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Sample records for regional blood spinal

  1. Regional spinal cord blood flow during local cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, T.; Monafo, W.W. )

    1990-06-01

    We used the tissue distribution of ({sup 14}C)butanol to quantitate regional blood flow in the spinal cord (RSCBF) of pentobarbital-anesthetized, normothermic rats in which segmental local cooling pentobarbital-anesthetized, normothermic rats in which segmental local cooling of the spinal cord (to 25-28{degrees}C) at vertebral levels C4-C6 (n = 6) or T13-L1 (n = 6) was induced. Thirty minutes later, blood flow measurements were made at seven levels of the spinal cord and in the sciatic nerve trunks and biceps femoris muscles. Sham-cooled rats served as controls (n = 12). In control rats, RSCBF varied between 41.5 +/- 2.4 and 65.1 +/- 3.2 ml.min-1.100 g-1. Local cooling of the C4-C6 cord segment reduced RSCBF by 32%, from 65.1 +/- 3.2 to 44.4 +/- 3.5 ml.min-1.100 g-1 (P less than 0.01). Tissue vascular resistance (R) in the cooled C4-C6 segment was elevated versus control. There were no other changes in RSCBF at the other cord levels or in the cauda equina. Similarly, local cooling of the T13-L1 segment resulted in a 40% fall in RSCBF in that segment, from 57.1 +/- 2.4 to 34.1 +/- 4.3 ml.min-1.100 g-1 (P less than 0.001). R in the cooled T13-L1 segment was elevated versus control. RSCBF was reduced by 30% in the adjacent proximal T12 segment (P less than 0.001) and by 21% in the adjacent distal L2-L3 segment (P less than 0.05). R was increased in both of these adjacent segments. RSCBF was not altered elsewhere in the cord.

  2. Angiogenesis in the Developing Spinal Cord: Blood Vessel Exclusion from Neural Progenitor Region Is Mediated by VEGF and Its Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruaki; Takase, Yuta; Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular plexus (PNVP) that envelops the neural tube. At the ventral region of the PNVP, the INVP grows dorsally in the neural tube, and we observed that these vessels followed the defined path at the interface between the medially positioned and undifferentiated neural progenitor zone and the laterally positioned differentiated zone. When the interface between these two zones was experimentally displaced, INVP faithfully followed a newly formed interface, suggesting that the growth path of the INVP is determined by surrounding neural cells. The progenitor zone expressed mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor-A whereas its receptor VEGFR2 and FLT-1 (VEGFR1), a decoy for VEGF, were expressed in INVP. By manipulating the neural tube with either VEGF or the soluble form of FLT-1, we found that INVP grew in a VEGF-dependent manner, where VEGF signals appear to be fine-tuned by counteractions with anti-angiogenic activities including FLT-1 and possibly semaphorins. These results suggest that the stereotypic patterning of early INVP is achieved by interactions between these vessels and their surrounding neural cells, where VEGF and its antagonists play important roles. PMID:25585380

  3. Perturbed and spontaneous regional cerebral blood flow responses to changes in blood pressure after high-level spinal cord injury: the effect of midodrine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Ainslie, Philip N; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-03-15

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal segment suffer from orthostatic intolerance. How cerebral blood flow (CBF) responds to orthostatic challenges in SCI is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how interventions meant to improve orthostatic tolerance in SCI influence CBF. This study aimed to examine 1) the acute regional CBF responses to rapid changes in blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress in individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) individuals; and 2) the effect of midodrine (alpha1-agonist) on orthostatic tolerance and CBF regulation in SCI. Ten individuals with SCI >T6, and 10 age- and sex-matched AB controls had beat-by-beat BP and middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv, PCAv, respectively) recorded during a progressive tilt-test to quantify the acute CBF response and orthostatic tolerance. Dynamic MCAv and PCAv to BP relationships were evaluated continuously in the time domain and frequency domain (via transfer function analysis). The SCI group was tested again after administration of 10 mg midodrine to elevate BP. Coherence (i.e., linearity) was elevated in SCI between BP-MCAv and BP-PCAv by 35% and 22%, respectively, compared with AB, whereas SCI BP-PCAv gain (i.e., magnitudinal relationship) was reduced 30% compared with AB (all P < 0.05). The acute (i.e., 0-30 s after tilt) MCAv and PCAv responses were similar between groups. In individuals with SCI, midodrine led to improved PCAv responses 30-60 s following tilt (10 ± 3% vs. 4 ± 2% decline; P < 0.05), and a 59% improvement in orthostatic tolerance (P < 0.01). The vertebrobasilar region may be particularly susceptible to hypoperfusion in SCI, leading to increased orthostatic intolerance.

  4. Advance in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury: Blood-spinal cord barrier and remote ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qijing; Huang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ji; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-06-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is the physiological and metabolic substance diffusion barrier between blood circulation and spinal cord tissues. This barrier plays a vital role in maintaining the microenvironment stability of the spinal cord. When the spinal cord is subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the structure and function of the BSCB is disrupted, further destroying the spinal cord homeostasis and ultimately leading to neurological deficit. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an approach in which interspersed cycles of preconditioning ischemia is followed by reperfusion to tissues/organs to protect the distant target tissues/organs against subsequent lethal ischemic injuries. RIPC is an innovation of the treatment strategies that protect the organ from I/R injury. In this study, we review the morphological structure and function of the BSCB, the injury mechanism of BSCB resulting from spinal cord I/R, and the effect of RIPC on it.

  5. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80% of cases, as 8 pairs in 15% of cases and as 9 pairs in 5% of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2% and right-sided branches in 35.8% of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8% of cases and right-sided in 39.2% of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies.

  6. Autoregulation of spinal cord blood flow: is the cord a microcosm of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.; Albin, M.S.; Bunegin, L.; Gelineau, J.

    1986-11-01

    The autoregulatory capability of regional areas of the brain and spinal cord was demonstrated in 18 rats anesthetized with a continuous infusion of intravenous pentothal. Blood flow was measured by the injection of radioactive microspheres (Co57, Sn113, Ru103, Sc46). Blood flow measurements were made at varying levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) which was altered by neosynephrine to raise MAP or trimethaphan to lower MAP. Autoregulation of the spinal cord mirrored that of the brain, with an autoregulatory range of 60 to 120 mm Hg for both tissues. Within this range, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 59.2 +/- 3.2 ml/100 g/min (SEM) and spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was 61.1 +/- 3.6. There was no significant difference in CBF and SCBF in the autoregulatory range. Autoregulation was also demonstrated regionally in the left cortex, right cortex, brainstem, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord. This data provides a coherent reference point in establishing autoregulatory curves under barbiturate anesthesia. Further investigation of the effects of other anesthetic agents on autoregulation of the spinal cord is needed. It is possible that intraspinal cord compliance, like intracranial compliance, might be adversely affected by the effects of anesthetics on autoregulation.

  7. Targeting the blood-spinal cord barrier: A therapeutic approach to spinal cord protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji; Yu, Qijing; Xie, Lijie; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-08-01

    One of the principal functions of physical barriers between the blood and central nervous system protects system (i.e., blood brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier) is the protection from toxic and pathogenic agents in the blood. Disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a key role in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI). Following SCIRI, the permeability of the BSCB increases. Maintaining the integrity of the BSCB alleviates the spinal cord injury after spinal cord ischemia. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structure and function of the BSCB and its changes following SCIRI, as well as the prevention and cure of SCIRI and the role of the BSCB.

  8. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practicability

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653

  9. Effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jianbo; Gu, Zhengsong; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a mouse model. Lycopene inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage as a highly efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Lycopene (4 mg/kg/d) was administrated immediately following SCI. The permeability of the BSCB and water content in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Additionally, levels of expression of tight junction proteins and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined with Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of spinal cord tissue homogenates was performed 48 h after SCI to evaluate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines. In addition, recovery of motor function was assessed 1 d, 2 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 15 d after SCI using the Basso Mouse Scale to score locomotion. Compared to the group with an untreated SCI, mice with an SCI treated with lycopene had significantly reduced spinal cord tissue water content and BSCB permeability. Furthermore, motor function of mice with an SCI was also greatly improved by lycopene administration. The expression of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and NF-kB increased markedly 48 h after SCI, and their upregulation was significantly attenuated by lycopene treatment. The expression of molecules that protect tight junctions, zonula occluden-1 and claudin-5, was upregulated by lycopene treatment after SCI. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that lycopene attenuated SCI by promoting repair of the damaged BSCB, so lycopene is a novel and promising treatment for SCI in humans. PMID:27357536

  10. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  11. Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits by Attenuating Blood Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Man; Sun, Xi-Jia; Bao, Na-Ren; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Huang-Wei; Ma, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning has been reported to protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To investigate this, Japanese white rabbits underwent I-R (30 min aortic occlusion followed by reperfusion), ischemic preconditioning (three cycles of 5 min aortic occlusion plus 5 min reperfusion) followed by I-R, or sham surgery. At 4 and 24 h following reperfusion, neurological function was assessed using Tarlov scores, blood spinal cord barrier permeability was measured by Evan’s Blue extravasation, spinal cord edema was evaluated using the wet-dry method, and spinal cord expression of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by Western blot and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. ZO-1 was also assessed using immunofluorescence. Spinal cord I-R injury reduced neurologic scores, and ischemic preconditioning treatment ameliorated this effect. Ischemic preconditioning inhibited I-R-induced increases in blood spinal cord barrier permeability and water content, increased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and reduced MMP-9 and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression. These findings suggest that ischemic preconditioning attenuates the increase in blood spinal cord barrier permeability due to spinal cord I-R injury by preservation of tight junction protein ZO-1 and reducing MMP-9 and TNF-α expression. PMID:23685868

  12. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-05

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  13. Characterization of vascular disruption and blood-spinal cord barrier permeability following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Figley, Sarah A; Khosravi, Ramak; Legasto, Jean M; Tseng, Yun-Fan; Fehlings, Michael G

    2014-03-15

    Significant vascular changes occur subsequent to spinal cord injury (SCI), which contribute to progressive pathophysiology. In the present study, we used female Wistar rats (300-350 g) and a 35-g clip-compression injury at T6 to T7 to characterize the spatial and temporal vascular changes that ensue post-SCI. Before sacrifice, animals were injected with vascular tracing dyes (2% Evans Blue (EB) or fluorescein isothiocyanate/Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin [FITC-LEA]) to assess blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity or vascular architecture, respectively. Spectrophotometry of EB tissue showed maximal BSCB disruption at 24 h postinjury, with significant disruption observed until 5 days postinjury (p<0.01). FITC-LEA-identified functional vasculature was dramatically reduced by 24 h. Similarly, RECA-1 immunohistochemistry showed a significant decrease in the number of vessels at 24 h postinjury, compared to uninjured animals (p<0.01), with slight increases in endogenous revascularization by 10 days postinjury. White versus gray matter (GM) quantification showed that GM vessels are more susceptible to SCI. Finally, we observed an endogenous angiogenic response between 3 and 7 days postinjury: maximal endothelial cell proliferation was observed at day 5. These data indicate that BSCB disruption and endogenous revascularization occur at specific time points after injury, which may be important for developing effective therapeutic interventions for SCI. PMID:24237182

  14. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  15. Ultrastructural observations on blood vessels surrounding normal and regenerating spinal cord in newt.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, A

    1992-01-01

    The ultrastructural analysis of capillaries surrounding normal and regenerating caudal spinal cords of two species of newt (Triturus vulgaris and T. cristatus) is reported. Around normal spinal cords, capillaries were generally continuous. Surrounding the regenerating spinal cords the various capillaries of the regenerating blastema appeared discontinuous with small or broad gaps along the capillary wall. This was seen even after two months of tail regeneration when the spinal cord was similar to the normal and many axons were myelinating. These morphological findings suggest that during tail regeneration in newts the blood-brain barrier is not very effective. Also extravasating mature and immature blood cells were observed inside regenerating capillaries. Therefore growing capillaries can exchange metabolites and, possibly, growth factors with the nervous tissue and the other regenerating tissues.

  16. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  17. Anatomical study of blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan; Petrovova, Eva; Flesarova, Slavka; Supuka, Peter; Supukova, Anna; Luptakova, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig. The study was carried out on 20 adult English self guinea pigs using corrosion and dissection technique. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17(©) was used as a casting medium. The origin of the ventral spinal artery from the left vertebral artery was found on average in 35% of the cases and from the right vertebral artery on average in 40% of the cases. The ventral spinal artery with origin from the anastomosis of two medial branches was found on average in 25% of the cases. The presence of ventral radicular branches of rami spinales entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 42% of the cases on the right side and in 58% of the cases on the left side. The presence of dorsal radicular branches of rami spinales that reached the spinal cord was observed in 63% of the cases on the left side and in 37% of the cases on the right side. The number of radicular branches supplying the spinal cord is greater in guinea pig than in humans.

  18. A probe for blood-vessel and spinal interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Probe design allows insertion into lumen of blood vessels to perform oximetry and investigate plaque on interior vessel walls. Probe is more accurate than standard oximetry procedures of determining oxygenation of circulating blood.

  19. [ABO, rhesus and MN system blood groups and spinal osteochondrosis].

    PubMed

    Kolodchenko, V P

    1979-01-01

    Genetically conditioned traits: blood groups ABO, MN and Rh were studied in 695 patients with osteochondrosis and in the population. Among the patients blood groups AB, N and Rh-negative were more frequent than in the control. Blood groups can be regarded as risk factors in vertebral osteochondrosis. Sex and age differences were found.

