg position (p=0,01). This study suggests that Trendelenburg position can be used during spinal anesthesia if an appropriate anesthetic is administered, paying particular attention to changes in position and taking into account the pre-anesthetic examination.

  20. Sequential assessment of regional cerebral blood flow, regional cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier in focal cerebral ischemia: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piero, V.; Perani, D.; Savi, A.; Gerundini, P.; Lenzi, G.L.; Fazio, F.

    1986-06-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were evaluated by N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(123I)iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine-2 HCl- and /sup 99m/TC-labeled red blood cells, respectively, and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in a patient with focal cerebral ischemia. Sequential transmission computerized tomography (TCT) and SPECT functional data were compared with clinical findings to monitor the pathophysiological events occurring in stroke. A lack of correlation between rCBF-rCBV distributions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was found in the acute phase. In the face of more prolonged alteration of BBB, as seen by TCT enhancement, a rapid evolution of transient phenomena such as luxury perfusion was shown by SPECT studies. Follow-up of the patient demonstrated a correlation between the neurological recovery and a parallel relative improvement of the cerebral perfusion.

  1. Quantifying cerebral blood flow: regional regulation with global implications.

    PubMed

    Small, Scott A

    2004-10-01

    In 1948, Seymour S. Kety and Carl F. Schmidt published back-to-back papers in the JCI that are widely acknowledged as landmarks. Upon publication, the studies resolved a century-old debate, irrefutably demonstrating that cerebral blood flow is regionally regulated. The reported findings turned out to be so powerful in their implications that they provided the inspirational spark that illuminated a brand-new field: functional brain imaging. Thus these papers are landmarks of the rarest kind, not only ending a controversy, but also giving birth to one of the most exciting fields within modern day neuroscience.

  2. Engineering angiogenesis following spinal cord injury: A coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells in a degradable polymer implant leads to an increase in vessel density and formation of the blood-spinal cord barrier

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Millicent Ford; Hynes, Sara Royce; Bertram, James; Redmond, Andrew; Robinson, Rebecca; Williams, Cicely; Xu, Hao; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis precedes recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI), and its extent correlates with neural regeneration suggesting that angiogenesis may play a role in repair. An important precondition for studying the role of angiogenesis is the ability to induce it in a controlled manner. Previously, we showed that a coculture of endothelial cells (ECs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) promoted the formation of stable tubes in vitro and stable, functional vascular networks in vivo in a subcutaneous model. We sought to test whether a similar coculture would lead to formation of stable functional vessels in the spinal cord following injury. We created microvascular networks in a biodegradable two component implant system and tested the ability of the coculture or controls (lesion control, implant alone, implant plus ECs, or implant plus NPCs) to promote angiogenesis in a rat hemisection model of spinal cord injury. The coculture implant led to a four fold increase in functional vessels compared to the lesion control, implant alone, or implant plus NPCs groups and a 2 fold increase in functional vessels over the implant plus ECs group. Furthermore, half of the vessels in the coculture implant exhibited positive staining for the endothelial barrier antigen, a marker for formation of the blood spinal cord barrier (BSB). No other groups showed positive staining for the BSB in the injury epicenter. This work provides a novel method to induce angiogenesis following SCI and a foundation for studying its role in repair. PMID:19120441

  3. Spinal Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... undergo a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) or spinal anesthesia. Both procedures require a puncture of the tough ... is withdrawn from your spinal canal. During spinal anesthesia, medication is injected into your spinal canal to ...

  4. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... back or leg pain after spinal surgery) Other injuries to spinal nerves, vertebrae and surrounding tissues Bone ... Bleeding if a blood vessel is inadvertently damaged. Injury to the nerves at the injection site. Temporary ...

  5. Interactive retinal blood flow analysis of the macular region.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R; Smiddy, William E; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV and BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography data was registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s). Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software was 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001).

  6. Interactive Retinal Blood Flow Analysis of the Macular Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R.; Smiddy, William E.; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy which is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI-3005, Optical Imaging, Rehovot, Israel). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo even in the capillaries. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV as well as BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) data from commercially available devices were registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s) which other currently available devices targeting the retinal microcirculation are not yet capable of. Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software were 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% in the RFI built-in software to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001). PMID:26569349

  7. Effect of fluorocarbon-for-blood exchange on regional blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.A.; Sylvia, A.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Cerebrocirculatory responses to total perfluorocarbon (FC-43)-for-blood replacement were studied in anesthetized, ventilated rats breathing 100% O{sub 2}. Changes in total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radiolabeled-microsphere technique. The data were compared with two control groups of hemoglobin-circulated animals; one group was exposed to arterial hypoxia and the other to isovolemic hemodilution with Krebs-Henseleit-albumin (KHA) solution. Exchange transfusion with FC-43 doubled total and regional CBF, causing preferential flow increases to the cortex and cerebellum. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance fell to 50% of the preexchange value. Both hemodilution and hypoxia control experiments produced CBF responses similar to those obtained in FC-43 animals. Although calculated arterial O{sub 2} contents in all three groups of animals were similar, blood viscosity was normal in hypoxic rats and reduced in KHA and FC-43 animals. Since arterial and cerebrovenous Po{sub 2}s were both high in fluorocarbon-circulated rats, over results suggest that decreased O{sub 2} content and perhaps lower viscosity of the circulating fluorocarbon were responsible for increases in CBF required to maintain sufficient delivery of O{sub 2} to the brain.

  8. Anatomical mechanism of spontaneous recovery in regions caudal to thoracic spinal cord injury lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu-sheng; Yu, Hao; Raynald, Raynald; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dai, Guang-hui; Cheng, Hong-bin; Liu, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    Background The nerve fibre circuits around a lesion play a major role in the spontaneous recovery process after spinal cord hemisection in rats. The aim of the present study was to answer the following question: in the re-control process, do all spinal cord nerves below the lesion site participate, or do the spinal cord nerves of only one vertebral segment have a role in repair? Methods First we made a T7 spinal cord hemisection in 50 rats. Eight weeks later, they were divided into three groups based on distinct second operations at T7: ipsilateral hemisection operation, contralateral hemisection, or transection. We then tested recovery of hindlimbs for another eight weeks. The first step was to confirm the lesion had role or not in the spontaneous recovery process. Secondly, we performed T7 spinal cord hemisections in 125 rats. Eight weeks later, we performed a second single hemisection on the ipsilateral side at T8–T12 and then tested hindlimb recovery for another six weeks. Results In the first part, the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores and the electrophysiology tests of both hindlimbs weren’t significantly different after the second hemisection of the ipsilateral side. In the second part, the closer the second hemisection was to T12, the more substantial the resulting impairment in BBB score tests and prolonged latency periods. Conclusions The nerve regeneration from the lesion area after hemisection has no effect on spontaneous recovery of the spinal cord. Repair is carried out by all vertebrae caudal and ipsilateral to the lesion, with T12 being most important. PMID:28097067

  9. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  10. Difference in intraosseous blood vessel volume and number in osteoporotic model mice induced by spinal cord injury and sciatic nerve resection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wen-Ge; Yan, Wei-hong; Wei, Zhao-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Bo

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we examined intraosseous blood vessel parameters of the tibial metaphysis in mice using microcomputed tomography (µCT) to investigate the relationship between post-nerve-injury osteoporosis and local intraosseous blood vessel volume and number. Mice were randomly divided into groups receiving spinal cord injury (SCI), sciatic nerve resection group (NX), or intact controls (30 mice/group). Four weeks after surgery, mice were perfused with silicone and the distribution of intraosseous blood vessels analyzed by μCT. The bone density, μCT microstructure, biomechanical properties, and the immunohistochemical and biochemical indicators of angiogenesis were also measured. The SCI group showed significantly reduced tibial metaphysis bone density, μCT bone microstructure, tibial biomechanical properties, indicators of angiogenesis, and intraosseous blood vessel parameters compared to the NX group. Furthermore, the spinal cord-injured mice exhibited significantly decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number during the development of osteoporosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number may play an important role in the development of post-nerve-injury osteoporosis.

  11. Mapping of retrotransposon sequences in the unstable region surrounding the spinal muscular atrophy locus in 5q13

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.J.; Nesbit, M.A.; Theodosiou, A.M.

    1995-05-20

    The mutation that underlies the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is located on chromosome 5q13. Recent studies show that SMA patients frequently have deletions and rearrangements in this region compared to normal controls. During the isolation of candidate cDNAs for the disease, the authors identified a sequence that shows high homology to the THE-1 retrotransposon gene family. Using YAC fragmentation techniques, they have refined the localization of this sequence to the domain known to show instability in SMA patients. The implication of these results for the mechanism of the mutation in SMA is discussed. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Efferents from the lateral frontal cortex to spinomedullary target areas, trigeminal nuclei, and spinally projecting brainstem regions in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Lotter, G

    1996-08-12

    This study was done in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, an insectivore with a very poorly differentiated neocortex. The cortical region, known to give rise to spinal projections, was injected with tracer, and the cortical efferents to brainstem and spinal cord were analyzed. Bulbar reticular fields, in addition, were identified according to their cells of origin and the laterality of their spinal projections after injection of tracer. Only few cortical fibers could be traced from the bulbar pyramid into the ipsilateral spinal cord, particularly to the lateral funiculus. The projections to the dorsal column nuclei and the classical spinally projecting brainstem regions were also weak. Faint projections were demonstrated to the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. In comparison to other mammals, there was no evidence that the contralateral cortico-bulbo-spinal pathway was strengthened, substituting for the almost non-existent contralateral corticospinal projection. Unlike the sensorimotor apparatus controlling limb and body movements, the brainstem regions controlling the head and neck received prominent cortical projections. Direct corticotrigeminal projections and indirect pathways were well represented. The projections to the trigeminal nuclei and the lateral reticular fields were clearly bilateral; those to the superior colliculus were predominantly ipsilateral. The corticobulbar fibers left the pyramid along its entire extent; the principal trigeminal nucleus and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum were supplied by additional fibers of the corticotegmental tract. The lateral frontal cortex also projected densely to the dorsolateral hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and the adjacent mesencephalic tegmentum, components of the emotional motor system.

  13. Assessment of Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa officinalis in Combination With Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Mohammadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) has a classically bad prognosis. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs) and Melissa officinalis (MO) are useful for the prevention of neurological disease. Methods Thirty-six adult male rats were randomly divided into intact, sham, control (SCI), MO, hUCBSC, and MO-hUCBSC groups. Intraperitoneal injection of MO (150 mg/kg) was commenced 24 hr post-SCI and continued once a day for 14 days. Intraspinal grafting of hUCBSCs was commenced immediately in the next day. The motor and sensory functions of all animals were evaluated once a week after the commencement of SCI. Electromyography (EMG) was performed in the last day in order to measure the recruitment index. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and transmission electron microscopy evaluations were performed to determine the level of astrogliosis and myelination. Results The results revealed that motor function (MO-hUCBSC: 15 ± 0.3, SCI: 8.2 ± 0.37, p < .001), sensory function (MO-hUCBSC: 3.57 ± 0.19, SCI: 6.38 ± 0.23, p < .001), and EMG recruitment index (MO-hUCBSC: 3.71 ± 0.18, SCI: 1.6 ± 0.1, p < .001) were significantly improved in the MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. Mean cavity area (MO-hUCBSC: 0.03 ± 0.03, SCI: 0.07 ± 0.004, p < .001) was reduced and loss of lower motor neurons (MO-hUCBSC: 7.6 ± 0.43, SCI: 3 ± 0.12, p < .001) and astrogliosis density (MO-hUCBSC: 3.1 ± 0.15, SCI: 6.25 ± 1.42, p < 0.001) in the ventral horn of spinal cord were prevented in MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. Conclusion The results revealed that the combination of MO and hUCBSCs in comparison with the control group has neuroprotective effects in SCI. PMID:27815336

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Graff-Radford, N R; Rezai, K; Godersky, J C; Eslinger, P; Damasio, H; Kirchner, P T

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rcbf) was studied preoperatively and at 2 and 6 months postoperatively in 22 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients using xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computed tomography. Sixteen of the 22 patients improved (improved group) and six did not (unimproved group). The following comparisons were made: (1) preoperative rcbf in the improved group, to 14 normal elderly volunteers and to that in 59 SDAT (senile dementia of the Alzheimer type) patients; (2) preoperative rcbf in the improved and unimproved groups to determine if rcbf could predict surgical outcome; (3) pre- to postoperative rcbf in the improved group to see if increased cbf accounted for clinical improvement. The findings were: (1) preoperative rcbf in the improved group was lower than that in normal controls but was the same as that in SDAT; however, the ratios of rcbf values in anterior and posterior brain regions were significantly different between improved group and SDAT (p = 0.02); (2) an anterior/posterior ratio of 1.05 correctly classified surgical outcome in 19/22 patients; five of six in the unimproved group were above this cut off while 14/16 in the improved group were below; (3) in the improved group rcbf increased at 2 but not at 6 months after surgery without a corresponding reduction of clinical signs, supporting the notion that increase in cbf probably does not account for clinical improvement in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Images PMID:3501800

  15. Hox genes and region-specific sensorimotor circuit formation in the hindbrain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Maria; Glover, Joel C; Studer, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    Homeobox (Hox) genes were originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila, where they function through a conserved homeodomain as transcriptional regulators to control embryonic morphogenesis. In vertebrates, 39 Hox genes have been identified and like their Drosophila counterparts they are organized within chromosomal clusters. Hox genes interact with various cofactors, such as the TALE homeodomain proteins, in recognition of consensus sequences within regulatory elements of their target genes. In vertebrates, Hox genes display spatially restricted patterns of expression within the developing hindbrain and spinal cord, and are considered crucial determinants of segmental identity and cell specification along the anterioposterior and dorsoventral axes of the embryo. Here, we review their later roles in the assembly of neuronal circuitry, in stereotypic neuronal migration, axon pathfinding, and topographic connectivity. Importantly, we will put some emphasis on how their early-segmented expression patterns can influence the formation of complex vital hindbrain and spinal cord circuitries.

  16. Regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Wohlenberg, G; O'Donovan, M J

    1987-08-01

    We have examined the distribution of motoneurons in different segments of the chick lumbosacral spinal cord before and after the period of motoneuron cell death. The extent of cell death was found to be greatest at the boundaries of the lumbosacral cord where over 60% of the motoneurons died and least in the central region where only 30% died. After cell death at stage 40 the number of motoneurons in each segment was linearly correlated with segment length, suggesting that growth of the segment and motoneuron numbers may be regulated by a common factor. The time of completion of motoneuron cell death exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient along the lumbar cord. Cell death was complete in the anterior segments by stage 35 but not until stage 38 in the caudal 4 segments. The regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death suggest that the relative importance of the factors mediating cell death vary in different regions of the lumbar cord.

  17. Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cyst of the cervicodorsal region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Pritish; Jain, Pramod; Badole, C M

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cysts are rare, with only few cases having been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with symptoms of meningitis with progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary epidermoid cyst from C6 to D5. Near-total excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. The patient showed progressive recovery.

  18. The influence of protein-calorie malnutrition on the development of paranodal regions in spinal roots. A study with the OTAN method on rat.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, C

    1977-11-28

    During the early postnatal development of spinal roots in rats paranodal regions were often found, containing OTAN-positive inclusions in the Schwann cell cytoplasm. The presence of OTAN-positive paranodal regions showed variations in time, which were synchronous for ventral and dorsal roots. Dorsal roots, however, showed a more marked presence during development than ventral roots. Spinal roots of animals submitted to a 50% food restriction, were shown to contain more OTAN-positive paranodal regions than controls. This was true for ventral as well as dorsal roots. It is suggested that crowding of internodal segments could be one factor, determining the presence of paranodal, OTAN-positive material.

  19. Tubercular Spinal Epidural Abscess of the Lumbosacral Region without Osseous Involvement: Comparison of Spinal MRI and Pathological Findings of the Resected Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, QingLong; Koga, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of tubercular spinal epidural abscess (SEA) without osseous involvement that mimicked an acute bacterial abscess. This case manifested quite unusual findings not only radiographically, but also clinically compared with previously reported cases of tubercular SEA.

  20. Modeling the impact of spinal cord stimulation paddle lead position on impedance, stimulation threshold, and activation region.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyi Min; Kent, Alexander R

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic pain treatment depends on selection of appropriate stimulation settings, which can be especially challenging following posture change or SCS lead migration. The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using SCS lead impedance for determining the location of a SCS lead and for detecting lead migration, as well as the impact of axial movement and rotation of the St. Jude Medical PENTA™ paddle in the dorsal-ventral or medial-lateral directions on dorsal column (DC) stimulation thresholds and neural activation regions. We used a two-stage computational model, including a finite element method model of field potentials in the spinal cord during stimulation, coupled to a biophysical cable model of mammalian, myelinated nerve fibers to calculate tissue impedance and nerve fiber activation within the DC. We found that SCS lead impedance was highly sensitive to the distance between the lead and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer. In addition, among all the lead positions studied, medial-lateral movement resulted in the most substantial changes to SC activation regions. These results suggest that impedance can be used for detecting paddle position and lead migration, and therefore for guiding SCS programming.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in essential hypertension: data evaluation by a mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Arvigo, F.; Marenco, S.; Nobili, F.; Romano, P.; Sandini, G.; Rosadini, G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied by means of the 133Xe inhalation method in 26 untreated and 10 treated patients with essential hypertension. The untreated subjects were divided into newly and previously diagnosed groups to assess the relation between regional cerebral blood flow and the duration of hypertension. The overall flow reduction was more marked in the frontal and temporal regions in the previously diagnosed group, and this was attributed to pathological changes in the district served by the middle cerebral artery. Regional temporal lobe impairment was also noted in the newly diagnosed and treated subjects. A significant correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow and mean arterial blood pressure.

  2. Modification of loco-regional microenvironment in brain tumors by spinal cord stimulation. Implications for radio-chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Clavo, B; Robaina, F; Valcarcel, B; Catala, L; Perez, J L; Cabezon, A; Jorge, I J; Fiuza, D; Hernandez, M A; Jover, R; Carreras, J L

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in high grade gliomas (HGG) depends on tumor micro-environment. We summarize our experience of the influence of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on this micro-environment. Patients with HGG (n = 26) were assessed pre- and post-SCS, using: (1) Doppler in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) and (2) in common carotid arteries (CCA); (3) tumor blood-flow using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); (4) tumor-pO(2) (mmHg) using polarographic probes (eight tumor areas from five patients); and (5) tumor glucose metabolism using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET). Pre-SCS: tumor blood-flow was lower (P < 0.001) than peri-tumor areas and healthy contra-lateral areas. Tumor-pO(2) was lower (P < 0.042) than healthy tissue. Tumor glucose metabolism was higher than peri-tumor areas (P = 0.017) and healthy contra-lateral areas (P = 0.048). Post-SCS: there were increases in: MCA blood-flow (P ≤ 0.002), CCA blood-flow (P ≤ 0.013), tumor blood-flow (P = 0.033), tumor glucose metabolism (P = 0.027) and tumor-pO(2) (P = 0.022). The percentage of hypoxic values decreased (P = 0.007). SCS can modify tumor micro-environment. The potential usefulness of SCS in improving the effectiveness of radio-chemotherapy in HGG needs to be evaluated.

  3. The development of whole blood titanium levels after instrumented spinal fusion – Is there a correlation between the number of fused segments and titanium levels?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most modern spinal implants contain titanium and remain in the patient’s body permanently. Local and systemic effects such as tissue necrosis, osteolysis and malignant cell transformation caused by implants have been described. Increasing tissue concentration and whole blood levels of ions are necessary before a disease caused by a contaminant develops. The aim of the present study was the measurement of whole blood titanium levels and the evaluation of a possible correlation between these changes and the number of fused segments. Methods A prospective study was designed to determine changes in whole blood titanium levels after spinal fusion and to analyze the correlation to the number of pedicle screws, cross connectors and interbody devices implanted. Blood samples were taken preoperatively in group I (n = 15), on the first, second and 10th day postoperatively, as well as 3 and 12 months after surgery. Group II (n = 16) served as a control group of volunteers who did not have any metal implants in the body. Blood samples were taken once in this group. The number of screw-rod-connections and the length of the spinal fusion were determined using radiographic pictures. This study was checked and approved by the ethical committee of the University of Tuebingen. Results The mean age in group I was 47 ± 22 years (range 16 - 85 years). There were three male (20%) and twelve female (80%) patients. The median number of fused segments was 5 (range 1 to 11 segments). No statistically significant increase in the titanium level was seen 12 months after surgery (mean difference: -7.2 μg/l, 95% CI: -26.9 to 12.5 μg/l, p = 0.446). By observing the individual titanium levels, 4 out of 15 patients demonstrated an increase in titanium levels 12 months after surgery. No statistically significant correlation between fused segments (r = -0.188, p = 0.503) length of instrumentation (r = -0.329, p = 0.231), number of

  4. Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Garrido, Griselda E J; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Ferrari, Lucas; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; McGuire, Philip K; Filho Busatto, Geraldo

    2004-02-01

    Animal and human studies have suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) may possess anxiolytic properties, but how these effects are mediated centrally is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate this using functional neuroimaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest using (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT in 10 healthy male volunteers, randomly divided into two groups of five subjects. Each subject was studied on two occasions, 1 week apart. In the first session, subjects were given an oral dose of CBD (400 mg) or placebo, in a double-blind procedure. SPECT images were acquired 90 min after drug ingestion. The Visual Analogue Mood Scale was applied to assess subjective states. In the second session, the same procedure was performed using the drug that had not been administered in the previous session. Within-subject between-condition rCBF comparisons were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). CBD significantly decreased subjective anxiety and increased mental sedation, while placebo did not induce significant changes. Assessment of brain regions where anxiolytic effects of CBD were predicted a priori revealed two voxel clusters of significantly decreased ECD uptake in the CBD relative to the placebo condition (p<0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). These included a medial temporal cluster encompassing the left amygdala-hippocampal complex, extending into the hypothalamus, and a second cluster in the left posterior cingulate gyrus. There was also a cluster of greater activity with CBD than placebo in the left parahippocampal gyrus (p<0.001). These results suggest that CBD has anxiolytic properties, and that these effects are mediated by an action on limbic and paralimbic brain areas.

  5. Temporal and Regional Expression of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Its Receptor in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ana Beatriz W; Forner, Stefania; Martini, Alessandra C; Patrício, Eliziane S; Clarke, Julia R; Costa, Robson; Felix-Alves, João; Vieira, Vilberto José; de Andrade, Edinéia Lemos; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Calixto, João Batista; Figueiredo, Claudia Pinto

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of movement, sensibility, and autonomic control at the level of the lesion and at lower parts of the body. Several experimental strategies have been used in attempts to increase endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and repair, but with limited success. It is known that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR) can enhance synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. However, their role in the injury has never been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in expression levels of both GIP and GIPR in acute and chronic phases of SCI in rats. Following SCI (2 to 24 h after damage), the rat spinal cord showed a lesion in which the epicenter had a cavity with hemorrhage and necrosis. Furthermore, the lesion cavity also showed ballooned cells 14 and 28 days after injury. We found that SCI induced increases in GIPR expression in areas neighboring the site of injury at 6 h and 28 days after the injury. Moreover, higher GIP expression was observed in these regions on day 28. Neuronal projections from the injury epicenter showed an increase in GIP immunoreactivity 24 h and 14 and 28 days after SCI. Interestingly, GIP was also found in progenitor cells at the spinal cord canal 24 h after injury, whereas both GIP and GIPR were present in progenitor cells at the injury epicenter 14 days after in SCI animals. These results suggest that GIP and its receptor might be implicated with neurogenesis and the repair process after SCI.

  6. Regionalization and intersegmental coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; O'Donovan, M J

    1993-04-01

    We have examined the regionalization and coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo between embryonic days 9 and 13, by recording the pattern of rhythmic activity recorded from muscle nerves and ventral roots following a variety of lesions. We found that the capacity for rhythmic activity is distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the cord but can be expressed in a single, isolated segment. Specializations within the lumbosacral cord were investigated by isolating particular regions and recording their motor output. The rostral part of the lumbosacral cord generates more cycles than the caudal part, and this difference becomes more pronounced with development. In the unlesioned cord, motoneuron activity is synchronized along the rostrocaudal axis. Lesion experiments revealed that the synchronization of motoneuron activity and the synaptic drive to caudal motoneurons is mediated in part by propriospinal pathways traveling in the ventrolateral white matter tracts and by synaptic interactions within the gray matter. The dorsal fiber tracts may also be involved but their effects appear to be weak. Lesions in dorsal-ventral and mediolateral planes were used to localize regions critical for rhythmogenesis and for the alternation of flexor and extensor motoneurons. Rhythmic activity with alternation persisted in spinal cords in which the dorsal and medial half had been removed. Severe medial or dorsal lesions, resulting in a thin strip of lateral or ventral gray matter, altered the phasing of motoneuron activity from alternating to synchronous without effects on cycle timing. These results suggest that the critical neural components for alternation are located close to and dorsomedial to the lateral motor column, and that the capacity for rhythmogenesis is distributed widely throughout the ventral gray matter and is not localized to specific nuclei.

  7. Tubercular spinal epidural abscess involving the dorsal-lumbar-sacral region without osseous involvement.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Kumar, Ramesh

    2011-07-27

    Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is known for its ability to present in various forms and guises at different sites. Tubercular spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon infectious entity. Its presence without associated osseous involvement may be considered an extremely rare scenario. We present a rare case of tubercular SEA in an immune-competent 35-year-old male patient. The patient presented with acute cauda equina syndrome and was shown to have multisegmental SEA extending from D5 to S2 vertebral level without any evidence of vertebral involvement on MRI. The patient made an uneventful recovery following surgical decompression and antitubercular chemotherapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in drained pus. Such presentation of tubercular SEA has not been reported previously in the English language based medical literature to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 identifies a specific subpopulation of angiogenic blood vessels following contusive spinal cord injury in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard L; Maddie, Melissa A; Minnillo, Danielle R; Hagg, Theo; Whittemore, Scott R

    2008-03-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), disruption and plasticity of the microvasculature within injured spinal tissue contribute to the pathological cascades associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary injury. Conversely, preserved vascular function most likely results in tissue sparing and subsequent functional recovery. It has been difficult to identify subclasses of damaged or regenerating blood vessels at the cellular level. Here, adult mice received a single intravenous injection of the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) at 1-28 days following a moderate thoracic (T9) contusion. Vascular binding of IB4 was maximally observed 7 days following injury, a time associated with multiple pathologic aspects of the intrinsic adaptive angiogenesis, with numbers of IB4 vascular profiles decreasing by 21 days postinjury. Quantitative assessment of IB4 binding shows that it occurs within the evolving lesion epicenter, with affected vessels expressing a temporally specific dysfunctional tight junctional phenotype as assessed by occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 immunoreactivities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intravascular lectin delivery following SCI is a useful approach not only for observing the functional status of neovascular formation but also for definitively identifying specific subpopulations of reactive spinal microvascular elements.

  9. Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Ultrastructure Following Acute Temporary Ischemia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    kidneys of dogs and cats , and suggest some element present in whole blood, but not present in filtered blood may serve to further damage ischemic...minutes of myocardial ischemia in the dog as Krug et al. (66) has reported in the cat . Finally, in this experiment the relationship of inhibited reflow...transient inhibition of flow. One has to wonder if their 6 cats with smaller areas of risk are more like the dogs in this study and may also have had

  10. Spinal Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... center of the column of bones (vertebral or spinal column) through which the spinal cord and nerve roots ... be acquired at birth. Poor alignment of the spinal column when a vertebra slips forward onto the one ...

  11. Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Makino, Keishi; Kojima, Ryota; Nakamura, Hideo; Morioka, Motohiro; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Shigematsu, Kazuto; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2010-10-01

    Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare; few involve the central nervous system (CNS). We report a 17-month-old girl with spinal adrenal cortical neoplasms. She was unable to crawl or stand and was irritable at night. Her appearance was asymmetrical; the right side of her face and her lower right leg were enlarged. In addition, she manifested hyperplasia of the thymus, fibrous hyperplasia of the bladder, and hamartoma in the liver. However, all abnormalities were asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed well-circumscribed masses within the dura mater at the T12-L1 and L3-L4 level. Histology disclosed that the lesions were composed of sheets and nests of round and polygonal cells with mostly round regular nuclei; eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm was abundant. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for inhibin-alpha, positive for synaptophysin and vimentin, and negative for GFAP, EMA, S-100, NSA, and chromogranin A. In addition, the nuclei stained positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), which is involved in adrenal steroidogenesis. This case confirms the occurrence of adrenocortical adenoma in the CNS. We suggest that this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS tumors.

  12. Experimental syringohydromyelia induced by adhesive arachnoiditis in the rabbit: changes in the blood-spinal cord barrier, neuroinflammatory foci, and syrinx formation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kato, Katsura; Rodríguez Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo

    2012-06-10

    There are many histological examinations of syringohydromyelia in the literature. However, there has been very little experimental work on blood permeability in the spinal cord vessels and ultrastructural changes. We prepared an animal model of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis by injecting kaolin into the subarachnoid space at the eighth thoracic vertebra of rabbits. The animals were evaluated 4 months later. Of the 30 rabbits given kaolin injection into the cerebrospinal fluid, 23 showed complete circumferential obstruction. In the 7 animals with partial obstruction of the subarachnoid space, intramedullary changes were not observed. However, among the 23 animals showing complete obstruction of the subarachnoid space, dilatation of the central canal (hydromyelia) occurred in 21, and intramedullary syrinx (syringomyelia) was observed in 11. In animals with complete obstruction, fluorescence microscopy revealed intramedullary edema around the central canal, extending to the posterior columns. Electron microscopy of hydromyelia revealed a marked reduction of villi on the ependymal cells, separation of the ependymal cells, and cavitation of the subependymal layer. The dilated perivascular spaces indicate alterations of fluid exchange between the subarachnoid and extracellular spaces. Syringomyelia revealed that nerve fibers and nerve cells were exposed on the surface of the syrinx, and necrotic tissue was removed by macrophages to leave a syrinx. Both pathologies differ in their mechanism of development: hydromyelia is attributed to disturbed reflux of cerebrospinal fluid, while tissue necrosis due to disturbed intramedullary blood flow is considered to be involved in formation of the syrinx in syringomyelia.

  13. Blood flow and epithelial thickness in different regions of feline oral mucosa and skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Squier, C A; Johnson, W T; Todd, G L

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between epithelial thickness and blood flow was examined in 6 mucosal and 3 skin regions of the cat. Blood flow to these tissues was determined using the radiolabelled microsphere method. From histologic sections the proportion of the tissue biopsy occupied by epithelium and the average epithelial thickness were calculated. The oral tissues had a significantly higher blood flow than the skin regions (p less than 0.05). In terms of epithelial thickness, the tissues could be divided into 4 groups (p less than 0.05). These were: a) palate; b) gingival regions and dorsum of the tongue; c) lip and buccal mucosa; d) all skin regions. When epithelial thickness was related to blood flow there was a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.005) indicating that a thicker epithelium is associated with a higher blood flow. This finding may reflect the greater metabolic demands of the thicker epithelia.

  14. Roles of dorsal column pathway and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 in augmentation of cerebral blood flow by upper cervical spinal cord stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Farber, J P; Wu, M; Foreman, R D; Qin, C

    2008-04-09

    Clinical and basic studies have indicated that upper cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) significantly increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This investigation was conducted to differentiate between stimulation of dorsal column fibers and upper cervical spinal cord cell bodies in cSCS-induced increases in CBF and decreases in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). cSCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms, 1 min) was applied on the left C1-C2 dorsal column of pentobarbital anesthetized, ventilated and paralyzed male rats. Laser Doppler flowmetry probes were placed bilaterally over the parietal cortex, and arterial pressure was monitored. cSCS at 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold (MT) produced vasodilation bilaterally in cerebral cortices. Subsequently, cSCS was applied at 90% MT, and ipsilateral responses were recorded. Ibotenic acid (0.3 mg/ml, 0.1 ml) placed on dorsal surface of C1-C2 (n=7) to suppress cell body activity, did not affect cSCS-induced %DeltaCBF (42.5+/-8.1% vs. 36.8+/-7.1%, P>0.05) and %DeltaCVR (-19.4+/-4.2% vs. -15.2+/-5.6%, P>0.05). However, bilateral transection of the dorsal column at rostral C1 (n=8) abolished cSCS-induced changes in CBF and CVR. Also, rostral C1 transection (n=7) abolished cSCS-induced changes in CBF and CVR. Resinferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, was used to inactivate TRPV1 containing nerve fibers/cell bodies. RTX (2 microg/ml, 0.1 ml) placed on the C1-C2 spinal cord (n=7) did not affect cSCS-induced %DeltaCBF (60.2+/-8.1% vs. 46.3+/-7.7%, P>0.05) and %DeltaCVR (-25.5+/-3.5% vs. -21.4+/-8.9%, P>0.05). However, i.v. RTX (2 microg/kg, n=9) decreased cSCS-induced %DeltaCBF from 65.0+/-9.5% to 27.4+/-7.2% (P<0.05) and %DeltaCVR from -28.0+/-7.6% to -14.8+/-4.2% (P<0.05). These results indicated that cSCS-increases in CBF and decreases in CVR occurred via rostral spinal dorsal column fibers and did not depend upon C1-C2 cell bodies. Also

  15. Regional gastric mucosal blood flow measurements by hydrogen gas clearance in the anesthetized rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Leung, F W; Guth, P H; Scremin, O U; Golanska, E M; Kauffman, G L

    1984-07-01

    Hydrogen gas clearance using 3% hydrogen in air and platinum contact electrodes was employed for measuring antral and corpus mucosal blood flow in anesthetized animals. Significantly greater antral than corpus mucosal blood flow was consistently demonstrated. Corpus but not antral mucosal blood flow showed a significant dose-related increase with intravenous pentagastrin. Vasopressin induced a significant dose-related decrease in both antral and corpus mucosal blood flow. Simultaneous measurement of basal corpus mucosal blood flow by hydrogen gas clearance and of gastric mucosal blood flow by aminopyrine clearance gave similar values, but the changes with intravenous pentagastrin or vasopressin measured by aminopyrine clearance were of a much higher order of magnitude. Hydrogen gas clearance, however, reflected changes in left gastric artery blood flow much more closely than did aminopyrine clearance. Therefore, we conclude that the hydrogen gas clearance technique as described is valid for measuring regional gastric mucosal blood flow. It is safe and has potential application in human studies.

  16. Junctional neurulation: a unique developmental program shaping a discrete region of the spinal cord highly susceptible to neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dady, Alwyn; Havis, Emmanuelle; Escriou, Virginie; Catala, Martin; Duband, Jean-Loup

    2014-09-24

    In higher vertebrates, the primordium of the nervous system, the neural tube, is shaped along the rostrocaudal axis through two consecutive, radically different processes referred to as primary and secondary neurulation. Failures in neurulation lead to severe anomalies of the nervous system, called neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. Mechanisms causing NTDs in humans remain ill-defined. Of particular interest, the thoracolumbar region, which encompasses many NTD cases in the spine, corresponds to the junction between primary and secondary neurulations. Elucidating which developmental processes operate during neurulation in this region is therefore pivotal to unraveling the etiology of NTDs. Here, using the chick embryo as a model, we show that, at the junction, the neural tube is elaborated by a unique developmental program involving concerted movements of elevation and folding combined with local cell ingression and accretion. This process ensures the topological continuity between the primary and secondary neural tubes while supplying all neural progenitors of both the junctional and secondary neural tubes. Because it is distinct from the other neurulation events, we term this phenomenon junctional neurulation. Moreover, the planar-cell-polarity member, Prickle-1, is recruited specifically during junctional neurulation and its misexpression within a limited time period suffices to cause anomalies that phenocopy lower spine NTDs in human. Our study thus provides a molecular and cellular basis for understanding the causality of NTD prevalence in humans and ascribes to Prickle-1 a critical role in lower spinal cord formation.

  17. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Axonal Dieback, Blood Flow, and Calcium Influx with Methylprednisolone Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-01-01

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI. PMID:25989524

  18. In vivo two-photon imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx with methylprednisolone therapy after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-05-19

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI.

  19. Salvianolic acid A ameliorates the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier via miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, De-Shui; Wang, Yan-Song; Bi, Yun-Long; Guo, Zhan-Peng; Yuan, Ya-Jiang; Tong, Song-Ming; Su, Rui-Chao; Ge, Li-Hao; Wang, Jian; Pan, Ya-Li; Guan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), a bioactive compound isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the protective function of Sal A on preserving the role of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is unclear. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of Sal A (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg, i.p.) on BSCB permeability at different time-points after compressive SCI in rats. Compared to the SCI group, treatment with Sal A decreased the content of the Evans blue in the spinal cord tissue at 24h post-SCI. The expression levels of tight junction proteins and HO-1 were remarkably increased, and that of p-caveolin-1 protein was greatly decreased after SCI Sal A. The effect of Sal A on the expression level of ZO-1, occluding, and p-caveolin-1 after SCI was blocked by the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Also, Sal A inhibited the level of apoptosis-related proteins and improved the motor function until 21days after SCI. In addition, Sal A significantly increased the expression of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in the RBMECs under hypoxia. AntagomiR-101 markedly increased the RBMECs permeability and the expression of the Cul3 protein by targeting with 3'-UTR of its mRNA. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 was significantly increased after agomiR-101 treatment. Therefore, Sal A could improve the recovery of neurological function after SCI, which could be correlated with the repair of BSCB integrity by the miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  20. Rapid transport of CCL11 across the blood-brain barrier: regional variation and importance of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Michelle A; Morofuji, Yoichi; Owen, Joshua B; Banks, William A

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood levels of the eotaxin chemokine C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11) in aging were recently shown to negatively regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. How circulating CCL11 could affect the central nervous system (CNS) is not clear, but one possibility is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that CCL11 undergoes bidirectional transport across the BBB. Transport of CCL11 from blood into whole brain (influx) showed biphasic kinetics, with a slow phase preceding a rapid phase of uptake. We found that the slow phase was explained by binding of CCL11 to cellular components in blood, whereas the rapid uptake phase was mediated by direct interactions with the BBB. CCL11, even at high doses, did not cause BBB disruption. All brain regions except striatum showed a delayed rapid-uptake phase. Striatum had only an early rapid-uptake phase, which was the fastest of any brain region. We also observed a slow but saturable transport system for CCL11 from brain to blood. C-C motif ligand 3 (CCR3), an important receptor for CCL11, did not facilitate CCL11 transport across the BBB, although high concentrations of a CCR3 inhibitor increased brain uptake without causing BBB disruption. Our results indicate that CCL11 in the circulation can access many regions of the brain outside of the neurogenic niche via transport across the BBB. This suggests that blood-borne CCL11 may have important physiologic functions in the CNS and implicates the BBB as an important regulator of physiologic versus pathologic effects of this chemokine.