  20. Characterization of blood flow in the mouse dorsal spinal venous system before and after dorsal spinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Matthew J; Rubin, Jonathan D; Diago, Darcy M; Schaffer, Chris B

    2015-01-01

    The availability of transgenic strains has made the laboratory mouse a popular model for the study of healthy and diseased state spinal cord (SC). Essential to identifying physiologic and pathologic events is an understanding of the microvascular network and flow patterns of the SC. Using 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) microscopy we performed in vivo measurements of blood flow in the lower thoracic portion of the mouse dorsal spinal vein (dSV) and in the first upstream branches supplying it, denoted as dorsal ascending venules (dAVs). We found that the dSV had large radiculomedullary veins (RMVs) exiting the SC, and that flow in the dSV between pairs of RMVs was bidirectional. Volumetric flow increased in each direction away from the point of bifurcation. Flow in the upstream dAVs varied with diameter in a manner consistent with a constant distal pressure source. By performing ex vivo 2PEF microscopy of fluorescent-gel perfused tissue, we created a 3-D map of the dorsal spinal vasculature. From these data, we constructed a simple model that predicted changes in the flow of upstream branches after occlusion of the dSV in different locations. Using an atraumatic model of dSV occlusion, we confirmed the predictions of this model in vivo. PMID:25564237

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  2. Local cooling alters neural mechanisms producing changes in peripheral blood flow by spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Barron, Kirk W; Chandler, Margaret J; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2003-03-28

    This study was performed to investigate the respective role of sensory afferent and sympathetic fibers in peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation at different hindpaw skin temperatures. Cooling the skin was used as a strategy to enhance sympathetic activity [Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 263 (1992) H1197]. Cutaneous blood flow in the footpad of anesthetized rats was recorded using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local cooling (<25 degrees C) or moderate local cooling (25-28 degrees C) of the hindpaw was produced with a cooling copper coil. Spinal cord stimulation delivered at clinically relevant parameters and with 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold induced the early phase of vasodilatation in the cooled and the moderately cooled hindpaw. In addition, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold produced the late phase of vasodilatation only in the cooled hindpaw, which was possible to block by the autonomic ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. The early responses to spinal cord stimulation in the moderately cooled hindpaw were not affected by hexamethonium. In contrast, both the early and the late phase responses were eliminated by CGRP (8-37), an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. After dorsal rhizotomy, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold elicited hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (late phase). These results suggest that spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (<25 degrees C) is mediated via both the sensory afferent (early phase of vasodilatation) and via suppression of the sympathetic efferent activity (late phase) although the threshold for vasodilatation via the sympathetic efferent fibers is higher than that via sensory nerves. In contrast, vasodilatation via sensory afferent fibers may predominate with moderate temperatures (25-28 degrees C). Thus, two complementary mechanisms for spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation may

  3. Somatotopic arrangement of thermal sensory regions in the healthy human spinal cord determined by means of spinal cord functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Patrick W; Bosma, Rachael L; Tsyben, Anastasia

    2012-09-01

    Previous functional MRI studies of normal sensory function in the human spinal cord, including right-to-left symmetry of activity, have been influenced by order effects between repeated studies. In this study, we apply thermal sensory stimulation to four dermatomes within each functional MRI time-series acquisition. Each of the four dermatomes receives a unique stimulation paradigm, such that the four paradigms form a linearly independent set, enabling detection of each individual stimulus response. Functional MRI data are shown spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem in 10 healthy volunteers. Results of general linear model analysis demonstrate consistent patterns of activity within the spinal cord segments corresponding to each dermatome, and a high degree of symmetry between right-side and left-side stimulation. Connectivity analyses also demonstrate consistent areas of activity and connectivity between spinal cord and brainstem regions corresponding to known anatomy. However, right-side and left-side responses are not at precisely the same rostral-caudal positions, but are offset by several millimeters, with left-side responses consistently more caudal than right-side responses. The results confirm that distinct responses to multiple interleaved sensory stimuli can be distinguished, enabling studies of sensory responses within the spinal cord without the confounding effects of comparing sequential studies.

  4. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI.

  5. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. PMID:27256500

  6. Not just the brain: methamphetamine disrupts blood-spinal cord barrier and induces acute glial activation and structural damage of spinal cord cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-01-01

    Acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication induces metabolic brain activation as well as multiple physiological and behavioral responses that could result in life-threatening health complications. Previously, we showed that METH (9 mg/kg) used in freely moving rats induces robust leakage of blood-brain barrier, acute glial activation, vasogenic edema, and structural abnormalities of brain cells. These changes were tightly correlated with drug-induced brain hyperthermia and were greatly potentiated when METH was used at warm ambient temperatures (29°C), inducing more robust and prolonged hyperthermia. Extending this line of research, here we show that METH also strongly increases the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier as evidenced by entry of Evans blue and albumin immunoreactivity in T9-12 segments of the spinal cord. Similar to the blood-brain barrier, leakage of bloodspinal cord barrier was associated with acute glial activation, alterations of ionic homeostasis, water tissue accumulation (edema), and structural abnormalities of spinal cord cells. Similar to that in the brain, all neurochemical alterations correlated tightly with drug-induced elevations in brain temperature and they were enhanced when the drug was used at 29°C and brain hyperthermia reached pathological levels (>40°C). We discuss common features and differences in neural responses between the brain and spinal cord, two inseparable parts of the central nervous system affected by METH exposure. PMID:25687701

  7. Not just the brain: methamphetamine disrupts blood-spinal cord barrier and induces acute glial activation and structural damage of spinal cord cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-01-01

    Acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication induces metabolic brain activation as well as multiple physiological and behavioral responses that could result in life-threatening health complications. Previously, we showed that METH (9 mg/kg) used in freely moving rats induces robust leakage of blood-brain barrier, acute glial activation, vasogenic edema, and structural abnormalities of brain cells. These changes were tightly correlated with drug-induced brain hyperthermia and were greatly potentiated when METH was used at warm ambient temperatures (29°C), inducing more robust and prolonged hyperthermia. Extending this line of research, here we show that METH also strongly increases the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier as evidenced by entry of Evans blue and albumin immunoreactivity in T9-12 segments of the spinal cord. Similar to the blood-brain barrier, leakage of bloodspinal cord barrier was associated with acute glial activation, alterations of ionic homeostasis, water tissue accumulation (edema), and structural abnormalities of spinal cord cells. Similar to that in the brain, all neurochemical alterations correlated tightly with drug-induced elevations in brain temperature and they were enhanced when the drug was used at 29°C and brain hyperthermia reached pathological levels (>40°C). We discuss common features and differences in neural responses between the brain and spinal cord, two inseparable parts of the central nervous system affected by METH exposure.

  8. The organization of spinal motor neurons in a monotreme is consistent with a six-region schema of the mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mitchelle, Amer; Watson, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The motor neurons in the spinal cord of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been mapped in Nissl-stained sections from spinal cord segments defined by spinal nerve anatomy. A medial motor column of motor neurons is found at all spinal cord levels, and a hypaxial column is found at most levels. The organization of the motor neuron clusters in the lateral motor column of the brachial (C5 to T3) and crural (L2 to S3) limb enlargements is very similar to the pattern previously revealed by retrograde tracing in placental mammals, and the motor neuron clusters have been tentatively identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. The region separating the two limb enlargements (T4 to L1) contains preganglionic motor neurons that appear to represent the spinal sympathetic outflow. Immediately caudal to the crural limb enlargement is a short column of preganglionic motor neurons (S3 to S4), which it is believed represents the pelvic parasympathetic outflow. The rostral and caudal ends of the spinal cord contain neither a lateral motor column nor a preganglionic column. Branchial motor neurons (which are believed to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles) are present at the lateral margin of the ventral horn in rostral cervical segments (C2-C4). These same segments contain the phrenic nucleus, which belongs to the hypaxial column. The presence or absence of the main spinal motor neuron columns in the different regions echidna spinal cord (and also in that of other amniote vertebrates) provides a basis for dividing the spinal cord into six main regions - prebrachial, brachial, postbrachial, crural, postcrural and caudal. The considerable biological and functional significance of this subdivision pattern is supported by recent studies on spinal cord hox gene expression in chicks and mice. On the other hand, the familiar 'segments' of the spinal cord are defined only by the anatomy of adjacent vertebrae, and are not demarcated by intrinsic gene

  9. The organization of spinal motor neurons in a monotreme is consistent with a six-region schema of the mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mitchelle, Amer; Watson, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The motor neurons in the spinal cord of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been mapped in Nissl-stained sections from spinal cord segments defined by spinal nerve anatomy. A medial motor column of motor neurons is found at all spinal cord levels, and a hypaxial column is found at most levels. The organization of the motor neuron clusters in the lateral motor column of the brachial (C5 to T3) and crural (L2 to S3) limb enlargements is very similar to the pattern previously revealed by retrograde tracing in placental mammals, and the motor neuron clusters have been tentatively identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. The region separating the two limb enlargements (T4 to L1) contains preganglionic motor neurons that appear to represent the spinal sympathetic outflow. Immediately caudal to the crural limb enlargement is a short column of preganglionic motor neurons (S3 to S4), which it is believed represents the pelvic parasympathetic outflow. The rostral and caudal ends of the spinal cord contain neither a lateral motor column nor a preganglionic column. Branchial motor neurons (which are believed to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles) are present at the lateral margin of the ventral horn in rostral cervical segments (C2-C4). These same segments contain the phrenic nucleus, which belongs to the hypaxial column. The presence or absence of the main spinal motor neuron columns in the different regions echidna spinal cord (and also in that of other amniote vertebrates) provides a basis for dividing the spinal cord into six main regions - prebrachial, brachial, postbrachial, crural, postcrural and caudal. The considerable biological and functional significance of this subdivision pattern is supported by recent studies on spinal cord hox gene expression in chicks and mice. On the other hand, the familiar 'segments' of the spinal cord are defined only by the anatomy of adjacent vertebrae, and are not demarcated by intrinsic gene

  10. Oxygen Supplementation is Effective in Attenuating Maternal Cerebral Blood Deoxygenation After Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Noriya; Kondo, Yuko; Maeda, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure changes in maternal cerebral blood oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for 15 min after spinal anesthesia performed for cesarean section, and to determine the efficacy of supplemental oxygen in maintaining maternal cerebral blood oxygenation. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to either receive 100% oxygen via a facemask at a constant flow rate of 3 l/min throughout the study (O2 group), or were evaluated without supplemental oxygen (Air group). Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation were evaluated using the following parameters: oxy-hemoglobin (Hb), deoxy-Hb, and total-Hb concentrations, as well as tissue oxygen index (TOI), measured over the forehead by NIRS. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were also recorded throughout the study. Mean oxy-Hb, total-Hb, TOI, and MAP in both groups decreased significantly from baseline values (P<0.05). The reduction in oxy-Hb and TOI in the Air group was significantly greater than that in the O2 group (oxy-Hb: -4.72 vs. -2.96 μmol/l; P<0.05, TOI: -6.82 vs. -1.68%; P<0.01); however, there were no significant differences in the reduction of total-Hb and MAP between the groups. Mean deoxy-Hb in the Air group was significantly higher than that in the O2 group (0.02 vs. -1.01 μmol/l; P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrate that oxygen supplementation attenuates cerebral blood deoxygenation secondary to the reduction in cerebral blood flow following spinal anesthesia.

  11. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood or amniotic epithelial stem cells alleviates mechanical allodynia after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Min-Soo; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Park, Sang-Bum; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), and a variety of different stem cell types have been grafted into humans suffering from spinal cord trauma or into animal models of spinal injury. Although several studies have reported functional motor improvement after transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cord, the benefit of these cells for treating SCI-induced neuropathic pain is not clear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) or amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) on SCI-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in T13 spinal cord hemisected rats. Two weeks after SCI, hUCB-MSCs or hAESCs were transplanted around the spinal cord lesion site, and behavioral tests were performed to evaluate changes in SCI-induced MA and TH. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were also performed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects on SCI-induced inflammation and the nociceptive-related phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 receptor subunit. While transplantation of hUCB-MSCs showed a tendency to reduce MA, transplantation of hAESCs significantly reduced MA. Neither hUCB-MSC nor hAESC transplantation had any effect on SCI-induced TH. Transplantation of hAESCs also significantly reduced the SCI-induced increase in NMDA receptor NR1 subunit phosphorylation (pNR1) expression in the spinal cord. Both hUCB-MSCs and hAESCs reduced the SCI-induced increase in spinal cord expression of the microglial marker, F4/80, but not the increased expression of GFAP or iNOS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transplantation of hAESCs into the injured spinal cord can suppress mechanical allodynia, and this effect seems to be closely associated with the modulation of spinal cord microglia activity and NR1 phosphorylation.

  12. Correlation of Oxidative and Antioxidative Processes in the Blood of Patients with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Bartosz; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Kasprzak, Heliodor Adam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) on oxidative stress parameters was assessed. The study was conducted in 42 patients with CSCI (studied group), 15 patients with cerebral concussion, without CSCI (Control II), and 30 healthy volunteers (Control I). Blood was taken from the basilic vein: before and seven days after the spinal cord decompression surgery (mean time from CSCI to surgery: 8 hours) in the studied group and once in the controls. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) concentrations, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and creatine kinase (CK) activities before the surgery were higher in the studied group than in the controls. Reduced glutathione concentration was similar in all groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the studied group was 16% lower (P ≤ 0.001) than in Control I. Lipid peroxidation products, and GPx and CAT activities in erythrocytes seven days after the surgery were lower (P ≤ 0.001), while SOD was 25% higher (P ≤ 0.001) than before the surgery. CK in blood plasma after the surgery was 34% lower (P ≤ 0.001) than before it. CSCI is accompanied by oxidative stress. Surgical and pharmacological treatment helps to restore the oxidant-antioxidant balance. PMID:26881034

  13. De novo and inherited deletions of the 5q13 region in spinal muscular atrophies

    SciTech Connect

    Melki, J.; Lefebvre, S.; Burglen, L.; Burlet, P.; Clermont, O.; Reboullet, S.; Benichou, B.; Zeviani, M. ); Millasseau, P. ); Le Paslier, D. )

    1994-06-03

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) represent the second most common fatal autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis. Childhood spinal muscular atrophies are divided into severe (type I) and mild forms (types II and III). By a combination of genetic and physical mapping, a yeast artificial chromosome contig of the 5q13 region spanning the disease locus was constructed that showed the presence of low copy repeats in this region. Allele segregation was analyzed at the closest genetic loci detected by markers C212 and C272 in 201 SMA families. Inherited and de novo deletions were observed in nine unrelated SMA patients. Moreover, deletions were strongly suggested in at least 18 percent of SMA type I patients by the observation of marked heterozygosity deficiency for the loci studied. These results indicate that deletion events are statistically associated with the severe form of spinal muscular atrophy. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical.

  15. Feasibility of Transient Image-guided Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmuth, Jeff; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of disrupting the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), 31 rats were exposed to focused 1.08 MHz ultrasound at electrical powers of 0.5 W and 1.0 W after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent Definity. T1-weighted images were acquired before and after ultrasound exposure using a 3 T MRI and the MR contrast agent Gadovist. At 0.5 and 1.0 W the average relative enhancements observed were 29.1±21% and 57.5±34% respectively. After recovery from ultrasound exposure, the rats did not show signs of motor impairment. The results demonstrate the feasibility of BSCB disruption using ultrasound together with ultrasound contrast agents. Further studies of this method are warranted.

  16. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  17. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption.

  18. Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Alterations in Subacute and Chronic Stages of a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Haller, Edward; Tajiri, Naoki; Thomson, Avery; Barretta, Jennifer; Williams, Stephanie N; Haim, Eithan D; Qin, Hua; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Abraham, Jerry V; Sanberg, Paul R; Van Loveren, Harry; Borlongan, Cesario V

    2016-07-01

    We previously demonstrated blood-brain barrier impairment in remote contralateral brain areas in rats at 7 and 30 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), indicating ischemic diaschisis. Here, we focused on effects of subacute and chronic focal cerebral ischemia on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We observed BSCB damage on both sides of the cervical spinal cord in rats at 7 and 30 days post-tMCAO. Major BSCB ultrastructural changes in spinal cord gray and white matter included vacuolated endothelial cells containing autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration with enlarged mitochondria, astrocyte end-feet degeneration and perivascular edema; damaged motor neurons, swollen axons with unraveled myelin in ascending and descending tracts and astrogliosis were also observed. Evans Blue dye extravasation was maximal at 7 days. There was immunofluorescence evidence of reduction of microvascular expression of tight junction occludin, upregulation of Beclin-1 and LC3B immunoreactivities at 7 days and a reduction of the latter at 30 days post-ischemia. These novel pathological alterations on the cervical spinal cord microvasculature in rats after tMCAO suggest pervasive and long-lasting BSCB damage after focal cerebral ischemia, and that spinal cord ischemic diaschisis should be considered in the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches in patients with ischemic cerebral infarction. PMID:27283328

  19. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  20. Is blood glucose associated with descending modulation of spinal nociception as measured by the nociceptive flexion reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Ellen L; Güereca, Yvette M; Martin, Satin L; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prior research has shown a relationship between blood glucose levels and some forms of self-regulation (eg, executive function), with low blood glucose levels associated with impaired self-regulation. Further, engagement in self-regulation tasks depletes blood glucose. Given these relationships, the present study examined whether blood glucose is associated with another form of self-regulation, ie, descending pain modulatory processes. Methods Forty-seven (32 female) pain-free participants were recruited and completed testing. Blood glucose was measured from finger sticks and a digital meter before and after experimental pain tests. Pain tests included the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold to assess descending modulation of spinal nociception, but also electric pain threshold to assess perceptual pain detection. The Stroop color word naming test was also assessed before and after pain testing to examine changes in executive function. Results Results indicated that mean blood glucose levels decreased after pain testing, but Stroop performance did not significantly change. Importantly, changes in blood glucose were correlated with NFR threshold, such that decreases in blood glucose were associated with lower NFR thresholds (reduced descending inhibition). Changes in blood glucose were unrelated to pain threshold or executive function. Conclusion This study suggests that glucose depletion may impair performance of descending inhibitory processes, without impacting the perceptual detection of pain (pain threshold). Although findings need to be replicated, maintaining adequate glucose levels may be necessary to support inhibition of spinal nociception. PMID:27110138

  1. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on peripheral blood circulation in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyuan; Thorkilsen, Marielouise Muus; Qin, Chao; Farber, Jay P; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Objective.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on peripheral circulation in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Materials and Methods.  Four weeks after streptozotocin or vehicle was injected (i.p.) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, SCS-induced vasodilation was examined. Results.  Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in diabetic rats than in the control animals. Motor threshold (MT) was significantly higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. SCS-induced vasodilation was attenuated at 90% of the MT, but not at 30% and 60% of MT in diabetic rats when compared to control rats (p < 0.001, N = 13). Furthermore, increasing SCS from 30% to 90% of MT typically produced a progressive increase in blood flow in control rats but not in diabetic rats (p < 0.01, N = 13). Conclusion.  This study suggested that SCS-induced vasodilation improves peripheral blood flow, although the pathways were partially impaired in the diabetic condition.

  2. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172

  3. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension.

  4. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  5. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  6. Diffuse and persistent blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after contusive spinal cord injury rapidly recovers following intravenous infusion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Lankford, Karen L; Arroyo, Edgardo J; Sasaki, Masanori; Neyazi, Milad; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to reduce the severity of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), but mechanisms are not fully understood. One important consequence of SCI is damage to the microvasculature and disruption of the blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB). In the present study we induced a contusive SCI at T9 in the rat and studied the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on BSCB permeability, microvascular architecture and locomotor recovery over a 10week period. Intravenously delivered MSCs could not be identified in the spinal cord, but distributed primarily to the lungs where they survived for a couple of days. Spatial and temporal changes in BSCB integrity were assessed by intravenous infusions of Evans blue (EvB) with in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging and spectrophotometric quantitation of EvB leakage into the parenchyma. SCI resulted in prolonged BSCB leakage that was most severe at the impact site but disseminated extensively rostral and caudal to the lesion over 6weeks. Contused spinal cords also showed an increase in vessel size, reduced vessel number, dissociation of pericytes from microvessels and decreases in von Willebrand factor (vWF) and endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) expression. In MSC-treated rats, BSCB leakage was reduced, vWF expression was increased and locomotor function improved beginning 1 week post-MSC infusion, i.e., 2weeks post-SCI. These results suggest that intravenously delivered MSCs have important effects on reducing BSCB leakage which could contribute to their therapeutic efficacy.

  7. IL-6 induces regionally selective spinal cord injury in patients with the neuroinflammatory disorder transverse myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplin, Adam I.; Deshpande, Deepa M.; Scott, Erick; Krishnan, Chitra; Carmen, Jessica S.; Shats, Irina; Martinez, Tara; Drummond, Jennifer; Dike, Sonny; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Keswani, Sanjay C.; Moran, Timothy H.; Pardo, Carlos A.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Kerr, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated spinal cord disorder associated with inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. We investigated the soluble immune derangements present in TM patients and found that IL-6 levels were selectively and dramatically elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and directly correlated with markers of tissue injury and sustained clinical disability. IL-6 was necessary and sufficient to mediate cellular injury in spinal cord organotypic tissue culture sections through activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, resulting in increased activity of iNOS and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Rats intrathecally infused with IL-6 developed progressive weakness and spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage, which were blocked by PARP inhibition. Addition of IL-6 to brain organotypic cultures or into the cerebral ventricles of adult rats did not activate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is potentially due to increased expression of soluble IL-6 receptor in the brain relative to the spinal cord that may antagonize IL-6 signaling in this context. The spatially distinct responses to IL-6 may underlie regional vulnerability of different parts of the CNS to inflammatory injury. The elucidation of this pathway identifies specific therapeutic targets in the management of CNS autoimmune conditions. PMID:16184194

  8. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L P; Iglesias, D; Nicola, F C; Steffens, D; Valentim, L; Witczak, A; Zanatta, G; Achaval, M; Pranke, P; Netto, C A

    2012-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10(6) cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10(6) cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  9. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  10. Adenine nucleotide levels and regional distribution of ATP in rabbit spinal cord after ischemia and recirculation.

    PubMed

    Danielisová, V; Chavko, M; Kehr, J

    1987-03-01

    Rabbit spinal cords were subjected to 10 to 40 minutes of ischemia with and without 4 days of recirculation and L-4 segment was analyzed for adenylates and ATP-induced bioluminiscence. ATP level and energy charge was progressively reduced by increasing durations of ischemia. Regional evaluation of ATP-induced bioluminiscence after 10 and 20 minutes of ischemia revealed ATP depletion mainly in the gray matter of spinal cord. Forty minutes of ischemia resulted in complete reduction of ATP bioluminiscence in both gray and white matter. Within 4 days of recirculation following all periods of ischemia studied, only partial metabolic recovery occurred. Restitution of ATP-induced bioluminiscence was regionally heterogeneous, reduced predominantly in the anterior horns of gray matter.

  11. Intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride improves epicenter blood flow during the acute stage of contusive spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Muradov, Johongir M; Hagg, Theo

    2013-05-15

    Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary degeneration. Here, we used intravenous injection of endothelial-binding lectin followed by histology to show that the number of perfused microvessels at the injury site is decreased by 80-90% as early as 20 min following a moderate T9 contusion in adult female rats. Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microvascular blood flow recovered to up to 50% of normal volume in the injury penumbra by 6 h, but not at the epicenter. A comparison with an endothelial cell marker suggested that many microvessels fail to be reperfused up to 48 h post-injury. The ischemia was probably caused by vasospasm of vessels penetrating the parenchyma, because repeated Doppler measurements over the spinal cord showed a doubling of total blood flow over the first 12 h. Moreover, intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, used clinically to treat CNS vasospasm, greatly improved the number of perfused microvessels at 24 and 48 h. The magnesium treatment seemed safe as it did not increase hemorrhage, despite the improved parenchymal blood flow. However, the treatment did not reduce acute microvessel, motor neuron or oligodendrocyte loss, and when infused for 7 days did not affect functional recovery or spared epicenter white matter over a 4 week period. These data suggest that microvascular blood flow can be restored with a clinically relevant treatment following spinal cord injury.

  12. Spinal epidural angiolipoma: A rare cause of spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Rajesh K; Koti, Kalyan; Dandamudi, Srinivas

    2012-09-01

    Spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare, benign tumors composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. Only 128 cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas have been reported in literature till now. Spinal angiolipomas are predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. We report a case of dorsal epidural angiolipoma in a 56-year-old male who presented with paraparesis and was diagnosed to have D4-5 epidural angiolipoma. Total surgical excision of the epidural angiolipoma was done and his paraparesis gradually improved.

  13. Prevention of postdural puncture headache after spinal anaesthesia for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. An assessment of prophylactic epidural blood patching.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P; Bagley, G; Lim, M

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of postdural puncture headache after spinal anaesthesia for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was investigated by a controlled clinical trial which compared epidural injection of 10 ml of autologous blood with 10 ml of normal saline immediately after intrathecal injection of local anaesthetic. The incidence of postdural puncture headache was 8.3% in the group that received blood compared with 45% in the group that received saline, a significant reduction (p less than 0.01). The incidences of backache and lower limb paraesthesiae were similar in both groups. No serious complications were reported.

  14. Barriers to implementing intermittent catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients in Northwest Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, U.K.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Singh, Gurpreet; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent catheterisation is the preferred method of managing the neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury. However, spinal cord physicians experienced problems when trying to implement an intermittent catheterisation regime in some spinal cord injury patients in the northwest of England. We present illustrative cases to describe practical difficulties encountered by patients while trying to adopt an intermittent catheterisation regime. Barriers to intermittent catheterisation are (1) caregivers or nurses are not available to carry out five or six catheterisations a day; (2) lack of time to perform intermittent catheterisations; (3) unavailability of suitable toilet facilities in public places, including restaurants and offices; (4) redundant prepuce in a male patient, which prevents ready access to urethral meatus; (5) urethral false passage; (6) urethral sphincter spasm requiring the use of flexible-tip catheters and á-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs; (7) reluctance to perform intermittent catheterisation in patients >60 years by some health professionals; and (8) difficulty in accessing the urethral meatus for catheterisation while the patient is sitting up, especially in female patients. These cases demonstrate the urgent need for provision of trained caregivers who can perform intermittent catheterisation, and improvement in public facilities that are suitable for performing catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients. Further, vigilance should be exercised during each catheterisation in order to prevent complications, such as urethral trauma and consequent false passages. Health professionals should make additional efforts to implement intermittent catheterisation in female spinal cord injury patients and in those >60 years. PMID:21218264

  15. Barriers to implementing intermittent catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients in Northwest Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, U.K.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Singh, Gurpreet; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L

    2011-01-05

    Intermittent catheterisation is the preferred method of managing the neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury. However, spinal cord physicians experienced problems when trying to implement an intermittent catheterisation regime in some spinal cord injury patients in the northwest of England. We present illustrative cases to describe practical difficulties encountered by patients while trying to adopt an intermittent catheterisation regime. Barriers to intermittent catheterisation are (1) caregivers or nurses are not available to carry out five or six catheterisations a day; (2) lack of time to perform intermittent catheterisations; (3) unavailability of suitable toilet facilities in public places, including restaurants and offices; (4) redundant prepuce in a male patient, which prevents ready access to urethral meatus; (5) urethral false passage; (6) urethral sphincter spasm requiring the use of flexible-tip catheters and á-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs; (7) reluctance to perform intermittent catheterisation in patients >60 years by some health professionals; and (8) difficulty in accessing the urethral meatus for catheterisation while the patient is sitting up, especially in female patients. These cases demonstrate the urgent need for provision of trained caregivers who can perform intermittent catheterisation, and improvement in public facilities that are suitable for performing catheterisation in spinal cord injury patients. Further, vigilance should be exercised during each catheterisation in order to prevent complications, such as urethral trauma and consequent false passages. Health professionals should make additional efforts to implement intermittent catheterisation in female spinal cord injury patients and in those >60 years.