  1. Rapid Transport of CCL11 across the Blood-Brain Barrier: Regional Variation and Importance of Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Michelle A.; Morofuji, Yoichi; Owen, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood levels of the eotaxin chemokine C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11) in aging were recently shown to negatively regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. How circulating CCL11 could affect the central nervous system (CNS) is not clear, but one possibility is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that CCL11 undergoes bidirectional transport across the BBB. Transport of CCL11 from blood into whole brain (influx) showed biphasic kinetics, with a slow phase preceding a rapid phase of uptake. We found that the slow phase was explained by binding of CCL11 to cellular components in blood, whereas the rapid uptake phase was mediated by direct interactions with the BBB. CCL11, even at high doses, did not cause BBB disruption. All brain regions except striatum showed a delayed rapid-uptake phase. Striatum had only an early rapid-uptake phase, which was the fastest of any brain region. We also observed a slow but saturable transport system for CCL11 from brain to blood. C-C motif ligand 3 (CCR3), an important receptor for CCL11, did not facilitate CCL11 transport across the BBB, although high concentrations of a CCR3 inhibitor increased brain uptake without causing BBB disruption. Our results indicate that CCL11 in the circulation can access many regions of the brain outside of the neurogenic niche via transport across the BBB. This suggests that blood-borne CCL11 may have important physiologic functions in the CNS and implicates the BBB as an important regulator of physiologic versus pathologic effects of this chemokine. PMID:24706984

  2. Comparison of cellular architecture, axonal growth, and blood vessel formation through cell-loaded polymer scaffolds in the transected rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Nicolas N; Chen, Bingkun K; Knight, Andrew M; Rooney, Gemma E; Sweeney, Eva; Kinnavane, Lisa; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dockery, Peter; O'Brien, Timothy; McMahon, Siobhan S; Windebank, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    The use of multichannel polymer scaffolds in a complete spinal cord transection injury serves as a deconstructed model that allows for control of individual variables and direct observation of their effects on regeneration. In this study, scaffolds fabricated from positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF(+)) hydrogel were implanted into rat spinal cords following T9 complete transection. OPF(+) scaffold channels were loaded with either syngeneic Schwann cells or mesenchymal stem cells derived from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats (eGFP-MSCs). Control scaffolds contained extracellular matrix only. The capacity of each scaffold type to influence the architecture of regenerated tissue after 4 weeks was examined by detailed immunohistochemistry and stereology. Astrocytosis was observed in a circumferential peripheral channel compartment. A structurally separate channel core contained scattered astrocytes, eGFP-MSCs, blood vessels, and regenerating axons. Cells double-staining with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and S-100 antibodies populated each scaffold type, demonstrating migration of an immature cell phenotype into the scaffold from the animal. eGFP-MSCs were distributed in close association with blood vessels. Axon regeneration was augmented by Schwann cell implantation, while eGFP-MSCs did not support axon growth. Methods of unbiased stereology provided physiologic estimates of blood vessel volume, length and surface area, mean vessel diameter, and cross-sectional area in each scaffold type. Schwann cell scaffolds had high numbers of small, densely packed vessels within the channels. eGFP-MSC scaffolds contained fewer, larger vessels. There was a positive linear correlation between axon counts and vessel length density, surface density, and volume fraction. Increased axon number also correlated with decreasing vessel diameter, implicating the importance of blood flow rate. Radial diffusion distances in vessels

  3. Comparison of Cellular Architecture, Axonal Growth, and Blood Vessel Formation Through Cell-Loaded Polymer Scaffolds in the Transected Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Nicolas N.; Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Rooney, Gemma E.; Sweeney, Eva; Kinnavane, Lisa; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Dockery, Peter; O'Brien, Timothy; McMahon, Siobhan S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multichannel polymer scaffolds in a complete spinal cord transection injury serves as a deconstructed model that allows for control of individual variables and direct observation of their effects on regeneration. In this study, scaffolds fabricated from positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF+) hydrogel were implanted into rat spinal cords following T9 complete transection. OPF+ scaffold channels were loaded with either syngeneic Schwann cells or mesenchymal stem cells derived from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats (eGFP-MSCs). Control scaffolds contained extracellular matrix only. The capacity of each scaffold type to influence the architecture of regenerated tissue after 4 weeks was examined by detailed immunohistochemistry and stereology. Astrocytosis was observed in a circumferential peripheral channel compartment. A structurally separate channel core contained scattered astrocytes, eGFP-MSCs, blood vessels, and regenerating axons. Cells double-staining with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and S-100 antibodies populated each scaffold type, demonstrating migration of an immature cell phenotype into the scaffold from the animal. eGFP-MSCs were distributed in close association with blood vessels. Axon regeneration was augmented by Schwann cell implantation, while eGFP-MSCs did not support axon growth. Methods of unbiased stereology provided physiologic estimates of blood vessel volume, length and surface area, mean vessel diameter, and cross-sectional area in each scaffold type. Schwann cell scaffolds had high numbers of small, densely packed vessels within the channels. eGFP-MSC scaffolds contained fewer, larger vessels. There was a positive linear correlation between axon counts and vessel length density, surface density, and volume fraction. Increased axon number also correlated with decreasing vessel diameter, implicating the importance of blood flow rate. Radial diffusion distances in vessels significantly

  4. Regional Blood-Brain Barrier Responses to Central Cholinergic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-30

    regions were of particular interest because they show the largest decreases in glucose metabolism following limbic seizures ( Ben - Ari et al., 1981). It is...following seizures ( Ben - Ari et. al., 1981). The piriform cortex-amygdala also appears to be a generator of epileptiform activity in a variety of seizure...produced by PTZ. Such studies are ongoing and the results will be given in subsequent reports. 11 REFERENCES Ben - Ari , Y., D. Richie, E. Tremblay and G

  5. Spectrophotometer properties of vein blood plasma in UF-region patients with sharp surgical pathology of abdominal region organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminestskij, S. G.; Polianski, I. J.; Motrich, A. V.; Grunchuk, F. W.

    2006-05-01

    It is set that there are two maximums in UF- region absorption of vein blood plasma of a man: at λ = 235 nm and at λ = 280 nm. It is shown that there are the substantial changes of values of the optical density D comparative with controls (for donors) exactly in a maximum at development of sharp surgical diseases of organs of abdominal region λ = 280 nm, in that time as maximum at λ = 235 nm in this plan is not informing. Resulted results of researches of dynamics of changes of optical properties of vein blood plasma in UF- region of patients with pathology of abdominal region organs in after operating period (sharp appendicitis, sharp pancreatitis, intestinal impassability and others like that), which can have the diagnostic value.

  6. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  7. Indirect Measurement of Regional Axon Diameter in Excised Mouse Spinal Cord with Q-space Imaging: Simulation and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Henry H.; Wright, Alex C.; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Souza, Andre; Schwartz, Eric D.; Hwang, Scott N.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2008-01-01

    Q-space imaging (QSI), a diffusion MRI technique, can provide quantitative tissue architecture information at cellular dimensions not amenable by conventional diffusion MRI. By exploiting regularities in molecular diffusion barriers, QSI can estimate the average barrier spacing such as the mean axon diameter in white matter (WM). In this work, we performed ex vivo QSI on cervical spinal cord sections from healthy C57BL/6 mice at 400MHz using a custom-designed uniaxial 50T/m gradient probe delivering a 0.6 µm displacement resolution capable of measuring axon diameters on the scale of 1 µm. After generating QSI-derived axon diameter maps, diameters were calculated using histology from seven WM tracts (dorsal corticospinal, gracilis, cuneatus, rubrospinal, spinothalamic, reticulospinal, and vestibulospinal tracts) each with different axon diameters. We found QSI-derived diameters from regions drawn in the seven WM tracts (1.1 to 2.1 µm) to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95) with those calculated from histology (0.8 to 1.8 µm). The QSI-derived values overestimated those obtained by histology by approximately 20%, which is likely due to the presence of extra-cellular signal. Finally, simulations on images of synthetic circular axons and axons from histology suggest that QSI-derived diameters are informative despite diameter and axon shape variation and the presence of intra-cellular and extra-cellular signal. QSI may be able to quantify nondestructively changes in WM axon architecture due to pathology or injury at the cellular level. PMID:18342541

  8. Spinal Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the open spaces within your spine, which can put pressure on ... stenosis, doctors may recommend surgery to create additional space for the spinal cord or nerves. Many people ...

  9. Spinal stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis; Low back pain - stenosis; LBP - stenosis ... involve both legs. Symptoms include: Numbness , cramping, or pain in the back, buttocks, thighs, or calves, or ...

  10. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drive. Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the ... Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  11. Roles of dorsal column pathway and TRPV1 in augmentation of cerebral blood flow by upper cervical spinal cord stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoli; Farber, Jay P.; Wu, Mingyuan; Foreman, Robert D.; Qin, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and basic studies have indicated that upper cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) significant increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This investigation was conducted to differentiate between stimulation of dorsal column fibers and upper cervical spinal cord cell bodies in cSCS-induced increases in CBF and decreases in cerebral vascular resistance (CVR). cSCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms, 1 min) was applied on the left C1-C2 dorsal column n pentobarbital anesthetized, ventilated and paralyzed male rats. Laser Doppler flowmetry probes were placed bilaterally over the parietal cortex, and arterial pressure was monitored. cSCS at 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold (MT) produced vasodilation bilaterally in cerebral cortices. Subsequently, cSCS was applied at 90% MT, and ipsilateral responses were recorded. Ibotenic acid (0.3mg/ml, 0.1ml) placed on dorsal surface of C1-C2 (n=7) to suppress cell body activity, did not affect cSCS-induced %□CBF (42.5±8.1% vs 36.8±7.1%, P>0.05□and %□CVR (−19.4±4.2% vs −15.2±5.6%, P>0.05). However, bilateral transection of the dorsal column at rostral C1 (n=8) abolished cSCS-induced changes in CBF and CVR. Also, rostral C1 transection (n=7) abolished cSCS-induced changes in CBF and CVR. Resinferatoxin (RTX), an ultra potent TRPV1 agonist, was used to inactivate TRPV1 containing nerve fibers / cell bodies. RTX (2 µg/ml□0.1ml) placed on the C1-C2 spinal cord (n=7) did not affect cSCS-induced %ΔCBF (60.2±8.1% vs 46.3±7.7%, P>0.05) and %ΔCVR (−25.5±3.5% vs −21.4±8.9%, P>0.05). However, intravenous RTX (2 µg/kg, n=9) decreased cSCS-induced %ΔCBF from 65.0±9.5% to 27.4±7.2% (P<0.05) and %ΔCVR from −28.0±7.6% to −14.8±4.2% (P<0.05). These results indicated that cSCS-increases in CBF and decreases in CVR occurred via rostral spinal dorsal column fibers and did not depend upon C1-C2 cell bodies. Also, our results suggested that cerebral but not spinal TRPV1 was

  12. Probing depth and dynamic response of speckles in near infrared region for spectroscopic blood flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2016-04-01

    Imaging method based on bio-speckles is a useful means for blood flow visualization of living bodies and, it has been utilized for analyzing the condition or the health state of living bodies. Actually, the sensitivity of blood flow is influenced by tissue optical properties, which depend on the wavelength of illuminating laser light. In the present study, we experimentally investigate characteristics of the blood flow images obtained with two wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm in the near-infrared region. Experiments are conducted for sample models using a pork layer, horse blood layer and mirror, and for a human wrist and finger, to investigate optical penetration depth and dynamic response of speckles to the blood flow velocity for two wavelengths.

  13. Associations of Dietary Fat, Regional Adiposity, and Blood Pressure in Men

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Terry, Richard B.; Garay, Susan C.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Ellsworth, Nancy; Wood, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean populations have low incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and hypertension that may be due, in part, to dietary factors, particularly a relatively high intake of monounsaturated fat as olive oil. In this study, nutritional components (as grams per 4200 kJ) (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) from three-day food records were examined in association with resting blood pressure in a cross-sectional survey of 76 sedentary middle-aged American men, aged 30 to 55 years, with resting blood pressures below 160/100 mm Hg. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly and inversely with monounsaturated fat consumption. Polyunsaturated fat consumption also correlated inversely with diastolic blood pressure; however, this relationship became nonsignificant when adjusted for an index of regional adiposity that characterizes the male-type obesity pattern. Detailed analyses of specific fatty acids showed that the correlations with monounsaturates were specific to oleic acid, and the correlation with polyunsaturates was specific to linoleic acid. Multiple regression analysis suggested that 18.2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 23.2% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure were related to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat consumption and regional adiposity. Thus, increased consumption of monounsaturated fat is related inversely to resting blood pressure, although causality remains to be determined. PMID:3586249

  14. Effect of stimulation of trigeminal ganglion on regional cerebral blood flow in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Goadsby, P.J.; Duckworth, J.W. )

    1987-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied in the cat, with and without trigeminal ganglion stimulation, by the intravenous injection of the tracer ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and subsequent regional brain dissection. Electrical activation of the trigeminal ganglion led to a selective increase in regional blood flow in the frontal and parietal cortex that was bilateral without change in the posterior cortex, deep cerebral nuclei, white matter, or brain stem. Unilateral intracranial section of the facial nerve blocked the response in the ipsilateral frontal and parietal cortex, whereas bilateral facial nerve section blocked the contralateral frontal cortical response. The contralateral parietal cortical increase in blood flow was not affected by facial nerve section and may thus represent the result of metabolic activation of sensory cortex.

  15. Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tator, C H; Fehlings, M G

    1991-07-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury, the primary or mechanical trauma seldom causes total transection, even though the functional loss may be complete. In addition, biochemical and pathological changes in the cord may worsen after injury. To explain these phenomena, the concept of the secondary injury has evolved for which numerous pathophysiological mechanisms have been postulated. This paper reviews the concept of secondary injury with special emphasis on vascular mechanisms. Evidence is presented to support the theory of secondary injury and the hypothesis that a key mechanism is posttraumatic ischemia with resultant infarction of the spinal cord. Evidence for the role of vascular mechanisms has been obtained from a variety of models of acute spinal cord injury in several species. Many different angiographic methods have been used for assessing microcirculation of the cord and for measuring spinal cord blood flow after trauma. With these techniques, the major systemic and local vascular effects of acute spinal cord injury have been identified and implicated in the etiology of secondary injury. The systemic effects of acute spinal cord injury include hypotension and reduced cardiac output. The local effects include loss of autoregulation in the injured segment of the spinal cord and a marked reduction of the microcirculation in both gray and white matter, especially in hemorrhagic regions and in adjacent zones. The microcirculatory loss extends for a considerable distance proximal and distal to the site of injury. Many studies have shown a dose-dependent reduction of spinal cord blood flow varying with the severity of injury, and a reduction of spinal cord blood flow which worsens with time after injury. The functional deficits due to acute spinal cord injury have been measured electrophysiologically with techniques such as motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and have been found proportional to the degree of posttraumatic ischemia. The histological effects

  16. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  17. Stress-resistant neural stem cells positively influence regional energy metabolism after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Mautes, Angelika E M; Bernreuther, Christian; Cui, Yifang; Manville, Jérôme; Dihné, Marcel; Blank, Simon; Schachner, Melitta

    2012-02-01

    The importance of stem cells to ameliorate the devastating consequences of traumatic injuries in the adult mammalian central nervous system calls for improvements in the capacity of these cells to cope, in particular, with the host response to the injury. We have previously shown, however, that in the acutely traumatized spinal cord local energy metabolism led to decreased ATP levels after neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation. As this might counteract NSC-mediated regenerative processes, we investigated if NSC selected for increased oxidative stress resistance are better suited to preserve local energy content. For this purpose, we exposed wild-type (WT) NSC to hydrogen peroxide prior to transplantation. We demonstrate here that transplantation of WT-NSC into a complete spinal cord compression injury model even lowers the ATP content beyond the level detected in spinal cord injury-control animals. Compared to WT-NSC, stress-resistant (SR) NSC did not lead to a further decrease in ATP content. These differences between WT- and SR-NSC were observed 4 h after the lesion with subsequent transplantation. At 24 h after lesioning, these differences were no more as obvious. Thus, in contrast to native NSC, transplantation of NSC selected for oxidative stress resistance can positively influence local energy metabolism in the first hours after spinal cord compression. The functional relevance of this observation has to be tested in further experiments.

  18. [Measurement of regional blood flow using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Koshu, K; Endo, S; Takaku, A; Saito, T

    1981-10-01

    Electrolytically generated hydrogen gas used to measure local blood flow by Stosseck et al. The data obtained by their method, however, did not correlated well with that obtained by original Aukland's method, hydrogen clearance method. We have tried to record the concentration of hydrogen gas after electrolytic generation of hydrogen gas at the white matter of the mongrel dogs. As a result, we found that its curves could be approximated to monoexponential curves during the first several minutes. This fact was also noticed in the experiment, in which circulation had been stopped due to cardiac arrest. A simple equation to calculate the regional blood flow was brought out through the approximation mentioned above. The values calculated by this new equation correlated well with that obtained by original hydrogen clearance method. This new method to detect the regional blood flow is simple and easy. Therefore it may contribute to some experiments, especially to the experiments with small animals.

  19. [Spinal cord stimulation in teenager with complex regional pain syndrome for Lyme’s disease. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Terrazas, G E; López-Ruiz, V G; Infante-Cosío, G; Carapia-Sadurni, A; Hernández-Méndez-Villamil, E

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging pathology in Mexico, producer of painful muscle skeletal either neurotic pain difficult to control. We present the case of a teenager girl who has complex regional pain type II of pelvic limb secondary to it, where it established a multidisciplinary management that finally was controlled with the placement of a spinal cord stimulator. We consider this as an unusual situation in an adolescent, as well as its evolution by 60 months where the literature only was reported in a few cases.

  20. Spinal infections.

    PubMed

    Tay, Bobby K-B; Deckey, Jeffrey; Hu, Serena S

    2002-01-01

    Spinal infections can occur in a variety of clinical situations. Their presentation ranges from the infant with diskitis who is unwilling to crawl or walk to the adult who develops an infection after a spinal procedure. The most common types of spinal infections are hematogenous bacterial or fungal infections, pediatric diskitis, epidural abscess, and postoperative infections. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of spinal infections, the cornerstone of treatment, requires a high index of suspicion in at-risk patients and the appropriate evaluation to identify the organism and determine the extent of infection. Neurologic function and spinal stability also should be carefully evaluated. The goals of therapy should include eradicating the infection, relieving pain, preserving or restoring neurologic function, improving nutrition, and maintaining spinal stability.

  1. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on regional blood flow are consistent with intravascular nitric oxidedelivery

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard O.; Schechter, Alan N.; Panza, Julio A.; Ognibene, Frederick P.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Shelhamer, James H.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be stabilized by binding to hemoglobin, by nitrosating thiol-containing plasma molecules, or by conversion to nitrite, all reactions potentially preserving its bioactivity in blood. Here we examined the contribution of blood-transported NO to regional vascular tone in humans before and during NO inhalation. While breathing room air and then room air with NO at 80 parts per million, forearm blood flow was measured in 16 subjects at rest and after blockade of forearm NO synthesis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) followed by forearm exercise stress. L-NMMA reduced blood flow by 25% and increased resistance by 50%, an effect that was blocked by NO inhalation. With NO inhalation, resistance was significantly lower during L-NMMA infusion, both at rest and during repetitive hand-grip exercise. S-nitrosohemoglobin and plasma S-nitrosothiols did not change with NO inhalation. Arterial nitrite levels increased by 11% and arterial nitrosyl(heme)hemoglobin levels increased tenfold to the micromolar range, and both measures were consistently higher in the arterial than in venous blood. S-nitrosohemoglobin levels were in the nanomolar range, with no significant artery-to-vein gradients. These results indicate that inhaled NO during blockade of regional NO synthesis can supply intravascular NO to maintain normal vascular function. This effect may have application for the treatment of diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:11457881

  2. Spinal brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Tali, E Turgut; Koc, A Murat; Oner, A Yusuf

    2015-05-01

    Spinal involvement in human brucellosis is a common condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas, because it is often associated with therapeutic failure. Most chronic brucellosis cases are the result of inadequate treatment of the initial episode. Recognition of spinal brucellosis is challenging. Early diagnosis is important to ensure proper treatment and decrease morbidity and mortality. Radiologic evaluation has gained importance in diagnosis and treatment planning, including interventional procedures and monitoring of all spinal infections.

  3. Early development of arterial spin labeling to measure regional brain blood flow by MRI.

    PubMed

    Koretsky, Alan P

    2012-08-15

    Two major avenues of work converged in the late 1980's and early 1990's to give rise to brain perfusion MRI. The development of anatomical brain MRI quickly had as a major goal the generation of angiograms using tricks to label flowing blood in macroscopic vessels. These ideas were aimed at getting information about microcirculatory flow as well. Over the same time course the development of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy had as its primary goal the assessment of tissue function and in particular, tissue energetics. For this the measurement of the delivery of water to tissue was critical for assessing tissue oxygenation and viability. The measurement of the washin/washout of "freely" diffusible tracers by spectroscopic based techniques pointed the way for quantitative approaches to measure regional blood flow by MRI. These two avenues came together in the development of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI techniques to measure regional cerebral blood flow. The early use of ASL to measure brain activation to help verify BOLD fMRI led to a rapid development of ASL based perfusion MRI. Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in dialysis encephalopathy and primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Rabin, P.; Stone, W.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in patients with dialysis encephalopathy, primary degenerative dementia, dialysis patients with no central nervous system (CNS) complications, and normal controls. Both groups of dialysis patients (with and without CNS complications) demonstrated higher CBF values, and the dementia patients, lower CBF values than the controls. The dialysis patients had lower hematocrit, which correlated inversely with the cerebral blood flow. No such correlations were present in normals and patients with primary degenerative dementia. The dialysis patients and controls obtained similar CBF when the flow values were adjusted for the differences in hematocrit.

  5. Regional measurements of blood flow in experimental RG-2 rat gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Groothuis, D.R.; Pasternak, J.F.; Fischer, J.M.; Blasberg, R.G.; Bigner, D.D.; Vick, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    Regional measurements of blood flow (F) were performed in transplanted intracerebral RG-2 rat gliomas using (14C)iodoantipyrine, Kety-Schmidt blood flow equations, and quantitative autoradiography. Twenty-nine intracranial tumors in ten rats were analyzed by location; 18 intraparenchymal, seven meningeal, two third-ventricular, and two fourth-ventricular tumors were studied. For all tumors, averaged mean F was 91 +/- 33 (S.D.) ml/hg/min. In all but one tumor, mean F was intermediate between normal cortex and corpus callosum values. There was moderate regional variation: averaged mean F was lower in tumor center (78 +/- 47 ml/hg/min) than in tumor periphery (93 +/- 30 ml/hg/min). Within individual tumors, F showed moderate variation which correlated to some extent with histological features; a regional F of less than 10 ml/hg/min was observed in only one tumor within an area of necrosis. F in regions of brain immediately surrounding the tumor was higher than in tumor periphery. Blood flow to RG-2 tumors seems unlikely to limit drug delivery any more than to normal brain, and the consistent levels from tumor to tumor and within individual tumors make the RG-2 model an excellent one with which to study drug delivery in experimental brain tumors.

  6. A Comparative Study of SMN Protein and mRNA in Blood and Fibroblasts in Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Renske I.; Stam, Marloes; Jansen, Marc D.; van der Weegen, Yana; Wijngaarde, Camiel A.; Harschnitz, Oliver; Sodaar, Peter; Braun, Kees P. J.; Dooijes, Dennis; Lemmink, Henny H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van der Pol, W. Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials to test safety and efficacy of drugs for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are currently underway. Biomarkers that document treatment-induced effects are needed because disease progression in childhood forms of SMA is slow and clinical outcome measures may lack sensitivity to detect meaningful changes in motor function in the period of 1–2 years of follow-up during randomized clinical trials. Objective To determine and compare SMN protein and mRNA levels in two cell types (i.e. PBMCs and skin-derived fibroblasts) from patients with SMA types 1–4 and healthy controls in relation to clinical characteristics and SMN2 copy numbers. Materials and methods We determined SMN1, SMN2-full length (SMN2-FL), SMN2-delta7 (SMN2-Δ7), GAPDH and 18S mRNA levels and SMN protein levels in blood and fibroblasts from a total of 150 patients with SMA and 293 healthy controls using qPCR and ELISA. We analyzed the association with clinical characteristics including disease severity and duration, and SMN2 copy number. Results SMN protein levels in PBMCs and fibroblasts were higher in controls than in patients with SMA (p<0.01). Stratification for SMA type did not show differences in SMN protein (p>0.1) or mRNA levels (p>0.05) in either cell type. SMN2 copy number was associated with SMN protein levels in fibroblasts (p = 0.01), but not in PBMCs (p = 0.06). Protein levels in PBMCs declined with age in patients (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.01)(power 1-beta = 0.7). Ratios of SMN2-Δ7/SMN2-FL showed a broad range, primarily explained by the variation in SMN2-Δ7 levels, even in patients with a comparable SMN2 copy number. Levels of SMN2 mRNA did not correlate with SMN2 copy number, SMA type or age in blood (p = 0.7) or fibroblasts (p = 0.09). Paired analysis between blood and fibroblasts did not show a correlation between the two different tissues with respect to the SMN protein or mRNA levels. Conclusions SMN protein levels differ considerably between

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow utilizing the gamma camera and xenon inhalation: reproducibility and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.A.; Knuckey, N.W.; Fleay, R.F.; Stokes, B.A.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Surveyor, I.

    1985-11-01

    A modified collimator and standard gamma camera have been used to measure regional cerebral blood flow following inhalation of radioactive xenon. The collimator and a simplified analysis technique enables excellent statistical accuracy to be achieved with acceptable precision in the measurement of grey matter blood flow. The validity of the analysis was supported by computer modelling and patient measurements. Sixty-one patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular disease or dementia were retested to determine the reproducibility of our method. The measured coefficient of variation was 6.5%. Of forty-six patients who had a proven subarachnoid hemorrhage, 15 subsequently developed cerebral ischaemia. These showed a CBF of 42 +/- 6 ml X minute-1 X 100 g brain-1 compared with 49 +/- 11 ml X minute-1 X 100 g brain-1 for the remainder. There is evidence that decreasing blood flow and low initial flow correlate with the subsequent onset of cerebral ischemia.

  8. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p < 0.0001) and -28.2 ± 3.4 vs. -27.1 ± 3.2 % (p = 0.009), respectively], whereas no change was observed in the basal segment. Moreover, changes in systolic S on the apical segment of the RV lateral wall before and after blood donation were significantly correlated with the changes in the RV size [end-diastolic area index, r = - 0.369 (p = 0.003) and end-systolic area index, r = - 0.319 (p = 0.012)] and changes in the stroke volume index [r = - 0.436 (p < 0.001)]. Blood donation-mediated volume reduction in healthy subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  9. Regional pulmonary blood flow in sitting and supine man during and after acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Arthur

    1969-01-01

    Regional pulmonary blood flow was measured by external counting of intravenously injected 133Xe during 20 min of breathing 14.2% oxygen and during 20 min of recovery from hypoxia. 16 normal human volunteers were studied, nine sitting and seven supine. During hypoxia there was a slight but significant increase in relative perfusion of the upper portions of the lungs in both the sitting and supine subjects. During recovery from hypoxia, blood flow distribution differed significantly from the control. The erect subjects showed increased relative perfusion of the lung bases and the supine subjects showed increased relative perfusion of the upper zones. Comparison of the distribution of inhaled and intravenously injected isotope showed that in the sitting subjects the altered distribution during hypoxia tended to make alveolar oxygen tension more uniform. In the supine subjects, however, the shift in blood flow increased the perfusion of the regions with the lowest ventilation/perfusion, tending to accentuate uneven alveolar oxygen tension. Therefore it does not seem that the altered blood flow distribution during hypoxia was due to selective vasoconstriction in the regions of lowest alveolar oxygen tension, but rather that vasoconstriction was greatest in the lower lung zones because the vessels there are more responsive to hypoxia. During mild acute hypoxia, vasoconstrictor tone does not seem to effectively match ventilation and perfusion. The altered distribution of pulmonary blood flow during recovery from hypoxia suggests the occurrence of posthypoxic vasodilation. Failure to consider this possibility may lead to erroneous interpretation of pulmonary hemodynamic measurements made after the inspired oxygen concentration has been changed. PMID:5764012

  10. Revascularization for acute regional infarct: superior protection with warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Horsley, W S; Whitlark, J D; Hall, J D; Gott, J P; Pan-Chih; Huang, A H; Park, Y; Jones, D P; Guyton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Continuous retrograde warm blood cardioplegia was compared with two widely used hypothermic myocardial protection techniques in a canine model of acute regional myocardial ischemia with subsequent revascularization. Animals (n = 30) underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion then cardioplegic arrest (60 minutes), followed by separation from cardiopulmonary bypass and data collection. The cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia group (CC; n = 8) and the cold blood cardioplegia group (CC; n = 10) had cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 degrees C, antegrade arrest, and intermittent retrograde delivery. The warm blood cardioplegia group (WB; n = 12) had normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, antegrade arrest, and continuous retrograde delivery. Overall ventricular function (preload recruitable stroke work relationship; ergs x 10(3)/mL) was significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 80 +/- 11; CB, 67 +/- 13; CC, 57 +/- 12). Systolic function (maximum elastance relationship; mm Hg/mL) was also significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 11.6 +/- 3.6; CB, 8.6 +/- 2.7; CC, 6.2 +/- 1.3). Diastolic function (stress-strain relationship; dynes x 10(3)/cm2) revealed significantly (p < 0.001) decreased compliance for CC (WB, 20 +/- 6; CB, 19 +/- 7; CC, 27 +/- 11). Left anterior descending coronary artery regional adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate ratios were significantly (p = 0.02) worse for CC (WB, 10.2 +/- 2.3; CB, 9.4 +/- 2.6; CC, 5.6 +/- 1.5). Myocardial edema significantly (p = 0.03) increased over time only in the CC animals (WB, 0.4% +/- 2.3%; CB, -0.3% +/- 3.6%; CC, 5.5% +/- 2.3%). In this model of acute regional myocardial ischemia and revascularization, continuous retrograde warm aerobic blood cardioplegia provided superior myocardial protection compared with cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia with intermediate results for cold blood cardioplegia.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow response in gray matter heterotopia during finger tapping: an activation study with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Hatazawa, J; Sasajima, T; Shimosegawa, E; Fujita, H; Okudera, T; Kanno, I; Mineura, K; Uemura, K

    1996-03-01

    We examined regional cerebral blood flow response in a patient with gray matter heterotopia located beneath the sensorimotor cortex during a finger tapping task. We found regional cerebral blood flow was specifically increased during contralateral finger tapping. This indicated the possibility of functional differentiation of the ectopic neurons despite incomplete migration.

  12. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation. PMID:28357164

  13. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc

    2017-02-16

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.

  14. Computed tomographic measurement of the xenon brain-blood partition coefficient and implications for regional cerebral blood flow: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kelcz, F; Hilal, S K; Hartwell, P; Joseph, P M

    1978-05-01

    The calculation of regional cerebral blood flow requires, in addition to the measurement of the clearance, a knowledge of the regional brain-blood partition coefficient. The usual 133Xe washout techniques do not measure this latter parameter but use published values for normal brain tissue. This may lead to large errors in pathological tissue because the partition coefficient changes significantly in brain tumors. Investigations have begun into the use of CT and stable xenon to produce a cross sectional view of the brain in terms of its brain-blood partition coefficients. Results of experiments using an iodine phantom and xenon inhalation in animals are presented.

  15. Lower-Extremity Functional Electrical Stimulation Decreases Platelet Aggregation and Blood Coagulation in Persons With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Nighat N; Feldman, Susan P; Bauman, William A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop premature cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise reduces the incidence and symptoms of cardiovascular disease in able-bodied individuals; these salutary effects of exercise have not been documented in persons with SCI. Objective: To evaluate the effects of functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry (FES-LCE) exercise training on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation in persons with SCI. Participants: Subjects (n  =  14) with stable chronic (>1 year) paraplegia (T1–T10) or tetraplegia (C4–C8). Methods: Blood samples were collected before and after the first and eighth sessions (2 sessions per week for 4 weeks) of FES exercise. Results: Platelet aggregation was inhibited by 20% after the first session and by 40% (P < 0.001) after the eighth session. Thrombin activity was unchanged after the first session (10.7 ± 0.85 s to 10.43 ± 0.56 s) and decreased after the eighth session (12.5 ± 1.98 s to 11.1 ± 1.7 s; P < 0.0003). Antithrombin III activity increased after the first (103.8% ± 8.9% to 110% ± 6.9%; P < 0.0008) and eighth sessions (107.8% ± 12.1% to 120.4% ± 13.1%; P < 0.0001). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate increased after the first (9.9% ± 2.5% to 15.8% ± 3%; P < 0.001) and eighth sessions (17.8% ± 4.2% to 36.5% ± 7.6%; P < 0.0001). After the eighth session, factors V and X increased significantly (88% ± 27% to 103% ± 23%, P < 0.0001; 100% ± 40% to 105% ± 7%, P < 0.01, respectively); factors VII and VIII and fibrinogen did not change significantly. A significant reduction in platelet activation/aggregation was demonstrated in response to FES-LCE. The decrease in thrombin level was caused by the simultaneous increase in antithrombin activity. Conclusion: These findings provide new insight into the potential protective effects of FES-LCE against the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20486534

  16. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endogenous ependymal region stem/progenitor cells following minimal spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Mothe, A J; Tator, C H

    2005-01-01

    Ependymal cells of the adult mammalian spinal cord exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties following injury. In the present study, we utilized intraventricular injection of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-6,6'-di(4-sulfophenyl)-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI) to label the ependyma lining the central canal to allow tracking of the migration of endogenous ependymal cells and their progeny after spinal cord injury (SCI). We developed a minimal injury model that preserved the integrity of the central canal and did not interfere with ependymal cell labeling. Three days following SCI, there was an 8.6-fold increase in the proliferative labeling index of the ependymal cells at the level of the needle track based on bromodeoxyuridine labeling, compared with 1 day post-injury. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells were not detected in the ependyma or surrounding gray matter, indicating that ependymal cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to minimal injury. Nestin was rapidly induced in the ependyma by 1 day and expression peaked by 7 days post-injury. We quantitated the number and distance of ependymal cell migration following minimal injury. The number of ependymal cells migrating from the region of the central canal increased by 3 days following minimal injury and DiI-labeled glial fibrillary acidic protein expressing cells were detected 14 days post-SCI, most of which migrated within 70 microm of the region of the central canal. These results show that a minimal SCI adjacent to the ependyma is sufficient to induce an endogenous ependymal cell response where ependymal stem/progenitor cells proliferate and migrate from the region of the central canal, differentiating primarily into astrocytes.

  17. Abnormal resting regional cerebral blood flow patterns and their correlates in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Tant, S.R.; Robinson, L.; Prakash, R.

    1988-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured under resting conditions in 108 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients and a matched group of normal controls with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Forty-six patients were free of all medication for two weeks. There were no significant differences in CBF to the two hemispheres. The patients showed a comparatively reduced anteroposterior (AP) gradient for CBF. Though there were no differences in frontal flow, the patients had higher flow to several postcentral brain regions, bilaterally. Cerebral blood flow in the patients correlated inversely with age and positively with carbon dioxide level. Women had higher flow than men. Duration of the illness was the only significant predictor of the reduced AP gradient in patients. Higher left temporal and right parietal flow were found to be the best discriminators between patients and controls. Mean hemispheric flow to both hemispheres and several brain regions correlated with the total score and the item, unusual thought content, of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no differences in regional CBF between medicated and unmedicated patients.

  18. Spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Miftode, E; Luca, V; Mihalache, D; Leca, D; Stefanidis, E; Anuţa, C; Sabadis, L

    2001-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 68 patients with Spinal Epidural Abscess (SEA) were reviewed. Of these, 66% had different predisposing factors such as staphylococcal skin infections, surgical procedures, rachicentesis, trauma, spondilodiscitis. Abscess had a lumbar region location in 53% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent etiological agent (81%). The overall rate of mortality in SEA patients was 13.2%.

  19. Effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow of the parietal lobe in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Tian, Yu-Mei; Liu, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Histamine is a powerful modulator that regulates blood vessels and blood flow. The effect of histamine on the extracortical vessels has been well described, while much less is known about the effect of histamine on intracortical vessels. In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow in rat parietal lobe with laser Doppler flowmetry. The pharmacological characteristics of distinct ways (intracerebroventricular injection, intraperitoneal injection, and cranial window infusion) in applying histamine to the brain were also obtained and compared. Histamine applied in three ways all produced a decrease of rCBF in parietal lobe in a concentration-dependent manner. Cranial window infusion was the most effective way and intraperitoneal injection of L-histidine was the most ineffective, although it is a simple and applied way. To determine which type of receptor takes part in the vessel contraction induced by histamine, H1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, and H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, were applied, respectively, before histamine administration. When the injection of cimetidine was conducted in advance, histamine still resulted in a decrease of infusion amount; while the injection of diphenhydramine was conducted in advance, the infusion of blood amount wasn't changed. These findings indicated that histamine could result in a reduction of rCBF in the rat parietal lobe and this effect of histamine may attribute partly to its combination with H1 receptor.

  20. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  1. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  2. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  3. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 49. Read More Brain tumor - children Hodgkin lymphoma Metastasis Spinal cord trauma Review Date 8/15/2016 Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review ...

  4. Spinal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal infection include fever, chills, headache, neck stiffness, pain, wound redness and tenderness, and wound drainage. In some cases, patients may notice new weakness, numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and/or legs. The symptoms ...

  5. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis.

  6. Regional heritability mapping method helps explain missing heritability of blood lipid traits in isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Pong-Wong, R; Navarro, P; Knott, S; Hayward, C; Vitart, V; Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Hastie, N D; Wright, A F; Haley, C S

    2016-03-01

    Single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (SSGWAS) may fail to identify loci with modest effects on a trait. The recently developed regional heritability mapping (RHM) method can potentially identify such loci. In this study, RHM was compared with the SSGWAS for blood lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)). Data comprised 2246 adults from isolated populations genotyped using ∼300 000 SNP arrays. The results were compared with large meta-analyses of these traits for validation. Using RHM, two significant regions affecting HDL on chromosomes 15 and 16 and one affecting LDL on chromosome 19 were identified. These regions covered the most significant SNPs associated with HDL and LDL from the meta-analysis. The chromosome 19 region was identified in our data despite the fact that the most significant SNP in the meta-analysis (or any SNP tagging it) was not genotyped in our SNP array. The SSGWAS identified one SNP associated with HDL on chromosome 16 (the top meta-analysis SNP) and one on chromosome 10 (not reported by RHM or in the meta-analysis and hence possibly a false positive association). The results further confirm that RHM can have better power than SSGWAS in detecting causal regions including regions containing crucial ungenotyped variants. This study suggests that RHM can be a useful tool to explain some of the 'missing heritability' of complex trait variation.

  7. Regional heritability mapping method helps explain missing heritability of blood lipid traits in isolated populations

    PubMed Central

    Shirali, M; Pong-Wong, R; Navarro, P; Knott, S; Hayward, C; Vitart, V; Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Hastie, N D; Wright, A F; Haley, C S

    2016-01-01

    Single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (SSGWAS) may fail to identify loci with modest effects on a trait. The recently developed regional heritability mapping (RHM) method can potentially identify such loci. In this study, RHM was compared with the SSGWAS for blood lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)). Data comprised 2246 adults from isolated populations genotyped using ∼300 000 SNP arrays. The results were compared with large meta-analyses of these traits for validation. Using RHM, two significant regions affecting HDL on chromosomes 15 and 16 and one affecting LDL on chromosome 19 were identified. These regions covered the most significant SNPs associated with HDL and LDL from the meta-analysis. The chromosome 19 region was identified in our data despite the fact that the most significant SNP in the meta-analysis (or any SNP tagging it) was not genotyped in our SNP array. The SSGWAS identified one SNP associated with HDL on chromosome 16 (the top meta-analysis SNP) and one on chromosome 10 (not reported by RHM or in the meta-analysis and hence possibly a false positive association). The results further confirm that RHM can have better power than SSGWAS in detecting causal regions including regions containing crucial ungenotyped variants. This study suggests that RHM can be a useful tool to explain some of the ‘missing heritability' of complex trait variation. PMID:26696135

  8. Dombrock genotyping in Brazilian blood donors reveals different regional frequencies of the HY allele

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Fabiana Chagas Camargos; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; de Castilho, Lilian Maria; Baleotti Júnior, Wilson; Suzuki, Rodrigo Buzinaro; da Cunha, Débora Moura

    2013-01-01

    Background Dombrock blood group system genotyping has revealed various rearrangements of the Dombrock gene and identified new variant alleles in Brazil (i.e., DO*A-SH, DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL). Because of the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population, interregional differences are expected during the investigation of Dombrock genotypes. Objective The present study aims to determine the frequencies of Dombrock genotypes in blood donors from Minas Gerais and compare the frequencies of the HY and JO alleles to those of another population in Brazil. Methods The frequencies of the DO alleles in Minas Gerais, a southeastern state of Brazil, were determined from the genotyping of 270 blood donors. Genotyping involved polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the 323G>T, 350C>T, 793A>G, and 898C>G mutations, which are related to the HY, JO, DO*A/DO*B, and DO*A-WL/DO*B-WL alleles, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of rare HY and JO alleles were statistically compared using the chi-square test with data from another Brazilian region. Results The HY allele frequency in Minas Gerais (2.4%) was almost twice that of the JO allele (1.5%). The frequency of the HY allele was significantly higher (p-value = 0.001) than that in another Brazilian population and includes a rare homozygous donor with the Hy- phenotype. In addition, the DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL alleles, which were first identified in Brazil, were found in the state of Minas Gerais. Conclusions The data confirm that the frequencies of DO alleles differ between regions in Brazil. The population of Minas Gerais could be targeted in a screening strategy to identify the Hy- phenotype in order to develop a rare blood bank. PMID:24478605

  9. Analysis of immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Neto, Adriana Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is imperative when treating certain patients; however, it is not risk free. In addition to the possible transmission of contagious infectious diseases, incidents can occur immediately after transfusion and at a later time. Aims This study aimed to examine the immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank in the state of Minas Gerais between December 2006 and December 2009. A retrospective quantitative epidemiological study was conducted. Data were obtained from 202 transfusion incident reports of 42 health institutions served by the blood bank. Data processing and analysis were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The rate of immediate transfusion incidents reported in the period was 0.24%; febrile non-hemolytic reactions were the most common type of incident (56.4%). The most frequent clinical manifestations listed in transfusion incident reports were chills (26.9%) and fever (21.6%). There was a statistically significant association (p-value < 0.05) between the infusion of platelet concentrates and febrile non-hemolytic reactions and between fresh frozen plasma and febrile non-hemolytic reaction. The majority (73.3%) of transfused patients who suffered immediate transfusion incidents had already been transfused and 36.5% of the cases had previous transfusion incident reports. Conclusions Data from the present study corroborate the implementation of new professional training programs aimed at blood transfusion surveillance. These measures should emphasize prevention, identification and reporting of immediate transfusion incidents aiming to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:23049336

  10. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. )

    1987-09-01

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

  11. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis accelerates the recovery of polysynaptic reflex potentials after transient spinal cord ischemia in cats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, T; Sekikawa, T; Suzuki, T; Moriya, H; Nakaya, H

    1997-04-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of neuronal injury in vascular stroke. On the other hand, NO is suggested to play a neuroprotective role by increasing blood flow during cerebral ischemia. In order to evaluate the role of NO in the spinal cord ischemia, effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the recovery of reflex potentials after a transient spinal cord ischemia were examined in urethane-chloralose anesthetized spinal cats. Spinal cord ischemia was produced by occlusion of the thoracic aorta and the both internal mammary arteries for 10 min. Regional blood flow (RBF) in the spinal cord was continuously measured with a laser-Doppler flow meter. The monosynaptic (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex (PSR) potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve, were recorded from the L7 or S1 ventral root. The recovery process of spinal reflex potentials was reproducible when the oclusion was repeated twice at an interval of 120 min. Pretreatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg/kg), a NOS inhibitor significantly accelerated the recovery of PSR potentials after spinal cord ischemia. The accelerating effect of L-NMMA on the recovery of PSR potentials was abolished by co-administration of L-arginine (1 mg/kg/min) but not by that of D-arginine (1 mg/kg/min). L-NMMA failed to improve RBF in the spinal cord during ischemia and reperfusion. Nitroprusside (10 microg/kg/min), a NO donor, retarded the recovery of PSR potentials after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that NO production has a significant influence on the functional recovery after transient spinal cord ischemia.

  12. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  13. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  14. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-10-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain.

  15. Spinal fusion - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vertebrae are the bones that make up the spinal column, which surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The ... cushions between vertebrae, and absorb energy while the spinal column flexes, extends, and twists. Nerves from the spinal ...

  16. Spinal Cord Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord tumor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your ... as vertebral tumors. Tumors that begin within the spinal cord itself are called spinal cord tumors. There are ...

  17. Attenuation of regional cerebral blood flow during memory processing after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Weise, Steven; Wack, David S; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2014-09-01

    Reports of memory impairment after cardiac surgery are controversial. To address this controversy, we used positron emission tomography to examine changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during memory processing before and after elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. In postoperative scans, we observed significantly reduced rCBF in 2 of the most important memory processing areas: the medial temporal lobe (P = 0.023) and the prefrontal cortex (P = 0.002). The results suggest postoperative attenuation of rCBF in brain areas involved in memory processing. These reductions could be used to evaluate severity of memory impairment after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients at risk.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage

    SciTech Connect

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Halsey, J.H. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    Two groups of singers (n = 12,13) and a group of nonsingers (n = 12) each produced the national anthem by (1) speaking and (2) singing the words and by (3) humming the melody. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest and during each phonation task from seven areas in each hemisphere by the {sup 133}Xe-inhalation method. Intrahemisphere, interhemisphere, and global rCBF were generally similar across phonation tasks and did not yield appreciable differences among the nonsingers and the singers.

  19. Tracking Spinal Cord Injury: Differences in Cytokine Expression of IGF-1, TGF- B1, and sCD95l Can Be Measured in Blood Samples and Correspond to Neurological Remission in a 12-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ferbert, Thomas; Child, Christopher; Graeser, Viola; Swing, Tyler; Akbar, Michael; Heller, Raban; Biglari, Bahram; Moghaddam, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation presumably has an important impact on the secondary phase of spinal cord injury and is regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed serum levels of three different cytokines (insulin-like-growth-factor [IGF]-1, tumor growth factor [TGF]-β1, and soluble CD 95 ligand [sCD95L]), in blood samples of 23 patients admitted with acute traumatic spinal cord injury between November 2010 and July 2013 with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Quantification was performed using Human Quantikine Immunoassays, classification of neurological impairment was performed using the American Spinal Cord Injury Impairment Scale at time of admission and after 12 weeks. After an initial drop of all three cytokine serum levels, IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L showed significantly increased serum levels during the acute and sub-acute phases. For IGF-1 and sCD95L, we could also observe significantly higher serum levels in patients without neurological improvement compared with patients who had improvement after 12 weeks. In this study, we were able to show differences in cytokine serum levels in patients with different neurological outcome. Measuring the serum level patterns of IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L might be a useful tool for prognosis in patients with neurological improvement and tracking the pathophysiology in further studies. Further, our observations might link promising therapeutic efforts in numerous animal studies and future studies in human patients.

  20. SPECT determination of regional cerebral blood flow in hypertensive patients before and after clonidine

    SciTech Connect

    Devous, M.D.; Reed, W.G.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined by SPECT of 133-Xe inert gas washout in 18 hypertensive patients (PTS) upon admission and after treatment with oral clonidine (CL, 0.2 mg, then 0.1 mg/hr until diastolic pressure reached 105 mm Hg or fell by 30 mm Hg). CL reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 160 (200/140) to 133 (150/100) mm Hg over 4-6 hr. RCBF was quantitated in 14 gray matter regions from cross-sectional images and analyzed for differences from normal controls and changes with CL. Initial rCBF was lower in HI PTS than in either normal controls of LO PTS in all brain regions. CL lowered MAP in HI PTS by 52 +- 15 mm Hg and caused reduction in all gray matter regions except right frontal and right temporal (mean reduction 5 +- 2 ml/min/100 g, rho<.05). RCBF images were also evaluated by two trained observers for initial regional defects and for changes with CL. LO PTS were more likely to have defects in rCBF images at rest which would resolve with CL. HI PTS frequently had normal images at rest and developed defects with CL. In summary, the study suggests that SPECT may be useful in detecting rCBF abnormalities in hypertensive PTS at rest and following reductions in MAP.

  1. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  2. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  3. Effect of ethanol on jejunal regional blood flow in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Buell, M G; Beck, I T

    1983-01-01

    The effects of intraluminal ethanol perfusion (3.0% and 6.0% vt/vol) on mucosal morphology, water transport, and regional blood flow were examined in in vivo jejunal segments of pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits. Compared with control segments, ethanol-perfused segments exhibited morphological alterations of the mucosa consisting of subepithelial fluid accumulation (bleb formation), exfoliation of enterocytes, and vascular congestion. The prevalence of epithelial damage was significantly increased in the segments perfused with 6% ethanol. Net water transport was significant (p less than 0.025) depressed in segments perfused with 3.0% and 6.0% wt/vol ethanol. In animals in which the control segment was absorbing water, ethanol led to a depression in net water absorption or to the reversal of absorption to net secretion. In animals in which the control segment exhibited secretion, ethanol led to an enhanced net secretion. Blood flow through the total jejunal wall and through the luminal layer (consisting of mucosa plus submucosa) was significantly (p less than 0.05) increased by the presence of 3.0% and 6.0% wt/vol ethanol in the intestinal lumen. Blood flow in the external layer of the jejunum (consisting of muscularis plus serosa) did not change significantly. It therefore appears that the ethanol-induced alterations in jejunal mucosal morphology and water transport are accompanied by a localized mucosal or submucosal hyperemia, or both. However, a direct cause and effect relationship between these remains to be established.

  4. [High blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas of Junin region, Peru].

    PubMed

    Romero, Candice; Zavaleta, Carol; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas, with limited contact with Western culture, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 in five Ashaninka communities of the Junin region in the jungle of Peru. Individuals aged 35 or older were included. 76 subjects were evaluated (average age 47.4 years old, 52.6 % women) corresponding to 43.2% of the eligible population. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.5% (CI 95%: 6.4-22.6) and the prevalence of obesity, according to body mass index, was 4% (CI 95%: 0-8.4). No differences were observed in gender or in blood pressure levels by age group. Compared with previous studies in non-indigenous people of the Peruvian jungle, the prevalence of high blood pressure was higher while the prevalence of obesity was lower. Our findings are a call to be aware of the situation of chronic non-communicable diseases in indigenous populations in the Peruvian Amazon.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    SciTech Connect

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F. )

    1989-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation.

  6. Comparing the trends of elevated blood pressure in appalachian and non-Appalachian regions.

    PubMed

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Han, Dong Y; Rose, Danny; Aroor, Sushanth R; Schmitt, Frederick; Bellamy, Lisa M; Dobbs, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    As an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, hypertension risks are often thought to be more prevalent in Appalachian mountain ranges when compared with other neighboring counterpart regions. This study evaluated blood pressure (BP) readings among 2358 Kentucky residents attending community stroke risk screening events held in 15 counties, including nine Appalachian counties (n=1134) and six non-Appalachian counties (n=1224). With high BP being operationally defined as ≥140/90 mm Hg, 41.5% of Appalachian county residents had elevated BP compared with 42.6% among those from non-Appalachian counties. Although the counties with the highest rates of elevated BP did tend to reside in the Appalachian region, there was no significant difference between rates of elevated BP in Appalachia vs non-Appalachian counties. This dataset is proposed as a pilot project to encourage further pursuit of a larger controlled project.

  7. The examination of soft tissue compliance in the thoracic region for the development of a spinal manipulation training mannequin

    PubMed Central

    Starmer, David J.; Duquette, Sean A.; Stainsby, Brynne E.; Giuliano, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the soft tissue compliance of the thoracic paraspinal musculature differs based on gender and body type to help create a foam human analogue mannequin to assist in the training of spinal manipulative therapy. Methods: 54 volunteers were grouped based on their gender and body types. In the prone position, thoracic paraspinal soft tissue compliance was measured at T1, T3 T6, T9 and T12 vertebrae levels bilaterally using a tissue compliance meter. Results: There was no significant difference in tissue compliance when comparing the genders except at T1 (p=0.026). When comparing body types, significantly higher tissue compliance was found between endomorphs and the other groups. No significant difference was found between ectomorphs and mesomorphs. The compliance for the participants in this study ranged from 0.122 mm/N to 0.420 mm/N. Conclusion: There are significant differences in thoracic spine soft tissue compliance in healthy asymptomatic patients between genders in the upper thoracic spine, and between different body types throughout the thoracic spine. It may be beneficial to create multiple versions of practice mannequins to simulate variations amongst different patients. PMID:26136607

  8. Apparent gene conversions involving the SMN gene in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy locus on chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Steege, G. van der; Grootscholten, P.M.; Cobben, J.M.; Scheffer, H.; Buys, C.H.C.M.

    1996-10-01

    The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene has been described as a determining gene for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN has a closely flanking, nearly identical copy ({sup C}BCD541). Gene and copy gene can be discriminated by sequence differences in exons 7 and 8. The large majority of SMA patients show homozygous deletions of at least exons 7 and 8 of the SMN gene. A minority of patients show absence of SMN exon 7 but retention of exon 8. This is explained by results of our present analysis of 13 such patients providing evidence for apparent gene-conversion events between SMN and the centromeric copy gene. Instead of applying a separate analysis for absence or presence of SMN exons 7 and 8, we used a contiguous PCR from intron 6 to exon 8. In every case we found a chimeric gene with a fusion of exon 7 of the copy gene and exon 8 of SMN and absence of a normal SMN gene. Similar events, including the fusion counterpart, were observed in a group of controls, although in the presence of a normal SMN gene. Chimeric genes as the result of fusions of parts of SMN and {sup C}BCD541 apparently are far from rare and may partly explain the frequently observed SMN deletions in SMA patients. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Duffy blood group genotypes among African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Perna, S J Q; Cardoso, G L; Guerreiro, J F

    2007-03-29

    Duffy blood group genotype was studied in 95 unrelated subjects from four African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region: Trombetas, Pitimandeua, Curiaú, and Mazagão Velho. Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the three major alleles at FY blood group, and as expected, FY*O allele was the most common one, with frequencies ranging from 56.4% in Mazagão Velho to 72.2% in Pitimandeua, whereas the FY*O/FY*O genotype was found with frequencies between 32.3% in Mazagão Velho and 58.8% in Curiaú. Genotype and allele distributions in the four Amazonian communities are consistent with a predominantly African origin with some degree of local differentiation and admixture with people of Caucasian ancestry and/or Amerindians. These results reveal that the impact of the FY*O/FY*O genotype on the transmission and endemicity of the vivax malaria deserves to be investigated in full detail in an attempt to identify the contribution of host biological factors and explain the non-homogeneous prevalence of malaria in the region expressed by its different levels of exposure.

  10. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, T.; Hoshi, H.; Nagamachi, S.; Jinnouchi, S.; Futami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Mitsuyama, Y. )

    1991-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in 11 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type, three patients with progressive dementia and motor neuron disease, and eight healthy control subjects. Regional blood flow measurements in the bilateral frontal, parietal association, and temporal cortices were lower in the Alzheimer dementia patients than in controls. Flow deficits in the parietal association cortex were demonstrated in all patients with Alzheimer-type dementia; these deficits were correlated with the severity of disease. Lateral hemispheric asymmetry was seen in nine of 11 patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. In all three patients with progressive dementia and motor neuron disease, flow deficits were demonstrated in the bilateral frontal and temporal cortices, but no flow deficits were seen in the parietal association cortex. Brain SPECT with 123I-IMP may be useful in the differential diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of degenerative dementia.

  12. Effects of frequent marijuana use on memory-related regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert I; O'Leary, Daniel S; Hichwa, Richard D; Augustinack, Jean C; Boles Ponto, Laura L; Ghoneim, M M; Arndt, Stephan; Hurtig, Richard R; Watkins, G Leonard; Hall, James A; Nathan, Peter E; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2002-05-01

    It is uncertain whether frequent marijuana use adversely affects human brain function. Using positron emission tomography (PET), memory-related regional cerebral blood flow was compared in frequent marijuana users and nonusing control subjects after 26+ h of monitored abstention. Memory-related blood flow in marijuana users, relative to control subjects, showed decreases in prefrontal cortex, increases in memory-relevant regions of cerebellum, and altered lateralization in hippocampus. Marijuana users differed most in brain activity related to episodic memory encoding. In learning a word list to criterion over multiple trials, marijuana users, relative to control subjects, required means of 2.7 more presentations during initial learning and 3.1 more presentations during subsequent relearning. In single-trial recall, marijuana users appeared to rely more on short-term memory, recalling 23% more than control subjects from the end of a list, but 19% less from the middle. These findings indicate altered memory-related brain function in marijuana users.

  13. [Evoked potentials and regional cerebral blood flow changes in conversion disorder: a case report and review].

    PubMed

    Gürses, Nadide; Temuçin, Cağri Mesut; Lay Ergün, Eser; Ertuğrul, Aygün; Ozer, Suzan; Demir, Başaran

    2008-01-01

    Conversion disorder is defined as the presence of functional impairment in motor, sensory or neurovegetative systems which cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Although the diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction in conversion disorder, there has been a growing interest in the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms in recent years, particularly by examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological measures. In this case report, regional cerebral blood flow changes and evoked potentials of a patient with conversion symptoms are presented. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) of this patient with conversion disorder who had signs of movement disorder revealed that the latency to N20, P 25 waves were in normal limits while the amplitudes of the P25 and N33 components were extremely high (giant SEP). Regional cerebral blood flow assessment revealed hypoperfusion in the left parietal and temporal lobes of the brain. Three months after the first assessment, the control scans showed that the left parietal hypoperfusion disappeared while the left temporal hypoperfusion was still present. The following SEP evaluations which were repeated twice in three months intervals after the initial recordings, showed the persistence of the abnormalities in somatosensorial measures. The neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings in conversion disorder were reviewed and the results of the evaluations of this case were discussed in this article.

  14. Diurnal variation in baseline human regional cerebral blood flow demonstrated by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, D.J.; Mintun, M.A.; Moore, R.Y.

    1994-05-01

    We have previously described the diurnal variation in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to bright light in human subjects as demonstrated by the positron emission tomography (PET) activation method. In this abstract, we report the differences in rCBF (an indicator of differences in regional neuronal activity) between the evening and midday dim light baseline scans which served as the control states in the above bright light activation study. Five right-handed, healthy volunteers underwent both an evening (8pm) and a midday (12N) O-15 water PET scanning session. Each scanning session was preceded by one hour of dim light adaptation (50 lux) and consisted of six rCBF scans at three different light intensities in an AABBCC sequence (A=50 lux, B=2500 lux, C=7000lux). Significant differences in rCBF between the evening and midday 50 lux states were identified using the statistical parametric mapping method developed by Friston et al (p<.001). The evening scans demonstrated areas of greater relative blood flow in the pineal gland, the lateral temporal cortex bilaterally, the right lateral prefrontal cortex, the superior aspect of the anterior cingulate, and the left thalamus. The midday scans showed areas of greater relative blood flow in the visual cortex, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. the inferior aspect of the anterior cingulate, the left parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Our results demonstrate an extensive diurnal variation in baseline human rCBF. This indicates that time of day may be an important variable in conducting and interpreting functional brain imaging studies. Furthermore, these results suggest possible neuroanatomical substrates through which the circadian system may regulate the various physiologic and behavioral processes that manifest circadian rhythms.

  15. Cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia: effects of memory processing on regional activation.

    PubMed

    Gur, R E; Jaggi, J L; Shtasel, D L; Ragland, J D; Gur, R C

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with the 133Xenon clearance technique and a high resolution (254 detectors) scanner during the performance of a verbal and a facial memory task in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 sociodemographically matched controls. Patients and controls had comparable resting rCBF, but differed in global and hemispheric rCBF changes induced by the memory tasks. Patients had less global increase, which was relatively higher in the left hemisphere, and this was more pronounced for the verbal task. Although controls showed appropriate laterality changes (L > R for verbal and R > L for facial memory) in the midtemporal region, patients failed to show such a focal pattern. They did not show appropriate laterality change in the midtemporal region, but instead showed such changes in other regions. Patients showed greatest impairment in specificity of verbal recognition performance, and this correlated with severity of hallucinations and delusions. This supports a model of left temporal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  16. Acute and Chronic Changes in Aquaporin 4 Expression After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nesic, Olivera; Lee, Julieann; Ye, Zaiming; Unabia, Geda C.; Rafati, Danny; Hulsebosch, Claire E.; Perez-Polo, J. Regino

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the expression levels and distribution of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has not been studied. We have found AQP4 in gray and white matter astrocytes in both uninjured and injured rat spinal cords. AQP4 was detected in astrocytic processes that were tightly surrounding neurons and blood vessels, but more robustly in glia limitans externa and interna, which were forming an interface between spinal cord parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Such spatial distribution of AQP4 suggests a critical role that astrocytes expressing AQP4 play in the transport of water from blood/CSF to spinal cord parenchyma and vice versa. SCI induced biphasic changes in astrocytic AQP4 levels, including its early down-regulation and subsequent persistent up-regulation. However, changes in AQP4 expression did not correlate well with the onset and magnitude of astrocytic activation, when measured as changes in GFAP expression levels. It appears that reactive astrocytes began expressing increased levels of AQP4 after migrating to the wound area (thoracic region) two weeks after SCI, and AQP4 remained significantly elevated for months after SCI. We also showed that increased levels of AQP4 spread away from the lesion site to cervical and lumbar segments, but only in chronically injured spinal cords. Although overall AQP4 expression levels increased in chronically-injured spinal cords, AQP4 immunolabeling in astrocytic processes forming glia limitans externa was decreased, which may indicate impaired water transport through glia limitans externa. Finally, we also showed that SCI-induced changes in AQP4 protein levels correlate, both temporally and spatially, with persistent increases in water content in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords. Although correlative, this finding suggests a possible link between AQP4 and impaired water transport/edema/syringomyelia in contused spinal cords. PMID:17074445

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  18. Regional Choroidal Blood Flow and Multifocal Electroretinography in Experimental Glaucoma in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T. Michael; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Munsey, Kaitlyn M.; Dashek, Ryan J.; Hoeve, James N. Ver

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To test a hypothesis of regional variation in the effect of experimental glaucoma on choroidal blood flow (ChBF) and retinal function. Methods. Five rhesus macaques underwent laser trabecular destruction (LTD) to induce elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Intraocular pressures were elevated for 56 to 57 weeks. Multifocal electroretinographic (mfERG) and multifocal visual evoked cortical potential (mfVEP) testing were performed at regular intervals before and during the period of IOP elevation. At euthanasia, the IOP was manometrically controlled at 35 (experimentally glaucomatous eye) and 15 (fellow control eye) mm Hg. Fluorescent microspheres were injected into the left ventricle. Regional ChBF was determined. Results. All of the experimentally glaucomatous eyes exhibited supranormal first-order kernel (K1) root mean square (RMS) early portions of the mfERG waveforms and decreased amplitudes of the late waveforms. The supranormality was somewhat greater in the central macula. Second-order kernel, first slice (K2.1) RMS mfVEP response was inversely correlated (R2 = 0.97) with axonal loss. Total ChBF was reduced in the experimentally glaucomatous eyes. The mean blood flow was 893 ± 123 and 481 ± 37 μL/min in the control and glaucomatous eyes, respectively. The ChBF showed regional variability with the greatest proportional decrement most often found in the central macula. Conclusions. This is the first demonstration of globally reduced ChBF in chronic experimental glaucoma in the nonhuman primate. Both the alteration of mfERG waveform components associated with outer retinal function and the reduction in ChBF were greatest in the macula, suggesting that there may be a spatial colocalization between ChBF and some outer retinal effects in glaucoma. PMID:25370515

  19. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.

  20. Dynamic change of collateral flow varying with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic rat cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Luo, Weihua; Zhou, Fangyuan; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, there was no obvious significance about the onset time and duration of CCs between rats with and without PID. These results suggest that the initial arising of CCs does not ensure their persistence, and that collateral flow could be varied with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic stroke, which may facilitate the understanding of collateral recruitment and promote the development of collateral therapeutics in the future.

  1. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  2. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  3. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  4. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Devous, M.D. Sr.; Rush, A.J.; Schlesser, M.A.; Debus, J.; Raese, J.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of 133-Xe washout in 29 normal volunteers, 22 unipolar endogenous depressives (UPE), 9 unipolar nonendogenous depressives (UPNE), 13 bipolar depressed patients (BPD), and 14 schizophrenic patients (SCHZ). RCBF was measured 2 and 6 cm above and parallel to the cantho-meatal line and quantitated in 14 gray matter regions. Most subjects were drug-free for 4-14 days. Diagnoses were made by experienced clinicians employing the Research Diagnostic Criteria, the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the dexamethasone suppression test. SCHZ were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. UPE had reduced flow compared to normals in the right parietal and temporal lobes and a nonsignificant trend toward left temporal flow reductions. UPNE were not different from normal or other patient groups. BPD had significant flow elevations in the left hemisphere relative to normal, and in both hemispheres relative to UPE. SCHZ were not significantly different from normal or other patient groups. Anterior-posterior flow shifts were evaluated by subtracting parietal or temporal flows from frontal flows. SCHZ demonstrated a greater posterior shift (lower relative frontal lobe flow) in comparison to both UPE and UPNE. The most significant regional flow abnormalities were observed as frontal flow reductions in individual SCHZ, although these were not significant in the whole group in comparison to normal.

  5. Vancomycin MIC creep in MRSA blood culture isolates from Germany: a regional problem?

    PubMed

    Kehrmann, J; Kaase, M; Szabados, F; Gatermann, S G; Buer, J; Rath, P-M; Steinmann, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the vancomycin MIC distribution for MRSA blood culture isolates over a period of six years in Germany. The study examined 287 MRSA isolates from blood cultures collected at several hospitals in two German cities between 2004 and 2009. The vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. Genotypic features of the MRSA strains with vancomycin MIC ≥ 1 mg/L were determined by semiautomated repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. The range of vancomycin MIC as determined by Etest was 0.25 to 2.0 mg/L. The geometric mean MIC increased by 1.34-fold in city A over the study period (p < 0.05), but there was no meaningful change in city B (a 1.09-fold increase, p > 0.05). Furthermore, in city A a shift in vancomycin MICs occurred as an increase in the percentage of isolates with MIC ≥ 1 mg/L from period one (2004-2006) to period two (2007-2009) (p < 0.0001). Typing results showed that in city A a single clone was predominant (55% of the creep isolates). In this study, the creep phenomenon seems to be a regional problem. We suggest that all hospitals should monitor their local status of elevated vancomycin MICs in invasive MRSA isolates.

  6. Numerical simulations of the blood flow in the patient-specific arterial cerebral circle region.

    PubMed

    Reorowicz, Piotr; Obidowski, Damian; Klosinski, Przemyslaw; Szubert, Wojciech; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Jozwik, Krzysztof

    2014-05-07

    The Cerebral Circle Region, also known as the Circle of Willis (CoW), is a loop of arteries that form arterial connections between supply arteries to distribute blood throughout the cerebral mass. Among the population, only 25% to 50% have a complete system of arteries forming the CoW. 3D time-varying simulations for three different patient-specific artery anatomies of CoW were performed in order to gain a better insight into the phenomena existing in the cerebral blood flow. The models reconstructed on the basis of computer tomography images start from the aorta and include the largest arteries that supply the CoW and the arteries of CoW. Velocity values measured during the ultrasound examination have been compared with the results of simulations. It is shown that the flow in the right anterior artery in some cases may be supplied from the left internal carotid artery via the anterior communicating artery. The investigations conducted show that the computational fluid dynamic tool, which provides high resolution in both time and space domains, can be used to support physicians in diagnosing patients of different ages and various anatomical arterial structures.

  7. Effects of histamine and related compounds on regional cerebral blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, G; Chen, Z; Sugimoto, Y; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1999-11-01

    The effects of histamine and related compounds on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the hippocampus of conscious rats were studied. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine caused a dose-dependent increase in rCBF in the hippocampus, and similar findings were observed with not only the H1 agonist, 2-thiazolylethylamine, but also the H2 agonist, dimaprit. Intraperitoneal injection of L-histidine also resulted in an increase in rCBF in the hippocampus, in parallel with elevation of histamine content in the brain. The increase in rCBF in the hippocampus induced by L-histidine was antagonized by both H1 and H2 antagonists (diphenhydramine, pyrilamine and zolantidine). In addition, when both antagonists were injected simultaneously, an additive effect was observed in antagonism of the L-histidine-induced increase in rCBF. L-Histidine caused no marked changes in blood pressure even at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg, which showed an increase in rCBF in the hippocampus. These results indicate that histamine elicited an increase in rCBF via both H1 and H2 receptors.

  8. Smart catheter flow sensor for real-time continuous regional cerebral blood flow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-Ming; Hartings, Jed A.; Wu, Zhizhen; Ahn, Chong H.; LeDoux, David; Shutter, Lori A.; Narayan, Raj K.

    2011-12-01

    We present a smart catheter flow sensor for real-time, continuous, and quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using in situ temperature and thermal conductivity compensation. The flow sensor operates in a constant-temperature mode and employs a periodic heating and cooling technique. This approach ensures zero drift and provides highly reliable data with microelectromechanical system-based thin film sensors. The developed flow sensor has a sensitivity of 0.973 mV/ml/100 g/min in the range from 0 to 160 ml/100 g/min with a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9953. It achieves a resolution of 0.25 ml/100 g/min and an accuracy better than 5 ml/100 g/min.

  9. The effects of CT drift on xenon/CT measurement of regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Lu, H C; Rottenberg, D A; Deck, M D

    1984-01-01

    A systematic increase in computed tomography (CT) number of approximately 0.13 Hounsfield unit per scan (HU/scan) was observed when serial DeltaScan 2020 CT scans of a uniform water phantom were equally spaced at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 min and a shaped aluminum beam-hardening filter was employed. Much smaller drifts (less than 0.06 HU/scan) were observed with flat aluminum or shaped beryllium oxide filters. This machine drift, which was not associated with a rise in water phantom temperature and did not consistently correlate with estimated x-ray tube heat, could result in a significant overestimation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for a xenon/CT rCBF protocol involving 5-7 sequential scans obtained at 1-min interscan intervals.

  10. [Regional cerebral blood flow-SPECT "OFF-ON": a case report of catatonia].

    PubMed

    Moreno Caballero, M; Corchos González, N; De Antonio Rubio, I; Gómez-Río, M; Guerrero Velázquez, J F; Rodríguez Fernández, A; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a long history of dysthymia and major depressive episodes requiring repeated hospitalization. We describe the most recent episode, associated with catatonia symptomatology and features suggestive of cognitive impairment. The absence of a clear initial psychopharmacological response alongside the clinical severity made the patient a potential candidate for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A regional cerebral blood flow SPECT (SPECT-rCBF), performed to rule out concomitant Alzheimer disease (AD), revealed a markedly decreased neocortical uptake, with no definitive pattern of concomitant primary cognitive impairment. Because a gradual clinical improvement was observed in the patient, with evidence of enhanced cerebral reperfusion in a second SPECT-rCBF study at two weeks after admission, the application of ECT was discounted and an expectant attitude was adopted.

  11. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states.

  12. Regional fibre stress-fibre strain area as an estimate of regional blood flow and oxygen demand in the canine heart.

    PubMed Central

    Delhaas, T; Arts, T; Prinzen, F W; Reneman, R S

    1994-01-01

    1. In the present study the relation between regional left ventricular contractile work, regional myocardial blood flow and oxygen uptake was assessed during asynchronous electrical activation. 2. In analogy to the use of the pressure-volume area for the estimation of global oxygen demand, the fibre stress-fibre strain area, as assessed regionally, was used to estimate regional oxygen demand. The more often used relation between the pressure-sarcomere length area and regional oxygen demand was also assessed. 3. Experiments were performed in six anaesthetized dogs with open chests. Regional differences in mechanical work were generated by asynchronous electrical activation of the myocardial wall. The ventricles were paced from the right atrium, the left ventricular free wall, the left ventricular apex or the right ventricular outflow tract. Regional fibre strain was measured at the epicardial anterior left ventricular free wall with a two-dimensional video technique. 4. Regional fibre stress was estimated from left ventricular pressure, the ratio of left ventricular cavity volume to wall volume, and regional deformation. Total mechanical power (TMP) was calculated from the fibre stress-fibre strain area (SSA) and the duration of the cardiac cycle (tcycle) using the equation: TMP = SSA/tcycle. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Regional oxygen uptake was estimated from regional myocardial blood flow values and arteriovenous differences in oxygen content. 5. During asynchronous electrical activation, total mechanical power, pressure-sarcomere length area, myocardial blood flow and oxygen uptake were significantly lower in early than in late activated regions (P < 0.05). 6. Within the experiments, the correlation between the pressure-sarcomere length area and regional oxygen uptake was not significantly lower than the one between total mechanical power (TMP) and regional oxygen uptake (VO2,reg). However, variability of this

  13. YAC contigs of the Rab1 and wobbler (wr) spinal muscular atrophy gene region on proximal mouse chromosome 11 and of the homologous region on human chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, N.; Lengeling, A.; Ronsiek, M.

    1996-03-05

    Despite rapid progress in the physical characterization of murine and human genomes, little molecular information is available on certain regions, e.g., proximal mouse chromosome 11 (Chr 11) and human chromosome 2p (Chr2p). We have localized the wobbler spinal atrophy gene wr to proximal mouse Chr 11, tightly linked to Rab1, a gene coding for a small GTP-binding protein, and Glns-ps1, an intronless pseudogene of the glutamine synthetase gene. We have not used these markers to construct a 1.3-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of the Rab1 region on mouse Chr 11. Four YAC clones isolated from two independent YAC libraries were characterized by rare-cutting analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and sequence-tagged site (STS) isolation and mapping. Rab1 and Glns-ps1 were found to be only 200 kb apart. A potential CpG island near a methylated NarI site and a trapped exon, ETG1.1, were found over 250 kb from Rab1. Two overlapping YACs were identified that contained a 150-kb region of human Chr 2p, comprising the RAB1 locus, AHY1.1, and the human homologue of ETG1.1, indicating a high degree of conservation of this region in the two species. We mapped AHY1.1 and thus human RAB1 on Chr 2p13.4-p14 using somatic cell hybrids and a radiation hybrid panel, thus extending a known region of conserved synteny between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 2p. Recently, the gene LMGMD2B for a human recessive neuromuscular disease, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, has been mapped to 2p13-p16. The conservation between the mouse Rab1 and human RAB1 regions will be helpful in identifying candidate genes for the wobbler spinal muscular atrophy and in clarifying a possible relationship between wr and LMGMD2B. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Humoral Control of Regional Blood Flow in Hemorrhagic Shock in Non-Resuscitated and Resuscitated Animals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-17

    to perfusion with autologous normal (non-shock) blood. This increased resistance could be eliminated with phentolamine . However, oxygen consumption...perfusion with normal blood of 2.1 resistance units during perfusion with shock blood (pɘ.001). In a total of 17 phentolamine treated pig limbs...mL/min for normal blood and 1.4 mL/min for shock blood. None of these differences was statistically significant. The findings show that phentolamine

  15. Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared with teaching hospital cultures.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bzdyl, Nicole; Chua, I-Ly Joanna; Urosevic, Nadezda M; Leung, Michael J; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now in wide spread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for blood culture isolate identification (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in a teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MALDI-TOF and proprietary molecular methods. The BCID FilmArray contained 18 of 34 species and 20 of 23 species isolated from teaching and regional hospital, respectively. Overall, 85 % of the teaching hospital and 100 % of the regional hospital monomicrobial blood cultures were identified, compared with 60 and 68 %, respectively, for direct MALDI-TOF on the same cultures. There were no incorrect results from blood cultures containing Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae. The three discrepant results were all in mixed cultures. The mean reduction in time to identification of blood culture isolates was 53 h, which did not include the time required to transport cultures from regional centres to a central laboratory. The overall performance of the BCID FilmArray is stronger in blood cultures from smaller regional hospitals that encounter a narrower range of bacterial species dominated by the commonest species. This approach is more suited to smaller clinical laboratories than the MALDI-TOF direct method.

  16. Defining new borders of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) candidate region by two new microsatellites and isolation of cDNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.; Schoenling, J.; Dadze, A.

    1994-09-01

    A high number of cosmids and phages were identified that contained di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. These clones were isolated from STSs that map to the SMA region as well as from three cosmid and one phage library that had been prepared from YACs which span the SMA candidate interval. We developed two new microsatellites, A31 (D5S823) and 95/23, which enabled us to define new borders of the SMA region and to reduce it to approximately 700 kb. Physically, the marker A31 maps to the overlapping region of the YACs y116, y55 and y122 at about 550 kb distal to the locus D5S435. A recombination in one SMA type I family places A31 proximal to the SMA gene. The multicopy microsatellite, 95/23, developed from a cosmid including the STS y97U revealed in a consanguine SMA type I family different alleles, while all proximal markers were heterozygous. This suggests a location of 95/23 distal to the SMA gene. Furthermore, we tested 157 German SMA families (100 SMA type I, 50 SMA type II and 20 SMA type III) for linkage disequilibrium with the marker AG1-CA which reveals no recombination with the SMA gene. We found in SMA type I families strong allelic association between the 100 bp allele and the SMA gene. In 7 families we got deletions within the AG1-CA microsatellite. On the way to isolate the SMA gene, we hybridized whole cosmid and YAC inserts to cDNA libraries of spinal cord, brain and muscle. Seven cDNAs were initially identified and cDNA walking was used to begin the isolation of whole transcribed sequences.