  16. Transplantation of umbilical cord blood stem cells for treating spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Borlongan, Cesario V; Sanberg, Paul R; Chung, Yong-Gu; Cho, Tai-Hyoung

    2011-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) develops primary and secondary damage to neural tissue and this often results in permanent disability of the motor and sensory functions. However, there is currently no effective treatment except methylprednisolone, and the use of methylprednisolone has also been questioned due to its moderate efficacy and the drug's downside. Regenerative medicine has remarkably developed since the discovery of stem cells, and many studies have suggested the potential of cell-based therapies for neural injury. Especially, the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCB cells) for intractable neurological disorders has been demonstrated using in vitro and vivo models. The hUCB cells are immune naïve and they are able to differentiate into other phenotypes, including the neural lineage. Their ability to produce several neurotropic factors and to modulate immune and inflammatory reactions has also been noted. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting alternative pathways of graft-mediated neural repair that involve neurotrophic effects. These effects are caused by the release of various growth factors that promote cell survival, angiogenesis and anti-inflammation, and this is all aside from a cell replacement mechanism. In this review, we present the recent findings on the stemness properties and the therapeutic potential of hUCB as a safe, feasible and effective cellular source for transplantation in SCI. These multifaceted protective and restorative effects from hUCB grafts may be interdependent and they act in harmony to promote therapeutic benefits for SCI. Nevertheless, clinical studies with hUCB are still rare because of the concerns about safety and efficiency. Among these concerns, the major histocompatibility in allogeneic transplantation is an important issue to be addressed in future clinical trials for treating SCI.

  17. Sciatic nerve transection modulates oxidative parameters in spinal and supraspinal regions.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Taína; Bosco, Lidiane Dal; Guedes, Renata P; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Partata, Wania A

    2013-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common dysfunction caused by several types of nerve injury. This condition leads to a variety of pathological changes in central nervous system regions related to pain transmission. It has been demonstrated that nociception is modulated by reactive oxidative species and treatments with antioxidant compounds produce antinociceptive effects. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative parameters in spinal and supraspinal regions following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). In behavioral assessments, animals showed mechanical allodynia and a significant functional impairment following SNT, measured by von Frey hairs test and sciatic functional index, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased 3 and 7 days following SNT in cerebral cortex and brainstem. Catalase activity was also increased in cerebral cortex 3 days after SNT. Ascorbic acid levels were decreased 7 days in the spinal cord only in SNT group. We also showed an increase in lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex and brainstem 3 days after surgery in SNT and sham groups. These results showed that supraspinal regions also exhibit changes in antioxidant activity after SNT and demonstrate an intricate relationship among antioxidant defenses in different regions of the neuro axis related to pain transmission. PMID:23423532

  18. Antiallodynic effect through spinal endothelin-B receptor antagonism in rat models of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, In Ji; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a very complicated chronic pain disorder that has been classified into two types (I and II). Endothelin (ET) receptors are involved in pain conditions at the spinal level. We investigated the role of spinal ET receptors in CRPS. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats as a model for CRPS-I by placing a tourniquet (O-ring) at the ankle joint for 3h, and removing it to allow reperfusion. Ligation of L5 and L6 spinal nerves to induce neuropathic pain was performed as a model for CRPS-II. After O-ring application and spinal nerve ligation, the paw withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased at injured sites. Intrathecal administration of the selective ET-B receptor antagonist BQ 788 dose-dependently increased the withdrawal threshold in both CRPS-I and CRPS-II. In contrast, ET-A receptor antagonist BQ 123 did not affect the withdrawal threshold in either CRPS type. The ET-1 levels of plasma and spinal cord increased in both CRPS types. Intrathecal BQ 788 decreased the spinal ET-1 level. These results suggest that ET-1 is involved in the development of mechanical allodynia in CRPS. Furthermore, the ET-B receptor appears to be involved in spinal cord-related CRPS. PMID:25451723

  19. Isolation of cDNA clones from within the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, M.; Roy, N.; Tamai, K.

    1994-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by death of spinal cord {alpha} motor neurons, resulting in skeletal muscle atrophy. The critical SMA disease gene region on 5q13.1 contains families of microsatellite repeat sequences which exist at multiple subloci that are dispersed over a 100 to 200 kbp region. We have detected significant linkage disequilibrium between SMA type 1, the most severe form of the disorder, and two subloci of one such microsatellite, the CATT-1 family of microsatellites. Furthermore, a recombination event in a chromosome of an individual with SMA type 1 mapping between the members of two other extended microsatellite families, including CMS-1, has been observed. Combining this with previously reported recombinants refines the critical SMA region to approximately 300 kbp. P1 artificial chromosome (PAC), YAC and cosmid clones which possess both CMS-1 alleles which bracket this recombination event, as well as CATT-1 alleles showing linkage disequilibrium with SMA, have been used to probe cDNA libraries from human and other mammalian sources in search of genes within this interval; three of these cDNAs are currently being tested as candidates for the SMA gene.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

  1. Effect of spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section on cerebral blood oxygenation changes: comparison of hyperbaric and isobaric bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuko; Sakatani, Kaoru; Hirose, Noriya; Maeda, Takeshi; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate cerebral blood oxygenation changes in subjects undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia (SP) with hyperbaric bupivacaine (group H, 27 subjects) or isobaric bupivacaine (group I, 15 subjects). In group H, total-Hb, oxy-Hb, and mean blood pressure (MBP) within 20 min after SP were significantly lower than the baseline values. In contrast, there was no significant change from baseline in total-Hb, oxy-Hb, or MBP in group I after SP. Total-Hb and MBP in group H were significantly lower than those in group I within 10 min after SP. There was no significant change of deoxy-Hb, tissue oxygen index, or heart rate from baseline in either of the groups. These results suggest that isobaric bupivacaine may be superior to hyperbaric bupivacaine for preventing a decrease of maternal cerebral blood flow after SP for cesarean section.

  2. Cardiac cryosurgery: regional myocardial blood flow of ventricular cryolesions

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, W.L.; Ikeshita, M.; Lease, J.G.; Smith, P.K.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Cox, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Cryosurgery is one of three methods introduced recently for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Cryothermic exposure ablates arrhythmogenic ventricular myocardium, and produces a dense fibrous scar with a sharp border to histologically normal tissue. Myocardial blood flow in the region of the cryolesion, however, has not been quantitated. The purpose of this study was to measure regional blood flow within and around the cryolesion in an attempt to identify ischemic zones that might become arrhythmogenic. Left ventricular cryolesions were created in eleven adult dogs. Two weeks later, the animals underwent radioactive tracer microsphere injection for quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow. The fibrotic cryolesion demonstrated a significantly depressed blood flow (0.44 +/- 0.07 ml/min/g) compared to blood flow in control tissue (1.36 +/- 0.12 ml/min/g) (P less than 0.001). A 1-mm strip of myocardium immediately adjacent to the cryolesion, as well as other myocardium surrounding and subjacent to the cryolesion, did not show a significant decrease in regional blood flow. The border between the fibrotic cryolesion and the surrounding myocardium is, therefore, sharply defined not only in terms of histology but also in regards to regional blood flow. These data lend further support to the safe clinical use of cryothermia in the treatment of refractory ventricular tachycardia.

  3. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Lundell, H; Christensen, M S; Barthélemy, D; Willerslev-Olsen, M; Biering-Sørensen, F; Nielsen, J B

    2011-01-15

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19 chronic SCI individuals and 7 age-comparable controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing rhythmic dorsiflexion of the ankle. A significant negative correlation was found between the activation in the ipsilateral motor (M1) and bilateral premotor cortex (PMC) on one hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials in the tibialis anterior muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between motor score or spinal cord dimensions and the volume of the cortical motor areas. The observations show that lesion of descending tracts in the lateral part of the spinal cord results in increased activation in ipsilateral motor and sensory areas, which may help to compensate for the functional deficit following SCI. PMID:20851198

  4. Blood detection in the spinal column of whole cooked chicken using an optical fibre based sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; O'Farrell, M.; Lyons, W. B.; Lewis, E.; Flanagan, C.; Jackman, N.

    2005-01-01

    An optical fibre based sensor has been developed to aid the quality assurance of food cooked in industrial ovens by monitoring the product in situ as it cooks. The sensor measures the product colour as it cooks by examining the reflected visible light from the surface as well as the core of the product. This paper examines the use of the sensor for the detection of blood in the spinal area of cooked whole chickens. The results presented here show that the sensor can be successfully used for this purpose.

  5. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  6. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  7. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  8. Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Expression of SMN in Peripheral Blood of SMA Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Christian; Tang, Wakana; Bugawan, Teodorica; Mano, Calvin; Horn, Carsten; Iglesias, Victor Alejandro; Fröhner, Stefanie; Zaworski, Phillip G.; Paushkin, Sergey; Chen, Karen; Kremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2 copy numbers. Here, we report the results of a biomarker study characterizing SMA patients of varying disease severity. SMN copy number, mRNA and Protein levels in whole blood of patients were measured and compared against a cohort of healthy controls. The results show differential regulation of expression of SMN2 in peripheral blood between patients and healthy subjects. PMID:26468953

  9. Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation. [/sup 60/Co; x ray

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, B.R.; Griffin, T.W.; Tong, D.Y.K.; Russell, A.H.; Kurtz, J.; Laramore, G.E.; Groudine, M.

    1981-05-01

    Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment.

  10. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  11. Construction of a yeast artifical chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kleyn, P.W.; Wang, C.H.; Vitale, E.; Pan, J.; Ross, B.M.; Grunn, A.; Palmer, D.A.; Warburton, D.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.G. ); Lien, L.L.; Kunkel, L.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 With Total Spinal Block

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Se Jin; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who suffered from constant stabbing and squeezing pain, with severe touch allodynia in the left upper extremity following an operation of chondroblastoma. After the TSB, the patient's continuous and spontaneous pain became mild and the allodynia disappeared and maintained decreased for 1 month. PMID:20552078

  13. Management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with total spinal block.

    PubMed

    Ok, Se Jin; Yang, Jong Yeun; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who suffered from constant stabbing and squeezing pain, with severe touch allodynia in the left upper extremity following an operation of chondroblastoma. After the TSB, the patient's continuous and spontaneous pain became mild and the allodynia disappeared and maintained decreased for 1 month. PMID:20552078

  14. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, EungDon; Roh, MiSun; Kim, SooHyang; Jo, DaeHyun

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS). In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB) has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation. PMID:27445617

  15. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  16. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  17. [Mandible regional blood circulation peculiarities by dental implants placement].

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, V A; Tsilenko, O L; Grabovetskiĭ, P V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents data on regional blood circulation in mandible implant placement sites. Rheographic assessment in 50 patients divided in two groups according to implant placement protocol revealed that circulation volume and peripheral vessels tonus restored on the 14th day after implant placement with wound draining while in conventional implant placement protocol these values remained disturbed even 21 days after surgical procedure.

  18. Effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donation for protection against allogeneic blood exposure in adult spinal deformity surgeries: a propensity-matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Zebala, Lukas P.; Kim, Han Jo; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Smith, Justin S.; Shaffrey, Christopher I.; Bess, Shay; Klineberg, Eric; Mundis, Gregory; Burton, Douglas; Hart, Robert; Soroceanu, Alex; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing single-stay ASD reconstructions were identified in a multicenter database. Patients were divided into groups according to PABD (either PABD or NoPABD). Propensity weighting was used to create matched cohorts of PABD and NoPABD patients. Allogeneic (ALLO) exposure, autologous (AUTO) wastage (unused AUTO), and complication rates were compared between groups. RESULTS Four hundred twenty-eight patients were identified as meeting eligibility criteria. Sixty patients were treated with PABD, of whom 50 were matched to 50 patients who were not treated with PABD (NoPABD). Nearly one-third of patients in the PABD group (18/60, 30%) did not receive any autologous transfusion and donated blood was wasted. In 6 of these cases (6/60, 10%), patients received ALLO blood transfusions without AUTO. In 9 cases (9/60, 15%), patients received ALLO and AUTO blood transfusions. Overall rates of transfusion of any type were similar between groups (PABD 70% [42/60], NoPABD 75% [275/368], p = 0.438). Major and minor in-hospital complications were similar between groups (Major PABD 10% [6/60], NoPABD 12% [43/368], p = 0.537; Minor PABD 30% [18/60], NoPABD 24% [87/368], p = 0.499). When controlling for potential confounders, PABD patients were more likely to receive some transfusion (OR 15.1, 95% CI 2.1–106.7). No relationship between PABD and ALLO blood exposure was observed, however, refuting the concept that PABD is protective against ALLO blood exposure. In the matched cohorts, PABD patients were more likely to sustain a major perioperative cardiac complication (PABD 8/50 [16%], NoPABD 1/50 [2%], p = 0.046). No differences in rates of infection or wound-healing complications were observed between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative autologous blood donation was associated with a higher probability of

  19. Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

  20. Quantification of regional blood flow to canine flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Weidman, K.A.; Simonet, W.T.; Wood, M.B.; Cooney, W.P.; Ilstrup, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Although the blood supply and the microcirculation of flexor tendons have been studied and defined extensively using qualitative methods, the quantitative assessment of blood flow has been lacking because of the limitations of the available experimental techniques. The authors studied the regional blood supply to the flexor tendons of dogs by the technique of radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Seven adult mongrel dogs were used. Microsphere injection and tissue-counting techniques previously used for other tissues were applied. Samples of proximal, isthmus, and distal portions of the profundus and superficialis flexor tendons were harvested from each digital unit of available limbs from each dog. Mean (+/- SE) flows (ml/100 g dry tissue/min) were proximal profundus 1.78 +/- 0.60 and superficialis 7.10 +/- 1.50. The differences were significant. The study suggests that regional variation in blood flow to canine digital flexor tendons exists, so that a single value for blood flow to these tendons is not relevant. Furthermore, the study supports the concept of dual (vascular and synovial) nutrition to the digital flexor tendons in dogs. These observations may have implications regarding tendon repair techniques.

  1. SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bonte, F.J.; Ross, E.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Devous, M.D. Sr.

    1986-07-01

    A common cause of dementia in late midlife and old age is Alzheimer disease (AD), which affects more than one in 20 individuals over the age of 65. Past studies of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD here suggested blood flow abnormalities, but findings have differed. We have studied 37 patients diagnosed as having AD with inhalation and washout of /sup 133/Xe and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), obtaining evidence of abnormal rCBF patterns in 19. Flow reductions were most common in the temporoparietal regions and were occasionally found in the frontal areas. Investigators using positron-emission tomography (PET) have identified similar findings with respect to rCBF and regional oxygen, glucose, and protein metabolism. The SPECT determination of rCBF, which gives information similar to that provided by PET, may assume importance in the diagnosis of AD and in the differential diagnosis of the dementias.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P < 0.05 for all DTI parameters except MD), as well as between white matter sub-regions (P < 0.05 for most DTI parameters except radial diffusivity, MD and planar index). DTI-based sub-regional analysis of white and grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  3. Relations of blood pressure and head injury to regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kisser, Jason E; Allen, Allyssa J; Katzel, Leslie I; Wendell, Carrington R; Siegel, Eliot L; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities. All engaged in clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=0.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=0.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=0.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=0.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  4. Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia.

  5. Meso-diencephalic regions projecting to spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex in the hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of neurons projecting to the spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex was investigated in the mesodiencephalic regions of the lesser hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora) by using the retrograde flow technique. While only few neurons projected to the dorsal column nuclear complex, numerous cells were found to give rise to spinal projections. Rubro-spinal neurons of various sizes were distributed over the entire rostrocaudal extent of the contra-lateral nucleus; a few neurons were also located ipsilaterally, Unlike that of the opossum, the projection appeared to be somatotopically organised. Interstitio-spinal neurons were differentiated into several subpopulations according to their location and laterality of projection. In the ipsilateral periventricular grey, in addition, there was a distinct population of cells possibly corresponding to the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. The mesencephalic central grey contained relatively few labeled neurons, the great majority of them being mesencephalic trigeminal, ectopic cuneiform or midline cells. Labeled cuneiform and midline cells, on the other hand, were quite numerous, extending both from a level just caudal to the trochlear nucleus to levels far beyond the rostral tip of the somatic oculomotor nucleus. The discrepancy between the poorly differentiated oculomotor nuclei and the apparently well-developed Edinger-Westphal complex is discussed. Hypothalamo-spinal neurons were essentially restricted to dorsal regions: the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PAV), the dorso-medial (DmHy) and dorso-intermediate cell groups as well as the lateral hypothalamic zone. The latter two cell groups were bilaterally labeled, while the labeled neurons in DmHy and PAV were located predominantly ipsilaterally. Labeled neurons in the amygdala, colliculus superior and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were only found following cervical injections; all other mentioned areas and the posterior commissure complex

  6. Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel induces mechanical hypersensitivity, increases cutaneous blood flow, and mediates the pronociceptive action of dynorphin A.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Saarnilehto, M; Falck, L; Viisanen, H; Lasierra, M; Koivisto, A; Pertovaara, A

    2013-06-01

    We characterized pain behavior and cutaneous blood flow response induced by activation of the spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel using intrathecal drug administrations in the rat. Additionally, we assessed whether the pronociceptive actions induced by intrathecally administered dynorphin A, cholecystokinin or prostaglandin F(2α) are mediated by the spinal TRPA1 channel. Cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, produced a dose-related (3-10 μg) cutaneous blood flow increase and mechanical hypersensitivity effect. These effects at the currently used doses were of short duration and attenuated, although not completely, by pretreatment with A-967079, a TRPA1 antagonist. The cinnamaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity was also reduced by pretreatment with minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation), but not by carbenoxolone (a gap junction decoupler). In vitro study, however, indicated that minocycline only poorly blocks the TRPA1 channel. The mechanical hypersensitivity effect induced by dynorphin A, but not that by cholecystokinin or prostaglandin F(2α), was attenuated by a TRPA1 antagonist Chembridge-5861528 as well as A-967079. The cinnamaldehyde-induced cutaneous blood flow increase was not suppressed by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, or bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. The results indicate that spinal TRPA1 channels promote mechanical pain hypersensitivity and due to antidromic activation of nociceptive nerve fibers increase cutaneous blood flow. The attenuation of the cinnamaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity effect by minocycline may be explained by action other than block of the TRPA1 channel. Moreover, the spinal TRPA1 channel is involved in mediating the pronociceptive action of dynorphin A, but not that of the spinal cholecystokinin or prostaglandin F(2α).

  7. Patients' perceptions of their roles in goal setting in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Draaistra, Harriett; Singh, Mina D; Ireland, Sandra; Harper, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Goal setting is a common practice in rehabilitation, yet there is a paucity of literature exploring patients' perceptions of their roles in this process. This study was conducted using a qualitative descriptive methodology to explore patients' perceptions of their roles in setting goals in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program. Imogene King's theory of goal attainment was used to frame the study. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed using a content analysis. The results revealed four themes: Visioning, Redefining, Brainstorming, and Rebuilding Participants (n = 13) envisioned their roles as setting an overarching priority goal, defining detailed rehabilitation goals, sharing knowledge with the team, and rebuilding skills to attain goals. Implications for nursing practice include the need to understand patients' experiences and perceptions, share knowledge, and support effective communication to promote collaborative goal setting. A need to enhance health professionals' education to fully understand factors influencing patients' abilities to set rehabilitation goals, and future research in methods to promote patients' engagement in goal setting was also clearly indicated.

  8. Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Schira, Jessica; Gasis, Marcia; Estrada, Veronica; Hendricks, Marion; Schmitz, Christine; Trapp, Thorsten; Kruse, Fabian; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-02-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat. Grafting of unrestricted somatic stem cells into the vicinity of a dorsal hemisection injury at thoracic level eight resulted in hepatocyte growth factor-directed migration and accumulation within the lesion area, reduction in lesion size and augmented tissue sparing, enhanced axon regrowth and significant functional locomotor improvement as revealed by three behavioural tasks (open field Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor score, horizontal ladder walking test and CatWalk gait analysis). To accomplish the beneficial effects, neither neural differentiation nor long-lasting persistence of the grafted human stem cells appears to be required. The secretion of neurite outgrowth-promoting factors in vitro further suggests a paracrine function of unrestricted somatic stem cells in spinal cord injury. Given the highly supportive functional characteristics in spinal cord injury, production in virtually unlimited quantities at GMP grade and lack of ethical concerns, unrestricted somatic stem cells appear to be a highly suitable human stem cell source for clinical application in central nervous system injuries. PMID:21903726

  9. Site of origin of spinal cerebrospinal fluid pulse wave.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Urayama, K; Hoshino, Y

    1998-01-01

    : Since vascular pulsation in the cerebrospinal fluid causes the cerebrospinal fluid pulse wave (CSFPW), spinal CSFPW may serve as a monitor of spinal cord blood flow. However, there are two possible sources of spinal CSFPW: brain and spinal cord pulsation, and it is unclear for which region spinal CSFPW provides blood flow information. To resolve this question, we analyzed changes in CSFPW caused by occlusion of the large vessels in mongrel dogs. The thoracic and abdominal aorta (TA group, n = 13; AA, n = 6), bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICA, n = 7), and superior and inferior vena cava (SVC, n = 6; IVC, n = 8) were occluded. The CSFPW was measured at the second cervical and sixth lumbar spine level. To eliminate the influence of hemodynamic changes caused by the occlusion, CSFPWs were decomposed into component frequencies, harmonic waves (HWs), and analyzed using the system analysis method. After occlusion, cervical CSFPW was decreased in groups ICA (change in the first HW, 38%; P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon signed-ranks test), TA (40%; P < 0.05), and SVC (53%; P < 0.05), while lumbar CSFPW was decreased in groups TA (71%; P < 0.01), AA (78%; P < 0.05), and IVC (48%; P < 0.05). These results show that spinal CSFPW provides information on the blood flow of a relatively localized region, and could be used to monitor spinal cord blood flow.

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, K.; Damasio, H.; Graff-Radford, N.; Eslinger, P.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-05-01

    In 37 patients (ages 58-81) with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied utilizing a dedicated SPECT system (Tomomatic-64) that produces rCBF images from 4-minute clearance of Xenon-133 in the brain. The authors have modified the device to acquire 5 continuous tomographic slices simultaneously. A consistent pattern of diminished blood flow was seen in 33 patients in the posterior-temporal and lower-parietal brain regions. Computer programs were developed to quantitate the size of the affected brain tissue in the posterolateral brain areas (confined to the posterior 40% and the lateral 25% of the major and minor brain axes respectively). They have previously reported normal rCBF in 25 volunteers to be greater than 45 ml/min/100g with less than 10% regional variation. Hence, an area was considered abnormal if rCBF measured less than 40 ml/min/100g or was less than 70% of the mean rCBF value in the anterior temporal-frontal regions.

  11. Difference in intraosseous blood vessel volume and number in osteoporotic model mice induced by spinal cord injury and sciatic nerve resection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wen-Ge; Yan, Wei-hong; Wei, Zhao-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Bo

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we examined intraosseous blood vessel parameters of the tibial metaphysis in mice using microcomputed tomography (µCT) to investigate the relationship between post-nerve-injury osteoporosis and local intraosseous blood vessel volume and number. Mice were randomly divided into groups receiving spinal cord injury (SCI), sciatic nerve resection group (NX), or intact controls (30 mice/group). Four weeks after surgery, mice were perfused with silicone and the distribution of intraosseous blood vessels analyzed by μCT. The bone density, μCT microstructure, biomechanical properties, and the immunohistochemical and biochemical indicators of angiogenesis were also measured. The SCI group showed significantly reduced tibial metaphysis bone density, μCT bone microstructure, tibial biomechanical properties, indicators of angiogenesis, and intraosseous blood vessel parameters compared to the NX group. Furthermore, the spinal cord-injured mice exhibited significantly decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number during the development of osteoporosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number may play an important role in the development of post-nerve-injury osteoporosis.

  12. The feasibility of in vivo imaging of infiltrating blood cells for predicting the functional prognosis after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Kazuya; Saito, Takeyuki; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Hara, Masamitsu; Murata, Masaharu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI), a reliable prediction of the potential functional outcome is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategy. Despite recent advances in the field of neurological assessment, there is still no satisfactory methodology for predicting the functional outcome after SCI. We herein describe a novel method to predict the functional outcome at 12 hours after SCI using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We produced three groups of SCI mice with different functional prognoses: 50 kdyn (mild), 70 kdyn (moderate) and 90 kdyn (severe). Only the locomotor function within 24 hours after SCI was unable to predict subsequent functional recovery. However, both the number of infiltrating neutrophils and the bioluminescence signal intensity from infiltrating blood cells were found to correlate with the severity of the injury at 12 hours after SCI. Furthermore, a strong linear relationship was observed among the number of infiltrating neutrophils, the bioluminescence signal intensity, and the severity of the injury. Our findings thus indicate that in vivo bioluminescence imaging is able to accurately predict the long-term functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of SCI, thereby providing evidence that this imaging modality could positively contribute to the future development of tailored therapeutic approaches for SCI. PMID:27156468

  13. MMP-3 secreted from endothelial cells of blood vessels after spinal cord injury activates microglia, leading to oligodendrocyte cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2015-10-01

    The activation of microglia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to secondary damage by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, leading to cell death of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Here, we show that matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3) produced and secreted in the endothelial cells of blood vessels after SCI mediates microglial activation. MMP-3 was produced and secreted in bEnd.3 cells, a mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line, by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/RO). OGD/RO-induced MMP-3 expression and activity was also significantly inhibited by ghrelin, which was dependent on the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Furthermore, the secreted MMP-3 from OGD/RO-induced bEnd.3 cells activated BV-2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. We also found that microglial activation after SCI was attenuated in MMP-3 knockout (KO) mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. Both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) production were more inhibited in MMP-3 KO than WT mice at 5d after injury. When WT mice were treated with Mmp-3 siRNA after injury, MMP-3 activity, microglial activation, p38MAPK activation and proNGF expression were significantly inhibited. Ghrelin treatment also significantly inhibited MMP-3 expression and activation after SCI, which was dependent on GHS-R1a. Finally, RhoA activation and oligodendrocyte cell death after injury were attenuated by Mmp-3 siRNA or ghrelin treatment compared with vehicle control. Thus, our study indicates that MMP-3 produced in blood vessel endothelial cells after SCI serves as an endogenous molecule for microglial activation followed by p38MAPK activation and proNGF production, and further indicates that the protective effect of ghrelin on oligodendrocytes cell death may be at least partly mediated by the inhibition of MMP-3-induced microglial activation after SCI.