  17. Antidepressant treatment with MAO-inhibitors during general and regional anesthesia: a review and case report of spinal anesthesia for lower extremity surgery without discontinuation of tranylcypromine.

    PubMed

    Krings-Ernst, Ilana; Ulrich, Sven; Adli, Mazda

    2013-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase-(MAO)-inhibitors are a treatment of last resort in treatment resistant depression, which is regarded as a condition of increased psychiatric risk. General and regional anesthesia for elective surgery during use of long-term MAO-inhibitors remains a matter of debate because of an increased risk of drug interactions and decreased sympathetic stability. A series of case reports and new comparative studies reveal the safety of anesthesia/analgesia in non-cardiac surgery without discontinuation of the MAO-inhibitor if best effort is made for maintenance of sympathetic homeostasis and if known drug interactions are avoided. Very few reports with severe adverse incidents have been noted. Severe cardiovascular morbidity, a contraindication of MAO-inhibitors, probably contributed to peri- and postoperative complications. According to new studies, the risk of pharmacokinetic drug interactions is lower for tranylcypromine than for phenelzine. In the present case, a 66-year-old psychiatric patient on permanent treatment with 20 mg/day tranylcypromine was admitted for forefoot surgery. Anesthetic premedication consisted of 7.5 mg oral midazolam. Intravenous midazolam (0.5 mg) was dispensed for intraoperative sedation. After local anesthesia of the puncture site with 30 mg isobar prilocaine, spinal anesthesia was achieved by a single shot of 13.5 mg hyperbar bupivacaine (0.5%) intrathecally. Postoperative regional and general analgesia were accomplished by a peripheral nerve block with 50 mg isobar bupivacaine as well as oral etoricoxib and oxycodone. No peri- or postoperative complications were encountered. It is concluded that general or regional anesthesia for noncardiac surgery without discontinuation of MAO-inhibitor treatment may be a safe intervention after careful evaluation of an individual's perioperative and psychiatric risk. The increased psychiatric risk in patients treated with MAO-inhibitors outweighs the increased, however manageable

  18. Continuous Descending Modulation of the Spinal Cord Revealed by Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Rachael L.; Cotoi, Andreea I.; Leung, Roxanne H.; Kornelsen, Jennifer; Lawrence-Dewar, Jane M.; Pukall, Caroline F.; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous variations in spinal cord activity may arise from regulation of any of a number of functions including sensory, motor, and autonomic control. Here, we use functional MRI (fMRI) of healthy participants to identify properties of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) variations in the spinal cord in response to knowledge that either a noxious stimulus is impending, or that no stimulus is to be expected. Expectation of a noxious stimulus, or no stimulus, is shown to have a significant effect on wide-spread BOLD signal variations in the spinal cord over the entire time period of the fMRI acquisition. Coordination of BOLD responses between/within spinal cord and brainstem regions are also influenced by this knowledge. We provide evidence that such signal variations are the result of continuous descending modulation of spinal cord function. BOLD signal variations in response to noxious stimulation of the hand are also shown, as in previous studies. The observation of both continuous and reactive BOLD responses to emotional/cognitive factors and noxious peripheral stimulation may have important implications, not only for our understanding of endogenous pain modulation, but also in showing that spinal cord activity is under continuous regulatory control. PMID:27907094

  19. Refined physical map of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy gene (SMA) region at 5q13 based on YAC and cosmid contiguous arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, N.; Yaraghi, Z.; McLean, M.D.

    1995-04-10

    The gene for the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder spinal muscular atrophy has been mapped to a region of 5q13 flanked proximally by CMS-1 and distally by D5S557. We present a 2-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig constructed from three libraries encompassing the D5S435/D5S629/CMS-1-SMA-D5S557/D5S112 interval. The D5S629/CMS-1-SMA-D5S557 interval is unusual insofar as chromosome 5-specific repetitive sequences are present and many of the simple tandem repeats (STR) are located at multiple loci that are unstable in our YAC clones. A long-range restriction map that demonstrates the SMA-containing interval to be 550 kb is presented. Moreover, a 210-kb cosmid array from both a YAC-specific and a chromosome 5-specific cosmid library encompassing the multilocus STRs CATT-1, CMS-1, D5F149, D5F150, and D5F153 has been assembled. We have recently reported strong linkage disequilibrium with Type I SMA for two of these STRs, indicating that the gene is located in close proximity to or within our cosmid clone array. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Effect of Ondansetron and Dexamethasone on Nausea and Vomiting under Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kalani, Navid; Zabetian, Hasan; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Deylami, Mansour; Radmehr, Mohammad; Sahraei, Reza; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kooti, Wesam

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND During abdominal surgery under regional anesthesia, nausea may happen due to several contributing factors. This study compared the effects of ondansetron and dexamethasone on nausea and vomiting under spinal anesthesia. METHODS One hundred and twenty patients of 15 to 35 years old with ASA class I and II were enrolled. Before administering either ondansetron or dexamethasone, blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were recorded. The patients received 70 mg of 5% lidocaine for spinal anesthesia. Patients who received 6 mg of ondansetron were considered as group A, while group B received 8 mg of dexamethasone. The level of nausea and vomiting, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate of each patient was measured at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after spinal anesthesia and during recovery (every 5 minutes). RESULTS There was a significant difference between nausea and vomiting between the two groups after spinal anesthesia within the first and fifth minutes. There was no significant difference between nausea and vomiting between the two groups within 10, 15 and 30 minutes and during recovery at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes. CONCLUSION Dexamethasone and ondansetron were shown to equally reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting under spinal anesthesia and can be recommended as a good choice for prevention of nausea and vomiting during surgeries. PMID:28289619

  1. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H/sub 2/O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, /sup 15/O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement.

  2. [Blood Flow and Regional Blood Flow Rate in the Middle Cerebral Artery during Surgical Leg Lengthening in Patients with Congenital and Acquired Limb Shortening].

    PubMed

    Schurov, V A; Popkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of changes in blood flow rate in the popliteal artery, the arteries of bone regenerate and cerebral arteries in 45 patients with congenital and acquired diseases of the limbs at different stages of surgical lengthening of 3-15 cm shortened shin by Ilizarov method. We observed an increase in regional blood flow rate in all patients during the periods of distraction and fixation. A 25% increase in blood flow rate in the middle cerebral artery on the contralateral side was found only in patients of the first adult age with acquired limb shortening. Basing on the analysis of the reaction of cerebral arteries during a functional test with additional muscle work, we suggested that the absence of reaction in congenital diseases is caused by relative excess of somatic afferentation which results from morphological and functional immaturity of brain regulatory systems.

  3. High resolution physical mapping of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) region utilizing YAC, PAC, and cosmid clones

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, N.; Yaraghi, Z.; Besner, A.

    1994-09-01

    The childhood SMAs are a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by anterior horn cells degeneration resulting in muscular wasting and weakness. All three types have been mapped to a 1.4 Mb region of 5q13.1 flanked centromerically by D5S435 and telomerically by D5S557. Several groups including our own have generated YAC contigs of the region documenting deletion, duplications and repetitive sequences. We have generated a higher resolution contiguous array of cosmid clones encompassing the region containing the microsatellites (MSRs) CATT-1 and CMS-1. These MSRs exist in multiple copies, termed subloci, which are present in a variable number among chromosomes. We have mapped four of the CATT-1 subloci, two of that we have shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with SMA, to a 100 kb interval within our cosmid array. The lack of a representation of all the CMS-1 subloci in our YAC and cosmid clones, in addition to the instability of these MSRs within the YAC clones, has rendered mapping problematic. Due to the reported stability of P1 artificial chromosomes (PAC), we have also constructed a contiguous array of 11 PAC clones spanning this critical interval. The unequivocal orientation of the contig along 5q13 has been confirmed by analysis with 4 genetic markers, 4 single copy probes and 3 STSs. Preliminary analysis has shown greater retention of MSR alleles in the PACs, suggesting their greater stability when compared to YACs. Mapping of cosmid and PAC clones derived from different individuals has allowed us to map the multiple CMS-1 and CATT-1 subloci along 5q13. We have identified a recombination event indicating that the SMA gene lies telomeric to one CMS sublocus. Placement of this sublocus in our physical map has enabled further refinement of the critical SMA region from previous estimates of 700 kb to an approximate 300 kb interval flanked by the markers CMS and D5S557.

  4. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply.

  5. Spatio-temporal flow analysis in bileaflet heart valve hinge regions: potential analysis for blood element damage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Hélène A; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Leo, Hwa-Liang; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2007-08-01

    Point-wise velocity measurements have been traditionally acquired to estimate blood damage potential induced by prosthetic heart valves with emphasis on peak values of velocity magnitude and Reynolds stresses. However, the inherently Lagrangian nature of platelet activation and hemolysis makes such measurements of limited predictive value. This study provides a refined fluid mechanical analysis, including blood element paths and stress exposure times, of the hinge flows of a CarboMedics bileaflet mechanical heart valve placed under both mitral and aortic conditions and a St Jude Medical bileaflet valve placed under aortic conditions. The hinge area was partitioned into characteristic regions based on dominant flow structures and spatio-temporal averaging was performed on the measured velocities and Reynolds shear stresses to estimate the average bulk stresses acting on blood elements transiting through the hinge. A first-order estimate of viscous stress levels and exposure times were computed. Both forward and leakage flow phases were characterized in each partition by dynamic flows dependent on subtle leaflet movements and transvalvular pressure fluctuations. Blood elements trapped in recirculation regions may experience exposure times as long as the entire forward flow phase duration. Most calculated stresses were below the accepted blood damage threshold. Estimates of the stress levels indicate that the flow conditions within the boundary layers near the hinge and leaflet walls may be more detrimental to blood cells than bulk flow conditions, while recirculation regions may promote thrombus buildup.

  6. [Effects of therapeutic complexes including balneoradonokinesitherapy, electromyostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy on regional blood flow in patients with postrraumatic gonarthritis].

    PubMed

    Raspopova, E A; Udartsev, E Iu

    2006-01-01

    Balneoradonokinesitherapy alone and its combination with electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy were used for the treatment of regional blood flow disorders in 76 patients with posttraumatic gonarthritis. Balneoradonokinesitherapy in combination with electromyostimulation improved blood circulation. When low-frequency magnetotherapy was added to the latter complex, the regress of regional blood flow disorders of a damaged extremity was most significant.

  7. Associations between regional differences in polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in blood of nestling bald eagles and reproductive productivity.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, William W; Best, David A; Giesy, Ohn P; Shieldcastle, Mark C; Meyer, Michael W; Postupalsky, Sergej; Sikarskie, James G

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between regional reproduction rates of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and concentrations of p.p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood plasma from nestling bald eagles was assessed. Blood was analyzed from 309 nestlings from 10 subpopulations of eagles across the Great Lakes region. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were inversely correlated to the productivity and success rates of nesting bald eagles within nine subpopulations. Nestlings eight weeks of age and older had significantly greater geometric mean concentrations of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE than nestlings less than eight weeks of age. The ability to use measurements of p,p'-DDE and total PCBs in nestling blood to determine the potential impact of these contaminants on adult nesting on a regional scale was demonstrated.

  8. [Spinal column: implants and revisions].

    PubMed

    Krieg, S M; Meyer, H S; Meyer, B

    2016-03-01

    Non-fusion spinal implants are designed to reduce the commonly occurring risks and complications of spinal fusion surgery, e.g. long duration of surgery, high blood loss, screw loosening and adjacent segment disease, by dynamic or movement preserving approaches. This principle could be shown for interspinous spacers, cervical and lumbar total disc replacement and dynamic stabilization; however, due to the continuing high rate of revision surgery, the indications for surgery require as much attention and evidence as comparative data on the surgical technique itself.

  9. Spinal Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Katonis, P.; Datsis, G.; Karantanas, A.; Kampouroglou, A.; Lianoudakis, S.; Licoudis, S.; Papoutsopoulou, E.; Alpantaki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Although osteosarcoma represents the second most common primary bone tumor, spinal involvement is rare, accounting for 3%–5% of all osteosarcomas. The most frequent symptom of osteosarcoma is pain, which appears in almost all patients, whereas more than 70% exhibit neurologic deficit. At a molecular level, it is a tumor of great genetic complexity and several genetic disorders have been associated with its appearance. Early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are the most important factors in accomplishing sufficient management. Even though overall prognosis remains poor, en-block tumor removal combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is currently the treatment of choice. This paper outlines histopathological classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and current concepts of management of spinal osteosarcoma. PMID:24179411

  10. A regional blood flow model for glucose and insulin kinetics during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schneditz, Daniel; Galach, Magda; Thomaseth, Karl; Waniewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and elimination of a bolus of glucose injected during hemodialysis (HD) was examined using a distributed double-pool regional blood flow model. Intracorporeal glucose disposal was assumed as insulin-independent (λ) in the central high-flow compartment comprising blood, brain, and internal organs, including pancreatic insulin secretion (a, C1) and hepatic insulin clearance (α). Insulin-dependent (γ) glucose utilization was allocated to the low-flow system comprising muscle, skin, and bone. This model was compared with a compact single-pool model using the same model parameters except for the distribution volume (V). Six parameters (C1, a, α, λ, γ, and V) were identified from data obtained in seven nondiabetic patients (59-115 kg). The fraction Fd of glucose removed by HD significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with baseline glucose concentration Cg,0 (5.561 ± 0.646 mmol/L; r = 0.535), extracorporeal clearance Kg (0.137 ± 0.024 L/min; r = 0.537), a (0.278 ± 0.095 L/mmol, r = -0.586), and λ (0.099 ± 0.078 L/min, r = -0.587). V was much larger in the double-compartment (17.8 ± 5.1 L) than in the single-compartment model (10.0 ± 3.0 L). The modeled glucose compartment volumes could be of interest for fluid management in HD patients. The use of extracorporeal glucose disposal to detect impaired glucose utilization (a, λ) remains to be validated in diabetic HD patients.

  11. Spinal Bracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

  12. Assessment of Glial Scar, Tissue Sparing, Behavioral Recovery and Axonal Regeneration following Acute Transplantation of Genetically Modified Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Mukhamedshina, Yana O.; Garanina, Ekaterina E.; Masgutova, Galina A.; Galieva, Luisa R.; Sanatova, Elvira R.; Chelyshev, Yurii A.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and Methods This study investigated the potential for protective effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs) genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes on contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. An adenoviral vector was constructed for targeted delivery of VEGF and GDNF to UCB-MCs. Using a rat contusion SCI model we examined the efficacy of the construct on tissue sparing, glial scar severity, the extent of axonal regeneration, recovery of motor function, and analyzed the expression of the recombinant genes VEGF and GNDF in vitro and in vivo. Results Transplantation of UCB-MCs transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF and GDNF at the site of SCI induced tissue sparing, behavioral recovery and axonal regeneration comparing to the other constructs tested. The adenovirus encoding VEGF and GDNF for transduction of UCB-MCs was shown to be an effective and stable vehicle for these cells in vivo following the transplantation into the contused spinal cord. Conclusion Our results show that a gene delivery using UCB-MCs-expressing VEGF and GNDF genes improved both structural and functional parameters after SCI. Further histological and behavioral studies, especially at later time points, in animals with SCI after transplantation of genetically modified UCB-MCs (overexpressing VEGF and GDNF genes) will provide additional insight into therapeutic potential of such cells. PMID:27003408

  13. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  14. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. Attachments may occur congenitally at the base of ... or may be due to narrowing of the spinal column (stenosis) with age. Tethering may also develop after ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  16. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spinal-Cord- ...

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous ( sup 15 O)water bolus and ( sup 18 F)fluoromethane inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Wienhard, K.; Hebold, I.; Pawlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Holthoff, V.; Klinkhammer, P.; Heiss, W.D. )

    1989-09-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of ({sup 15}O)water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic ({sup 15}O)water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic ({sup 15}O)water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with ({sup 15}O)water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of ({sup 15}O)water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error.

  18. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine ...

  19. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  20. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  1. The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, D.G.; Weinberger, D.R.; Jones, D.W.; Zigun, J.R.; Coppola, R.; Handel, S.; Bigelow, L.B.; Goldberg, T.E.; Berman, K.F.; Kleinman, J.E. )

    1991-07-01

    To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized for at least 6 weeks on 0.4 mg/kg haloperidol participated. Amphetamine produced a modest, nonsignificant, task-independent, global reduction in rCBF. However, the effect of amphetamine on task-dependent activation of rCBF (i.e., WCST minus control task) was striking. Whereas on placebo no significant activation of rCBF was seen during the WCST compared with the control task, on amphetamine significant activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) occurred (p = 0.0006). Both the mean number of correct responses and the mean conceptual level increased (p less than 0.05) with amphetamine relative to placebo. In addition, with amphetamine, but not with placebo, a significant correlation (p = -0.71; p less than 0.05) emerged between activation of DLPFC rCBF and performance of the WCST task. These findings are consistent with animal models in which mesocortical catecholaminergic activity modulates and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of evoked cortical activity.

  2. Effects of simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow specifically during cardiovascular stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Significant changes in the cardiovasular system of humans and animals have been observed following exposure to prolonged periods of weightlessness during space flight. Although adaption to weightlessness is relatively uncomplicated, marked changes in cardiovascular deconditioning become evident upon return to normal gravity, including orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Some evidence that myocardial degeneration occurs has been demonstrated in animals who have been immobilized for two months. Also, evidence of possible loss of myocardial mass following manned space flight has been obtained by means of echocardiographic studies. These findings have serious implications in light of the increasing frequency and duration of Space Shuttle missions and the prospect of extended space station missions in the future. A number of both military and civilian investigators, including middle-aged scientists, will probably encounter prolonged periods of weightlessness. It has been imperative, therefore, to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on cardiovascular deconditioning and whether such effects are cumulative or reversible. The research project conducted under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-126 was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow. Research results are reported in the three appended publications.

  3. Regional redistribution of blood flow in the external and internal carotid arteries during acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Lericollais, Romain; Hirasawa, Ai; Sakai, Sadayoshi; Normand, Hervé; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-05-15

    The present study examined to what extent an acute bout of hypotension influences blood flow in the external carotid artery (ECA) and the corresponding implications for blood flow regulation in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Nine healthy male participants were subjected to an abrupt decrease in arterial pressure via the thigh-cuff inflation-deflation technique. Duplex ultrasound was employed to measure beat-to-beat ECA and ICA blood flow. Compared with the baseline normotensive control, acute hypotension resulted in a heterogeneous blood flow response. ICA blood flow initially decreased following cuff release and then returned quickly to baseline levels. In contrast, the reduction in ECA blood flow persisted for 30 s following cuff release. Thus, the contribution of common carotid artery blood flow to the ECA circulation decreased during acute hypotension (-10 ± 4%, P < 0.001). This finding suggests that a preserved reduction in ECA blood flow, as well as dynamic cerebral autoregulation likely prevent a further decrease in intracranial blood flow during acute hypotension. The peripheral vasculature of the ECA may, thus, be considered an important vascular bed for intracranial cerebral blood flow regulation.

  4. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

  6. REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA IN INDIVIDUALS SUSCEPTIBLE TO ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Edward AW; Hopkins, Susan R; Perthen, Joanna E; Buxton, Richard B; Dubowitz, David J

    2008-01-01

    Individuals susceptible to high altitude pulmonary edema show altered pulmonary vascular responses within minutes of exposure to hypoxia. We hypothesized that a similar acute-phase vulnerability to hypoxia may exist in the brain of individuals susceptible to acute mountain sickness (AMS). In established AMS and high-altitude cerebral edema, there is a propensity for vasogenic white matter edema. We therefore hypothesized that increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) during acute hypoxia would also be disproportionately greater in white matter (WM) than grey matter (GM) in AMS-susceptible subjects. We quantified regional CBF using arterial spin labeling MRI during 30-minutes hypoxia (FIO2=0.125) in 2 groups: AMS-susceptible (AMS-S, n=6) who invariably experienced AMS at altitude, and AMS-resistant (AMS-R, n=6) who never experienced AMS despite multiple rapid ascents. SaO2 during hypoxia did not differ between groups (AMS-S=87±4%, AMSR=89±3%, p=0.3). Steady-state whole-brain CBF increased in hypoxia (p<0.005), but did not differ between groups (Normoxia: AMS-S=42.7±14.0ml/100g/min, AMS-R=41.7±10.1ml/100g/min, Hypoxia: AMS-S=47.8±19.5ml/100g/min, AMS-R=48.2±10.1ml/100g/min, p=0.65), and cerebral oxygen delivery remained constant. The percent change in CBF did not differ between brain regions or between groups (although absolute CBF change was greater in GM): (GM: AMS-S=6.1±7.7ml/100g/min (10±11%), AMS-R=8.3±5.7ml/100g/min (17±11%) p=0.57; WM: AMS-S=4.3±5.1ml/100g/min (12±15%), AMS-R=4.8±2.9ml/100g/min (16±9%), p= 0.82). Conclusion: CBF increases in acute hypoxia, but is not different between WM and GM, irrespective of AMS susceptibility. Acute phase differences in regional CBF during acute hypoxia are not a primary feature of susceptibility to AMS. PMID:18088570

  7. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  8. Apnea after awake-regional and general anesthesia in infants: The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnea and neurodevelopmental outcomes, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Andrew J.; Morton, Neil S.; Arnup, Sarah J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; Frawley, Geoff; Hunt, Rodney W.; Hardy, Pollyanna; Khotcholava, Magda; von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S.; Wilton, Niall; Tuo, Pietro; Salvo, Ida; Ormond, Gillian; Stargatt, Robyn; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-operative apnea is a complication in young infants. Awake-regional anesthesia (RA) may reduce the risk; however the evidence is weak. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study is a randomized, controlled, trial designed to assess the influence of general anesthesia (GA) on neurodevelopment. A secondary aim is to compare rates of apnea after anesthesia. Methods Infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age scheduled for inguinal herniorraphy were randomized to RA or GA. Exclusion criteria included risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome and infants born < 26 weeks’ gestation. The primary outcome of this analysis was any observed apnea up to 12 hours post-operatively. Apnea assessment was unblinded. Results 363 patients were assigned to RA and 359 to GA. Overall the incidence of apnea (0 to 12 hours) was similar between arms (3% in RA and 4% in GA arms, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.63, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.31 to 1.30, P=0.2133), however the incidence of early apnea (0 to 30 minutes) was lower in the RA arm (1% versus 3%, OR 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05 to 0.91, P=0.0367). The incidence of late apnea (30 minutes to 12 hours) was 2% in both RA and GA arms (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 0.41 to 3.33, P=0.7688). The strongest predictor of apnea was prematurity (OR 21.87, 95% CI 4.38 to 109.24) and 96% of infants with apnea were premature. Conclusions RA in infants undergoing inguinal herniorraphy reduces apnea in the early post-operative period. Cardio-respiratory monitoring should be used for all ex-premature infants. PMID:26001033

  9. Reduced and reversed temperature dependence of blood oxygenation in an ectothermic scombrid fish: implications for the evolution of regional heterothermy?

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy Darren; Rummer, J L; Sepulveda, C A; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

    2010-01-01

    Tunas (family Scombridae) are exceptional among most teleost fishes in that they possess vascular heat exchangers which allow heat retention in specific regions of the body (termed 'regional heterothermy'). Seemingly exclusive to heterothermic fishes is a markedly reduced temperature dependence of blood-oxygen (blood-O(2)) binding, or even a reversed temperature dependence where increasing temperature increases blood-O(2) affinity. These unusual binding properties have been documented in whole blood and in haemoglobin (Hb) solutions, and they are hypothesised to prevent oxygen loss from arteries to veins within the vascular heat exchangers and/or to prevent excessive oxygen unloading to the warm tissues and ensure an adequate supply of oxygen to tissues positioned efferent to the heat exchangers. The temperature sensitivity of blood-O(2) binding has not been characterised in an ectothermic scombrid (mackerels and bonitos), but the existence of the unusual binding properties in these fishes would have clear implications for their proposed association with regional heterothermy. Accordingly, the present study examined oxygenation of whole blood of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) at 10, 20 and 30 degrees C and at 0.5, 1 and 2% CO(2). Oxygen affinity was generally highest at 20 degrees C for all levels of CO(2). Temperature-independent binding was observed at low (0.5%) CO(2), where the PO(2) at 50% blood-O(2) saturation (P (50)) was not statistically different at 10 and 30 degrees C (2.58 vs. 2.78 kPa, respectively) with an apparent heat of oxygenation (H degrees ) close to zero (-6 kJ mol(-1)). The most significant temperature-mediated difference occurred at high (2%) CO(2), where the P (50) at 10 degrees C was twofold higher than that at 20 degrees C with a corresponding H degrees of +43 kJ mol(-1). These results provide clear evidence of independent and reversed open-system temperature effects on blood oxygenation in S. japonicus, and it is therefore

  10. [Acute spinal subdural hematoma after attempted spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Mathiaschitz, K; Spendel, M; Krumpholz, R; Martin, E

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of a case of a subdural haematoma with resulting paraplegia after attempted spinal anaesthesia. Epidural and subdural haematomas are rare complications after central neural blockade. The complication described here was the result of an unsuccessful attempt to puncture the spinal channel. The patient was a 72-year-old woman with a fracture of the left femoral neck, which it was intended to stabilize operatively. Findings that made lumbar spinal puncture difficult were severe overweight, and lordosis and scoliosis of the lumbar spine resulting from degenerative changes. Spinal anaesthesia was suggested because the patient had eaten shortly before and because she suffered from asthma. From the aspect of haemostasis no contraindications were present, and the anaesthesist was experienced in spinal anaesthesia even under difficult anatomical conditions. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to puncture the lumbar spinal channel while the patient was lying on her right side. It was also impossible to reach the spinal channel from a median or left paramedian approach. We used atraumatic pencil-point needles (Sprotte gauge 24, 90 mm). No blood was aspirated during any of the attempts. The surgical intervention was finally performed under a general anaesthetic in view of the urgency. No significant complications occurred during the operation, and no neurological abnormalities were observed immediately after or in the next 8 h after the operation. At 12 h after the operation a paraparesis was found caudal to L3. After this had been verified by radiological and neurological tests, neurosurgical decompression was carried out as quickly as possible. During the operation a distinct subdural haematoma without any detectable source of bleeding was discovered. Even after surgical revision and evacuation of the remaining haematoma it was not possible to reverse the paraplegia, in spite of rehabilitation measures. Despite a certain fragility of the vessel and

  11. Surgical anatomy and blood supply of the fascial layers of the temporal region.

    PubMed

    Abul-Hassan, H S; von Drasek Ascher, G; Acland, R D

    1986-01-01

    In 15 fresh cadavers (30 sides), we studied the two layers of fascia in the temporal region, with particular regard to their blood supply and to their usefulness--together or separately--as microvascular free-tissue autografts. The superficial temporal fascia (temporoparietal fascia, epicranial aponeurosis) lies immediately deep to the hair follicles. It is part of the subcutaneous musculoaponeurotic system and is continuous in all directions with other structures belonging to that layer--including the galea above and the SMAS layer of the face below. The deep temporal fascia (temporalis fascia, investing fascia of temporalis) is separated from the superficial fascia by an avascular plane of loose areolar tissue. It completely invests the superficial aspect of the temporalis muscle down to (but not beyond) the zygomatic arch. It is firmly attached to periosteum all around the margin of the muscles. Below it is attached to the upper border of the zygomatic arch. We found the deep temporal fascia to be supplied solely by the middle temporal artery, a constant branch of the superficial temporal. The middle temporal artery arises 1 to 3 cm below the upper border of the zygomatic arch, runs always superficial to the arch, and enters the deep temporal fascia immediately above that layer's attachment to the zygomatic arch. If the middle temporal vessels are protected, the two layers of temporal fascia can be raised together as a fully vascularized tissue island. This island can be fashioned as a bilobed or a double-layered flap, depending on the manner of dissection. The potential surgical usefulness of these findings is discussed.

  12. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  13. Pediatric blood transfusion practices at a regional referral hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Fegan, Greg; Shavadia, Jay; Denje, Douglas; Mandaliya, Kishor; Bates, Imelda; Maitland, Kathryn; Hassall, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe anemia in children is a major public health problem in sub‐Saharan Africa. In this study we describe clinical and operational aspects of blood transfusion in children admitted to Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This was an observational study where over a 2‐year period, demographic and laboratory data were collected on all children for whom the hospital blood bank received a transfusion request. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of case notes over the first year. RESULTS There were 2789 requests for blood for children (median age, 1.8 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.6‐6.6 years); 70% (1950) of the samples were crossmatched with 85% (1663/1950) issued. Ninety percent (1505/1663) were presumed transfused. Median time from laboratory receipt of request to collection of blood was 3.6 hours (IQR, 1.4‐12.8 hr). Case notes of 590 children were reviewed and median pretransfusion hemoglobin level was 6.0 g/dL (IQR, 4.2‐9.1 g/dL). Ninety‐four percent (186) were transfused “appropriately” while 52% (120) were transfused “inappropriately.” There was significant disagreement between the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of severe anemia (exact McNemar's test; p < 0.0001). Antimalarials were prescribed for 65% (259) of children who received blood transfusions but only 41% (106) of these had a positive blood film. CONCLUSION In this setting, clinicians often order blood based on the clinical impression of “severe anemia.” This has implications for laboratory workload and the blood supply itself. However, the majority of children with severe anemia were appropriately transfused. The use of antimalarials with blood transfusions irrespective of blood film results is common practice. PMID:27611471

  14. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in blood and semen quality for residents in Pearl River Delta Region in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao Fei; Chen, Zhi Yuan; Zang, Zhi Jun; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zeng, Feng; Peng, Yen Ping; Yang, Chen

    2013-10-01

    This study is the first one investigating the correlation between the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in blood and semen qualities for residents in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Blood samples from 53 infertile volunteers were studied for measures of semen quality and 16 PAHs. Information on the study subjects' living habits (such as smoking, drinking and preference of consumption for food) and general information (age, body-mass-index (BMI) and educational background) were also collected. Statistical results showed that age and BMI were significantly and negatively related to semen motilities. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑16 PAHs) in the blood were 12,010, 7493, 9105 and 8647ng/g for factory workers, office workers, technicians and salespersons, respectively. In addition, ∑16 PAHs in the blood of smokers, drinkers and heavy-taste food consumers were 11,950, 11,266 and 12,141ng/g, which were higher than those observed in nonsmokers (10,457ng/g), nondrinkers (10,920ng/g) and light-taste food consumers (9202ng/g), individually. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant positive correlations between BMI and ∑16 PAHs in the blood. Statistically significant correlations were observed between semen motilities and ∑16 PAHs in the blood as well. Logistic regression results showed that for each 1ng/g increase in ∑16 PAHs in blood samples, the log odds of experiencing a pregnancy decrease by 0.039 on average. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the impact of PAHs in the blood to male infertility.

  15. Effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine on regional cerebral blood flow in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Kovách, A G; Szabó, C; Benyó, Z; Csáki, C; Greenberg, J H; Reivich, M

    1992-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), a potent inhibitor of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway, and L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, on regional cerebral blood flow, electrocortical activity and ex vivo cerebrovascular reactivity in the cat. Flow was measured via radiolabelled microspheres, and vascular responses were studied by measuring isometric tension of isolated middle cerebral arterial rings. 2. NOLA (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 1 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) caused an approximately 40 mmHg elevation in the mean arterial blood pressure, a regionally heterogenous increase of the regional cerebrovascular resistance and a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow 15 and 40 min after the start of its administration. In contrast L-arginine (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 10 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) did not alter blood pressure, cerebrovascular resistance nor regional cerebral blood flow 15 min after the start of its administration. The NOLA-induced changes in tissue flow were the most pronounced in the cerebellum, pituitary and medulla oblongata, whereas there was no decrease in the flow of the cortex and white matter. 3. NOLA caused characteristic changes in total fronto-occipital EEG power and in power spectra which were unlikely to have been due to cerebral ischaemia. In addition, the ex vivo reactivity of the middle cerebral arteries showed signs of impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis: there were enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractions and N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced relaxations and markedly attenuated acetylcholine- and ATP-induced relaxations after NOLA treatment. 4. The present data indicate that resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular resistance are regulated by nitric oxide derived from L-arginine in a regionally heterogenous way and that exogenous L-arginine availability is not a limiting factor in this nitric oxide generation. Possibly, both the vascular endothelium and the

  16. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in spinally projecting neurons are involved in CRF-induced sympathetic activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoko; Okada, Shoshiro

    2009-12-03

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain has been shown to stimulate sympathetic activity, leading to elevations of blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamine levels and neuronal activation of the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. We previously reported that brain cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostanoids, is involved in centrally administered CRF-induced sympathetic activation in rats. Therefore, the present study was designed to reveal the effect of centrally administered CRF (1.5 nmol/animal) on the expression of COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, in spinally projecting neurons until 6h after the administration, using rats microinjected with a monosynaptic retrograde tracer into the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. Retrogradely labeled neurons were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), raphe pallidus nucleus and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Centrally administered CRF significantly increased the number of spinally projecting PVN neurons expressing COX-1 throughout the experimental period and those expressing COX-2 during only the late phase. CRF also increased the number of spinally projecting LC neurons expressing COX-2 throughout the experimental period. In other regions, the CRF administration had no effect on COXs expression in spinally projecting neurons. These results suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN and COX-2 in the LC play roles in the CRF-induced sympathetic regulation in rats.

  17. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Allut, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for only 0.04–1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5–85 years, mean 44.03) spanning from 1890 to 2006. Prior to diagnosis 40.6% of the patients had weakness of the lower limbs. The interval between the initial symptoms and tumor diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 17 years (mean 20.2 months). Except for four cases diagnosed at autopsy, 109 patients underwent surgery and gross-total resection was performed in 79 cases (72.4%). Spinal angiolipomas are tumors containing angiomatous and lipomatous tissue, predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. All angiolipomas show iso- or hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and most lesions enhance with gadolinium administration. The treatment for spinal extradural angiolipomas is total surgical resection and no adjuvant therapy should be administered. PMID:19127373

  18. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  19. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as ‘adequate’ (≥80 points), ‘partially adequate’ (from 50 to 80 points), or ‘inadequate’ (<50 points). The following components were evaluated: ‘donor education’ (5 points), ‘clinical screening’ (40 points), ‘laboratory screening’ (40 points) and ‘hemovigilance’ (15 points). Results The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as ‘inadequate’ and five as ‘partially adequate’. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as ‘adequate’ in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. PMID:25453648

  20. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  1. Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-12-01

    In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

  2. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

  3. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients' sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability.

  4. Numerical simulations of particle dynamics in a poststenotic blood vessel region within the scope of extracorporeal ultrasound stenosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Dhahbi, M; Ben Chiekh, M; Gilles, B; Béra, J C; Jemni, A

    2012-09-01

    A numerical model was developed to predict the dynamics of a solid particle in a poststenotic blood vessel region. The flow through a 3D axisymmetric stenosis with 75% reduction in cross-section area was considered for inlet Reynolds numbers of 500 and 1000, which corresponds to typical values for the blood flow in human large arteries. Spherical particles were injected in the flow from the stenosis and tracked using the Discrete Phase Model (DPM) based on a Lagrangian approach. Within the scope of the development of ultrasound thrombolysis methods, the hydrodynamical forces predicted were used to evaluate the residence time of the particle and the minimal ultrasonic intensity required to keep it in the treatment region. For particle sizes larger than 400 μm, the intensity required appeared to be compatible with extracorporeal therapeutic ultrasound.

  5. Spinal cord ischemia secondary to hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jacob Yl; Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy Km; Yang, Eugene Wr; Hee, Hwan-Tak

    2014-12-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable.

  6. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P < 0.0002). Similarly, mean blood lead concentrations in birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P < 0.05). In addition, samples from insectivorous birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  7. Observations on regional cerebral blood flow in cortical and subcortical structures during language production in normal man

    SciTech Connect

    Wallesch, C.W.; Henriksen, L.; Kornhuber, H.H.; Paulson, O.B.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133 in six normal volunteers during various language, articulatory, and control conditions. Language production increased rCBF in predominantly left-sided cortical and subcortical areas. The involved regions were anatomically related to a left frontal area (Broca's), to both caudate nuclei, to a left thalamic/pallidal area, and bilaterally in retrorolandic areas. The failure to demonstrate lateralized retrorolandic activity is thought to reflect the complexity of the tasks.

  8. Estimation of regional cerebral blood flow distribution in infants by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Takashi; Isobe, Kenichi; Nagano, Keiko; Okubo, Kensuke; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Kawada, Kou; Itoh, Susumu; Onishi, Shoju; Oda, Ichiro; Wada, Yukihisa; Konishi, Ikuo; Tsunazawa, Yoshio

    2001-06-01

    This is the report on the use of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (MNIRS) with indocyanine green (ICG) to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution disturbance in infants. We measured rCBF in an infant with subdural hemorrhage after surgical removal of a subdural hematoma. A probe consisting of 12 optical fibers, 6 for transmission and 6 for detection, was set on the right and then left temporal regions of the head of the infant, and 16 measuring points were determined. Changes in ICG concentration were recorded using MNIRS (near infrared optical imaging system, OMM-2000, Shimadzu Corp., Japan).

  9. Coupling of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow reveals a physiological basis for network hubs of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; Zou, Qihong; He, Yong; Yang, Yihong

    2013-01-29

    Human brain functional networks contain a few densely connected hubs that play a vital role in transferring information across regions during resting and task states. However, the relationship of these functional hubs to measures of brain physiology, such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), remains incompletely understood. Here, we used functional MRI data of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent and arterial-spin-labeling perfusion contrasts to investigate the relationship between functional connectivity strength (FCS) and rCBF during resting and an N-back working-memory task. During resting state, functional brain hubs with higher FCS were identified, primarily in the default-mode, insula, and visual regions. The FCS showed a striking spatial correlation with rCBF, and the correlation was stronger in the default-mode network (DMN; including medial frontal-parietal cortices) and executive control network (ECN; including lateral frontal-parietal cortices) compared with visual and sensorimotor networks. Moreover, the relationship was connection-distance dependent; i.e., rCBF correlated stronger with long-range hubs than short-range ones. It is notable that several DMN and ECN regions exhibited higher rCBF per unit connectivity strength (rCBF/FCS ratio); whereas, this index was lower in posterior visual areas. During the working-memory experiment, both FCS-rCBF coupling and rCBF/FCS ratio were modulated by task load in the ECN and/or DMN regions. Finally, task-induced changes of FCS and rCBF in the lateral-parietal lobe positively correlated with behavioral performance. Together, our results indicate a tight coupling between blood supply and brain functional topology during rest and its modulation in response to task demands, which may shed light on the physiological basis of human brain functional connectome.