  14. Effect of fluorocarbon-for-blood exchange on regional blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.A.; Sylvia, A.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Cerebrocirculatory responses to total perfluorocarbon (FC-43)-for-blood replacement were studied in anesthetized, ventilated rats breathing 100% O{sub 2}. Changes in total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radiolabeled-microsphere technique. The data were compared with two control groups of hemoglobin-circulated animals; one group was exposed to arterial hypoxia and the other to isovolemic hemodilution with Krebs-Henseleit-albumin (KHA) solution. Exchange transfusion with FC-43 doubled total and regional CBF, causing preferential flow increases to the cortex and cerebellum. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance fell to 50% of the preexchange value. Both hemodilution and hypoxia control experiments produced CBF responses similar to those obtained in FC-43 animals. Although calculated arterial O{sub 2} contents in all three groups of animals were similar, blood viscosity was normal in hypoxic rats and reduced in KHA and FC-43 animals. Since arterial and cerebrovenous Po{sub 2}s were both high in fluorocarbon-circulated rats, over results suggest that decreased O{sub 2} content and perhaps lower viscosity of the circulating fluorocarbon were responsible for increases in CBF required to maintain sufficient delivery of O{sub 2} to the brain.

  15. Spinal cord contusion models.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2002-01-01

    Most human spinal cord injuries involve contusions of the spinal cord. Many investigators have long used weight-drop contusion animal models to study the pathophysiology and genetic responses of spinal cord injury. All spinal cord injury therapies tested to date in clinical trial were validated in such models. In recent years, the trend has been towards use of rats for spinal cord injury studies. The MASCIS Impactor is a well-standardized rat spinal cord contusion model that produces very consistent graded spinal cord damage that linearly predicts 24-h lesion volumes, 6-week white matter sparing, and locomotor recovery in rats. All aspects of the model, including anesthesia for male and female rats, age rather than body weight criteria, and arterial blood gases were empirically selected to enhance the consistency of injury. PMID:12440371

  16. Diagnosis Of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow By Partitioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Alexander; Sansone, Joseph; Barclay, Laurie

    1986-06-01

    A scheme is proposed for discriminating between patients with Alzheimer's disease and age-matched normals using regional cerebral blood flow data measured by the noninvasive Xe-133 inhalation technique. Regional blood flows which are known to be decreased in Alzheimer's disease but are known to overlap to some degree with flows from normals are usually interpreted subjectively. In the scheme presented these flow values are used to form cumulative distributions for each subject group and for each detector. Pairs of distributions for homologous detectors are compared and the blood flow value at which this difference is the greatest is identified as the cutoff value. The 32 pairs of distributions give rise to 32 cutoff values. For each individual and detector the flow values are compared to their respective cutoffs. Those flow values which exceed their cutoff are assigned a 1 and those that are less than the cutoff a 0. For each subject and hemisphere these binary values are cummed where the sums for each hemisphere range in value from 0 to 16. A new cutoff for this sum is chosen and the sums for each patient are compared to this value. In the two groups sited the cutoff was set at a sum of 12 for each hemisphere. The majority of the normals had hemispheric sums of 14 or greater. The patients with Alzheimer's disease had sums that were equally distributed over the whole range of possible sums. This result indicated that the classification scheme was unlikely to classify a normal as an abnormal. However, there was a significant likelihood that an abnormal could be classified as a normal. These two qualities are defined as the sensitivity and specificity respectively. The test was sensitive (90%) but less specific (70%). The results of this classification scheme compared favorably with the subjective interpretation of experienced readers.

  17. Interactive retinal blood flow analysis of the macular region.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R; Smiddy, William E; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV and BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography data was registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s). Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software was 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001).

  18. Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Correlates with Neurological Recovery after Human Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of High Frequency Physiologic Data.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Gregory; Whetstone, William; Saigal, Rajiv; Ferguson, Adam; Talbott, Jason; Bresnahan, Jacqueline; Dhall, Sanjay; Pan, Jonathan; Beattie, Michael; Manley, Geoffrey

    2015-12-15

    Current guidelines for the care of patients with acute spinal cord injuries (SCIs) recommend maintaining mean arterial pressure (MAP) values of 85-90 mm Hg for 7 days after an acute SCI however, little evidence supports this recommendation. We sought to better inform the relationship between MAP values and neurological recovery. A computer system automatically collected and stored q1 min physiological data from intensive care unit monitors on patients with SCI over a 6-year period. Data for 100 patients with acute SCI were collected. 74 of these patients had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades determined by physical examination on admission and at time of hospital discharge. Average MAP values as well as the proportion of MAP values below thresholds were explored for values from 120 mm Hg to 40 mm Hg in 1 mm Hg increments; the relationship between these measures and outcome was explored at various time points up to 30 days from the time of injury. A total of 994,875 q1 min arterial line blood pressure measurements were recorded for the included patients amid 1,688,194 min of recorded intensive care observations. A large proportion of measures were below 85 mm Hg despite generally acceptable average MAP values. Higher average MAP values correlated with improved recovery in the first 2-3 days after SCI while the proportion of MAP values below the accepted threshold of 85 mm Hg seemed a stronger correlate, decreasing in strength over the first 5-7 days after injury. This study provides strong evidence supporting a correlation between MAP values and neurological recovery. It does not, however, provide evidence of a causal relationship. Duration of hypotension may be more important than average MAP. It provides support for the notion of MAP thresholds in SCI recovery, and the highest MAP values correlated with the greatest degree of neurological recovery. The results are concordant with current guidelines in suggesting that MAP thresholds

  19. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  20. Efferents from the lateral frontal cortex to spinomedullary target areas, trigeminal nuclei, and spinally projecting brainstem regions in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Lotter, G

    1996-08-12

    This study was done in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, an insectivore with a very poorly differentiated neocortex. The cortical region, known to give rise to spinal projections, was injected with tracer, and the cortical efferents to brainstem and spinal cord were analyzed. Bulbar reticular fields, in addition, were identified according to their cells of origin and the laterality of their spinal projections after injection of tracer. Only few cortical fibers could be traced from the bulbar pyramid into the ipsilateral spinal cord, particularly to the lateral funiculus. The projections to the dorsal column nuclei and the classical spinally projecting brainstem regions were also weak. Faint projections were demonstrated to the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. In comparison to other mammals, there was no evidence that the contralateral cortico-bulbo-spinal pathway was strengthened, substituting for the almost non-existent contralateral corticospinal projection. Unlike the sensorimotor apparatus controlling limb and body movements, the brainstem regions controlling the head and neck received prominent cortical projections. Direct corticotrigeminal projections and indirect pathways were well represented. The projections to the trigeminal nuclei and the lateral reticular fields were clearly bilateral; those to the superior colliculus were predominantly ipsilateral. The corticobulbar fibers left the pyramid along its entire extent; the principal trigeminal nucleus and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum were supplied by additional fibers of the corticotegmental tract. The lateral frontal cortex also projected densely to the dorsolateral hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and the adjacent mesencephalic tegmentum, components of the emotional motor system.

  1. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Otte, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cWAD, (2) to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3) to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H2(15)O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing. PMID:27444853

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh K; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Richardson, Heidi L; Wang, Danny J J; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2013-10-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by upper airway muscle atonia with continued diaphragmatic efforts, resulting in repeated airway obstructions, periods of intermittent hypoxia, large thoracic pressure changes, and substantial shifts in arterial pressure with breathing cessation and resumption. The hypoxic exposure and hemodynamic changes likely induce the structural and functional deficits found in multiple brain areas, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to these localized deficits; thus, we examined regional CBF, using arterial spin labeling procedures, in 11 OSA (age, 49.1±12.2 years; 7 male) and 16 control subjects (42.3±10.2 years; 6 male) with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. CBF maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, and regional CBF values across the brain quantified. Lowered CBF values emerged near multiple bilateral brain sites in OSA, including the corticospinal tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles, and pontocerebellar fibers. Lateralized, decreased CBF appeared near the left inferior cerebellar peduncles, left tapetum, left dorsal fornix/stria terminalis, right medial lemniscus, right red nucleus, right midbrain, and midline pons. Regional CBF values in OSA are significantly reduced in major sensory and motor fiber systems and motor regulatory sites, especially in structures mediating motor coordination; those reductions are often lateralized. The asymmetric CBF declines in motor regulatory areas may contribute to loss of coordination between upper airway and diaphragmatic musculature, and lead to further damage in the syndrome.

  3. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries.

  4. Temporal and Regional Expression of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Its Receptor in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ana Beatriz W; Forner, Stefania; Martini, Alessandra C; Patrício, Eliziane S; Clarke, Julia R; Costa, Robson; Felix-Alves, João; Vieira, Vilberto José; de Andrade, Edinéia Lemos; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Calixto, João Batista; Figueiredo, Claudia Pinto

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of movement, sensibility, and autonomic control at the level of the lesion and at lower parts of the body. Several experimental strategies have been used in attempts to increase endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and repair, but with limited success. It is known that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR) can enhance synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. However, their role in the injury has never been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in expression levels of both GIP and GIPR in acute and chronic phases of SCI in rats. Following SCI (2 to 24 h after damage), the rat spinal cord showed a lesion in which the epicenter had a cavity with hemorrhage and necrosis. Furthermore, the lesion cavity also showed ballooned cells 14 and 28 days after injury. We found that SCI induced increases in GIPR expression in areas neighboring the site of injury at 6 h and 28 days after the injury. Moreover, higher GIP expression was observed in these regions on day 28. Neuronal projections from the injury epicenter showed an increase in GIP immunoreactivity 24 h and 14 and 28 days after SCI. Interestingly, GIP was also found in progenitor cells at the spinal cord canal 24 h after injury, whereas both GIP and GIPR were present in progenitor cells at the injury epicenter 14 days after in SCI animals. These results suggest that GIP and its receptor might be implicated with neurogenesis and the repair process after SCI. PMID:26421658

  5. Complex repetitive arrangements of gene sequence in the candidate region of the spinal muscular atrophy gene in 5q13

    SciTech Connect

    Theodosiou, A.M.; Nesbit, A.M.; Daniels, R.J.; Campbell, L.; Francis, M.J.; Christodoulou, Z.; Morrison, K.E.; Davies, K.E. |

    1994-12-01

    Childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heritable neurological disorder, which has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis to chromosome 5q13, in the interval between markers D5S435 and D5S557. Here, we present gene sequences that have been isolated from this interval, several of which show sequence homologies to exons of {beta}-glucuronidase. These gene sequences are repeated several times across the candidate region and are also present on chromosome 5p. The arrangement of these repetitive gene motifs is polymorphic between individuals. The high degree of variability observed may have some influence on the expression of the genes in the region. Since SMA is not inherited as a classical autosomal recessive disease, novel genomic rearrangements arising from aberrant recombination events between the complex repeats may be associated with the phenotype observed.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in essential hypertension: data evaluation by a mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Arvigo, F.; Marenco, S.; Nobili, F.; Romano, P.; Sandini, G.; Rosadini, G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied by means of the 133Xe inhalation method in 26 untreated and 10 treated patients with essential hypertension. The untreated subjects were divided into newly and previously diagnosed groups to assess the relation between regional cerebral blood flow and the duration of hypertension. The overall flow reduction was more marked in the frontal and temporal regions in the previously diagnosed group, and this was attributed to pathological changes in the district served by the middle cerebral artery. Regional temporal lobe impairment was also noted in the newly diagnosed and treated subjects. A significant correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow and mean arterial blood pressure.

  7. Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 identifies a specific subpopulation of angiogenic blood vessels following contusive spinal cord injury in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard L; Maddie, Melissa A; Minnillo, Danielle R; Hagg, Theo; Whittemore, Scott R

    2008-03-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), disruption and plasticity of the microvasculature within injured spinal tissue contribute to the pathological cascades associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary injury. Conversely, preserved vascular function most likely results in tissue sparing and subsequent functional recovery. It has been difficult to identify subclasses of damaged or regenerating blood vessels at the cellular level. Here, adult mice received a single intravenous injection of the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) at 1-28 days following a moderate thoracic (T9) contusion. Vascular binding of IB4 was maximally observed 7 days following injury, a time associated with multiple pathologic aspects of the intrinsic adaptive angiogenesis, with numbers of IB4 vascular profiles decreasing by 21 days postinjury. Quantitative assessment of IB4 binding shows that it occurs within the evolving lesion epicenter, with affected vessels expressing a temporally specific dysfunctional tight junctional phenotype as assessed by occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 immunoreactivities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intravascular lectin delivery following SCI is a useful approach not only for observing the functional status of neovascular formation but also for definitively identifying specific subpopulations of reactive spinal microvascular elements.

  8. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  9. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  10. miR-338-3p is over-expressed in blood, CFS, serum and spinal cord from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Bruna; Annunziata, Anna; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Borra, Marco; Biffali, Elio; Coppola, Cinzia; Cotrufo, Roberto; Brettschneider, Johannes; Giordana, Maria Luisa; Dalmay, Tamas; Wheeler, Guy; D'Alessandro, Raffaella

    2014-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and seriously disabling adult-onset neurological disease. Ninety percent of ALS patients are sporadic cases (sALS) with no clear genetic linkage. Accumulating evidence indicates that various microRNAs (miRNAs), expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the brain, play a key role in neuronal development. In addition, microRNA dysregulation contributes to some mental disorders and neurodegeneration diseases. In our research, the expression of one selected miRNA, miR-338-3p, which previously we have found over-expressed in blood leukocytes, was studied in several different tissues from sALS patients. For the first time, we detected a specific microRNA disease-related upregulation, miR-338-3p, in blood leukocytes as well in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and spinal cord from sALS patients. Besides, staining of in situ hybridization showed that the signals of miR-338-3p were localized in the grey matter of spinal cord tissues from sALS autopsied patients. We propose that miRNA profiles found in tissue samples from sALS patients can be relevant to understand sALS pathogenesis and lead to set up effective biomarkers for sALS early diagnosis.

  11. Effect of tetracaine-induced spinal anesthesia on pial microcirculation in pentobarbital anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Lu, Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Local anesthetic is administrated intrathecally to produce spinal anesthesia. This study examines the effect of spinal anesthesia induced by intrathecal tetracaine on cerebral pial microcirculation in rats. We monitored changes in the mean arterial pressure, internal diameter (ID) of the pial arteriole, intracranial pressure, and red blood cell velocity. The regional cerebral blood flow was calculated from the product of cross sectional area and red blood cell velocity. To induce spinal anesthesia, tetracaine was administered via a polyethylene tube at the L4-5 intervertebral space after laminectomy. Arterial blood pressure was monitored via a catheter in the femoral artery. A left parietal craniotomy with an encapsulated cranial window was prepared for biomicroscopy. Change in the arteriolar ID was measured by image shearing. Red blood cell velocity was measured by the dual-slit photometric method and correlation technique. Three levels of spinal anesthesia were evaluated. Tetracaine at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, which produced T10 and T6 sensory block, respectively, did not cause significant change of ID of the pial arteriole and red blood cell velocity. Tetracaine (0.3 mg/kg) produced total spinal block, resulting in a significant decrease of the calculated cerebral blood flow and caused brief pial arteriolar vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. Our results show that total spinal anesthesia with tetracaine causes significant changes in rat cerebral microcirculation.

  12. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Anand, R; Biedebach, M; Fernando, G

    1996-03-01

    Previous blood flow measurements in this laboratory have indicated increased nonrenal nonhepatic blood flow during behaviorally induced rest states, especially during the stylized mental technique of transcendental meditation (TM). We have hypothesized that increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) may account for most of the increased nonrenal nonhepatic blood flow during TM. In this report we describe increased frontal and occipital CBF in TM determined by the electrical impedance plethysmographic methodology known as rheoencephalography (REG), which allows noninvasive, nondisturbing, continuous CBF monitoring. We also report high correlation between increased CBF and decreased cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) during TM, suggesting that a contributing vascular mechanism to the increased CBF may be decreased CVR. Because only a small amount of stage 1 sleep was observed during TM and because stage 1 sleep has been reported to be accompanied by decreased CBF, we believe that sleep did not contribute to the CBF increase. The data of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that blood flow changes during TM comprise a patterned response subserving needs of increased cerebral activity.

  13. Mixing problems in using indicators for measuring regional blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ushioda, E.; Nuwayhid, B.; Tabsh, K.; Erkkola, R.; Brinkman, C.R.; Assali, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A basic requirement for using indicators for measuring blood flow is adequate mixing of the indicator with blood prior to sampling the site. This requirement has been met by depositing the indicator in the heart and sampling from an artery. Recently, authors have injected microspheres into veins and sampled from venous sites. The present studies were designed to investigate the mixing problems in sheep and rabbits by means of Cardio-Green and labeled microspheres. The indicators were injected at different points in the circulatory system, and blood was sampled at different levels of the venous and arterial systems. Results show the following: (a) When an indicator of small molecular size (Cardio-Green) is allowed to pass through the heart chambers, adequate mixing is achieved, yielding accurate and reproducible results. (b) When any indicator (Cardio-Green or microspheres) is injected into veins, and sampling is done at any point in the venous system, mixing is inadequate, yielding flow results which are inconsistent and erratic. (c) For an indicator or large molecular size (microspheres), injecting into the left side of the heart and sampling from arterial sites yield accurate and reproducible results regardless of whether blood is sampled continuously or intermittently.

  14. Junctional neurulation: a unique developmental program shaping a discrete region of the spinal cord highly susceptible to neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dady, Alwyn; Havis, Emmanuelle; Escriou, Virginie; Catala, Martin; Duband, Jean-Loup

    2014-09-24

    In higher vertebrates, the primordium of the nervous system, the neural tube, is shaped along the rostrocaudal axis through two consecutive, radically different processes referred to as primary and secondary neurulation. Failures in neurulation lead to severe anomalies of the nervous system, called neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. Mechanisms causing NTDs in humans remain ill-defined. Of particular interest, the thoracolumbar region, which encompasses many NTD cases in the spine, corresponds to the junction between primary and secondary neurulations. Elucidating which developmental processes operate during neurulation in this region is therefore pivotal to unraveling the etiology of NTDs. Here, using the chick embryo as a model, we show that, at the junction, the neural tube is elaborated by a unique developmental program involving concerted movements of elevation and folding combined with local cell ingression and accretion. This process ensures the topological continuity between the primary and secondary neural tubes while supplying all neural progenitors of both the junctional and secondary neural tubes. Because it is distinct from the other neurulation events, we term this phenomenon junctional neurulation. Moreover, the planar-cell-polarity member, Prickle-1, is recruited specifically during junctional neurulation and its misexpression within a limited time period suffices to cause anomalies that phenocopy lower spine NTDs in human. Our study thus provides a molecular and cellular basis for understanding the causality of NTD prevalence in humans and ascribes to Prickle-1 a critical role in lower spinal cord formation. PMID:25253865

  15. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  16. A cerebral blood flow evaluation during cognitive tasks following a cervical spinal cord injury: a case study using transcranial Doppler recordings.

    PubMed

    Bleton, Héloïse; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-12-01

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most common neurological disorders. In this paper, we examined the consequences of upper SCI in a male participant on the cerebral blood flow velocity. In particular, transcranial Doppler was used to study these effects through middle cerebral arteries (MCA) during resting-state periods and during cognitive challenges (non-verbal word-generation tasks and geometric-rotation tasks). Signal characteristics were analyzed from raw signals and envelope signals (maximum velocity) in the time domain, the frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The frequency features highlighted an increase of the peak frequency in L-MCA and R-MCA raw signals, which revealed stronger cerebral blood flow during geometric/verbal processes respectively. This underlined a slight dominance of the right hemisphere during word-generation periods and a slight dominance of the left hemisphere during geometric processes. This finding was confirmed by cross-correlation in the time domain and by the entropy rate in information-theoretic domain. A comparison of our results to other neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, autism, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury) showed that the SCI had similar effects such as general decreased cerebral blood flow and similar regular hemispheric dominance in a few cases.

  17. Rapid Transport of CCL11 across the Blood-Brain Barrier: Regional Variation and Importance of Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Michelle A.; Morofuji, Yoichi; Owen, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood levels of the eotaxin chemokine C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11) in aging were recently shown to negatively regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. How circulating CCL11 could affect the central nervous system (CNS) is not clear, but one possibility is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that CCL11 undergoes bidirectional transport across the BBB. Transport of CCL11 from blood into whole brain (influx) showed biphasic kinetics, with a slow phase preceding a rapid phase of uptake. We found that the slow phase was explained by binding of CCL11 to cellular components in blood, whereas the rapid uptake phase was mediated by direct interactions with the BBB. CCL11, even at high doses, did not cause BBB disruption. All brain regions except striatum showed a delayed rapid-uptake phase. Striatum had only an early rapid-uptake phase, which was the fastest of any brain region. We also observed a slow but saturable transport system for CCL11 from brain to blood. C-C motif ligand 3 (CCR3), an important receptor for CCL11, did not facilitate CCL11 transport across the BBB, although high concentrations of a CCR3 inhibitor increased brain uptake without causing BBB disruption. Our results indicate that CCL11 in the circulation can access many regions of the brain outside of the neurogenic niche via transport across the BBB. This suggests that blood-borne CCL11 may have important physiologic functions in the CNS and implicates the BBB as an important regulator of physiologic versus pathologic effects of this chemokine. PMID:24706984

  18. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Voet, Caroline; le Polain de Waroux, Bernard; Forget, Patrice; Deumens, Ronald; Masquelier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway) is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal) were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central) pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change. PMID:25254100

  19. Effects of graded doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.G.; Werman, H.A.; Davis, E.A.; Hobson, J.; Hamlin, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    Although epinephrine has been shown to improve myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the effects of standard as well as larger doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow have not been examined. In this study we compared the effects of various doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow after a 10 min arrest in a swine preparation. Fifteen swine weighing greater than 15 kg each were instrumented for regional myocardial blood flow measurements with tracer microspheres. Regional blood flow was measured during normal sinus rhythm. After 10 min of ventricular fibrillation, CPR was begun and regional myocardial blood flow was determined. Animals were then randomly assigned to receive 0.02, 0.2, or 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine by peripheral injection. One minute after drug administration, regional myocardial blood flow measurements were repeated. The adjusted regional myocardial blood flows (ml/min/100 g) for animals given 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine, respectively, were as follows: left atrium, 0.9, 67.4, and 58.8; right atrium, 0.3, 46.2, and 38.5; right ventricle, 0.7, 82.3, and 66.9; right interventricular septum, 1.7, 125.5, and 99.1; left interventricular septum, 2.8, 182.8, 109.5; mesointerventricular septum, 16.8, 142.2, and 79.2; left ventricular epicardium, 19.2, 98.5 and 108.7; left ventricular mesocardium, 22.8, 135.0, and 115.8; and left ventricular endocardium, 2.5, 176.1, and 132.9). All comparisons between the groups receiving 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg epinephrine were statistically significant (p less than .05).

  20. Spectrophotometer properties of vein blood plasma in UF-region patients with sharp surgical pathology of abdominal region organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminestskij, S. G.; Polianski, I. J.; Motrich, A. V.; Grunchuk, F. W.

    2006-05-01

    It is set that there are two maximums in UF- region absorption of vein blood plasma of a man: at λ = 235 nm and at λ = 280 nm. It is shown that there are the substantial changes of values of the optical density D comparative with controls (for donors) exactly in a maximum at development of sharp surgical diseases of organs of abdominal region λ = 280 nm, in that time as maximum at λ = 235 nm in this plan is not informing. Resulted results of researches of dynamics of changes of optical properties of vein blood plasma in UF- region of patients with pathology of abdominal region organs in after operating period (sharp appendicitis, sharp pancreatitis, intestinal impassability and others like that), which can have the diagnostic value.

  1. Spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Spivak, J M; Balderston, R A

    1994-03-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of spinal instrumentation devices, enabling surgeons to treat a variety of spinal disorders with improved results and lower morbidity. In each anatomic region new fixation systems exist. Improvement in fusion rates with supplemental plate fixation following anterior cervical diskectomies and reconstructions has been demonstrated; these devices can now be applied more safely than ever before. Posterior occipitocervical plating to the C-2 pedicle and C3-6 lateral masses can provide stable fixation despite incompetent posterior arch bony structures. Newer, more rigid anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation allows for correction of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis along fewer levels and with better maintenance of lordosis and is also useful following anterior decompression for tumor and trauma. Segmental hook fixation of the posterior thoracolumbar spine has allowed for improved correction of deformity without increased morbidity or the need for postoperative bracing in many cases. Finally, the use of transpedicular screw fixation of the lumbosacral spine allows for excellent segmental fixation without intact posterior elements, including facet joints, and has significantly improved the fusion rate in lumbosacral fusions. PMID:8024965

  2. Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/ref-1) and DNA damage in the caudal region of acute and chronic spinal cord injured rats treated by embryonic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    DAGCI, T; ARMAGAN, G; KONYALIOGLU, S; YALCIN, A

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative mechanisms of injury-induced damage of neurons within the spinal cord are not very well understood. We used a model of T8-T9 spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat to induce neuronal degeneration. In this spinal cord injury model, unilateral avulsion of the spinal cord causes oxidative stress of neurons. We tested the hypothesis that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (or redox effector factor-1, APE/Ref-1) regulates this neuronal oxidation mechanism in the spinal cord region caudal to the lesion, and that DNA damage is an early upstream signal. The embryonic neural stem cell therapy significantly decreased DNA-damage levels in both study groups - acutely (followed up to 7 days after SCI), and chronically (followed up to 28 days after SCI) injured animals. Meanwhile, mRNA levels of APE/Ref-1 significantly increased after embryonic neural stem cell therapy in acutely and chronically injured animals when compared to acute and chronic sham groups. Our data has demonstrated that an increase of APE/Ref-1 mRNA levels in the caudal region of spinal cord strongly correlated with DNA damage after traumatic spinal cord injury. We suggest that DNA damage can be observed both in lesional and caudal regions of the acutely and chronically injured groups, but DNA damage is reduced with embryonic neural stem cell therapy.