  10. Effects of striatal nitric oxide production on regional cerebral blood flow and seizure development in rats exposed to extreme hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Demchenko, Ivan T; Allen, Barry W; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous vasodilator and signaling molecule nitric oxide has been implicated in cerebral hyperemia, sympathoexcitation, and seizures induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA). It is unknown whether these events in the onset of central nervous system oxygen toxicity originate within specific brain structures and whether blood flow is diverted to the brain from peripheral organs with high basal flow, such as the kidney. To explore these questions, total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in brain structures of the central autonomic network in anesthetized rats in HBO2 at 6 ATA. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and renal blood flow (RBF) were also monitored. As expected, mean arterial blood pressure and total and regional CBF increased preceding EEG spikes while RBF was unaltered. Of the brain structures examined, the earliest rise in CBF occurred in the striatum, suggesting increased neuronal activation. Continuous unilateral or bilateral striatal infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated CBF responses in that structure, but global EEG discharges persisted and did not differ from controls. Our novel findings indicate that: 1) cerebral hyperemia in extreme HBO2 in rats does not occur at the expense of renal perfusion, highlighting the remarkable autoregulatory capability of the kidney, and 2) in spite of a sentinel increase in striatal blood flow, additional brain structure(s) likely govern the pathogenesis of HBO2-induced seizures because EEG discharge latency was unchanged by local blockade of striatal nitric oxide production and concomitant hyperemia.

  11. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  12. Successful medical treatment of spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo-Ren; Wang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2008-04-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is a rare but potentially fatal disease. A 67-year-old female suffered fever and painful swelling of the right knee and lower leg for one week. Both synovial fluid and blood cultures yielded methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Low back pain developed and fever was sustained despite the administration of intravenous oxacillin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracolumbar spine revealed spinal epidural abscess from T12 to S1. Because of severe hypoalbuminemia and general anasarca and followed by exploratory laparotomy for massive duodenal bleeding, she did not receive surgical intervention for the spinal epidural abscess. After intravenous administration of oxacillin 2 g 4-hourly for 12 weeks, she recovered and follow-up MRI confirmed the efficacy of the medical treatment. She remained well at 1-year follow-up. In a patient with minimal neurological deficit or surgical contraindication, spinal epidural abscess can be successfully treated with a medical regimen.

  13. Hemodynamic study of internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion: value of combined isotopic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume

    SciTech Connect

    Derlon, J.M.; Bouvard, G.; Lechevalier, B.; Dupuy, B.; Maiza, D.; Hubert, P.; Courtheoux, P.; Peres, J.C.; Houtteville, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    The assessment of the intracranial hemodynamic consequences of obstructive lesions of the carotid artery by measuring resting rCBF is inadequate because cerebral blood flow may remain constant in spite of significant drops in the intraluminal pressure due to autoregulation. Moreover, flow may be permanently decreased following cerebral infarction, even if the arterial anatomical conditions have resumed their normal state because of the decreased metabolic demand of an infarcted area. Measurement of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) helps with the hemodynamic assessment of these conditions, since there is a linear and inverse relationship between intraarterial pressure and intracranial blood volume. In 24 patients exhibiting various carotid and ischemic brain lesions we studied both rCBF and rCBV. The latter is a comparative measure between hemispheres obtained by single photon emission tomography after autotransfusion of 99mTechnetium labeled erythrocytes. There was no correlation between rCBF and clinical status, CT scan or arterial lesions. There was no correlation between rCBV and clinical status or CT scan. There was, however, an interesting correlation between rCBV and the severity of the arterial lesion. The rCBV was symmetrical in all patients with normal or moderately stenotic carotid arteries before and after operation. In some patients with severe unilateral stenosis or occlusion, there was a significant relative increase of rCBV in the hemisphere downstream from the lesion, which disappeared after surgery (endarterectomy or extra-intracranial bypass). In some patients with severe and bilateral carotid lesions, we noted an asymmetry in rCBV that disappeared after a unilateral operation. Other patients with similar lesions develop asymmetry only after an operation that resulted in a relative increase in rCBV in the hemisphere supplied by the non-operated artery.

  14. Collateralization of Projections from the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla to the Rostral and Caudal Thoracic Spinal Cord in Felines

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Michael F.; Ogburn, Sarah W.; Suzuki, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Cotter, Lucy A.; Yates, Bill J.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of vestibular receptors elicits distinct changes in blood flow to the forelimb and hindlimb, showing that the nervous system has the capacity to produce changes in sympathetic outflow that are specific for a particular region of the body. However, it is unclear whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the primary region of the brainstem that regulates sympathetic outflow to vascular smooth muscle, has the appropriate connectivity with sympathetic preganglionic neurons to generate anatomically patterned responses. To make this determination, the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue was injected into the T4 spinal cord segment of cats, which regulates upper body blood flow, whereas Fluoro-Ruby was injected into the T10 segment to label projections to a region of the spinal cord that regulates lower body blood flow. More neurons were single-labeled by a particular tracer (92%) than were double-labeled by both tracers (8%), supporting the notion that the RVLM can regulate sympathetic outflow from a limited number of spinal cord segments. Since a large fraction of RVLM neurons that control sympathetic outflow in rodents contain epinephrine, we additionally determined whether the tracer-labeled cells were immunopositive for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which participates in the synthesis of catecholamines. Double-labeling by the two tracers injected into the spinal cord was more common for TH-immunopositive neurons than for the general population of RVLM neurons: 19% of the TH-positive cells contained both Fast Blue and Fluoro-Ruby, 30% contained one of the tracers, and 51% were not labeled by either tracer. Furthermore, many spinally-projecting neurons in close proximity to the RVLM catecholaminergic neurons (41% of the population) were not immunopositive for TH, suggesting that feline RVLM is neurochemically heterogeneous. PMID:22623097

  15. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the ... care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the ...

  16. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal ...

  17. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  18. Monitoring of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the drug's effect by using laser speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haiying; Luo, Qingming; Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Cen, Jian; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-07-01

    Monitoring the spatio-temporal characteristics of blood flow (BF) is crucial for physiological studies. At present, most optical techniques used for monitoring the BF utilize either the Doppler effect or the temporal statistics of time-varying speckle to measure the blood velocity at a point. If a map of blood velocity distribution is required, some form of scanning must be introduced, thus limiting the temporal and spatial resolution. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) technique could provide real-time spatially resolved BF images without the need for scanning by utilizing the spatial statistics of time-integrated speckle. In present paper, the regional blood flows in the rat mesentery under the effect of phentolamine with incremental concentration were monitored using LSI method. Our results showed that for arterioles, the vessels expanded and BF increased under the treatment with phentolamine of 1μg/ml. However, as the concentration increased, the BF decreased and dilation only happened at the concentration of 100μg/ml For venules, no dilation was observed except for the case of 100μg/ml while BF decreased. These suggested that compared with the conventional methods, LSI could obtain the spatio-temporal dynamic of BF in the mesentery with high resolution without scan, providing a new approach in studying the microcirculation in the mesentery.

  19. Confidential unit exclusion at the regional blood bank in Montes Claros - Fundação Hemominas

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Caroline Nogueira; Ruas, Munic de Oliveira; Urias, Elaine Veloso Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at analyzing the rate of self-exclusion at the Regional Blood Bank in Montes Claros. Methods Data of self-excluding donors from August 2008 to August 2010 were analyzed. The following variables were considered: age, marital status, gender, ethnical background, blood group, Rh factor, number of donations, type of donation and serologic results. Results During the analyzed period, 34,778 individuals donated blood, 215 (0.62%) of which were self-excluded; 12% of donors did not answer, 6.3% ballots were spoilt and 13.6% of the responses were considered non-compliant. The profile of the donors was: male (81.9%), single (50.7%), aged between 19 and 29 years old (52.1%), Mulatto (48.3%), blood group O (32.1%) and positive Rh (32.1%). Most individuals were donating for the 2ndto 5th time (43.7%) and had negative serology (94.4%). Conclusion It was not evident that self-excluding donors had higher rates of seropositivity. PMID:23049378

  20. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  1. Spinal cord stimulation: uses and applications.

    PubMed

    Golovac, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Spinal cord stimulation has been used successfully for more than 40 years. The application of an electrical impulse field on to the spinal cord is used with a battery generator source and a variety of either cylindrical or paddle/plate leads. Energy is delivered from either a conventional internal programmable generator or a rechargeable style battery. Many clinical conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, failed back spinal syndrome, and extremity neuropathic pain involving the trunk and limbs are approved for its use. This device allows patients to live a successful life without pain.

  2. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids.

  3. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  4. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Coderre, Terence J; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2009-01-01

    Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients. PMID:19775468

  5. DDT and DDE concentrations in the blood of Mexican children residing in the southeastern region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood of children living in the southeastern region of Mexico. In this study, we found high levels of DDT and its principal metabolite (DDE) in the blood of children residing in the communities studied. The levels of total DDT found in our study ranged from 4,676.4 ng/g lipid to 64,245.2 ng/g lipid. All of the children in the study had detectable levels of DDT and/or DDE. In conclusion, our data indicate that children living within the study areas are exposed to high levels of DDT and DDE. Moreover, these results can be used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures.

  6. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in cat brain using intracarotid 2H2O and 2H NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Detre, J.A.; Subramanian, V.H.; Mitchell, M.D.; Smith, D.S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zaman, A.; Leigh, J.S. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in cat brain in vivo at 2.7 T using 2H NMR to monitor the washout of deuterated saline injected into both carotid arteries via the lingual arteries. In anesthetized cats, global CBF varied directly with PaCO{sub 2} over a range of 20-50 mm Hg, and the corresponding global CBF values ranged from 25 to 125 ml.100 g-1.min-1. Regional CBF was measured in a 1-cm axial section of cat brain using intracarotid deuterated saline and gradient-echo 2H NMR imaging. Blood flow images with a maximum pixel resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.0 cm were generated from the deuterium signal washout at each pixel. Image derived values for CBF agreed well with other determinations, and decreased significantly with hypocapnia.

  7. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Justin A.; Jakoi, Andre M.

    2016-01-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  8. The effect of 17beta-oestradiol on regional blood flow in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Vacca, G; Battaglia, A; Grossini, E; Mary, D A; Molinari, C; Surico, N

    1999-02-01

    1. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 17beta-oestradiol on the mesenteric, renal, iliac and coronary circulations and to determine the mechanisms involved. 2. In pigs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in blood flow in the superior mesenteric, left renal, left external iliac and left circumflex coronary arteries caused by intravenous infusion of 17beta-oestradiol at constant heart rate and arterial pressure were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. 3. In eight pigs, infusion of 2 microg h-1 of the hormone caused an increase in renal, iliac and coronary blood flow without affecting mesenteric blood flow, left ventricular dP/dtmax (rate of change of left ventricular systolic pressure) and filling pressures of the heart. In four pigs, these vasodilator effects were enhanced by graded increases in the dose of the hormone between 1, 2 and 3 microg h-1; the highest dose also caused an increase in mesenteric blood flow. 4. In five pigs, blockade of muscarinic cholinoceptors and adrenoceptors with the intravenous administration of atropine, propranolol and phentolamine did not affect the vasodilator responses caused by infusion of 2 microg h-1 of 17beta-oestradiol. 5. The increases in renal, iliac and coronary blood flow caused by infusion of 2 microg h-1 of 17beta-oestradiol were prevented, respectively, by the injection of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) into the renal artery (five pigs), the iliac artery (five pigs) or the coronary artery (five pigs). In five pigs, all responses were prevented by injection of L-NAME into all three arteries. In two pigs, injection of L-NAME into the mesenteric, renal, iliac and coronary arteries abolished the vasodilator responses to the infusion of 3 microg h-1 of 17beta-oestradiol. 6. The present study shows that intravenous infusion of 2 microg h-1 of 17beta-oestradiol primarily dilated renal, iliac and coronary circulations and that a higher dose of the hormone also caused

  9. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  10. The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow during acute and chronic myocardial ischemia in anesthetized and awake intact dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J T; Watson, J T; Hutton, I; Fixler, D E; Curry, G C; Templeton, G H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow and ventricular performance was studied during acute myocardial ischemia in awake, unsedated and in anesthesized dogs and after myocardial infarction in awake unsedated dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Generalized increases in regional myocardial blood flow occurred after mannitol in all of the different animal models studied. The increases in coronary blood flow after mannitol were just as impressive in the nonischemic regions as in the ischemic portion of the left ventricle in all of the different models that were examined in this study. Improvement in regional myocardial blood flow to the ischemic area of the left ventricle after mannitol was associated with a reduction in ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. The increases in regional myocardial flow after mannitol were also associated with increases in contractility, but the increases in flow appeared to be more impressive than the changes in contractility. The data obtained demonstrate that mannitol increases regional coronary blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic myocardium in both anesthetized and awake, unsedated, intact dogs with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia and that mannitol reduces ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Thus the results suggest that under these circumstances the increases in regional myocardial blood flow after mannitol are of physiological importance in reducing the extent of myocardial injury. Since coronary blood flow increased to nonischemic regions the increases in regional myocardial flow demonstrated in this study after mannitol cannot be entirely explained by the mechanism of reduction in ischemic cell swelling. PMID:1123427

  11. Regional blood flow and skeletal muscle energy status in endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jepson, M.M.; Cox, M.; Bates, P.C.; Rothwell, N.J.; Stock, M.J.; Cady, E.B.; Millward, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxins induce muscle wasting in part as a result of depressed protein synthesis. To investigate whether these changes reflect impaired energy transduction, blood flow, O/sub 2/ extraction, and high-energy phosphates in muscle and whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption (Vo/sub 2/) have been measured. Vo/sub 2/ was measured for 6 h after an initial sublethal dose of endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 0.3 mg/100 g body wt sc) or saline and during 6 h after a second dose 24 h later. In fed or fasted rats, Vo/sub 2/ was either increased or better maintained after endotoxin. In anesthetized fed rats 3-4 h after the second dose of endotoxin Vo/sub 2/ was increased, and this was accompanied by increased blood flow measured by /sup 57/Co-labelled microspheres to liver (hepatic arterial supply), kidney, and perirenal brown adipose tissue and a 57 and 64% decrease in flow to back and hindlimb muscle, respectively, with no change in any other organ. Hindlimb arteriovenous O/sub 2/ was unchanged, indicating markedly decreased aerobic metabolism in muscle, and the contribution of the hindlimb to whole-body Vo/sub 2/ decreased by 46%. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in muscle were unchanged in endotoxin-treated rats, and this was confirmed by topical nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which also showed muscle pH to be unchanged. These results show that, although there is decreased blood flow and aerobic oxidation in muscle, adenosine 5'-triphosphate availability does not appear to be compromised so that the endotoxin-induced muscle catabolism and decreased protein synthesis must reflex some other mechanism.

  12. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. Design: High-resolution 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Setting: Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Participants: Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Results: Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. Conclusions: While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. Citation: Baril AA, Gagnon K, Arbour C, Soucy JP, Montplaisir J, Gagnon JF, Gosselin N. Regional cerebral blood flow during wakeful rest in older

  13. Tumor volume, luxury perfusion, and regional blood volume changes in man visualized by subtraction computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Penn, R D; Walser, R; Kurtz, D; Ackerman, L

    1976-04-01

    Computer and photographic methods for producing subtractions of computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scans have been developed. By subtracting point for point a normal scan from one taken after intravenous infusion of contrast material, a picture of the contrast in the cerebral vessels is created. By this method, tumor size and degree of vascularity may be assessed. Furthermore, abnormalities in perfusion and changes in blood volume due to mass effects and edema may be detected. Subtracting scans should add to the diagnostic potential of CAT and provide a noninvasive way to study vascular changes in cerebral disease.

  14. Quantitative and regional measurement of retinal blood flow in rats using N-isopropyl-p-[14C]-iodoamphetamine ([14C]-IMP).

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Mylène; Deschênes, Micheline C; Hétu, Simon; Chemtob, Sylvain; Lesk, Mark R; Couture, Réjean; Vaucher, Elvire

    2009-12-01

    Quantitative and regional measurement of retinal blood flow in rodents is of prime interest for the investigation of regulatory mechanisms of ocular circulation in physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, a quantitative autoradiographic method using N-isopropyl-p-(14)C-iodoamphetamine ([(14)C]-IMP), a diffusible radioactive tracer, was evaluated for its ability to detect changes in retinal blood perfusion during hypercapnia. Findings were compared to cerebral blood flow values measured simultaneously. Hypercapnia was induced in awaken Wistar rats by inhalation of 5% or 8% CO(2) in medical air for 5 min. [(14)C]-IMP (100 microCi/kg) was injected in the femoral vein over a 30 s period and the rats were sacrificed 2 min later. Blood flow was calculated from whole-mount retinae and 20 microm thick brain sections in discrete regions of interest by quantitative autoradiography or from digested samples of retina and brain by liquid scintillation counting. Retinal blood flow values measured with quantitative and regional autoradiography were higher in the central (108 +/- 20 ml/100 g/min) than in peripheral (84 +/- 15 ml/100 g/min) retina. These values were within the same range as cortical blood flow values (97 +/- 4 ml/100 g/min). The retinal blood flow values obtained on whole-mount retinae were validated by the sampling method. Hypercapnia significantly increased overall blood flow in the retina (24-53%) with a maximal augmentation in the peripheral region and in the brain (22-142%). The changes were stronger in the brain compared to retina (p = 0.016). These results demonstrate that retinal blood flow can be quantified using [(14)C]-IMP and compared with cerebral blood flow. This technique is a powerful tool to study how retinal blood flow is regulated in different regions of the rat retina.

  15. Body temperature dependency of gastric regional blood flow, acid secretion and ulcer formation in restraint and water-immersion stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Arai, I; Muramatsu, M; Aihara, H

    1986-04-01

    The effect of water temperature during restraint and water-immersion stress (RWIS) on gastric regional blood flow, acid secretion and ulcer formation were compared to those of restraint stress (RS) alone in rats. RS had no effect on the gastric regional blood flow. In contrast, the gastric regional blood flow was significantly decreased by RWIS. A water temperature dependent reduction of gastric regional blood flow induced by RWIS was observed between 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The decrease in gastric regional blood flow for RWIS rats was related to a lowering of the body temperature, which almost coincided with the temperature of water for the immersion. The gastric acid output was not influenced by RS. However, RWIS significantly increased the gastric acid output. The temperature of water in order of increasing acid output induced by RWIS was 25 degrees C greater than 30 degrees C greater than 20 degrees C. Little ulcer formation was found in RS rats, while exposure to RWIS caused marked ulceration. The temperature of water in order of severity of ulceration by RWIS was 25 degrees C greater than 20 degrees C greater than 30 degrees C. The severity of ulceration was not related to the decrease in gastric regional blood flow or increase of acid output, but was correlated to the ratio of the gastric blood flow/the acid output. These findings suggest that the decrease of gastric regional blood flow is in good agreement with the fall of body temperature, and the combined effects of the gastric blood flow and the acid secretion are involved in the ulceration caused by RWIS.

  16. PCR detection and DNA sequence analysis of the regulatory region of lymphotropic papovavirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an immunocompromised rhesus macaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    A lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) archetypal regulatory region was amplified from DNA from the blood of an immunocompromised rhesus monkey. We believe this is the first nonserological evidence of LPV infection in rhesus monkeys.

  17. Regional brain blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Aníbal J; Riquelme, Raquel A; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Herrera, Emilio; Cabello, Gertrudis; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T

    2002-01-01

    Unlike fetal animals of lowland species, the llama fetus does not increase its cerebral blood flow during an episode of acute hypoxaemia. This study tested the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral O2 extraction rather than decreasing cerebral oxygen utilisation during acute hypoxaemia. Six llama fetuses were surgically instrumented under general anaesthesia at 217 days of gestation (term ca 350 days) with vascular and amniotic catheters in order to carry out cardiorespiratory studies. Following a control period of 1 h, the llama fetuses underwent 3 × 20 min episodes of progressive hypoxaemia, induced by maternal inhalational hypoxia. During basal conditions and during each of the 20 min of hypoxaemia, fetal cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, cerebral oxygen extraction was calculated, and fetal cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption was determined by the modified Fick principle. During hypoxaemia, fetal arterial O2 tension and fetal pH decreased progressively from 24 ± 1 to 20 ± 1 Torr and from 7.36 ± 0.01 to 7.33 ± 0.01, respectively, during the first 20 min episode, to 16 ± 1 Torr and 7.25 ± 0.05 during the second 20 min episode and to 14 ± 1 Torr and 7.21 ± 0.04 during the final 20 min episode. Fetal arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2, 42 ± 2 Torr) remained unaltered from baseline throughout the experiment. Fetal cerebral hemispheric blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen extraction were unaltered from baseline during progressive hypoxaemia. In contrast, a progressive fall in fetal cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption occurred during the hypoxaemic challenge. In conclusion, these data do not support the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral hemispheric O2 extraction. Rather, the data show that in the llama fetus, a reduction in cerebral hemispheric metabolism occurs during acute

  18. Viral nanoparticles associate with regions of inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption during CNS infection

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, Leah P.; Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Manchester, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Targeted treatment of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remains problematic due to the complex pathogenesis of these disorders and difficulty in drug delivery. The plant virus, cow pea mosaic virus (CPMV), has recently been explored as a nanoparticle delivery system for therapeutics targeting a number of diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. To understand the biodistribution of CPMV in the CNS, we examined CPMV uptake during infection of mice with neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). CPMV localized mainly to the CNS endothelium in areas that contained an intact blood brain barrier. However, in inflammatory lesions containing macrophage/microglial cell infiltration and IgG, CPMV could be detected in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, CPMV showed rapid internalization in an in vitro model of the BBB. These results suggest that CPMV particles could be used to a vehicle to deliver therapeutics to the damaged CNS during neurodegenerative and infectious diseases of the CNS. PMID:19394707

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in humans at high altitude: gradual ascent and 2 wk at 5,050 m.

    PubMed

    Willie, C K; Smith, K J; Day, T A; Ray, L A; Lewis, N C S; Bakker, A; Macleod, D B; Ainslie, P N

    2014-04-01

    The interindividual variation in ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude is likely reflected in variability in the cerebrovascular responses to high altitude, particularly between brain regions displaying disparate hypoxic sensitivity. We assessed regional differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with Duplex ultrasound of the left internal carotid and vertebral arteries. End-tidal Pco2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during a trekking ascent to, and during the first 2 wk at, 5,050 m. Transcranial color-coded Duplex ultrasound (TCCD) was employed to measure flow and diameter of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Measures were collected at 344 m (TCCD-baseline), 1,338 m (CBF-baseline), 3,440 m, and 4,371 m. Following arrival to 5,050 m, regional CBF was measured every 12 h during the first 3 days, once at 5-9 days, and once at 12-16 days. Total CBF was calculated as twice the sum of internal carotid and vertebral flow and increased steadily with ascent, reaching a maximum of 842 ± 110 ml/min (+53 ± 7.6% vs. 1,338 m; mean ± SE) at ∼ 60 h after arrival at 5,050 m. These changes returned to +15 ± 12% after 12-16 days at 5,050 m and were related to changes in SpO2 (R(2) = 0.36; P < 0.0001). TCCD-measured MCA flow paralleled the temporal changes in total CBF. Dilation of the MCA was sustained on days 2 (+12.6 ± 4.6%) and 8 (+12.9 ± 2.9%) after arrival at 5,050 m. We observed no significant differences in regional CBF at any time point. In conclusion, the variability in CBF during ascent and acclimatization is related to ventilatory acclimatization, as reflected in changes in SpO2.

  20. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Sign Language Perception: Deaf and Hearing Subjects with Deaf Parents Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderfeldt, Birgitta; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined cerebral activation during sign language comprehension in six persons with deafness and nine hearing persons, all of whose parents were deaf. The group with deafness showed more activation than the hearing group in the right parieto-occipital region, indicating that they were more dependent on the spatial components in sign language than…

  1. [Evaluation of regional cortical blood flow by thermal diffusion using a Peltier stack].

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S; Kikuchi, H; Hashimoto, K; Minamikawa, J

    1987-08-01

    The possibility of quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by thermal diffusion has been reported, when the thermal gradient was created by a Peltier stack. We already described the linear relationship between the CBF and the inverse of thermal gradient elsewhere when the CBF measured by hydrogen clearance (Hydrogen CBF) was compared to the values estimated by thermal diffusion. In this paper, the correlation of linear relationship between the thermal CBF and hydrogen CBF in each animal was first investigated. Secondary, the possibility of in vitro calibration for quantitative evaluation was discussed. Two kinds of probes were manufactured. One was treated not to leak the heat from the Peltier stack except the sensors for the experimental or intraoperative use, and the other was not treated to minimize the size of probe for the long-term use by implantation into the subdural space. When the thermal CBF was compared to hydrogen CBF in each of 3 cats, a linear relationship was obtained in each and the values showing gradient and constant of the regression line were similar in each cat. Moreover, a good linear relationship was also observed when all measurements in 3 cats were included. These results suggested that there is no difference between each animal in the relationship of thermal and hydrogen CBF when the same probe is employed. In addition, the probe can be characterized with two values, and these are gradient and constant of the linear relationship. The fact that the blood flow is proportional to the heat conductivity indicates that the heat conductivity of some material is equivalent to some CBF value in the brain tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. DISCUSSION ON SPINAL INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    1928-01-01

    (1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior

  3. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts. PMID:27441646

  4. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding.

    PubMed

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts.

  5. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. Results A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101, A101/A102, A101/B101, B101/B101, and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02, cis-AB01/O01, and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. Conclusion The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients. PMID:28090491

  6. Role of circulating nitrite and S-nitrosohemoglobin in the regulation of regional blood flow in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Shelhamer, James H.; Schechter, Alan N.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Panza, Julio A.; Ognibene, Frederick P.; Cannon, Richard O.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the relative contributions of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) vs. intravascular nitrogen oxide species in the regulation of human blood flow, we simultaneously measured forearm blood flow and arterial and venous levels of plasma nitrite, LMW-SNOs and HMW-SNOs, and red cell S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb). Measurements were made at rest and during regional inhibition of NO synthesis, followed by forearm exercise. Surprisingly, we found significant circulating arterial-venous plasma nitrite gradients, providing a novel delivery source for intravascular NO. Further supporting the notion that circulating nitrite is bioactive, the consumption of nitrite increased significantly with exercise during the inhibition of regional endothelial synthesis of NO. The role of circulating S-nitrosothiols and SNO-Hb in the regulation of basal vascular tone is less certain. We found that low-molecular-weight S-nitrosothiols were undetectable and S-nitroso-albumin levels were two logs lower than previously reported. In fact, S-nitroso-albumin primarily formed in the venous circulation, even during NO synthase inhibition. Whereas SNO-Hb was measurable in the human circulation (brachial artery levels of 170 nM in whole blood), arterial-venous gradients were not significant, and delivery of NO from SNO-Hb was minimal. In conclusion, we present data that suggest (i) circulating nitrite is bioactive and provides a delivery gradient of intravascular NO, (ii) S-nitroso-albumin does not deliver NO from the lungs to the tissue but forms in the peripheral circulation, and (iii) SNO-Hb and S-nitrosothiols play a minimal role in the regulation of basal vascular tone, even during exercise stress. PMID:11027349

  7. Role of circulating nitrite and S-nitrosohemoglobin in the regulation of regional blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, M T; Shelhamer, J H; Schechter, A N; Pease-Fye, M E; Waclawiw, M A; Panza, J A; Ognibene, F P; Cannon, R O

    2000-10-10

    To determine the relative contributions of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) vs. intravascular nitrogen oxide species in the regulation of human blood flow, we simultaneously measured forearm blood flow and arterial and venous levels of plasma nitrite, LMW-SNOs and HMW-SNOs, and red cell S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb). Measurements were made at rest and during regional inhibition of NO synthesis, followed by forearm exercise. Surprisingly, we found significant circulating arterial-venous plasma nitrite gradients, providing a novel delivery source for intravascular NO. Further supporting the notion that circulating nitrite is bioactive, the consumption of nitrite increased significantly with exercise during the inhibition of regional endothelial synthesis of NO. The role of circulating S-nitrosothiols and SNO-Hb in the regulation of basal vascular tone is less certain. We found that low-molecular-weight S-nitrosothiols were undetectable and S-nitroso-albumin levels were two logs lower than previously reported. In fact, S-nitroso-albumin primarily formed in the venous circulation, even during NO synthase inhibition. Whereas SNO-Hb was measurable in the human circulation (brachial artery levels of 170 nM in whole blood), arterial-venous gradients were not significant, and delivery of NO from SNO-Hb was minimal. In conclusion, we present data that suggest (i) circulating nitrite is bioactive and provides a delivery gradient of intravascular NO, (ii) S-nitroso-albumin does not deliver NO from the lungs to the tissue but forms in the peripheral circulation, and (iii) SNO-Hb and S-nitrosothiols play a minimal role in the regulation of basal vascular tone, even during exercise stress.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow and anxiety: a correlation study in neurologically normal patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Cogorno, P.; Gris, A.; Marenco, S.; Mesiti, C.; Nobili, F.; Rosadini, G.

    1989-06-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) was evaluated by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in 60 neurologically normal patients (30 men and 30 women) and hemispheric and regional values were correlated with anxiety measurements collected by a self-rating questionnaire before and after the examination. Statistically significant negative correlations between rCBF and anxiety measures were found. rCBF reduction for high anxiety levels is in line with results previously reported by others and could be related to lower performance levels for moderately high anxiety scores as those reported in the present population. This could perhaps be explained by rearrangement of flow from cortical zones to deeper areas of the brain, classically known to be implicated in the control of emotions. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously, since they were obtained in patients and not in normal subjects.

  9. The neurobiology of glucocerebrosidase-associated parkinsonism: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Masdeu, Joseph C; Kohn, Philip D; Ianni, Angela; Lopez, Grisel; Groden, Catherine; Chapman, Molly C; Cropp, Brett; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Maniwang, Emerson D; Davis, Joie; Wiggs, Edythe; Sidransky, Ellen; Berman, Karen F

    2012-08-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease, are common risk factors for Parkinson disease, as patients with Parkinson disease are over five times more likely to carry GBA mutations than healthy controls. Patients with GBA mutations generally have an earlier onset of Parkinson disease and more cognitive impairment than those without GBA mutations. We investigated whether GBA mutations alter the neurobiology of Parkinson disease, studying brain dopamine synthesis and resting regional cerebral blood flow in 107 subjects (38 women, 69 men). We measured dopamine synthesis with (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography, and resting regional cerebral blood flow with H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography in the wakeful, resting state in four study groups: (i) patients with Parkinson disease and Gaucher disease (n = 7, average age = 56.6 ± 9.2 years); (ii) patients with Parkinson disease without GBA mutations (n = 11, 62.1 ± 7.1 years); (iii) patients with Gaucher disease without parkinsonism, but with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 14, 52.6 ± 12.4 years); and (iv) healthy GBA-mutation carriers with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 7, 50.1 ± 18 years). We compared each study group with a matched control group. Data were analysed with region of interest and voxel-based methods. Disease duration and Parkinson disease functional and staging scores were similar in the two groups with parkinsonism, as was striatal dopamine synthesis: both had greatest loss in the caudal striatum (putamen Ki loss: 44 and 42%, respectively), with less reduction in the caudate (20 and 18% loss). However, the group with both Parkinson and Gaucher diseases showed decreased resting regional cerebral blood flow in the lateral parieto-occipital association cortex and precuneus bilaterally. Furthermore, two subjects with Gaucher disease without parkinsonian manifestations showed diminished striatal dopamine. In conclusion

  10. Luxury perfusion syndrome confirmed by sequential studies of regional cerebral blood flow and volume after extracranial to intracranial bypass surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Higashi, S; Matsuda, H; Fujii, H; Ito, H; Yamashita, J

    1989-07-01

    We report a case of luxury perfusion syndrome with temporary neurological deterioration after extracranial to intracranial bypass surgery. A preoperative computed tomographic scan showed no detectable infarct, and the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow showed severe depression of ipsilateral hemispheric perfusion. The patient developed temporary neurological deterioration after bypass surgery, with no recognizable pathological signs on postoperative computed tomographic and angiographic studies. Regional cerebral blood flow and volume were more elevated during the period of neurological deterioration than after the subsequent recovery. This strongly suggests that excessive blood flow directed into chronically ischemic brain through a graft may induce a luxury perfusion syndrome resulting in neurological deterioration.

  11. Thalamic activity and biochemical changes in individuals with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gustin, S M; Wrigley, P J; Youssef, A M; McIndoe, L; Wilcox, S L; Rae, C D; Edden, R A E; Siddall, P J; Henderson, L A

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence relating thalamic changes to the generation and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain. We have recently reported that neuropathic orofacial pain is associated with altered thalamic anatomy, biochemistry, and activity, which may result in disturbed thalamocortical oscillatory circuits. Despite this evidence, it is possible that these thalamic changes are not responsible for the presence of pain per se, but result as a consequence of the injury. To clarify this subject, we compared brain activity and biochemistry in 12 people with below-level neuropathic pain after complete thoracic spinal cord injury with 11 people with similar injuries and no neuropathic pain and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Quantitative arterial spinal labelling was used to measure thalamic activity, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine changes in neuronal variability quantifying N-acetylaspartate and alterations in inhibitory function quantifying gamma amino butyric acid. This study revealed that the presence of neuropathic pain is associated with significant changes in thalamic biochemistry and neuronal activity. More specifically, the presence of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury is associated with significant reductions in thalamic N-acetylaspartate, gamma amino butyric acid content, and blood flow in the region of the thalamic reticular nucleus. Spinal cord injury on its own did not account for these changes. These findings support the hypothesis that neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic structure and function, which may disturb central processing and play a key role in the experience of neuropathic pain.

  12. Thalamic activity and biochemical changes in individuals with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, S.M.; Wrigley, P.J.; Youssef, A.M.; McIndoe, L.; Wilcox, S.L.; Rae, C.D.; Edden, R; Siddall, P.J.; Henderson, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating thalamic changes to the generation and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain. We have recently reported that neuropathic orofacial pain is associated with altered thalamic anatomy, biochemistry and activity, which may result in disturbed thalamocortical oscillatory circuits. Despite this evidence, it is possible that these thalamic changes are not responsible for the presence of pain per se, but result as a consequence of the injury. To clarify this subject, we compared brain activity and biochemistry in 12 people with below-level neuropathic pain after complete thoracic spinal cord injury to 11 people with similar injuries and no neuropathic pain and 21 age and gender matched healthy controls. Quantitative arterial spinal labelling was used to measure thalamic activity and magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine changes in neuronal variability quantifying N-acetylaspartate and alterations in inhibitory function quantifying gamma amino butyric acid. This study revealed that the presence of neuropathic pain is associated with significant changes in thalamic biochemistry and neuronal activity. More specifically, the presence of neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury is associated with significant reductions in thalamic N-acetylaspartate, gamma amino butyric acid content and blood flow in the region of the thalamic reticular nucleus. Spinal cord injury on its own did not account for these changes. These findings support the hypothesis that neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic structure and function, which may disturb central processing and play a key role in the experience of neuropathic pain. PMID:24530612

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T

    1996-03-01

    OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF. PMID:8609504

  15. Blood parasites in nestlings of wood stork populations from three regions of the American continent.

    PubMed

    Villar, Cynthia Martins; Bryan, Albert Lawrence; Lance, Stacey Lyn; Braga, Erika Martins; Congrains, Carlos; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2013-06-01

    This study documents the prevalences and lineages of hemoparasites in wood stork nestlings from 3 regions of the American continent: southeastern United States (n = 90), northern Brazil (n = 74), and central-western Brazil (n = 125). Identification was based on PCR amplification of a mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. A fragment of the hemoparasite cytochrome B gene in infected individuals was utilized for Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Four wood stork nestlings were infected by Haemoproteus, 1 from northern Brazil and 3 from the United States, and all shared the same haplotype. Morphological analysis confirmed the infection of the U.S. birds by Haemoproteus. Infection by Plasmodium was found in wood stork nestlings from northern (6) and central-western Brazil (14). Five Plasmodium lineages (MYCAMP1-2, and MYCAMP4-6) were found in the Brazilian central-western region and 3 Plasmodium lineages (MYCAMP2-3, and MYCAMP7) were found in the northern region. The most prevalent haplotype (MYCAMP2) differs from the others by 1 mutation, and the less prevalent haplotypes are derived from MYCAMP2. We did not find Plasmodium or Haemoproteus in nestlings younger than 15 and 30 days old, respectively. This is the first documentation of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection in wood storks in Brazilian breeding populations. Potential connectivity among wood stork populations was indirectly supported by the presence of identical Haemoproteus lineages in U.S. and northern Brazilian populations, and by the presence of identical Plasmodium haplotypes in the northern and central-western Brazilian populations.

  16. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  17. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment.

  18. Caudolateral orbitofrontal regional cerebral blood flow is decreased in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in two separate cohorts.

    PubMed

    Adinoff, Bryon; Braud, Jacquelyn; Devous, Michael D; Harris, Thomas S

    2012-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is crucial for the inhibition of extraneous stimuli, evaluation of aversive information and emotional regulation-all behaviors impaired in cocaine addiction. Previous studies suggest that cocaine-addicted subjects have decreased basal activity in the OFC. In this study, we examined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a saline infusion in two independent populations of abstinent cocaine- (and mostly nicotine-) addicted (n=33 and 26) and healthy control (n=35 and 20) men and women. Isolated rCBF decreases (P<0.001) were observed in the left caudolateral OFC, as well as left superior temporal cortex, in cocaine-addicted subjects relative to controls in both cohorts and bilaterally in the combined cohort. An anatomically defined region of the caudolateral OFC showed similar findings and were evident in both male and female addicted subjects. The reliability of these findings across two cohorts reveals a functional disruption in the lateral OFC, a brain region implicated in the evaluation of behavior-terminating stimuli. This may contribute to an addicted individual's persistent drug use despite negative consequences.

  19. Orthostatic vasomotor response in spinal man.

    PubMed

    Krebs, M; Ragnarrson, K T; Tuckman, J

    1983-04-01

    The cardiovascular adaptation of tetraplegics to the upright position has been previously demonstrated to be deficient. Presumably this is due to the interruption of the spinal pathways linking supraspinal control centres with the peripheral sympathetic motor neurons. Review of previous studies of this phenomenon reveals that vasomotor responses have been determined primarily from blood flow measurements in the extremities. Contradictory conclusions have been drawn. Study of the visceral circulation, in particular renal blood flow, could shed more light on this poorly understood area. Renal clearance tests were carried out on seven healthy controls and eight chronic, clinically complete tetraplegic patients. Renal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, and total renal vascular resistance in both supine and passive head-up tilt positions were calculated from collected data. Renal blood flow and total renal vascular resistance showed significant decrease and increase respectively during tilting in controls and tetraplegic subjects. Although the renal circulation is autoregulated, postural change causes profound alteration of the renal blood flow mediated through the haemodynamic effects of the renal nerves. Sympathetic renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the carotid sinus reflex through the vasomotor centre in the brainstem. In the absence of supraspinal influence the renal vasculature is shown to respond to an orthostatic stimulus with a vigorous vasoconstriction. The adaptation of spinal man to the upright position may involve the recovery of a spinal vasomotor reflex involving the splanchnic circulation.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia assessed by arterial spinlabeling magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Zhe; Zhang, Jun-Jian; Liu, Hui; Wu, Guang-Yao; Xiong, Li; Shu, Min

    2013-02-01

    Hemodynamic disturbance in cerebral blood flow (CBF) is common in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD).The aim of this study is to investigate the different patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) change and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in these two types of dementia. Mean flow velocity (MFV) of middle cerebral artery and rCBF were measured by Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance, separately. CVR was evaluated by MFV or rCBF change in response to 5% CO2 inhalation. The ASL results showed that, rCBF was significantly lower in both the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes in AD group and lower in left frontal and temporal white matter in patients with VaD. CVR calculated by rCBF was impaired more severely in bilateral frontal cortices in AD. Conversely, TCD tests failed to demonstrate significant difference in MFV and CVR between the two groups. It is concluded that the different patterns detected by ASL in resting rCBF change and cerebrovascular reactivity in response to carbogen inhalation may serve as a potential marker to distinguish AD and VaD.

  1. Extraforaminal ligament attachments of the thoracic spinal nerves in humans.

    PubMed

    Kraan, G A; Hoogland, P V J M; Wuisman, P I J M

    2009-04-01

    An anatomical study of the extraforaminal attachments of the thoracic spinal nerves was performed using human spinal columns. The objectives of the study are to identify and describe the existence of ligamentous structures at each thoracic level that attach spinal nerves to structures at the extraforaminal region. During the last 120 years, several mechanisms have been described to protect the spinal nerve against traction. All the described structures were located inside the spinal canal proximal to the intervertebral foramen. Ligaments with a comparable function just outside the intervertebral foramen are mentioned ephemerally. No studies are available about ligamentous attachments of thoracic spinal nerves to the spine. Five embalmed human thoracic spines (Th2-Th11) were dissected. Bilaterally, the extraforaminal region was dissected to describe and measure anatomical structures and their relationships with the thoracic spinal nerves. Histology was done at the sites of attachment of the ligaments to the nerves and along the ligaments. The thoracic spinal nerves are attached to the transverse process of the vertebrae cranial and caudal to the intervertebral foramen. The ligaments consist mainly of collagenous fibers. In conclusion, at the thoracic level, direct ligamentous connections exist between extraforaminal thoracic spinal nerves and nearby structures. They may serve as a protective mechanism against traction and compression of the nerves by positioning the nerve in the intervertebral foramen.

  2. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  3. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-02-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) (r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) (r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) (r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  4. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2(/sup 15/)O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism.

  5. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation-induced regional blood flow responses correlate with improvement of motor signs in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Golchin, N; Tabbal, S D; Hershey, T; Videen, T O; Wu, J; Usche, J W M; Revilla, F J; Hartlein, J M; Wernle, A R; Mink, J W; Perlmutter, J S

    2008-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated with improved motor manifestations. We studied 48 patients with STN DBS who withheld medication overnight and underwent PET scans to measure rCBF responses to bilateral STN DBS. PET scans were performed with bilateral DBS OFF and ON in a counterbalanced order followed by clinical ratings of motor manifestations using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale 3 (UPDRS 3). We investigated whether improvement in UPDRS 3 scores in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability and gait correlate with rCBF responses in a priori determined regions. These regions were selected based on a previous study showing significant STN DBS-induced rCBF change in the thalamus, midbrain and supplementary motor area (SMA). We also chose the pedunculopontine nucleus region (PPN) due to mounting evidence of its involvement in locomotion. In the current study, bilateral STN DBS improved rigidity (62%), bradykinesia (44%), gait (49%) and postural stability (56%) (paired t-tests: P < 0.001). As expected, bilateral STN DBS also increased rCBF in the bilateral thalami, right midbrain, and decreased rCBF in the right premotor cortex (P < 0.05, corrected). There were significant correlations between improvement of rigidity and decreased rCBF in the SMA (r(s) = -0.4, P < 0.02) and between improvement in bradykinesia and increased rCBF in the thalamus (r(s) = 0.31, P < 0.05). In addition, improved postural reflexes correlated with decreased rCBF in the PPN (r(s) = -0.38, P < 0.03). These modest correlations between selective motor manifestations and rCBF in specific regions suggest possible regional selectivity for improvement of different motor

  6. Thermoregulatory response thresholds during spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A; Sessler, D I; Schroeder, M; Kurz, M

    1993-10-01

    Reportedly, during spinal anesthesia, the shivering threshold is reduced approximately 1 degree C but the vasoconstriction threshold remains normal. Such divergence between the shivering and vasoconstriction thresholds is an unusual pattern of thermoregulatory impairment and suggests that the mechanisms of impairment during regional anesthesia may be especially complex. Accordingly, we sought to define the pattern of thermoregulatory impairment during spinal anesthesia by measuring response thresholds. Seven healthy women volunteered to participate on two study days. On one day, we evaluated thermoregulatory responses to hypothermia and hyperthermia during spinal anesthesia; on the other day, responses were evaluated without anesthesia. Upper body skin temperature was kept constant throughout the study. The volunteers were warmed via the lower body and cooled by central venous infusion of cold fluid. The core temperatures triggering a sweating rate of 40 g.m-2 x h-1, a finger flow of 0.1 mL/min, and a marked and sustained increase in oxygen consumption were considered the thermoregulatory thresholds for sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering, respectively. Spinal anesthesia significantly decreased the thresholds for vasoconstriction and shivering, and the decrease in each was approximately 0.5 degree C. The range of temperatures not triggering thermoregulatory responses (those between sweating and vasoconstriction) was 0.9 +/- 0.6 degree C during spinal anesthesia. The synchronous decrease in the shivering and vasoconstriction thresholds during spinal anesthesia is consistent with thermoregulatory impairment resulting from altered afferent thermal input.

  7. Does a dose-response relation exist between spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Birgitta; Malker, Hans; Englund, Erling; Wänman, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test whether a reciprocal dose-response relation exists between frequency/severity of spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Methods A total of 616 subjects with varying severity of spinal pain or no spinal pain completed a questionnaire focusing on symptoms in the jaw, head and spinal region. A subset of the population (n = 266) were sampled regardless of presence or absence of spinal pain. We used two different designs, one with frequency/severity of spinal pain, and the other, with frequency/severity of TMD symptoms as independent variable. All 616 participants were allocated to four groups, one control group without spinal pain and three spinal pain groups. The subjects in the subset were allocated to one control group without TMD symptoms and three TMD groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for presence of frequent TMD symptoms in the separate spinal pain groups as well as for frequent spinal pain in the separate TMD groups. Results The analysis showed increasing ORs for TMD with increasing frequency/severity of spinal pain. We also found increasing ORs for spinal pain with increasing frequency/severity of TMD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows a reciprocal dose-response-like relationship between spinal pain and TMD. The results indicate that these two conditions may share common risk factors or that they may influence each other. Studies on the temporal sequence between spinal pain and TMD are warranted. PMID:19254384

  8. Spinal transection induces widespread proliferation of cells along the length of the spinal cord in a weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Antiño R.; Smith, G. Troy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regenerate spinal cord tissue after tail amputation has been well studied in several species of teleost fish. The present study examined proliferation and survival of cells following complete spinal cord transection rather than tail amputation in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. To quantify cell proliferation along the length of the spinal cord, fish were given a single bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection immediately after spinal transection or sham surgery. Spinal transection significantly increased the density of BrdU+ cells along the entire length of the spinal cord at 1 day post transection (dpt), and most newly generated cells survived up to 14 dpt. To examine longer term survival of the newly proliferated cells, BrdU was injected for 5 days after the surgery, and fish were sacrificed 14 or 30 dpt. Spinal transection significantly increased proliferation and/or survival, as indicated by an elevated density of BrdU+ cells in the spinal cords of spinally transected compared to sham-operated and intact fish. At 14 dpt, BrdU+ cells were abundant at all levels of the spinal cord. By 30 dpt, the density of BrdU+ cells decreased at all levels of the spinal cord except at the tip of the tail. Thus, newly generated cells in the caudal-most segment of the spinal cord survived longer than those in more rostral segments. Our findings indicate that spinal cord transection stimulates widespread cellular proliferation; however, there were regional differences in the survival of the newly generated cells. PMID:23147638

  9. Cystic Abnormalities of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Cook, Laurie B

    2016-03-01

    Cystic lesions of the vertebral column and spinal cord are important differential diagnoses in dogs with signs of spinal cord disease. Synovial cysts are commonly associated with degenerative joint disease and usually affect the cervical and lumbosacral regions. Arachnoid diverticulum (previously known as cyst) is seen in the cervical region of large breed dogs and thoracolumbar region of small breed dogs. This article reviews the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of these and other, less common, cystic lesions.

  10. The effect of a spinal cord hemisection on changes in nitric oxide synthase pools in the site of injury and in regions located far away from the injured site.

    PubMed

    Lukácová, Nadezda; Kolesárová, Mária; Kuchárová, Karolína; Pavel, Jaroslav; Kolesár, Dalibor; Radonák, Jozef; Marsala, Martin; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Langfort, Jozef; Marsala, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to examine the nitric oxide synthase activities (constitutive and inducible) in the site of injury in response to Th10-Th11 spinal cord hemisection and, to determine whether unilateral disconnection of the spinal cord influences the NOS pools on the contra- and ipsilateral sides in segments located far away from the epicentre of injury. 2. A radioassay detection was used to determine Ca(2+)-dependent and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities. Somal, axonal and neuropil neuronal nitric oxide synthase was assessed by immunocytochemical study. A quantitative assessment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was made by an image analyser. The level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein was measured by the Western blot analysis. 3. Our data show the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and a decrease of Ca(2+)-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in the injured site analysed 1 and 7 days after surgery. In segments remote from the epicentre of injury the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity was increased at both time points. Ca(2+)-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity had decreased in L5-S1 segments in a group of animals surviving for 7 days. A hemisection performed at thoracic level did not cause significant difference in the nitric oxide synthase activities and in the level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein between the contra- and ipsilateral sides in C6-Th1 and L5-S1 segments taken as a whole. Significant differences were observed, but only when the spinal cord was analysed segment by segment, and/or was divided into dorsal and ventral parts. The cell counts in the cervicothoracic (C7-Th1) and lumbosacral (L5-S1) enlargements revealed changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity on the ipsilateral side of the injury. The densitometric area measurements confirmed the reduction of somal, neuropil and axonal neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive staining in

  11. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Spinal ... > For Parents > Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Print A A A ...

  12. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and problems with joints. Rheumatoid arthritis:  Affects most people at a younger age than osteoarthritis.  Causes the soft tissues of the joints to swell and can affect the internal organs and systems.  Is not a common cause of spinal ... Conditions Some people are born with conditions that cause spinal stenosis. ...

  13. Effects of copy number variable regions on local gene expression in white blood cells of Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, August; Almeida, Marcio; Dean, Angela; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Moses, Eric K; Abraham, Lawrence J; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Kumar, Satish; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Comuzzie, Anthony; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Blangero, John; Lehman, Donna M; Göring, Harald H H

    2015-01-01

    Only few systematic studies on the contribution of copy number variation to gene expression variation have been published to date. Here we identify effects of copy number variable regions (CNVRs) on nearby gene expression by investigating 909 CNVRs and expression levels of 12059 nearby genes in white blood cells from Mexican-American participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. We empirically evaluate our ability to detect the contribution of CNVs to proximal gene expression (presumably in cis) at various window sizes (up to a 10 Mb distance) between the gene and CNV. We found a ~1-Mb window size to be optimal for capturing cis effects of CNVs. Up to 10% of the CNVs in this study were found to be significantly associated with the expression of at least one gene within their vicinity. As expected, we find that CNVs that directly overlap gene sequences have the largest effects on gene expression (compared with non-overlapping CNVRs located nearby), with positive correlation (except for a few exceptions) between estimated genomic dosage and expression level. We find that genes whose expression level is significantly influenced by nearby CNVRs are enriched for immunity and autoimmunity related genes. These findings add to the currently limited catalog of CNVRs that are recognized as expression quantitative trait loci, and have implications for future study designs as well as for prioritizing candidate causal variants in genomic regions associated with disease. PMID:25585699

  14. Regional Mapping of Gas Uptake by Blood and Tissue in the Human Lung using Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Kun; Ruppert, Kai; Jiang, Yun; Mata, Jaime F.; Miller, G. Wilson; Shim, Y. Michael; Wang, Chengbo; Ruset, Iulian C.; Hersman, F. William; Altes, Talissa A.; Mugler, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a breath-hold acquisition for regional mapping of ventilation and the fractions of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (Xe129) dissolved in tissue (lung parenchyma and plasma) and red blood cells (RBCs), and to perform an exploratory study to characterize data obtained in human subjects. Materials and Methods A three-dimensional, multi-echo, radial-trajectory pulse sequence was developed to obtain ventilation (gaseous Xe129), tissue and RBC images in healthy subjects, smokers and asthmatics. Signal ratios (total dissolved Xe129 to gas, tissue-to-gas, RBC-to-gas and RBC-to-tissue) were calculated from the images for quantitative comparison. Results Healthy subjects demonstrated generally uniform values within coronal slices, and a gradient in values along the anterior-to-posterior direction. In contrast, images and associated ratio maps in smokers and asthmatics were generally heterogeneous and exhibited values mostly lower than those in healthy subjects. Whole-lung values of total dissolved Xe129 to gas, tissue-to-gas, and RBC-to-gas ratios in healthy subjects were significantly larger than those in diseased subjects. Conclusion Regional maps of tissue and RBC fractions of dissolved Xe129 were obtained from a short breath-hold acquisition, well tolerated by healthy volunteers and subjects with obstructive lung disease. Marked differences were observed in spatial distributions and overall amounts of Xe129 dissolved in tissue and RBCs among healthy subjects, smokers and asthmatics. PMID:23681559

  15. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Effects of Upper and Lower Cervical Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Volunteers and Patients With Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-Over, Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Win, Ni Ni; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Chen, Yu Sui; Haneline, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to examine autonomic nervous system responses by using heart rate variability analysis (HRV), hemodynamic parameters and numeric pain scale (NPS) when either upper (C1 and C2) or lower (C6 and C7) cervical segments were manipulated in volunteers, and whether such response would be altered in acute mechanical neck pain patients after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Methods A randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study was conducted on 10 asymptomatic normotensive volunteers and 10 normotensive patients complaining of acute neck pain. HRV, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and NPS were recorded after upper cervical and lower cervical segments SMT in volunteer and patient groups. Results The standard deviation of average normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN) increased (83.54 ± 22 vs. 105.41 ± 20; P = .02) after upper cervical SMT. The normalized unit of high frequency (nuHF), which shows parasympathetic activity, was predominant (40.18 ± 9 vs. 46.08 ± 14) after upper cervical SMT (P = .03) with a significant decrease (109 ± 10 vs. 98 ± 5) in systolic BP (P = .002). Low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which shows predominance of sympathetic activity increased (1.05 ± 0.7 vs. 1.51 ± 0.5; P = .02) after lower cervical SMT in the healthy volunteers group. However, there was an increase in SDNN (70.48 ± 18 vs. 90.23 ± 20; P = .02 and 75.19 ± 16 vs 97.52 ± 22; P = .01), a decrease in LF/HF ratio (1.33 ± 0.3 vs. 0.81 ± 0.2; P = .001 and 1.22 ± 0.4 vs. 0.86 ± 0.3; P = .02), which was associated with decreased systolic BP (105 ± 10 vs. 95 ± 9; P = .01 and 102 ± 9 vs. 91 ± 10; P = .02) and NPS scores (3 ± 1 vs. 0; P = .01 and 3 ± 1 vs. 1 ± 1; P = .03) following both upper and lower cervical SMT in the patient’s group. The baseline HR was 67 ± 9 vs 64 ± 5 (upper cervical) and 65 ± 7 vs 69 ± 11 (lower cervical) in both the healthy volunteer’ and patient’ groups. Conclusion Upper

  17. Convenient preparation of /sup 11/C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (MTP) for PET imaging of regional myocardial blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, D.V.; Dannals, R.F.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstrom, B.; Wong, D.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate /sup 11/C-MTP for use as a potential regional myocardial perfusion agent in positron emission tomography. The synthesis of /sup 11/C-MTP was accomplished by reacting triphenylphosphine with /sup 11/C- methyliodide. Triphenylphosphine was dissolved in benzene and cooled to O/sup 0/C in a septum sealed reaction vessel. /sup 11/C-methyliodide was synthesized from /sup 11/C-carbon dioxide, and bubbled through the reaction vessel in a stream of carrier nitrogen gas. When trapping of the /sup 11/C- methyliodide was complete, the vessel was placed in a block heater at 140/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in absolute ethanol and then re-evaporated to dryness. The final product was dissolved in saline and passed through a 0.2 micron filter which removed excess unreacted tiphenylphosphine. The specific activity of the /sup 11/C-MTP was determined to be at least 10 mCi/..mu..mole using UV spectroscopy. PET imaging was performed on anesthetized dogs (normal and surgically infarcted hearts) and monkeys which were injected i.v. with a solution of 20 mCi of /sup 11/C-MTP. Scans of the heart were acquired using the authors' neuro ECAT. The myocardium was clearly visualized in both the dog and monkey. In dogs with myocardial infarctions, images showed an absence of radiotracer in regions corresponding to the infarcted zone. These studies indicate that /sup 11/C-MTP can be conveniently prepared to provide tomographic imaging of the heart using PET. Moreover, the uptake of /sup 11/C-MTP in the heart may be useful in determining regional myocardial blood flow.

  18. Spinal Myoclonus After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Calancie, Blair

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: In the course of examining spinal motor function in many hundreds of people with traumatic spinal cord injury, we encountered 6 individuals who developed involuntary and rhythmic contractions in muscles of their legs. Although there are many reports of unusual muscle activation patterns associated with different forms of myoclonus, we believe that certain aspects of the patterns seen with these 6 subjects have not been previously reported. These patterns share many features with those associated with a spinal central pattern generator for walking. Methods: Subjects in this case series had a history of chronic injury to the cervical spinal cord, resulting in either complete (ASIA A; n = 4) or incomplete (ASIA D; n = 2) quadriplegia. We used multi-channel electromyography recordings of trunk and leg muscles of each subject to document muscle activation patterns associated with different postures and as influenced by a variety of sensory stimuli. Results: Involuntary contractions spanned multiple leg muscles bilaterally, sometimes including weak abdominal contractions. Contractions were smooth and graded and were highly reproducible in rate for a given subject (contraction rates were 0.3–0.5 Hz). These movements did not resemble the brief rapid contractions (ie, "jerks") ascribed to some forms of spinal myoclonus. For all subjects, the onset of involuntary muscle contraction was dependent upon hip angle; contractions did not occur unless the hips (and knees) were extended (ie, subjects were supine). In the 4 ASIA A subjects, contractions occurred simultaneously in all muscles (agonists and antagonists) bilaterally. In sharp contrast, contractions in the 2 ASIA D subjects were reciprocal between agonists and antagonists within a limb and alternated between limbs, such that movements in these 2 subjects looked just like repetitive stepping. Finally, each of the 6 subjects had a distinct pathology of their spinal cord, nerve roots, distal trunk

  19. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  20. Is perivetricular hyperintensity region caused by decreased cerebral blood flow?; assessment by {sup 15}O-PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminaga, T.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The clinical significance of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism has not been established in patients who had periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study is to correlate the results of rCBF and oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography (PET) with PVH by MRI. The subjects were 27 patients; 16 patient (group I) (male; 7, female; 9, age; 56.8{plus_minus}18.6) with PVH and age matched 11 patients (group II) (male; 6, female; 5, age; 55.3{plus_minus}13.6) without PVH. {sup 15}O-PET study was carried out by Headtome IV and rCBF, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) of PVH and cerebellum was calculated. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in all patients. Angiography was performed over 11 patients. The mean rCBF of group I in PVH (28.5{plus_minus}7.5 ml/100g/min) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that of group II (38.6{plus_minus}5.7). The mean rCBF of group I and group II in cerebellum were 49.5{plus_minus}9.9 ml/100g/min and 50.2{plus_minus}8.9 respectively. There was no significant difference on CMRO{sub 2} and OEF between group I and group II. In MRI examination, PVH was detected in all group I patients and multiple high intensities were also detected in 7 patients of group I and 4 patients of group II on T2-weighted images. No significant stenosis (more than 75%) was detected in 11 patients by angiography. These data strongly indicate that PVH might be caused by decreased cerebral blood flow.

  1. Managing chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Palmieri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction as a procedure of last resort in a terminally ill patient with intractable cancer-related pain, spinal cord stimulation has been used to effectively treat chronic pain of varied origins. Spinal cord stimulation is commonly used for control of pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome, as well as pain from angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and other causes. By stimulating one or more electrodes implanted in the posterior epidural space, the patient feels paresthesias in their areas of pain, which reduces the level of pain. Pain is reduced without the side effects associated with analgesic medications. Patients have improved quality of life and improved function, with many returning to work. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be cost effective as compared with conservative management alone. There is strong evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with intractable angina, failed back surgery syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. In this article, we review the history and pathophysiology of spinal cord stimulation, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for efficacy in common clinical practice.

  2. Lumbar Myeloid Cell Trafficking into Locomotor Networks after Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher N; Norden, Diana M; Faw, Timothy D; Deibert, Rochelle; Wohleb, Eric S; Sheridan, John F; Godbout, Jonathan P; Basso, D Michele

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes inflammation along the neuroaxis that jeopardizes plasticity, intrinsic repair and recovery. While inflammation at the injury site is well-established, less is known within remote spinal networks. The presence of bone marrow-derived immune (myeloid) cells in these areas may further impede functional recovery. Previously, high levels of the gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) occurred within the lumbar enlargement after thoracic SCI and impeded activity-dependent recovery. Since SCI-induced MMP-9 potentially increases vascular permeability, myeloid cell infiltration may drive inflammatory toxicity in locomotor networks. Therefore, we examined neurovascular reactivity and myeloid cell infiltration in the lumbar cord after thoracic SCI. We show evidence of region-specific recruitment of myeloid cells into the lumbar but not cervical region. Myeloid infiltration occurred with concomitant increases in chemoattractants (CCL2) and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) around lumbar vasculature 24h and 7days post injury. Bone marrow GFP chimeric mice established robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells into the lumbar gray matter 24h after SCI. This cell infiltration occurred when the blood-spinal cord barrier was intact, suggesting active recruitment across the endothelium. Myeloid cells persisted as ramified macrophages at 7days post injury in parallel with increased inhibitory GAD67 labeling. Importantly, macrophage infiltration required MMP-9.

  3. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Fox, P T; Raichle, M E

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H2(15)O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H2(15)O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph, thus minimizing changes in base-line CBF and in head position due to longer intervals between scans. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2(15)O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. In each subject the region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). Anatomical localization of the region of greatest rCBF response was performed employing bony landmarks from a lateral skull radiograph, a template of the cranium created from a transmission attenuation scan and a stereotaxic atlas. In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. We conclude that stimulus rate is

  4. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury.

  5. Spinal cordectomy: A new hope for morbid spinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Konar, Subhas K; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Bir, Shyamal C; Nanda, Anil

    2017-01-01

    A spinal cordectomy is a treatment option for several disorders of the spinal cord like post-traumatic syringomyelia, spinal cord tumor and myelomeningocele. We have done a systematic analysis of all reported cases of spinal cordectomy to investigate the possible outcomes and complications. A PubMed search was performed for literature published from 1949 to 2015 with search words "spinal cordectomy", "spinal cord transection" and "cordectomy for malignant spinal cord tumors" to select articles containing information about the indication, outcome and complication of spinal cordectomy performed for diverse etiologies. Spinal cordectomy was performed for post-traumatic syrinx (76 cases), SPAM (2 cases), Central pain of spinal cord origin (22 cases), Spasticity (8 cases), Spinal tumors (16 cases) and Myelomeningocele (30 cases). Among the 76 cases, 60 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria for our outcome analysis in terms of improvement, stabilization or deterioration after spinal cordectomy. The results showed 78.3% excellent improvement, 13.4% stable and 8.3% (5 cases) deterioration. The reported causes of failure of spinal cordectomy for post-traumatic syrinx were scarring of a proximal stump and severe arachnoid adhesion. Sixteen cases of spinal cordectomy related with spinal cord tumors have been reported. Also reported were seven cases of GBM, two cases of AA and one each case of anaplastic tanycytic ependymoma, schwanoma, neurofibroma, atypical meningioma and malignant ganglioglioma. Cordectomy shouldbe strongly considered in patients having malignant spinal cord tumors with complete motor loss and sensory loss below the level of the lesion as a means of preventing the spread of disease from the original tumor focus. Spinal cordectomy is a treatment option with a good outcome for post-traumatic spinal morbidity, spinal cord tumors and myelomeningocele. However, since it is an invasive and irreversible procedure, it is only considered when other options have

  6. Spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine G

    2013-09-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is a rare bacterial infection located within the spinal canal. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment are important because of its potential to cause rapidly progressive spinal cord compression and irreversible paralysis. A staphylococcus bacterial infection is the cause in most cases. Treatment includes antibiotics and possible surgical drainage of the abscess. A favorable neurologic outcome correlates with the severity and duration of neurologic deficits before surgery and the timeliness of the chosen intervention. It is important for the critical care nurse to monitor the patient's neurologic status and provide appropriate interventions.

  7. Spinal cord compression due to vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Gorkem; Fayda, Merdan; Saynak, Mert; Karadeniz, Ahmet

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a case of multiple vertebral hemangiomas in a 58-year-old man with pain in the dorsal region and bilateral progressive foot numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple vertebral hemangiomas. One hemangioma at the T7 level demonstrated epidural extension, causing spinal cord compression. After treatment with radiotherapy, the patient's symptoms improved significantly.

  8. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  9. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow with Chaihu-Shugan-San in the treatment of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Hu, Sui-Yu; Shi, Guang-Qing; Wang, Su-e

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chaihu-Shugan-San (CHSGS) is a well-known Chinese traditional prescription used for depression. Objective: To observe the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with major depression and to investigate rCBF and clinical response to CHSGS. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 unmedicated patients with major depression and 12 healthy comparison subjects underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. A total of 33 unmedicated patients with major depression all met the diagnostic criteria of stagnation of liver qi of traditional Chinese medicine and were divided into two groups: CHSGS group (n = 20) and fluoxetine group (n = 13). SPECT imaging was restudied in posttreatment. Results: SPECT detected abnormalities in all (100.0%) patients both in CHSGS group and fluoxetine group. All healthy subjects were normal results. The depressed patients showed rCBF decreased in the multiple regions. The semiquantitative values of bilateral frontal and left temporal lobes both in CHSGS group and fluoxetine group were lower than that in healthy group (P < 0.05). Reexamined SPECT after 8 weeks treatment with CHSGS showed the consistency between the increase in perfusion defects and the improvement of clinical cerebral symptoms. The semiquantitative values increased in posttreatment, when compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SPECT represents a sensitive tool to detect the major depressive disorder, which show the rCBF decreased. rCBF perfusion defects can be reversed and clinical symptoms can be improved by CHSGS treatment. CHSGS treatment is effective, well-tolerated, and safe for depression. By semiquantitative analysis, SPECT can objectively detect rCBF changes that is useful for guiding treatment. PMID:25422553

  10. The effect of diurnal variation on the regional differences in sweating and skin blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shiojiri, T; Shibasaki, M; Takano, S; Kondo, N; Iwata, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the control of heat-dissipation responses to exercise associated with the diurnal variation in core temperature from the viewpoint of the regional response patterns. We studied seven men during exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W for 40 min at 25 degrees C at 0630 (morning) 1630 (evening) hours on 2 separate days. Oesophageal temperature (T(oes)), local skin temperature, local sweating rate (msw) on the forehead, back, forearm and thigh, and skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) on the back and forearm were measured continuously. The T(oes) at rest was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning, the difference averaging approximately 0.4 degrees C (P < 0.05). The T(oes) thresholds for each site in msw and that for back in LDF were significantly different between the two times of day (P < 0.05). The change in T(oes) thresholds for sweating and vasodilatation for morning and evening were similar to T(oes) at rest. Although msw on the forehead was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening, msw on the back was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning (P < 0.05). Total local sweating rate (msw,tot) for each site during exercise was significantly higher on the forehead than on the forearm in the morning, and on the back than on the forearm in the evening, respectively (P < 0.05). The results would suggest that the diurnal variation of heat-dissipation responses to exercise is influenced not only by a central controlling mechanism but also by changes in the regional differences.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: comparison before and after methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Boong Nyun; Kang, Eunjoo; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Soo Churl

    2005-03-01

    Differences in brain activity of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been compared to normal healthy controls, suggesting neural correlates of cognitive/behavioral symptoms. Symptoms are improved with methylphenidate treatment but limited sources can be cited to show how brain activity in ADHD is altered after pharmacologic treatment. We investigated how long-term oral medication of methylphenidate affects the resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ADHD children, using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). rCBF was decreased in the orbitofrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere whereas it was increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal and somatosensory area bilaterally in drug-naive ADHD children compared to control child subjects. After treatment with methylphenidate, the extent of hyperperfusion in the somatosensory area was reduced and significant reduction of rCBF was found in the right striatum for the first time. Methylphenidate treatment also resulted in rCBF increase in superior prefrontal and reduction in ventral higher visual areas bilaterally. The results indicated that improving ADHD symptom after methylphenidate is associated with normalization of abnormally reduced orbitofrontal activity and abnormally increased somatosensory cortical activity. These changes were accompanied with reduced striatum activity lower than that of normal controls. These changes might be associated with improving ADHD to control attention and motor response to irrelevant environmental stimuli after methylphenidate treatment.

  12. Circadian and homeostatic modulation of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow in humans under normal entrained conditions.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Duncan J; O'Daly, Owen; Zunszain, Patricia A; Pariante, Carmine M; Lazurenko, Vitaly; Zelaya, Fernando O; Howard, Matthew A; Williams, Steven C R

    2014-09-01

    Diurnal rhythms have been observed in human behaviors as diverse as sleep, olfaction, and learning. Despite its potential impact, time of day is rarely considered when brain responses are studied by neuroimaging techniques. To address this issue, we explicitly examined the effects of circadian and homeostatic regulation on functional connectivity (FC) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy human volunteers, using whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). In common with many circadian studies, we collected salivary cortisol to represent the normal circadian activity and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Intriguingly, the changes in FC and rCBF we observed indicated fundamental decreases in the functional integration of the default mode network (DMN) moving from morning to afternoon. Within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), our results indicate that morning cortisol levels are negatively correlated with rCBF. We hypothesize that the homeostatic mechanisms of the HPA axis has a role in modulating the functional integrity of the DMN (specifically, the ACC), and for the purposes of using fMRI as a tool to measure changes in disease processes or in response to treatment, we demonstrate that time of the day is important when interpreting resting-state data.

  13. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/− medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  14. Spinal subdural hematoma following cranial subdural hematoma : a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Daeyeong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2013-12-01

    Coexistence of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas is rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas after previous head trauma. As the pathogenesis of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma yet remains unclear, we developed an alternative theory to those proposed in the literature for their coexistence, the migration of blood through the subdural space.

  15. Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

    2013-04-18

    The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed.

  16. Conservation of Battlefield Blood Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    the anticipated blood loss is three to eight units (1500-4000 ml; e.g. extensive corrective spinal surgery, revision of artificial total hip prostheses...measurements (systemic and pulmonic arterial systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures, central venous and pulmonary capillary "wedge" pressures, and

  17. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. Results Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. Conclusions The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was

  18. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To order the Sports Injuries Handout on Health full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ... publication. To order the Spinal Stenosis Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ...

  19. Spinal cord trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oh's Intensive Care Manual . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 78. Bryce TN. Spinal cord injury. ... Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 49. Dalzell K, Nouri A, Fehlings ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  1. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with SMA develop spinal deformities, such as scoliosis (sideways curvature of the spine) and kyphosis (front- ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Brain and Nervous System Scoliosis Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  3. Alterations in cardiac autonomic control in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Liu, Nan; Malmqvist, Lasse; Wecht, Jill Maria; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2017-02-15

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) interferes with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect on the cardiovascular system will depend on the extent of damage to the spinal/central component of ANS. The cardiac changes are caused by loss of supraspinal sympathetic control and relatively increased parasympathetic cardiac control. Decreases in sympathetic activity result in heart rate and the arterial blood pressure changes, and may cause arrhythmias, in particular bradycardia, with the risk of cardiac arrest in those with cervical or high thoracic injuries. The objective of this review is to give an update of the current knowledge related to the alterations in cardiac autonomic control following SCI. With this purpose the review includes the following subheadings: 2. Neuro-anatomical plasticity and cardiac control 2.1 Autonomic nervous system and the heart 2.2 Alteration in autonomic control of the heart following spinal cord injury 3. Spinal shock and neurogenic shock 3.1 Pathophysiology of spinal shock 3.2 Pathophysiology of neurogenic shock 4. Autonomic dysreflexia 4.1 Pathophysiology of autonomic dysreflexia 4.2 Diagnosis of autonomic dysreflexia 5. Heart rate/electrocardiography following spinal cord injury 5.1 Acute phase 5.2 Chronic phase 6. Heart rate variability 6.1 Time domain analysis 6.2 Frequency domain analysis 6.3 QT-variability index 6.4 Nonlinear (fractal) indexes 7. Echocardiography 7.1 Changes in cardiac structure following spinal cord injury 7.2 Changes in cardiac function following spinal cord injury 8. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular basic data set and international standards to document the remaining autonomic function in spinal cord injury.

  4. [Meningitis after spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mouchrif, Issam; Berdaii, Adnane; Labib, Ismail; Harrandou, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is a rare but serious complication of epidural and spinal anesthesia. Bacterial meningitis is mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci, implying an exogenous contamination which suggests a lack of asepsis. The evolution is usually favorable after treatment, but at the expense of increased health care costs and, sometimes, of significant neurological sequelae. We report a case of bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section.

  5. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  6. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  7. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  9. Archetypal and rearranged sequences of human polyomavirus JC transcription control region in peripheral blood leukocytes and in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ciappi, S; Azzi, A; De Santis, R; Leoncini, F; Sterrantino, G; Mazzotta, F; Mecocci, L

    1999-04-01

    Two forms of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) genome are known based upon the structure of the transcriptional control region (TCR) of the virus: the archetypal form, which is commonly detected in urine, and the rearranged form, which was first detected in brain tissue from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) patients. The latter actually includes a group of TCR variants that, relative to the former, are characterized by various deletions and/or duplications. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not a correlation exists among the TCR type, the spreading of the virus within the host and its ability to cause PML. JCV TCR sequences from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from various groups of patients were compared. JCV with archetypal TCR was detected in CSF and PBL specimens from patients without neurological disorders or who eventually received a diagnosis of a non-PML neurological disorder. Rearranged TCR sequences were detected in all the CSF and PBL specimens from PML patients. The high similarity observed between the TCR structure detected in PBL and CSF specimens from individual patients could strengthen the hypothesis that PBL has a role in spreading JCV to the brain. Moreover, heterogeneous TCR patterns have been shown in individual PBL specimens from PML patients. This supports the hypothesis that, in PBL, JCV may replicate and undergo rearrangements of the TCR. The detection of JCV DNA by PCR in CSF independently from PML, although rare, could suggest that this assay is not sufficient for a virological diagnosis of PML. Further studies are required to assess the usefulness of quantitative assays or TCR typing in combination with PCR for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Infusion of fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens increases blood glucose concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, C; Rijnsburger, M; Eggels, L; van Megen, K M; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A; Serlie, M J; la Fleur, S E

    2017-01-10

    The brain is well known to regulate blood glucose, and the hypothalamus and hindbrain, in particular, have been studied extensively to understand the underlying mechanisms. Nuclei in these regions respond to alterations in blood glucose concentrations and can alter glucose liver output or glucose tissue uptake to maintain blood glucose concentrations within strict boundaries. Interestingly, several cortico-limbic regions also respond to alterations in glucose concentrations and have been shown to project to hypothalamic nuclei and glucoregulatory organs. For instance, electrical stimulation of the shell of the nucleus accumbens (sNAc) results in increased circulating concentrations of glucose and glucagon and activation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Whether this is caused by the simultaneous increase in serotonin release in the sNAc remains to be determined. To study the effect of sNAc serotonin on systemic glucose metabolism, we implanted bilateral microdialysis probes in the sNAc of male Wistar rats and infused fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or vehicle after which blood glucose, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucoregulatory hormones were measured. Fluoxetine in the sNAc for 1h significantly increased blood glucose concentrations without an effect on glucoregulatory hormones. This increase was accompanied by a higher EGP in the fluoxetine infused rats compared to the controls. These data provide further evidence for a role of sNAc-serotonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism.

  11. Segmentation of blood clot from CT pulmonary angiographic images using a modified seeded region growing algorithm method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bumwoo; Furlan, Alessandro; Patil, Amol; Bae, Kyongtae T.

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition defined as the obstruction of pulmonary arteries by a blood clot, usually originating in the deep veins of the lower limbs. PE is a common but elusive illness that can cause significant disability and death if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) is the first line imaging study for the diagnosis of PE. While clinical prediction rules have been recently developed to associate short-term risks and stratify patients with acute PE, there is a dearth of objective biomarkers associated with the long-term prognosis of the disease. Clot (embolus) burden is a promising biomarker for the prognosis and recurrence of PE and can be quantified from CTPA images. However, to our knowledge, no study has reported a method for segmentation and measurement of clot from CTPA images. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a semi-automated method for segmentation and measurement of clot from CTPA images. Our method was based on Modified Seeded Region Growing (MSRG) algorithm which consisted of two steps: (1) the observer identifies a clot of interest on CTPA images and places a spherical seed over the clot; and (2) a region grows around the seed on the basis of a rolling-ball process that clusters the neighboring voxels whose CT attenuation values are within the range of the mean +/- two standard deviations of the initial seed voxels. The rollingball propagates iteratively until the clot is completely clustered and segmented. Our experimental results revealed that the performance of the MSRG was superior to that of the conventional SRG for segmenting clots, as evidenced by reduced degrees of over- or under-segmentation from adjacent anatomical structures. To assess the clinical value of clot burden for the prognosis of PE, we are currently applying the MSRG for the segmentation and volume measurement of clots from CTPA images that are acquired in a large cohort of patients with PE in an on

  12. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140).

  13. A comparison of 4% succinylated gelatin solution versus normal saline in stable normovolaemic sheep: global haemodynamic, regional blood flow and oxygen delivery effects.

    PubMed

    Wan, L; Bellomo, R; May, C N

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects on regional blood flow and regional oxygen delivery of 4% succinylated gelatin solution (Gelofusine, B. Braun) with those of normal saline. This was a randomised, controlled, cross-over large animal study, which took place at the animal laboratory of university physiology institute. The subjects were seven merino cross-ewes. We implanted flow probes around the aorta, coronary, renal and mesenteric arteries. We randomised animals to observation (control), normal saline (one litre over 15 minutes) or Gelofusine (one litre over 15 minutes). We measured central haemodynamics, organ blood flows, arterial blood gases and haemoglobin every 30 minutes for 210 minutes. Compared to control, both Gelofusine and normal saline significantly and similarly increased mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and central venous pressure in the first hour (P < 0.05). Such changes, however, were transient except for the increase in cardiac output seen with Gelofusine. Normal saline significantly increased mesenteric blood flow in the first hour (P < 0.05), while Gelofusine caused a specific, sustained and progressive increase in renal blood flow and conductance (P < 0.05). Both fluids increased urine output and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05), but, due to haemodilution, both decreased renal oxygen delivery in the first hour (P < 0.05). Normal saline and Gelofusine have transient, volume expansion-related systemic haemodynamic effects, which are greater for Gelofusine. Saline had a more pronounced early effect on mesenteric blood flow, while Gelofusine had a sustained and progressive greater effect on renal blood flow. The transient increase in urine output and creatinine clearance seen with both fluids occurred while renal oxygen delivery decreased.

  14. Acceleration of clinician hand movements during spinal manipulative therapy.

    PubMed

    Gelley, Geoffrey M; Passmore, Steven R; MacNeil, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    This study used an observational design to examine the kinematics of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) by determining the acceleration characteristics of the manipulative input at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal regions. Studies of SMT have been restricted to measuring the forces that result from the manipulative input. Several studies have indicated the rate of force development is a key parameter of clinically delivered SMT. Despite this, the movement strategies employed during SMT, including acceleration, have not been directly measured. Participants (n = 29) were recruited from a private practice chiropractic clinic. A wireless accelerometer attached to the clinician's hand was used to characterize the thrust phase of the SMT treatments. Significant differences were found across each spinal region for acceleration amplitude parameters (p < 0.0001). Post-hoc analysis indicated that amplitudes significantly increased in order from thoracic to cervical to lumbar regions (p < 0.0001). Spinal level was also a significant factor in determining the temporal parameters of hand acceleration during SMT (p < 0.0005). This study provides a description of the acceleration properties of clinically delivered SMT. Consistent with that reported for SMT forces, acceleration amplitudes varied significantly across spinal regions with relatively little differences in acceleration latencies. Notably, acceleration amplitudes and latencies were not associated with each other within spinal regions. These findings indicate that changes in acceleration amplitude, rather than latency, are used to tailor SMT to individuals.

  15. Acute cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to head injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yul; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won

    2010-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of traumatic cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to intracranial injury. There has been no report on traumatic cervical spinal subdrual hematoma not related to intracranial injury. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room due to severe neck pain and right arm motor weakness after car collision. On admission, she presented with complete monoplegia and hypoesthesia of right arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subdural hematoma compressing spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 210,000 red blood cells/mm(3). She was managed conservatively by administrations of steroid pulse therapy and CSF drainage. Her muscle power of right arm improved to a Grade III 16 days after admission. Follow-up MRI taken 16th days after admission revealed almost complete resolution of the hematoma. Here, the authors report a traumatic cervical spinal SDH not associated with intracranial injury.

  16. [Preface and comments: Protection of the brain and the spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    2007-03-01

    Basic and clinical investigations have been performed, focusing on the mechanism of ischemic brain and spinal cord injuries, and preventive measures against ischemic insults such as drug therapy, hypothermia, maintenace of blood flow to brain and spinal cord, preconditioning, and no use of high dose fentanyl. In this special issue, five experts have provided new relevant information concerning brain and spinal cord protection. Further research in brain and spinal cord protection will contribute to better understanding of ischemic central nervous system injuries and to the establishment of novel therapies for protection of central nervous system.

  17. Spinal cord projections to the cerebellum in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Gulgun; Fu, YuHong; Yu, You; Paxinos, George

    2015-09-01

    The projections from the spinal cord to the cerebellar cortex were studied using retrograde neuronal tracers. Thus far, no study has shown the detailed topographic mapping of the projections from the spinal neuron clusters to the cerebellar cortex regions for experimental animals, and there are no studies for the mouse. Tracers Fluoro-Gold and cholera toxin B were injected into circumscribed regions of the cerebellar cortex, and retrogradely labeled spinal cord neurons were mapped throughout the spinal cord. Spinal projections to the cerebellar cortex were mainly from five neuronal columns--central cervical nucleus, dorsal nucleus, lumbar and sacral precerebellar nuclei, and lumbar border precerebellar cells--and from scattered neurons located in the deep dorsal horn and laminae 6-8. The spinocerebellar projections to the cortex were mainly to the vermis. All five precerebellar cell columns projected to both anterior and posterior parts of the cerebellar cortex. Results of this study provide an amendment to the known rostral and caudal boundaries of the precerebellar cell columns in the mouse. Scattered precerebellar neurons in the most caudal deep dorsal horn and laminae 6-8 projected exclusively to the anterior part of the cerebellar cortex. In this study, no labeled spinal neurons were found to project to the lobules 6 and 7 of the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus, and the paraflocculus. Spinocerebellar neurons were located bilaterally, but the majority of the projections were contralateral for the central cervical nucleus, and ipsilateral for the remaining spinal precerebellar neuronal clusters.

  18. Complications after spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Jie; Guan, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Sheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since little has been reported about complications of spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome (TCS), we sought to delineate the characteristics of the condition. A total of 4 cases of adult TCS after spinal anesthesia were reviewed. The medical charts of the patients were obtained. Anesthesia, which was combined spinal and epidural anesthesia or spinal anesthesia was performed, and follow-up were carried out in all patients. The most common neurological symptom of adult TCS before surgery was occasional severe pain in back, perineal region, or legs. Frequent micturition, diminished knee and ankle reflexes, and difficulty in bending were exhibited in partial patients. Paraesthesia of perineal region or/and lower extremities existed 2 to 3 days after spinal anesthesia in all the cases. Weakness of lower extremities existed in 1 case. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the low location of conus medullaris. At follow-up, 3 cases recovered completely within 3 weeks, and 1 case underwent permanent disability. These cases suggest anesthesiologists and surgeons alert to the association of adult TCS and spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia should be prohibited in patients with adult TCS to prevent neurological damages. PMID:27442670

  19. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... to send and receive messages to and from the brain. About 200,000 people in the United States have spinal cord injuries. Most injuries occur from a traumatic event, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  20. The role of spinal cord stimulation in the management of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Robaina, F; Clavo, B

    2007-01-01

    High grade gliomas (HGG) have decreased blood flow resulting in hypoxia, limited access by chemotherapeutic agents, and reduced radiation-sensitivity. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used successfully in the treatment of pain and ischemic syndromes. The present article summarizes our investigations into the effects of SCS in patients with HGG. Before their scheduled radio-chemotherapy, 23 patients with HGG were assessed pre- and post-SCS using several evaluation techniques: (1) transcranial Doppler (TCD) for middle cerebral artery blood flow; (2) color Doppler for common carotid artery blood flow; (3) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for tumor blood flow; (4) polarographic probe technique for tumor pO2 measurement; (5) positron emission tomography (PET) for tumor glucose metabolism. Pre-SCS, the tumors were more ischemic and more hypoxic than healthy tissues. Post-SCS, there was significant: (1) increase in blood flow measured by TCD (> or =18%), color Doppler (> or =61%) and SPECT (15%), (2) increase in oxygenation and decrease (> or =45%) in percentage of hypoxic values <10 mmHg and <5 mmHg, and (3) increase (43%) in glucose metabolism. Our studies show that SCS can modify loco-regional blood flow and oxygen supply, as well as glucose-metabolism in HGG. This suggests that SCS could prove useful as an adjuvant treatment to radio-chemotherapy. These data merit further confirmatory studies.

  1. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology.

  2. Lack of effect of spinal anesthesia on drug metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.; Wood, A.J.; Shay, S.; Wood, M. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of spinal anesthesia on drug disposition was determined in six dogs with chronically implanted vascular catheters using propranolol as a model compound. On the first study day, 40 mg of unlabeled propranolol and 200 microCi of (3H)propranolol were injected into the portal and femoral veins respectively. Arterial blood samples were taken for 4 hr for measurement of plasma concentrations of labeled and unlabeled propranolol by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and of (3H)propranolol by liquid scintillation counting of the HPLC eluant corresponding to each propranolol peak. Twenty-four hr later, spinal anesthesia was induced with tetracaine (mean dose 20.7 +/- 0.6 mg) with low sacral to midthoracic levels and the propranolol infusions and sampling were then repeated. Spinal anesthesia had no significant effect on either the intrinsic clearance of propranolol (2.01 +/- 0.75 L/min before and 1.9 +/- 0.7 L/min during spinal anesthesia), or on mean hepatic plasma flow (2.01 +/- 0.5 L/min before and 1.93 +/- 0.5 L/min during spinal anesthesia). The systemic clearance and elimination half-life of propranolol were also unchanged by spinal anesthesia (0.9 +/- 0.23 L/min on the first day, 0.7 +/- 0.1 L/min during spinal anesthesia; and 101 +/- 21 min on the first day, 115 +/- 16 min during spinal anesthesia, respectively). The volume of distribution (Vd) of propranolol was similarly unaffected by spinal anesthesia.

  3. The effect of supine exercise on the distribution of regional pulmonary blood flow measured using proton MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hall, E. T.; Sá, R. C.; Holverda, S.; Arai, T. J.; Dubowitz, D. J.; Theilmann, R. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    The Zone model of pulmonary perfusion predicts that exercise reduces perfusion heterogeneity because increased vascular pressure redistributes flow to gravitationally nondependent lung, and causes dilation and recruitment of blood vessels. However, during exercise in animals, perfusion heterogeneity as measured by the relative dispersion (RD, SD/mean) is not significantly decreased. We evaluated the effect of exercise on pulmonary perfusion in six healthy supine humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired at rest, while exercising (∼27% of maximal oxygen consumption) using a MRI-compatible ergometer, and in recovery. Images were acquired in most of the right lung in the sagittal plane at functional residual capacity, using a 1.5-T MR scanner equipped with a torso coil. Perfusion was measured using arterial spin labeling (ASL-FAIRER) and regional proton density using a fast multiecho gradient-echo sequence. Perfusion images were corrected for coil-based signal heterogeneity, large conduit vessels removed and quantified (in ml·min−1·ml−1) (perfusion), and also normalized for density and quantified (in ml·min−1·g−1) (density-normalized perfusion, DNP) accounting for tissue redistribution. DNP increased during exercise (11.1 ± 3.5 rest, 18.8 ± 2.3 exercise, 13.2 ± 2.2 recovery, ml·min−1·g−1, P < 0.0001), and the increase was largest in nondependent lung (110 ± 61% increase in nondependent, 63 ± 35% in mid, 70 ± 33% in dependent, P < 0.005). The RD of perfusion decreased with exercise (0.93 ± 0.21 rest, 0.73 ± 0.13 exercise, 0.94 ± 0.18 recovery, P < 0.005). The RD of DNP showed a similar trend (0.82 ± 0.14 rest, 0.75 ± 0.09 exercise, 0.81 ± 0.10 recovery, P = 0.13). In conclusion, in contrast to animal studies, in supine humans, mild exercise decreased perfusion heterogeneity, consistent with Zone model predictions. PMID:24356515

  4. Spinal Injuries in Children

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Saumyajit

    2012-01-01

    About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia. PMID:22855681

  5. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  6. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wittlich, F; Kohno, K; Mies, G; Norris, D G; Hoehn-Berlage, M

    1995-01-01

    NMR bolus track measurements were correlated with autoradiographically determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The NMR method is based on bolus infusion of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and high-speed T*2-sensitive NMR imaging. The first pass of the contrast agent through the image plane causes a transient decrease of the signal intensity. This time course of the signal intensity is transformed into relative concentrations of the contrast agent in each pixel. The mean transit time and relative blood flow and volume are calculated from such indicator dilution curves. We investigated whether this NMR technique correctly expresses the relative rCBF. The relative blood flow data, calculated from NMR bolus track experiments, and the absolute values of iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography were compared. A linear relationship was observed, indicating the proportionality of the transient NMR signal change with CBF. Excellent interindividual reproducibility of calibration constants is observed (r = 0.963). For a given NMR protocol, bolus track measurements calibrated with autoradiography after the experiment allow determination of absolute values for rCBF and regional blood volume. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892189

  7. Optimizing Hemodynamic Support of Acute Spinal Cord Injury Based on Injury Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 sheds light on the dynamic changes that occur with oxygenation , blood flow, and metabolic responses in the penumbra of the traumatic spinal cord...critical reduction of substrate (glucose/ oxygen ) delivery. Following decompression only partially recovery was observed for blood flow, oxygen and glucose...and persisted for several hours. Distal to the injury we also observed a decrease in spinal cord oxygenation although more progressive over time

  8. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation.

  9. Changes in spinal alignment.

    PubMed

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body.

  10. Paralysis following stereotactic spinal irradiation in pigs suggests a tolerance constraint for single-session irradiation of the spinal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Medin, Paul M; Foster, Ryan D; van der Kogel, Albert J; Meyer, Jeffrey; Sayre, James W; Huang, Hao; Öz, Orhan K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paralysis observed during a study of vertebral bone tolerance to single-session irradiation led to further study of the dose-related incidence of motor peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods During a bone tolerance study, cervical spinal nerves of 15 minipigs received bilateral irradiation to levels C5–C8 distributed into three dose groups with mean maximum spinal nerve doses of 16.9±0.3Gy(n=5), 18.7±0.5Gy(n=5), and 24.3±0.8Gy(n=5). Changes developing in the gait of the group of pigs receiving a mean maximum dose of 24.3 Gy after 10 – 15 weeks led to the irradiation of two additional animals. They received mean maximum dose of 24.9±0.2 Gy(n=2), targeted to the left spinal nerves of C5 – C8. The followup period was one year. Histologic sections from spinal cords and available spinal nerves were evaluated. MR imaging was performed on pigs in the 24.9Gy group. Results No pig that received a maximum spinal nerve point dose ≤19.0Gy experienced a change in gait while all pigs that received ≥24.1Gy experienced paralysis. Extensive degeneration and fibrosis were observed in irradiated spinal nerves from the 24.9Gy animals. All spinal cord sections were normal. Irradiated spinal nerve regions showed increased thickness and hypointensity on MR imaging. Conclusion The single-session tolerance dose of the cervical spinal nerves lies between 19.0 and 24.1 Gy for this model. PMID:24060168

  11. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region.

  12. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  13. Organization of ascending spinal projections in Caiman crocodilus.

    PubMed

    Ebbesson, S O; Goodman, D C

    1981-01-01

    Ascending spinal projections in the caiman (Caiman crocodilus) were demonstrated with Nauta and Fink-Heimer methods following hemisections of the third spinal segment in a series of twelve animals. These results were compared with earlier data in the literature obtained from a turtle, a snake, and a lizard using the same experimental and histological procedures. The results show remarkable similarities considering that each species represents a different reptilian order with different evolutionary history and habitat. However, the caiman displays several important peculiarities. Although the dorsal funiculus of the caiman contains the largest number of ascending spinal projections of the four species examined, this funiculus has not differentiated into cuneate and gracile fasciculi as is the case in the tegu lizard. The ventro-lateral ascending spinal projections follow a fundamentally similar general morphologic pattern in the four species with only minor variations. The anatomical arrangement in the caiman and tegu lizard appears most similar in the high cervical and the medullary regions; however, this is not the case in midbrain and thalamic regions where considerably more extensive projections are seen in the caiman. In the caiman an extensive spinal connection to the ventro-lateral nucleus of the dorsal thalamus is present; this connection is reminiscent of the mammalian spinal projection to the ventro-basal complex. The caiman has in common with the other three reptilian species a small projection to another dorsal thalamic region that is apparently homologous to the mammalian intralaminar nuclei, which are the destination of the mammalian paleospinothalamic tract.

  14. Spinal tuberculosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-12-01

    The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions.

  15. Identification and characterization of a genome-wide significant region associated with red blood cell phenotypes in domestic sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome wide association study (GWAS) investigating red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes was performed with over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three economically important breeds in the US (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, hereafter the discovery SNP) sh...

  16. Effects of sounds generated by a dental turbine and a stream on regional cerebral blood flow and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Riho; Kudo, Takumu; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yamamura, Chie; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-01

    Effects of sound generated by a dental turbine and a small stream (murmur) and the effects of no sound (null, control) on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemodynamic changes (oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations) in the frontal cortex were measured in 18 young volunteers. Questionnaires completed by the volunteers were also evaluated. Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Finapres technique were employed to measure hemodynamic and vascular responses, respectively. The subjects assessed the murmur, null, and turbine sounds as "pleasant," "natural," and "unpleasant," respectively. Blood pressures changed in response to the murmur, null, and turbine sound stimuli as expected: lower than the control level, unchanged, and higher than the control level, respectively. Mean blood pressure values tended to increase gradually over the recording time even during the null sound stimulation, possibly because of the recording environment. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations decreased drastically in response to the dental turbine sound, while deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations remained unchanged and thus total hemoglobin concentrations decreased (due to the decreased oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations). Hemodynamic responses to the murmuring sound and the null sound were slight or unchanged, respectively. Surprisingly, heart rate measurements remained fairly stable in response to the stimulatory noises. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that sound generated by a dental turbine may affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism as well as autonomic responses.

  17. Selective α1-adrenergic blockade disturbs the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Igor A; Mattos, João D; Campos, Monique O; Machado, Alessandro C; Rocha, Marcos P; Rocha, Natalia G; Vianna, Lauro C; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2016-06-01

    Handgrip-induced increases in blood flow through the contralateral artery that supplies the cortical representation of the arm have been hypothesized as a consequence of neurovascular coupling and a resultant metabolic attenuation of sympathetic cerebral vasoconstriction. In contrast, sympathetic restraint, in theory, inhibits changes in perfusion of the cerebral ipsilateral blood vessels. To confirm whether sympathetic nerve activity modulates cerebral blood flow distribution during static handgrip (SHG) exercise, beat-to-beat contra- and ipsilateral internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA; Doppler) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer) were simultaneously assessed in nine healthy men (27 ± 5 yr), both at rest and during a 2-min SHG bout (30% maximal voluntary contraction), under two experimental conditions: 1) control and 2) α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. End-tidal carbon dioxide (rebreathing system) was clamped throughout the study. SHG induced increases in MAP (+31.4 ± 10.7 mmHg, P < 0.05) and contralateral ICA blood flow (+80.9 ± 62.5 ml/min, P < 0.05), while no changes were observed in the ipsilateral vessel (-9.8 ± 39.3 ml/min, P > 0.05). The reduction in ipsilateral ICA vascular conductance (VC) was greater compared with contralateral ICA (contralateral: -0.8 ± 0.8 vs. ipsilateral: -2.6 ± 1.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05). Prazosin was effective to induce α1-blockade since phenylephrine-induced increases in MAP were greatly reduced (P < 0.05). Under α1-adrenergic receptor blockade, SHG evoked smaller MAP responses (+19.4 ± 9.2, P < 0.05) but similar increases in ICAs blood flow (contralateral: +58.4 ± 21.5 vs. ipsilateral: +54.3 ± 46.2 ml/min, P > 0.05) and decreases in VC (contralateral: -0.4 ± 0.7 vs. ipsilateral: -0.4 ± 1.0 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P > 0.05). These findings indicate a role of sympathetic nerve activity in the regulation of cerebral blood flow distribution during SHG.

  18. Ischemic spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Golomb, Meredith R.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord infarction in children is a rare condition which is becoming more widely recognized. There are few reports in the pediatric literature characterizing etiology, diagnosis, treament and prognosis. The risk factors for pediatric ischemic spinal cord infarction include obstruction of blood flow associated with cardiovascular compromise or malformation, iatrogenic or traumatic vascular inujury, cerebellar herniation, thrombotic or embolic disease, infection, and vasculitis. In many children the cause of spinal cord ischemia in the absence of vertebral fracture is unknown. Imaging diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia is often difficult due to the small transverse area of the cord, cerebrospinal fluid artifact and inadequate resolution of MRI. Physical therapy is the most important treatment option. The prognosis is dependent on the level of spinal cord damage, early identification and reversal of ischemia, and follow-up with intensive physical therapy and medical support. In addition to summarizing the literature regarding spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture, this review article adds two cases to the literature which highlight the difficulties and controversies in the management of this condition. PMID:17437902

  19. Seasonal variation in blood pressure and its relationship with outdoor temperature in 10 diverse regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank

    PubMed Central

    LEWINGTON, Sarah; LI, LiMing; SHERLIKER, Paul; GUO, Yu; MILLWOOD, Iona; BIAN, Zheng; WHITLOCK, Gary; YANG, Ling; COLLINS, Rory; CHEN, Junshi; WU, Xianping; WANG, Shaojie; HU, Yihe; JIANG, Li; YANG, Liqiu; LACEY, Ben; PETO, Richard; CHEN, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mean blood pressure varies moderately with outdoor air temperature in many Western populations. Substantial uncertainty exists, however, about the strength of the relationship in other populations, and the relevance to it of age, adiposity, medical treatment, climate and housing conditions. Methods To investigate the relationship of blood pressure with season and outdoor temperature, we analysed cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 506 673 adults aged 30-79 recruited from ten diverse urban and rural regions in China. Analyses related mean blood pressure – overall and in various subgroups – to mean local outdoor temperature. Results The mean difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) was 10 mmHg overall, and was more extreme, on average, in rural than in urban areas (12 vs. 8 mmHg; p for interaction<0.0001). Above 5°C, SBP was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in all ten areas studied, with 5.7 (SE 0.04) mmHg higher SBP per 10°C lower outdoor temperature. The association was stronger in older people and in those with lower body mass index. At lower temperatures there was no evidence of an association among participants who reported having home central heating. Conclusions Blood pressure was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in Chinese adults across a range of climatic conditions, although access to home central heating appeared to remove much of the association during the winter months. Seasonal variation in blood pressure should be considered in the clinical management of hypertension. PMID:22688260

  20. The effect of lidocaine on regional blood flows and cardiac output in the non-stressed and the stressed foetal lamb.

    PubMed

    Friesen, C; Yarnell, R; Bachman, C; Meatheral, R; Biehl, D

    1986-03-01

    Lidocaine has been used in obstetrical anaesthesia for many years but there are still concerns about possible adverse affects of this drug on the foetus in utero. To examine in greater detail the effects of lidocaine in the foetus, the following two-part study was done. In Part A, seven pregnant ewes were surgically prepared with maternal and foetal arterial and venous catheters. After recovery from surgery lidocaine was infused intravenously, initially into the ewe and then into both ewe and foetus. Blood lidocaine concentrations were monitored and foetal regional blood flows were determined by the radioactive microsphere method. In Part B, 14 ewes were prepared as in Part A with the addition of an inflatable loop around the umbilical cord. During each study the loop was inflated to partially compress the cord and produce foetal acidosis. In all animals this cord compression was maintained for 30 minutes. In seven animals a lidocaine infusion was given, to examine the effect of lidocaine in the acidotic foetus. Organ blood flows were measured and cardiac outputs calculated. The normal foetuses in Part A showed no change in organ blood flow or cardiac output with arterial lidocaine concentrations of 1.5-3.4 mg X ml-1. In the acidotic foetuses, lidocaine concentrations of 1.4-1.5 mg X ml-1 produced a tachycardia and an increase in cerebral blood flow compared to the control acidotic foetuses. There were no other significant changes. We conclude that arterial lidocaine concentrations of less than 3.5 mg X ml-1 do not produce significant alterations in organ blood flow in normal foetal lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  2. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Joelle C; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-07-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma.

  3. Thoracic rat spinal cord contusion injury induces remote spinal gliogenesis but not neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Franz, Steffen; Ciatipis, Mareva; Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement.

  4. Thoracic Rat Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Induces Remote Spinal Gliogenesis but Not Neurogenesis or Gliogenesis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement. PMID:25050623

  5. The spinal cord of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles; Sengul, Gulgun; Tanaka, Ikuko; Rusznak, Zoltan; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The marmoset spinal cord possesses all the characteristic features of a typical mammalian spinal cord, but with some interesting variation in the levels of origin of the limb nerves. In our study Nissl and ChAT sections of the each segment of the spinal cord in two marmosets (Ma5 and Ma8), we found that the spinal cord can be functionally and anatomically divided into six regions: the prebrachial region (C1 to C3); the brachial region (C4 to C8) - segments supplying the upper limb; the post-brachial region (T1 to L1) - containing the sympathetic outflow, and supplying the hypaxial muscles of the body wall; the crural region (L2 to L5) - segments supplying the lower limb; the postcrural region (L6) - containing the parasympathetic outflow; and the caudal region (L7 to Co4) - supplying the tail. In the rat, mouse, and rhesus monkey, the prebrachial region consists of segments C1 to C4 (with the phrenic nucleus located at the C4 segment), and the brachial region extends from C5 to T1 inclusive. The prefixing of the upper limb outflow in these two marmosets mirrors the finding in the literature that a large C4 contribution to the brachial plexus is common in humans.

  6. Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.

    PubMed

    Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H

    1995-01-21

    The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen.

  7. Alterations of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Regional Perfusion in Tumor Development: MRI Insights from a Rat C6 Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Huhndorf, Monika; Moussavi, Amir; Kramann, Nadine; Will, Olga; Hattermann, Kirsten; Stadelmann, Christine; Jansen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenetic medications play an important role in progression and therapy of glioblastoma. In this context, in vivo characterization of the blood-brain-barrier and tumor vascularization may be important for individual prognosis and therapy optimization. Methods We analyzed perfusion and capillary permeability of C6-gliomas in rats at different stages of tumor-growth by contrast enhanced MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI at 7 Tesla. The analyses included maps of relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) and signal recovery derived from DSC data over a time period of up to 35 days after tumor cell injections. Results In all rats tumor progression was accompanied by temporal and spatial changes in CBV and capillary permeability. A leakage of the blood-brain barrier (slow contrast enhancement) was observed as soon as the tumor became detectable on T2-weighted images. Interestingly, areas of strong capillary permeability (fast signal enhancement) were predominantly localized in the center of the tumor. In contrast, the tumor rim was dominated by an increased CBV and showed the highest vessel density compared to the tumor center and the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by histology. Conclusion Substantial regional differences in the tumor highlight the importance of parameter maps in contrast or in addition to region-of-interest analyses. The data vividly illustrate how MRI including contrast-enhanced and DSC-MRI may contribute to a better understanding of tumor development. PMID:28005983

  8. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  9. Inactivation of neuronal function in the amygdaloid region reduces tail artery blood flow alerting responses in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Kulasekara, K; De Menezes, R C; Ootsuka, Y; Blessing, W W

    2013-01-03

    Few studies have investigated whether neuronal function in the amygdaloid complex is necessary for the occurrence of the cardiovascular response to natural (unconditioned) environmental threats. In the present investigation in conscious unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats we inactivated neuronal function in the amygdaloid complex acutely (bilateral muscimol injections) or chronically (unilateral or bilateral ibotenic acid injections) and measured the effect on sudden falls in tail artery blood flow elicited by non-noxious salient stimuli (sympathetic cutaneous vasomotor alerting responses, SCVARs). After acute bilateral injection of vehicle (200nl Ringer's solution) the SCVAR index was 81 ± 2%, indicating that tail blood flow was reduced by 81% in response to the salient stimuli. After acute bilateral injection of muscimol (1 nmol in 200 nl of Ringer's solution) into the amygdaloid complex the SCVAR index was 49 ± 5%, indicating that tail blood flow was reduced by 49% in response to the salient stimuli (p<0.01 versus vehicle, n=7 rats for vehicle and 6 for muscimol). One week after unilateral ibotenic acid lesions, the SCVAR index was 68 ± 3%, significantly less than 90 ± 1%, the corresponding value after unilateral injection of vehicle (p<0.01, n=6 rats in each group). After bilateral ibotenic acid lesions the SCVAR index was 52 ± 4%, significantly less than 93 ± 1%, the corresponding value after bilateral injection of vehicle (p<0.001, n=6 rats in each group). Ibotenic acid caused extensive neuronal destruction of the whole amygdaloid complex, as well as lateral temporal lobe structures including the piriform cortex. Our results demonstrate that the amygdaloid complex plays an important role in mediating the tail artery vasoconstriction that occurs in rats in response to the animal's perception of a salient stimulus, redirecting blood to areas of the body with more immediate metabolic requirements.

  10. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.; Manohar, M.; Lundeen, G.

    1983-08-01

    To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value) and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.

  11. Glycine: an important potential component of spinal shock.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R K; Robertson, C S; Goodman, J C

    1993-08-01

    Amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) play a major role in maintenance of muscle tone. Abnormal AANT concentrations are associated with hyper- or hypotonic states. Flaccidity from spinal shock commonly occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may be associated with changes in AANT concentrations. Ischemic SCIs created in the lumbar region of rabbits by intraaortic balloon occlusion produced spastic or flaccid injuries. Microdialysis sampling of AANTs from the injured segmental structures was done 3 days after SCI. Evoked potentials were used to monitor spinal cord stability. No significant changes in AANT levels occurred in the spastic or flaccid group after 4 hour sampling. However, flaccid animals had baseline glycine levels 2-3 times higher (p < 0.001) than spastic animals or controls. High concentrations of the inhibitory AANT glycine is associated with flaccidity following SCI, or spinal shock, but not spasticity. Glycinergic compounds directed toward suppression of excess muscle tone deserve further study.

  12. Laparoscopic appendectomy under spinal anesthesia with dexmedetomidine infusion

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Go-Woon; Kim, Min-Su; Yang, Hun-Ju; Park, Dong-Ho; Cho, Choon-Kyu; Kwon, Hee-Uk; Kang, Po-Soon; Moon, Ju-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is rarely performed under regional anesthesia because of pneumoperitoneum-related problems. We expected that dexmedetomidine would compensate for the problems arising from spinal anesthesia alone. Thus, we performed a feasibility study of spinal anesthesia with intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion. Methods Twenty-six patients undergoing LA received spinal anesthesia with intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion. During surgery, the patient's pain or discomfort was controlled by supplemental fentanyl or ketamine injection, and all adverse effects were evaluated. Results No patient required conversion to general anesthesia, and all operations were completed laparoscopically without conversion to open surgery. Seventeen (65.4%) patients required supplemental injection of fentanyl or ketamine. Bradycardia occurred in seven (26.9%) patients. Conclusions Spinal anesthesia with dexmedetomidine infusion may be feasible for LA. However, additional analgesia, sedation, and careful attention to the potential development of bradycardia are needed for a successful anesthetic outcome. PMID:25368782

  13. Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Migrated from Traumatic Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin; Koh, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Very rarely, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) can occur without any direct spinal injury in patients with traumatic intracranial SAH. A-59-year-old male with traumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with pain and numbness in his buttock and thigh two days after trauma. Pain and numbness rapidly worsened and perianal numbness and voiding difficulty began on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraspinal hemorrhage in the lumbosacral region. The cauda equina was displaced and compressed. Emergent laminectomy and drainage of hemorrhage were performed and SSAH was found intraoperatively. The symptoms were relieved immediately after the surgery. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who present with delayed pain or neurological deficits should be evaluated for intraspinal hemorrhage promptly, even when the patients had no history of direct spinal injury and had no apparent symptoms related to the spinal injury in the initial period of trauma. PMID:27857928

  14. Data bank of optical properties of biological tissue and blood in the visible and near infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Bui, Lilia; Oleinik, Tatiana V.; Artishevsky, Nelli; Prigoun, Natalia; Sevkovsky, Jakov; Mokhort, Tatiana

    1996-12-01

    The data bank contains optical, ordinary biochemical and biophysical information on 120 venous blood samples of donors, healthy persons, patients with high pathology, 60 tissue samples. The optical parameters include diffuse reflection R((lambda) ) and transmission T((lambda) ) coefficients for optically thick layers, the absorption K((lambda) ) and extinction (epsilon) ((lambda) ) spectra, oxygenation degree CO2, parameter p determined by sizes and shapes of cells and their aggregates, refractive index of a disperse phase relative to surrounding media, and cooperative effects at high relative concentration. The peculiarities in absorption K((lambda) spectra are connected with different pathologies. It is shown from K((lambda) ) that the grade of pathology connected with the concentration of hemoglobin and mithohondrion together with oxygenation degree of blood and tissues, with the pathological hemoglobin's forms and its decomposition products of different levels. Parameter p is an important diagnostic parameter. We consider that it is necessary to include the oxygenation degree and erythrocyte's aggregation parameter to extend the range of common diagnostic parameters of blood by the first rota.

  15. Regional disturbances in blood flow and metabolism in equine limb wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette A; Petersen, Lars J; Bundgaard, Louise; Toft, Nils; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    As in other fibroproliferative disorders, hypoxia has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolism and blood flow locally in full-thickness wounds healing with (limb wounds) and without (body wounds) formation of EGT. Microdialysis was used to recover endogenous metabolites from the wounds, and laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow. Measurements were performed before wounding and 1-28 days after wounding. Blood flow was consistently lower in limb wounds than in body wounds throughout the study period with no change over time. After wounding and throughout the study period, the glucose concentration was significantly lower in limb wounds than in body wounds, whereas the lactate level showed a significantly higher concentration in limb wounds. The lactate/glucose ratio displayed a significant difference between body and limb wounds. In conclusion, the metabolic disturbances may suggest an inadequate oxygen supply during the wound healing process in equine limb wounds healing with EGT. This may be related to the inherently decreased perfusion in the wound bed of limb wounds.

  16. Effectiveness and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Deformity Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Yong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2017-01-01

    Objective Spinal deformity surgery has the potential risk of massive blood loss. To reduce surgical bleeding, the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) became popular in spinal surgery, recently. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intra-operative TXA use to reduce surgical bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. Methods A total of 132 consecutive patients undergoing multi-level posterior spinal segmental instrumented fusion (≥5 levels) were analyzed retrospectively. Primary outcome measures included intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion amount and rate of transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative transfusion amount, rate of transfusion, and complications associated with TXA or allogeneic blood transfusions. Results The number of patients was 89 in TXA group and 43 in non-TXA group. There were no significant differences in demographic or surgical traits between the groups except hypertension. The EBL was significantly lower in TXA group than non-TXA group (841 vs. 1336 mL, p=0.002). TXA group also showed less intra-operative and postoperative transfusion requirements (544 vs. 812 mL, p=0.012; 193 vs. 359 mL, p=0.034). Based on multiple regression analysis, TXA use could reduce surgical bleeding by 371 mL (37 % of mean EBL). Complication rate was not different between the groups. Conclusion TXA use can effectively reduce the amount of intra-operative bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. Future randomized controlled study could confirm the routine use of TXA in major spinal surgery. PMID:28061495

  17. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

  18. Imaging studies in patients with spinal pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Design Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Setting Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. Participants A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Main outcome measures Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). Results There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient’s spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her

  19. How to prevent spinal cord injury during endovascular repair of thoracic aortic disease.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naomichi

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of spinal cord injury in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been 3-5 % from recent major papers where sacrifice of the critical intercostal arteries is inevitable by a stent graft. Hemodynamic stability, which depends on a network of blood vessels around the cord is most important not only during but also after stent-graft deployment. High risk factors of spinal cord injury during endovascular aortic repair are (1) coverage of the left subclavian artery, (2) extensive coverage of long segments of the thoracic aorta, (3) prior downstream aortic repair, (4) compromising important intercostal (T8-L1), vertebral, pelvic and hypogastric collaterals, and (5) shaggy aorta. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative managements have been required to prevent spinal cord injury with TEVAR. For imaging assessment of blood supply to spinal cord including Adamkiewicz artery, prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid drainage is mandatory, and monitoring motor-evoked potential is recommended for high risk factors of spinal cord injury. Mean arterial pressure should be maintained over 90 mmHg after stent-graft placement for a while to prevent delayed spinal cord ischemia in high-risk patients of spinal cord ischemia. Finally, because spinal cord injury during TEVAR is not rare and negligible, perioperative care during TEVAR should be strictly performed according to the protocol proposed by each cardiovascular team.

  20. [Therapy progress of spinal cord compression by metastatic spinal tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-sheng; He, Qi-zhen; Liu, Shu-bin; Jiang, Wei-gang; Lei, Ming-xing

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic epidural compression of the spinal cord is a significant source of morbidity in patients with systemic cancer. With improvment of oncotheray, survival period in the patients is improving and metastatic cord compression is en- countered increasingly often. Surgical management performed for early circumferential decompression for the spinal cord com- pression with spine instability, and spine reconstruction performed. Patients with radiosensitive tumours without spine instabili- ty, radiotherapy is an effective therapy. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery and minimally invasive techniques, such as vertebro- plasty and kyphoplasty, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation, radiofrequency ablation are promising options for treatment of cer- tain selected patients with spinal metastases.

  1. In Vivo Measurement of Cervical Spinal Cord Deformation During Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Liu, Jie; Yung, Andrew; Cripton, Peter A; Kozlowski, Piotr; Oxland, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The spinal cord undergoes physical deformation during traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), which results in biological damage. This study demonstrates a novel approach, using magnetic resonance imaging and image registration techniques, to quantify the three-dimensional deformation of the cervical spinal cord in an in vivo rat model. Twenty-four male rats were subjected to one of two clinically relevant mechanisms of TSCI (i.e. contusion and dislocation) inside of a MR scanner using a novel apparatus, enabling imaging of the deformed spinal cords. The displacement fields demonstrated qualitative differences between injury mechanisms. Three-dimensional Lagrangian strain fields were calculated, and the results from the contusion injury mechanism were deemed most reliable. Strain field error was assessed using a Monte Carlo approach, which showed that simulated normal strain error experienced a bias, whereas shear strain error did not. In contusion injury, a large region of dorso-ventral compressive strain was observed under the impactor which extended into the ventral region of the spinal cord. High tensile lateral strains under the impactor and compressive lateral strains in the lateral white matter were also observed in contusion. The ability to directly observe and quantify in vivo spinal cord deformation informs our knowledge of the mechanics of TSCI.

  2. Regional differences in the coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes in response to activation: Implications for BOLD-fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau M.; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E.; Liang, Christine; Lansing, Amy E.; Buxton, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes is a sensitive tool for mapping brain activation, but quantitative interpretation of the BOLD response is problematic. The BOLD response is primarily driven by cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, but is moderated by M, a scaling parameter reflecting baseline deoxyhemoglobin, and n, the ratio of fractional changes in CBF to cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). We compared M and n between cortical (visual cortex, VC) and subcortical (lentiform nuclei, LN) regions using a quantitative approach based on calibrating the BOLD response with a hypercapnia experiment. Although M was similar in both regions (∼5.8%), differences in n (2.21±0.03 in VC and 1.58±0.03 in LN; Cohen d=1.71) produced substantially weaker (∼3.7×) subcortical than cortical BOLD responses relative to CMRO2 changes. Because of this strong sensitivity to n, BOLD response amplitudes cannot be interpreted as a quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes, particularly when comparing cortical and sub-cortical regions. PMID:18164629

  3. Regional differences in the coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes in response to activation: implications for BOLD-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Liang, Christine; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2008-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes is a sensitive tool for mapping brain activation, but quantitative interpretation of the BOLD response is problematic. The BOLD response is primarily driven by cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, but is moderated by M, a scaling parameter reflecting baseline deoxyhemoglobin, and n, the ratio of fractional changes in CBF to cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). We compared M and n between cortical (visual cortex, VC) and subcortical (lentiform nuclei, LN) regions using a quantitative approach based on calibrating the BOLD response with a hypercapnia experiment. Although M was similar in both regions (~5.8%), differences in n (2.21+/-0.03 in VC and 1.58+/-0.03 in LN; Cohen d=1.71) produced substantially weaker (~3.7x) subcortical than cortical BOLD responses relative to CMRO(2) changes. Because of this strong sensitivity to n, BOLD response amplitudes cannot be interpreted as a quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes, particularly when comparing cortical and subcortical regions.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow estimated by early PiB uptake is reduced in mild cognitive impairment and associated with age in an amyloid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gietl, Anton F; Warnock, Geoffrey; Riese, Florian; Kälin, Andrea M; Saake, Antje; Gruber, Esmeralda; Leh, Sandra E; Unschuld, Paul G; Kuhn, Felix P; Burger, Cyrill; Mu, Linjing; Seifert, Burkhardt; Nitsch, Roger M; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M; Buck, Alfred; Hock, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Early uptake of [(11)C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (ePiB, 0-6 minutes) estimates cerebral blood flow. We studied ePiB in 13 PiB-negative and 10 PiB-positive subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 23) and 11 PiB-positive and 74 PiB-negative cognitively healthy elderly control subjects (HCS, n = 85) in 6 bilateral volumes of interest: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus (hipp), temporoparietal region, superior parietal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus (parahipp), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the associations with cognitive status, age, amyloid deposition, and apolipoprotein E ε4-allele. We observed no difference in ePiB between PiB-positive and -negative subjects and carriers and noncarriers. EPiB decreased with age in PiB-positive subjects in bilateral superior parietal gyrus, bilateral temporoparietal region, right IFG, right PCC, and left parahippocampal gyrus but not in PiB-negative subjects. MCI had lower ePiB than HCS (left PCC, left IFG, and left and right hipp). Lowest ePiB values were found in MCI of 70 years and older, who also displayed high cortical PiB binding. This suggests that lowered regional cerebral blood flow indicated by ePiB is associated with age in the presence but not in the absence of amyloid pathology.

  5. Spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Krishnamohan, Prashanth; Berger, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) remains a relatively infrequent diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism identified, and the infectious source in SEA emanates from skin and soft tissue infections in about 20 % of instances. The thoracic spine is most often involved followed by the lumbar spine. The classic triad of fever, spinal pain, and neurological deficit is present in but a minority of patients. The appearance of neurological deficits with SEA has a significant impact on the prognosis; therefore, early diagnosis is imperative. Magnetic resonance imaging has permitted earlier diagnosis, although significant delays in diagnosis are common due to the nonspecific symptoms that frequently attend the disorder. Due to the rarity of this condition, there have been few randomized controlled trials to evaluate new treatment strategies, and most recommendations regarding treatment are based on case series studies often derived from the experiences at a single center.

  6. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  7. Neuroimaging tools to rate regional atrophy, subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism: consensus paper of the EADC

    PubMed Central

    Frisoni, G; Scheltens, P; Galluzzi, S; Nobili, F; Fox, N; Robert, P; Soininen, H; Wahlund, L; Waldemar, G; Salmon, E

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software. PMID:14570828

  8. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  9. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Ellanti, P; Morris, S

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  10. Low-dose 2D X-ray angiography enhancement using 2-axis PCA for the preservation of blood-vessel region and noise minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Geun; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kang, Ho Chul

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing 2D angiography while maintaining a low radiation dose has become an important research topic. However, it is difficult to enhance images while preserving vessel-structure details because X-ray noise and contrast blood vessels in 2D angiography have similar intensity distributions, which can lead to ambiguous images of vessel structures. In this paper, we propose a novel and fast vessel-enhancement method for 2D angiography. We apply filtering in the principal component analysis domain for vessel regions and background regions separately, using assumptions based on energy compaction. First, we identify an approximate vessel region using a Hessian-based method. Vessel and non-vessel regions are then represented sparsely by calculating their optimal bases separately. This is achieved by identifying periodic motion in the vessel region caused by the flow of the contrast medium through the blood vessels when viewed on the time axis. Finally, we obtain noise-free images by removing noise in the new coordinate domain for the optimal bases. Our method was validated for an X-ray system, using 10 low-dose sets for training and 20 low-dose sets for testing. The results were compared with those for a high-dose dataset with respect to noise-free images. The average enhancement rate was 93.11±0.71%. The average processing time for enhancing video comprising 50-70 frames was 0.80±0.35s, which is much faster than the previously proposed technique. Our method is applicable to 2D angiography procedures such as catheterization, which requires rapid and natural vessel enhancement.

  11. Prevalence of Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog-breakpoint cluster region fusions and correlation with peripheral blood parameters in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients in Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Ali Asghar; Shahsavar, Farhad; Gorji, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Kolsoum; Nazarabad, Vahideh Heydari; Bahmani, Banafsheh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic malignancy of myeloid linage associated with a significant increase in granulocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. CML diagnosis is based on detection of Philadelphia chromosome and “Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog” (ABL)-“breakpoint cluster region protein” fusions (ABL-BCR fusions). Aims: In this study, patients with CML morphology were studied according to ABL-BCR fusions and the relationship between the fusions and peripheral blood cell changes was examined. Materials and Methods: All patients suspected to chronic myeloproliferative disorders in Lorestan Province visiting subspecialist hematology clinics who were confirmed by oncologist were studied over a period of 5 years. After completing basic data questionnaire, blood samples were obtained with informed consent from the patients. Blood cell count and morphology were investigated and RNA was extracted from blood samples. cDNA was synthesized from RNA and ABL-BCR fusions including b3a2 and b2a2 (protein 210 kd or p210), e1a2 (protein 190 kdor p190), and e19a2 (protein 230 kdor p230) were studied by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) fusions was also studied. The prevalence of mutations and their correlation with the blood parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: Of 58 patients positive for ABL-BCR fusion, 18 (30.5%) had b2a2 fusion, 37 (62.71%) had b3a2 fusion and three (3.08%) had e1a2 fusion. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) was not observed. There was no significant correlation between ABL-BCR fusions and white blood cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobin concentration. Conclusions: The ABL-BCR fusions in Lorestan Province were similar to other studies in Iran, and b3a2 fusion had the highest prevalence in the studied patients studied. PMID:27857896

  12. Spinal arteriovenous shunts in children.

    PubMed

    Davagnanam, Indran; Toma, Ahmed K; Brew, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare and, in contrast to those in adults, are often congenital or associated with underlying genetic disorders. These are thought to be a more severe and complete phenotypic spectrum of all spinal arteriovenous shunts seen in the overall spinal shunt population. The pediatric presentation thus accounts for its association with significant morbidity and, in general, a more challenging treatment process compared with the adult presentation.

  13. [Information analysis of spinal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Lobko, P I; Kovaleva, D V; Kovalchuk, I E; Pivchenko, P G; Rudenok, V V; Davydova, L A

    2000-01-01

    Information parameters (entropia and redundancy) of cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia of albino rat foetuses, mature animals (cat and dog) and human subjects were analysed. Information characteristics of spinal ganglia were shown to be level-specified and to depend on their functional peculiarities. Information parameters of thoracic spinal ganglia of man and different animals are specie specified and may be used in assessment of morphological structures as information systems.

  14. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  15. Protrusion of a rod into the spinal canal 10 years after segmental lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Wang, Yipeng; Wan, Xueshuai; Zhang, Jialu; Qiu, Guixing; Yu, Keyi

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this article is to report an unusual case of a spinal rod that protruded into the spinal canal after lumbar spine surgery.Only 4 cases of spinal rod migration with protrusion into the spinal canal have been reported. This is the first report of a case involving the use of posterior low lumbar segmental instrumentation with a screw-rod system. The left side of the rod gradually migrated and finally protruded into the canal and compressed the cord.A 60-year-old woman presented with pain and numbness of the posterior aspect of the left leg after a long-distance walk. Intermittent claudication became worse, and she developed pain and numbness in the perineal region. An x-ray showed that the left side of a spinal rod among the segmental spinal instruments that had been placed 10 years previously had protruded into the spinal canal.We removed the rod and decompressed the canal at the level of L5-S1. The patient became totally asymptomatic.Rods used as spinal instrumentation have the possibility of protruding into the spinal canal and endangering the nervous system. Long-term follow-up with radiological examinations should be conducted upon completion of spinal operations conducting using instrumentation.

  16. Protrusion of a rod into the spinal canal 10 years after segmental lumbar spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Wang, Yipeng; Wan, Xueshuai; Zhang, Jialu; Qiu, Guixing; Yu, Keyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this article is to report an unusual case of a spinal rod that protruded into the spinal canal after lumbar spine surgery. Only 4 cases of spinal rod migration with protrusion into the spinal canal have been reported. This is the first report of a case involving the use of posterior low lumbar segmental instrumentation with a screw–rod system. The left side of the rod gradually migrated and finally protruded into the canal and compressed the cord. A 60-year-old woman presented with pain and numbness of the posterior aspect of the left leg after a long-distance walk. Intermittent claudication became worse, and she developed pain and numbness in the perineal region. An x-ray showed that the left side of a spinal rod among the segmental spinal instruments that had been placed 10 years previously had protruded into the spinal canal. We removed the rod and decompressed the canal at the level of L5-S1. The patient became totally asymptomatic. Rods used as spinal instrumentation have the possibility of protruding into the spinal canal and endangering the nervous system. Long-term follow-up with radiological examinations should be conducted upon completion of spinal operations conducting using instrumentation. PMID:28328849

  17. Upper cervical spinal cord gunshot injury without bone destruction☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Seçer, Mehmet; Ulutaş, Murat; Yayla, Erdal; Çınar, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report describes a rare case of the gunshot injury of the spine and spinal cord. PRESENTATION OF CASE A rare case of the bullet lodged intra-durally in the upper cervical region without damaging the vertebrae or the spinal cord. The bullet was removed as microneurosurgical and duraplasty was performed. DISCUSSION Surgical management of the gunshot wounds of the spine and spinal cord is not widely advocated and controversial. CONCLUSION Advances in microneurosurgical instrumentation and microscopic techniques may open up a new era of surgical treatment of spinal cord gunshot wounds. PMID:24566426

  18. Residue levels of DDE and PCBs in the blood serum of women in the Port Said region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic; Loutfy, Naglaa; El Shiekh, Einas

    2002-01-04

    An investigation was conducted to detect residues of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood serum samples collected from a cohort of fasting females attending the health insurance outpatient clinic at Port Said between July 1999 and July 2000. Females involved in the study included 43 females diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, 21 female suffering benign breast disease, and 11 normal healthy females. Serum was separated and its contents of DDE and PCBs were extracted and determined, using gas chromatography, equipped with electron capture detector. Mean residues of DDE detected in the three examined groups of females were 41+/-5.2, 48+/-6.2 and 31+/-2.5ng/g for breast cancer cases, benign breast disease cases and controls, respectively, indicating some significantly less residues in blood serum of control females. While PCBs residues detected were 54+/-17, 59+/-23 and 61+/-21ng/g, for the three groups, respectively. Residues of DDE detected in all females alike in the present study are about 15 times higher than residues detected in Canada and The Netherlands.

  19. Dopamine from the brain promotes spinal motor neuron generation during development and adult regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Michell M; Norris, Anneliese; Ohnmacht, Jochen; Patani, Rickie; Zhong, Zhen; Dias, Tatyana B; Kuscha, Veronika; Scott, Angela L; Chen, Yu-Chia; Rozov, Stanislav; Frazer, Sarah L; Wyatt, Cameron; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Patton, E Elizabeth; Panula, Pertti; Chandran, Siddharthan; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2013-06-10

    Coordinated development of brain stem and spinal target neurons is pivotal for the emergence of a precisely functioning locomotor system. Signals that match the development of these far-apart regions of the central nervous system may be redeployed during spinal cord regeneration. Here we show that descending dopaminergic projections from the brain promote motor neuron generation at the expense of V2 interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord by activating the D4a receptor, which acts on the hedgehog pathway. Inhibiting this essential signal during early neurogenesis leads to a long-lasting reduction of motor neuron numbers and impaired motor responses of free-swimming larvae. Importantly, during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish, endogenous dopamine promotes generation of spinal motor neurons, and dopamine agonists augment this process. Hence, we describe a supraspinal control mechanism for the development and regeneration of specific spinal cell types that uses dopamine as a signal.

  20. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  1. The effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow).

    PubMed

    Formby, C; Thomas, R G; Brown, W S; Halsey, J H

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  2. Effect of coumaphos on cholinesterase activity, hematology, and biochemical blood parameters of bovines in tropical regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pardío, Violeta T; Ibarra, Nelly De J; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; López, Karla M

    2007-05-01

    To assess the effect of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] exposure on physiological responses during bovine production, acetylcolinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities were measured in whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma of healthy male steers (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) sprayed with coumaphos at a non-lethal dose of 1 mg kg(- 1) body weight per day once every 14 (in vivo group) or 21 days (southern and central groups). Coumaphos topically administered at 1 mg/kg body weight per day to cattle under normal management practices in tropical areas produced a significant inhibition in erythrocyte (RBC) AChE and BuAChE activities when compared to baseline levels. RBC-AChE activity for the in vivo group decreased 71.3% (P < 0.05) and BuChE activity 59.1% (P < 0.05); RBC-AChE activity decreased 55.1% (P < 0.05) (southern group) and 43.4% (P < 0.05) (central group). Compared to the control specimens, steers from in vivo, southern, and central groups after 150 days of exposure had lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count, absolute lymphocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts. Decreases in RBC-AChE activities correlated with decreased lymphocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.01), erythrocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.003), and platelet counts (r = 0.841, p = 0.036). Significantly increased BUN levels (P < 0.05) correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = - 0.997, p = 0.047) and with the decrease in absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.883, p = 0.020) and lymphocyte (r = - 0.825, p = 0.043) counts; increased (P < 0.05) total plasma protein levels correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = -0.998, p = 0.043), absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.998, p = 0.040), lymphocyte (r = - 0.893, p = 0.017), and platelet (r = -0.855, p = 0.030) counts. The physiological responses correlated with the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition could be considered as early indicators or warning responses of bovine

  3. The Effect of Chronic Hypoxemia on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in the Conscious Dog After Acute Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Sanford P.; White, Francis C.; Bloor, Colin M.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia was produced in 16 dogs by surgical transposition of the caudal vena cava to the left atrium to determine if chronic hypoxemia would alter the response of the myocardium to acute ischemia. An electromagnetic aortic flow probe, left atrial tube, and occlusive cuff on the left circumflex coronary artery were permanently implanted in 11 hypoxemic and 26 normal control dogs. The animals were studied in the conscious state after recovery from the surgery. Dogs with hypoxemia had a blood hematocrit value of 54.3 ± 1.0% (SE), arterial PO2 of 43.2 ± 1.4 mm Hg, and 80.2 ± 1.6% oxygen saturation. There was no difference from control animals in the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight, but the right ventricular weight was significantly decreased in the hypoxemic dogs. Cardiac output from the left ventricle was twice that of the right ventricle. Aortic blood flow was 3.68 ± 0.22 liters/min in hypoxemic animals and 2.64 ± 0.19 liters/min in normal dogs. Myocardial blood flow measured with 15-μ diameter tracer microspheres was increased from 79 ± 10 and 59 ± 8 ml/100 g/min in left ventricular endocardial and epicardial halves, respectively, in normal dogs to 212 ± 48 and 172 ± 39 in dogs with chronic hypoxemia. There were no deaths in 10 hypoxemic dogs within 24 hours after complete circumflex coronary artery occlusion; 7 of 26 (27%) normal dogs died after circumflex coronary artery occlusion during the conscious state. Gross infarct size was extremely variable in both groups. Median infarct size was smaller in dogs with hypoxemia and was directly correlated with arterial PO2 in hypoxemic dogs. There was a mild, but statistically not significant, increase in the anastomotic index of hypoxemic dogs compared with that of normal animals, suggesting that a metabolic adaptive change rather than increased collateral circulation may have been responsible for the decreased mortality and smaller infarct size in hypoxemic dogs. PMID:596417

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Or, Matan; Peremans, Kathelijne; Martlé, Valentine; Vandermeulen, Eva; Bosmans, Tim; Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a (99m)technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area. Brain perfusion imaging alterations observed in the dogs with PSS and HE are similar to those in human patients with HE. These findings suggest that dogs with HE and PSS have altered perfusion of mainly the subcortical and the temporal regions of the brain.

  5. Spinal compression fractures due to pregnancy-associated osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, R; Kumar, Arun T; Kuzhimattam, Mathew John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To report on unique cases of spinal compression fractures due to pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) and to suggest a satisfactory treatment modality. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective study. We reviewed the data of 535 patients with osteoporotic spinal compression fractures over a period of 5-year. Two patients who developed spinal compression fractures due to PAO were identified and treated. Results: The clinical presentation and blood investigations ruled out other causes of osteoporosis. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients improved with medical management. Conclusion: Vertebral fractures due to PAO should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with back pain who are in the third trimester of pregnancy or in postpartum. Early recognition and appropriate conservative management would be necessary to prevent complications such as new vertebral fractures and chronic back pain. PMID:27891031

  6. Medicolegal cases for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    French, Keisha L; Daniels, Eldra W; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2013-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess are rare surgical emergencies resulting in significant neurologic deficits. Making the diagnosis for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess can be challenging; however, a delay in recognition and treatment can be devastating. The objective of this retrospective analysis study was to identify risk factors for an adverse outcome for the provider. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to identify a total of 19 cases of spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess filed against medical providers. Outcome data on trial verdicts, age, sex, initial site of injury, time to consultation, time to appropriate imaging studies, time to surgery, and whether a rectal examination was performed or not were recorded. The results demonstrated a significant association between time to surgery more than 48 hours and an unfavorable verdict for the provider. The degree of permanent neurologic impairment did not appear to affect the verdicts. Fifty-eight percent of the cases did not present with an initial deficit, including loss of bowel or bladder control. All medical professionals must maintain a high level of suspicion and act quickly. Physicians who are able to identify early clinical features, appropriately image, and treat within a 48 hour time frame have demonstrated a more favorable medicolegal outcome compared with their counterparts in filed lawsuits for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess cases.

  7. A computer-controlled scintiscanning system and associated computer graphic techniques for study of regional distribution of blood flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulam, C. M.; Dunnette, W. H.; Wood, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two methods whereby a digital computer may be used to regulate a scintiscanning process are discussed from the viewpoint of computer input-output software. The computer's function, in this case, is to govern the data acquisition and storage, and to display the results to the investigator in a meaningful manner, both during and subsequent to the scanning process. Several methods (such as three-dimensional maps, contour plots, and wall-reflection maps) have been developed by means of which the computer can graphically display the data on-line, for real-time monitoring purposes, during the scanning procedure and subsequently for detailed analysis of the data obtained. A computer-governed method for converting scintiscan data recorded over the dorsal or ventral surfaces of the thorax into fractions of pulmonary blood flow traversing the right and left lungs is presented.

  8. The Relief of Unilateral Painful Thoracic Radiculopathy without Headache from Remote Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    PubMed Central

    Son, Byung-chul; Ha, Sang-woo; Lee, Si-hoon; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) caused by spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks produces orthostatic headaches. Although upper arm pain or paresthesia is reportedly associated with SIH from spontaneous spinal CSF leak in the presence of orthostatic headache, low thoracic radicular pain due to spontaneous spinal CSF leak unassociated with postural headache is extremely rare. We report a 67-year-old female who presented with chronic, positional radicular right T11 pain. Computed tomography myelography showed a spontaneous lumbar spinal CSF leak at L2-3 and repeated lumbar epidural blood patches significantly alleviated chronic, positional, and lower thoracic radiculopathic pain. The authors speculate that a chronic spontaneous spinal CSF leak not severe enough to cause typical orthostatic headache or epidural CSF collection may cause local symptoms such as irritation of a remote nerve root. There might be considerable variabilities in the clinical features of SIH which can present a diagnostic challenge. PMID:27445613

  9. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross blood program started in 1940, under the leadership of Dr. Charles Drew. The Red Cross supplies ... Media Center Careers Our Mission Diversity Our Regions Leadership Donating Blood First Time Donors Platelet Donation Student ...

  10. [New analysis algorithm for regional cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient with dynamic SPECT and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine: graphical plot method].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Iida, H; Kanno, I

    1991-07-01

    We developed a new analysis algorithm based on multiple-time graphical plot to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient using dynamic SPECT and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). By assuming the 2-compartment model of the kinetic for 123I-IMP, we derived a linear relationship between the ratio of the tissue activity concentration at the times to the time-integral arterial concentration at the respective times (formula; see text) and the ratio of the time-integral tissue concentration to the time-integral arterial concentration (formula; see text), and demonstrated that the Y-intercept and X-intercept of the plot line represent the regional cerebral blood flow (K1) and partition coefficient (lambda), respectively. The slope of the line represents a clearance constant k2. The present method was applied to data on four normal subjects measured by dynamic SPECT. Values of the K1 and lambda for the gray matter were obtained 40.8 +/- 6.5 ml/100 g/min and 28.8 +/- 5.3 ml/g, respectively, and the corresponding values for the white matter were 29.1 +/- 4.7 ml/100 g/min and 28.1 +/- 7.1 ml/g. The new method enabled a rapid estimation of both K1 and lambda.

  11. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    PubMed

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  12. Comparison of blood smear, antigen detection, and nested-PCR methods for screening refugees from regions where malaria is endemic after a malaria outbreak in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ndao, Momar; Bandyayera, Etienne; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Gyorkos, Theresa W; MacLean, J Dick; Ward, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    The importation of malaria into a region where it is not endemic raises many concerns, including the timely delivery of appropriate care, safety of the blood supply, and the risk of autochthonous transmission. There is presently no consensus on the best way to screen mobile populations for malaria. Between August 2000 and March 2001, 535 refugees arrived in Quebec, Canada, from Tanzanian camps. Within 4 weeks of resettlement of the first group of 224, the McGill University Centre for Tropical Diseases noted an outbreak of malaria across the province (15 cases over a 3-week period). This group (group 1) was traced and screened for malaria between 3 and 4 months after arrival in Canada. Subsequent groups of 106 and 205 refugees were screened immediately upon arrival in Canada (group 2) and immediately prior to their departure from refugee camps (group 3), respectively. A single EDTA-blood sample was obtained from 521 refugees for testing by thick and thin blood smears (groups 1 and 2), antigen detection (ICT Malaria Pf and OptiMAL; group 1 only), and nested PCR (all groups). Overall, 98 of 521 refugees were found to be infected (18.8%). The vast majority of infections (81 of 98) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum alone. Using PCR as the "gold standard," both microscopy (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 100%) and antigen detection (ICT sensitivity, 37.5%; ICT specificity, 100%; OptiMAL sensitivity, 29.1%; OptiMAL specificity, 95.6%) performed poorly. None of the PCR-positive subjects were symptomatic at the time of testing, and only two had recently had symptoms compatible with malaria (with or without diagnosis and treatment). Active surveillance of migrants from regions of intense malaria transmission can reduce the risk of morbidity in the migrant population and mitigate against transmission to the host population. Our data demonstrate that PCR is, by far, the most powerful tool for such surveillance.

  13. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  14. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  15. Mapping a blood pressure quantitative trait locus to a 5.7-cM region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Dutil, J; Deng, A Y

    2001-05-01

    A region on rat Chromosome (Chr) 2 of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S) was shown previously to contain a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure (BP). This was achieved first by linkage, followed by the use of congenic strains. A congenic strain, designated S.MNS-D2Mit6/Adh, contained a segment of Chr 2 from the Milan Normotensive (MNS) rat in the S genetic background. Since the region containing the QTL was roughly 80 cM in size, a further reduction was needed towards the positional or candidate gene cloning. Currently, two congenic substrains were made from the original strain S.MNS-D2Mit6/Adh. One of these two substrains showed a BP-lowering effect, whereas the other substrain did not. Deducing the segment not shared in the two substrains, the BP QTL has to be present in a chromosome region of roughly 5.7 cM between the marker D2Rat303 and the locus for the neutroendopeptidase gene (Nep). Nep is not included within the segment. This region does not seem to contain any candidate genes well known for the BP control. Thus, the final identification of the QTL will most likely lead to the discovery of a brand new gene for the BP regulation.

  16. Imaging modalities in spinal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kricun, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an approach to the various imaging modalities used to view the spine. It discusses the indications, limitations and practical use of each in the diagnosis, work-up and staging of various spinal disorders, and compares each of them in various clinical settings. Topics covered include low back pain syndrome, disk disease, spinal cord lesions, congenital abnormalities, and trauma.

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage and Regional Association Study of Blood Pressure Response to the Cold Pressor Test in Han Chinese: The GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xueli; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Rice, Treva K.; Chen, Jichun; Wu, Xigui; Liu, Depei; Kelly, Tanika N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) response to cold pressor test (CPT) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan and regional association analysis to identify genetic determinants of BP response to CPT. Methods and Results A total of 1,961 Chinese participants completed the CPT. Multipoint quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed, followed by single-marker and gene-based analyses of variants in promising linkage regions (logarithm of odds, LOD ≥ 2). A suggestive linkage signal was identified for systolic BP (SBP) response to CPT at 20p13-20p12.3, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.37. Based on regional association analysis with 1,351 SNPs in the linkage region, we found that marker rs2326373 at 20p13 was significantly associated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to CPT (P = 8.8×10−6) after FDR adjustment for multiple comparisons. A similar trend was also observed for SBP response (P = 0.03) and DBP response (P = 4.6×10−5). Results of gene-based analyses showed that variants in genes MCM8 and SLC23A2 were associated with SBP response to CPT (P = 4.0×10−5 and 2.7×10−4, respectively), and variants in genes MCM8 and STK35 were associated with MAP response to CPT (P = 1.5×10−5 and 5.0×10−5, respectively). Conclusions Within a suggestive linkage region on chromosome 20, we identified a novel variant associated with BP responses to CPT. We also found gene-based associations of MCM8, SLC23A2 and STK35 in this region. Further work is warranted to confirm these findings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00721721. PMID:25028485

  18. Role of histamine in posttraumatic spinal cord hyperemia and the luxury perfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobrine, A I; Doyle, T F

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of pretreatment of monkeys with antihistamines on hyperemia observed in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord after severe experimental spinal cord trauma. After administration of Chlorpheniramine and Metiamide, the spinal cords were traumatized with a 600 gm-cm injury. Blood flow in the lateral funiculus at the injury site was then determined hourly for 6 hours. The blood flow at this site remained in the normal range at all times in all animals. Neither a hyperemia nor an ischemia could be demonstrated. This finding reaffirms the authors' previous observation that ischemia does not exist in the lateral funiculus after severe experimental spinal cord trauma, and explains the previous observation of hyperemia as a histamine-related phenomenon, easily blocked by the administration of Chlorpheniramine and Metiamide, potent antihistamines which together block both the H1 and H2 receptor sites.

  19. Spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, R A

    1993-06-01

    Forty-one cases of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis are presented. The key points are, first, that lumbar disc lesions, their investigations and surgical treatment and the use of nonabsorbable contrast materials are the most common etiological factors and, secondly, that operation is the best treatment. It is our contention that the majority of patients so treated do experience some improvement in what otherwise can be an unbearable amount of pain and disability. The use of adsorbable, nonirritative contrast materials such as Iohexol Parenteral will result in a marked reduction in the frequency of occurrence of arachnoiditis.

  20. CNS and spinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Andre D; Panigrahy, Ashok; Fitz, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Primary CNS tumors consist of a diverse group of neoplasms originating from various cell types in the CNS. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancy in children under the age of 15 years and the second leading cause of cancer death after leukemia. The most common brain neoplasms in children differ consistently from those in older age groups. Pediatric brain tumors demonstrate distinct patterns of occurrence and biologic behavior according to sex, age, and race. This chapter highlights the imaging features of the most common tumors that affect the child's CNS (brain and spinal cord).

  1. Prevalence and differential host-specificity of two avian blood parasite genera in the Australo-Papuan region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Gering, E.; Austin, J.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Peirce, M.A.; Pratt, T.K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which widespread avian blood parasites in the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus pose a threat to novel hosts depends in part on the degree to which they are constrained to a particular host or host family. We examined the host distribution and host-specificity of these parasites in birds from two relatively understudied and isolated locations: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we detected infection in 69 of 105 species, representing 44% of individuals surveyed (n = 428). Across host families, prevalence of Haemoproteus ranged from 13% (Acanthizidae) to 56% (Petroicidae) while prevalence of Plasmodium ranged from 3% (Petroicidae) to 47% (Ptilonorhynchidae). We recovered 78 unique mitochondrial lineages from 155 sequences. Related lineages of Haemoproteus were more likely to derive from the same host family than predicted by chance at shallow (average LogDet genetic distance = 0, n = 12, P = 0.001) and greater depths (average distance = 0.014, n = 11, P < 0.001) within the parasite phylogeny. Within two major Haemoproteus subclades identified in a maximum likelihood phylogeny, host-specificity was evident up to parasite genetic distances of 0.029 and 0.007 based on logistic regression. We found no significant host relationship among lineages of Plasmodium by any method of analysis. These results support previous evidence of strong host-family specificity in Haemoproteus and suggest that lineages of Plasmodium are more likely to form evolutionarily-stable associations with novel hosts.

  2. Totally Ossified Metaplastic Spinal Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma. PMID:24278660

  3. Quantifying regional cerebral blood flow by N-isopropyl-P-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (IMP) using a ring type single-photon emission computed tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Odano, I.; Ohkubo, M.

    1994-05-01

    We developed a more accurate quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a ring type single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system. SPECT studies were performed in 17 patients with brain diseases. A dose of 222 MBq (6 mCi) of [I-123]IMP was injected i.v., at the same time a 5 min period of arterial blood withdrawal was begun. SPECT data were acquired from 25 min to 60 min after tracer injection. For obtaining the brain activity concentration at 5 min after IMP injection, total brain counts collections and one minute period short time SPECT studies were performed at 5, 20, and 60 min. Measurement of the values of rCBF was calculated using short time SPECT images at 5 min (rCBF), static SPECT images corrected with total cerebral counts (rCBF{sub Ct}.) and those corrected with reconstructed counts on short time SPECT images (rCBF{sub Cb}). There was a good relationship (r=0.69) between rCBF and rCBF{sub Ct}, however, rCBF{sub Ct} tends to be underestimated in high flow areas and overestimated in low flow areas. There was better relationship between rCBF and rCBF{sub Cb}(r=0.92). The overestimation and underestimation shown in rCBF{sub Ct} was considered to be due to the correction of reconstructed counts using a total cerebral time activity curve, because of the kinetic behavior of [I-123]IMP was different in each region. We concluded that more accurate rCBF values could be obtained using the regional time activity curves.

  4. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  5. Comparative evaluation of general, epidural and spinal anaesthesia for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed Central

    Rickford, J. K.; Speedy, H. M.; Tytler, J. A.; Lim, M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a prospective randomised evaluation of general anaesthesia (GA), epidural anaesthesia (EA) and spinal anaesthesia (SA) for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are presented. GA provided speed and reliability but resulted in a high incidence of postoperative nausea, vomiting and sore throat. Both regional techniques conferred the advantages of an awake, cooperative patient, but EA required a longer preparation time than SA and more supplementary treatment with fentanyl or midazolam. A major drawback associated with the use of SA was a 42% incidence of postspinal headache. All three techniques were associated with hypotension on placement in the hoisl; bath immersion resulted in significant rises in blood pressure in the EA and SA groups and a more variable (overall non-significant) response in the GA group. PMID:3044238

  6. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Drive Process Overview Coordinator Tools Current Programs & Promotions Recruitment Resources Running a Successful Blood Drive Multiple ... today! Enter your zip code to find: Regional Promotions Local News Blood Drives & More! Or find the ...

  7. Unusual blood pressure response during standing therapy in tetraplegic man.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Ogata, Toru; Hoshikawa, Shinya; Uematsu, Azusa; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Saitou, Sakiko; Kitamura, Taku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of an individual with cervical spinal cord injury who showed a unique blood pressure response during passive standing and passive walking-like leg movement, i.e., hypertension with standing and hypotension with leg movement.

  8. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  9. Juxtafacet Spinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This was a retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine through posterior laminectomy in combination with transpedicular screw fixation. Overview of Literature Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine contribute significantly to narrowing of the spinal canal and lateral thecal sac and nerve root compression. Cysts form as a result of arthrotic disruption of the facet joint, leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis in up to 40% of patients. Methods Retrospective data from 6 patients, treated during the period of March 2007 to February 2011, were analyzed. All preoperative and postoperative manifestations, extension/flexion radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography records were reviewed. All underwent surgery for synovial cysts with excision and decompression combined with posterior fixation. The result of surgery was evaluated with Macnab's classification. An excellent or good outcome was considered as satisfactory. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale was used for evaluation of back pain. Results All patients included in this study had excellent outcomes as regarding to improvement of all preoperative manifestations and returning to normal daily activities. Only 2 cases developed postoperative transient cerebro-spinal fluid leak and were treated conservatively and improved during the follow up period. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of cases and we could not have statistically significant results, the good outcome of decompression of synovial cysts combined with posterior fixation and fusion encouraged us to recommend this approach for patients with juxtafacet synovial cysts. PMID:26949457

  10. [Surgical anatomy of spinal cord tumors].

    PubMed

    Peltier, J; Chenin, L; Hannequin, P; Page, C; Havet, É; Foulon, P; Le Gars, D

    2015-08-03

    In this article, we respectively describe the morphology of the spinal cord, spinal meningeal layers, main fiber tracts, and both arterial and venous distribution in order to explain signs of spinal cord compression. We will then describe a surgical technique for spinal cord tumor removal.

  11. Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

    2010-01-01

    This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

  12. Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    in order to minimize scarring and injected dissociated adult DRGs rostral to a dorsal column transection of the spinal cord. From the sensory... columns were dissected and post-fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then spinal cords were dissected from spinal columns and cryoprotected...AD______________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

  13. Identification of hemodynamically compromised regions by means of cerebral blood volume mapping utilizing computed tomography perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Akaji, Kazunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Katano, Takehiro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yoichi; Shidoh, Satoka; Nakazawa, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Mihara, Ban

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging in identifying hemodynamically compromised regions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Twelve patients diagnosed with either occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery or the M1 portion of the middle cerebral artery underwent CTP imaging. The data was analyzed by an automated ROI-determining software. Patients were classified into two subgroups: an asymptomatic group consisting of three patients in whom perfusion pressure distal to the site of occlusion/stenosis (PPdis) could be maintained in spite of the arterial occlusion/stenosis, and a symptomatic group consisting of nine patients in whom PPdis could not be maintained enough to avoid watershed infarction. Four CTP-related parameters were independently compared between the two groups. Significant differences were determined using a two-sample t-test. When statistically significant differences were identified, cut-off points were calculated using ROC curves. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the asymptomatic and symptomatic subgroups only in the measure of relCBV (p=0.028). Higher relCBV values were observed in the symptomatic subgroup. ROC curve analysis revealed 1.059 to be the optimal relCBV cut-off value for distinguishing between the asymptomatic and symptomatic subgroups. The data revealed that, in patients whose PPdis is maintained, relCBV remains around 1.00. Conversely, in patients whose PPdis decreased, relCBV increased. From these findings, we conclude that elevation of relCBV as observed using CTP imaging accurately reflects the extent of compensatory vasodilatation involvement and can identify hemodynamically compromised regions.

  14. Revisiting the segmental organization of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N; D'Herde, K

    2016-09-01

    In classic anatomic atlases, the spinal cord is standardly represented in its anatomical form with symmetrically emerging anterior and posterior roots, which at the level of the intervertebral foramen combine into the spinal nerves. The parts of the cord delimited by the boundaries of the roots are called segments or myelomeres. Associated with their regular repetitive appearance is the notion that the cord is segmentally organized. This segmental view is reinforced by clinical practice. Spinal cord roots innervate specific body parts. The level of cord trauma is diagnosed by the de-innervation symptoms of these parts. However, systemically, the case for a segmentally organized cord is not so clear. To date, developmental and genetic research points to a regionally rather than a segmentally organized cord. In the present study, to what degree the fila radicularia are segmentally implanted along the cord was investigated. The research hypothesis was that if the fila radicularia were non-segmentally implanted at the cord surface, it would be unlikely that the internal neuron stratum would be segmented. The visual segmented aspect of the myelomeres would then be the consequence of the necessary bundling of axons towards the vertebral foramen as the only exits of the vertebral canal, rather than of an underlying segment organization of the cord itself. To investigate the research hypothesis, the fila radicularia in the cervical-upper thoracic part of five spinal cords were detached from their spinal nerves and dissected in detail. The principal research question was if the fila radicularia are separated from their spinal nerves and dissected from their connective tissues up to the cord, would it be possible to reconstruct the original spinal segments from the morphology and interspaces of the fila? The dissections revealed that the anterior fila radicularia emerge from the cord at regular regionally modulated interspaces without systematic segmental delineations. The

  15. Lack of association of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphisms with blood lead levels and hemoglobin in Romanian women from a lead-contaminated region.

    PubMed

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Unfried, Klaus; Ranft, Ulrich; Illig, Thomas; Kolz, Melanie; Mambetova, Chinara; Vlad, Mariana; Roman, Cecilia; Weiss, Tobias; Becker, Doreen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    As part of a project on environmental pollution, this study aimed to evaluate associations between blood lead (BPb) levels, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene in 129 unrelated women from Romania. Five SNPs (rs1805313, rs2228083, rs1805312, rs1800435, rs1139488) were analyzed with respect to haplotype structure and impact on BPb levels and Hb content with proportional odds and analysis of covariance models. Combinations of SNPs were rare (16%). Low haplotype diversity was found with seven haplotypes. One rare haplotype implied the C allele of rs1800435, often referred to as the ALAD2 allele (frequency 8.6%). The putative risk genotype (CC) occurred in only one woman with BPb below 0.5 microg/dl. Median BPb was 4.8 microg/dl and differed markedly by community with a level of 12.5 microg/dl near a mining-spill region. Hb was regular (interquartile range 12.3-13.7 g/dl) and not correlated with BPb, although quantitatively lower in women living near the spill region. No significant associations were found for BPb or Hb with SNPs, haplotypes, or diplotypes. BPb levels we