  3. Indirect Measurement of Regional Axon Diameter in Excised Mouse Spinal Cord with Q-space Imaging: Simulation and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Henry H.; Wright, Alex C.; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Souza, Andre; Schwartz, Eric D.; Hwang, Scott N.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2008-01-01

    Q-space imaging (QSI), a diffusion MRI technique, can provide quantitative tissue architecture information at cellular dimensions not amenable by conventional diffusion MRI. By exploiting regularities in molecular diffusion barriers, QSI can estimate the average barrier spacing such as the mean axon diameter in white matter (WM). In this work, we performed ex vivo QSI on cervical spinal cord sections from healthy C57BL/6 mice at 400MHz using a custom-designed uniaxial 50T/m gradient probe delivering a 0.6 µm displacement resolution capable of measuring axon diameters on the scale of 1 µm. After generating QSI-derived axon diameter maps, diameters were calculated using histology from seven WM tracts (dorsal corticospinal, gracilis, cuneatus, rubrospinal, spinothalamic, reticulospinal, and vestibulospinal tracts) each with different axon diameters. We found QSI-derived diameters from regions drawn in the seven WM tracts (1.1 to 2.1 µm) to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95) with those calculated from histology (0.8 to 1.8 µm). The QSI-derived values overestimated those obtained by histology by approximately 20%, which is likely due to the presence of extra-cellular signal. Finally, simulations on images of synthetic circular axons and axons from histology suggest that QSI-derived diameters are informative despite diameter and axon shape variation and the presence of intra-cellular and extra-cellular signal. QSI may be able to quantify nondestructively changes in WM axon architecture due to pathology or injury at the cellular level. PMID:18342541

  4. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System.

    PubMed

    Goff, Brandon Jesse; Naber, Jeremy Wingseng; McCallin, John Patrick; Lopez, Edward Michael; Guthmiller, Kevin Brant; Lautenschlager, Karl Alan; Lai, Tristan Toll; Hommer, Dean Harry; Marin, Gonzalez Raul

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient's rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery.

  5. Probing depth and dynamic response of speckles in near infrared region for spectroscopic blood flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2016-04-01

    Imaging method based on bio-speckles is a useful means for blood flow visualization of living bodies and, it has been utilized for analyzing the condition or the health state of living bodies. Actually, the sensitivity of blood flow is influenced by tissue optical properties, which depend on the wavelength of illuminating laser light. In the present study, we experimentally investigate characteristics of the blood flow images obtained with two wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm in the near-infrared region. Experiments are conducted for sample models using a pork layer, horse blood layer and mirror, and for a human wrist and finger, to investigate optical penetration depth and dynamic response of speckles to the blood flow velocity for two wavelengths.

  6. 'Pseudofailure' of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance.

  7. ‘Pseudofailure’ of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this ‘Pseudofailure’, as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance. PMID:27551417

  8. 'Pseudofailure' of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance. PMID:27551417

  9. Effect of continuous regional vasoactive agent infusion on liver metastasis blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Carnochan, P.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1997-01-01

    Regionally administered vasopressors might increase tumour chemotherapy uptake by differentially constricting normal and tumour blood vessels, leading to a selective increase in blood flow to the tumour. In this study, we compared the effects of the vasopressors angiotensin II, vasopressin and endothelin I and the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by continuously measuring liver parenchymal and tumour blood flow during a 30-min regional vasoactive infusion in a rat HSN liver metastasis model. Vasopressin and angiotensin II produced a vasoconstriction that decreased despite continued infusion, while endothelin I infusion led to prolonged vasoconstriction with a more gradual onset. CGRP infusion resulted in increased vessel conductance but a reduction in blood flow due to systemic hypotension. The tumour to normal flow ratio (TNR) was transiently increased during infusion of all pressors, but only endothelin I produced sufficient change to result in a rise in average TNR throughout pressor infusion. Continuous liver and tumour blood flow measurement throughout vasoactive infusion demonstrated that the extent and the duration of blood flow change varied with the agents assessed. No vasoactive agent increased tumour blood flow, but endothelin I had the most suitable vasoactive properties for enhancing tumour uptake of continuously infused chemotherapy. PMID:9365170

  10. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxy-D-glucose and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work.

  11. Galanin-like immunoreactivity in autonomic regions of the rat lumbosacral spinal cord is sexually dimorphic and varies with the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Newton, B W

    1992-08-28

    These investigations show that there is a heterogeneous distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) within laminae VII and X of the rat thoraco-sacral spinal cord. In either sex, GAL-LI fibers sparsely outline the position of male and female preganglionic sympathetic neurons in thoracic spinal segments; whereas in lumbosacral segments, far greater numbers of GAL-LI fibers surround autonomic preganglionic neurons. An unusual feature of the GAL-LI fibers in lumbosacral autonomic regions is their sexually dimorphic distribution with males containing greater numbers of GAL-LI fibers than all females examined. In this regard, although the number of GAL-LI fibers observed in males was consistent from animal to animal, the amount of GAL-LI in females fell into two qualitative categories: an 'average' and a 'heavy' amount. These data indicate that the difference in the amount of GAL-LI in the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord is related to the estrous cycle, such that heavy amounts of GAL-LI are observed during proestrus and estrus, while average amounts of GAL-LI are associated with metestrus and diestrus.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with schizophrenia. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Maeda, Y; Urata, K; Yamaguchi, N; Matsuda, H; Hisada, K; Suzuki, M; Takashima, T

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT in 10 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 9 healthy volunteers. There were no prefrontal regions in the patient group with lower regional indices than in the control group. However, in the left hippocampal region, relative blood flow was significantly increased in the patient group compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a relative increase in blood flow in the left basal ganglia of the patient group. A negative correlation coefficient was calculated between the relative blood flow in the left middle prefrontal cortex and the severity of the blunted affect, as well as between the relative blood flow in the left basal ganglia and the severity of the anhedonia-asociality. These findings indicate that prefrontal hypoactivity is not invariably present in all schizophrenics and that left basal ganglial hyperactivity may be associated with the effects of antipsychotic treatment and clinical improvement. Moreover, the left hippocampal hyperactivity may correspond to left limbic dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  13. Spinal brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Tali, E Turgut; Koc, A Murat; Oner, A Yusuf

    2015-05-01

    Spinal involvement in human brucellosis is a common condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas, because it is often associated with therapeutic failure. Most chronic brucellosis cases are the result of inadequate treatment of the initial episode. Recognition of spinal brucellosis is challenging. Early diagnosis is important to ensure proper treatment and decrease morbidity and mortality. Radiologic evaluation has gained importance in diagnosis and treatment planning, including interventional procedures and monitoring of all spinal infections.

  14. Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Justin P.; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Langford, Richard M.; Shortland, Peter J.

    2013-03-01

    Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), most commonly in rats. It is well known that compromised blood flow caused by mechanical disruption of the vasculature can produce irreversible damage and cell death in hypoperfused tissue regions and spinal cord tissue is particularly susceptible to such damage. A fiberoptic photoplethysmography (PPG) probe and instrumentation system were used to investigate the practical considerations of making measurements from rat spinal cord and to assess its suitability for use in SCI models. Experiments to assess the regional perfusion of exposed spinal cord in anesthetized adult rats using both PPG and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed. It was found that signals could be obtained reliably from all subjects, although considerable intersite and intersubject variability was seen in the PPG signal amplitude compared to LDF. We present results from 30 measurements in five subjects, the two methods are compared, and practical application to SCI animal models is discussed.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow during hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vannucci, R.C.; Lyons, D.T.; Vasta, F.

    1988-02-01

    Immature rats subjected to a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia sustain brain damage confined largely to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. To ascertain the extent and distribution of ischemic alterations in the brains of these small animals, we modified the Sakurada technique to measure regional cerebral blood flow using carbon-14 autoradiography. Seven-day-old rats underwent right common carotid artery ligation following which they were rendered hypoxic with 8% O2 at 37 degrees C. Before and during hypoxia, the rat pups received an injection of iodo(/sup 14/C)antipyrine for determination of regional cerebral blood flow. Blood flows to individual structures of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere were not influenced by arterial occlusion alone; flows to the contralateral hemisphere and to the brainstem and cerebellum actually increased by 25-50%. Hypoxia-ischemia was associated with decreases in regional cerebral blood flow of the ipsilateral hemisphere such that by 2 hours, flows to subcortical white matter, neocortex, striatum, and thalamus were 15, 17, 34, and 41% of control, respectively. The hierarchy of the blood flow reductions correlated closely with the distribution and extent of ischemic neuronal necrosis. However, unlike the pathologic pattern of this model, the degree of ischemia appeared homogeneous within each brain region. Blood flows to contralateral cerebral hemispheric structures were relatively unchanged from prehypoxic values, whereas flows to the brainstem and cerebellum nearly doubled and tripled, respectively. Thus, ischemia is the predominant factor that determines the topography of tissue injury to major regions of immature rat brain, whereas metabolic factors may influence the heterogeneous pattern of damage seen within individual structures.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow characteristics of the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Riela, A.R.; Stump, D.A.; Roach, E.S.; McLean, W.T. Jr.; Garcia, J.C.

    1985-03-01

    Four patients with the Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. All four patients had decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the area of their lesion, and in two patients who were subsequently tested with 5% carbon dioxide inhalation, impaired vasomotor reactivity was documented. Diminished regional cerebral blood flow is consistent with previously described nuclide flow studies which demonstrated a delay in the initial perfusion blush in the region of the abnormal vasculature. The focal decrease in blood flow was greatest in the most severely affected patient, but was also prominent in the two younger patients, both of whom have excellent neurologic function. These studies suggest that localized decrease in blood flow and vasomotor dysfunction in Sturge-Weber syndrome can precede the occurrence of severe neurologic impairment and extensive cerebral atrophy and possibly be a major contributing factor in progressive dysfunction. A secondary observation was that the blood flow in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly greater in two children compared to the two adults and was similar to the age-related differences reported for normal children and adults.

  17. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  18. The effects of activation procedures on regional cerebral blood flow in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenfeld, D.; Wolfson, L.I.

    1981-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) can be measured using 133XE and collimated detectors. The radionuclide can be administered either by inhalation or intracarotid injection. Comparison of blood flow determinations at rest and during performance of an activity identifies those brain regions that become active during the performance of the activity. Relatively specific patterns of r-CBF are observed during hand movements, sensory stimulation, eye movements, speech, listening, and reading. Regional CBF changes during reasoning and memorization are less specific and less well characterized. It is clear that brain lesions affect r-CBF responses to various activities, but this effect has not been well correlated with functional deficits or recovery of function. Regional CBF measurement gives information about brain activity and the functional response to experimental manipulation. This approach may well add to our understanding of normal, as well as pathologic, brain functioning.

  19. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L

    2002-06-01

    The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

  20. Measurement of regional cerebral blood volume using the EMI 1010 scanner.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Zilkha, E; Sager, W D; Iliff, L D; Lechner, H; Du Boulay, G H

    1979-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured in 14 patients with normal CT scans. An EMI CT 1010 scanner was used in combination with a computer subtraction technique. The mean CBV in the cortex was 5.0 ml/100 ml of tissue and 2.2 in the white matter. Regional differences were not significant and no difference was found between the right and left hemispheres.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow: estimation by means of nonmetabolized diffusible tracers--an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kety, S.S.

    1985-10-01

    Visualization and measurement of functional activity throughout the human brain has been made possible by position emission tomography (PET) using tracers, the accumulation of which in the various regions of the brain are functions of regional blood flow or energy metabolism. Certain principles and mathematical expressions describing the exchange of diffusible, nonmetabolized substances between capillary and brain, published nearly 40 years ago, have been useful in this development.

  2. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow in neonatal stroke: preliminary findings with color Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G A

    1994-01-01

    Little information is available regarding alterations in regional cerebral blood flow and vascularity on cranial sonography in infants with focal ischemic brain injury. This study describes the use of color Doppler sonography in the characterization of these changes following acute neonatal stroke. Color Doppler examinations were performed as part of the series of clinically indicated cranial sonograms in eight infants with clinical, sonographic, and CT evidence of acute cerebral infarction. The cerebral vascularity of each hemisphere was assessed for symmetry and for presence of abnormal blood vessels. Initial Doppler study in four infants with hypoxic-ischemic infarcts showed increased size and number of visible vessels in the periphery of the infarct and increased mean blood flow velocity in vessels supplying or draining the infarcted areas. Diminished vessel number and size and frequency shifts suggestive of decreased hemispheric perfusion was identified in one infant with middle cerebral artery insufficiency. Repeat Doppler studies were performed on two infants. These showed the development of multiple small, irregular blood vessels in the periphery of the infarct. Focal abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow may be present as part of the normal healing process following neonatal stroke, and can be demonstrated with color Doppler sonography. PMID:7915832

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in Donated Blood from the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Abdullah, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are global public health problems. The safety of donated blood can be estimated by monitoring the prevalence of viral markers in the donor population. The present study was carried out in the Jazan region to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among Saudi blood donors. Methods: Over a period of six years (January 2004 to December 2009), a total of 29 949 blood units were collected from healthy voluntary and replacement native Saudi blood donors. The donated units were serologically screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). These data were then analysed. Results: HBsAg was positive in 3.8% of the blood units that were collected, the blood units with anti–HCV seropositivity had the lowest prevalence (0.41%), and the prevalence of HBsAg was highest in the group that was > 46 years of age. A significant decline in the prevalence of HBV infection has been observed, from 5.6% in 2004 to 2.3% in 2009 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that the prevalence of HBV and HCV was in a significant decline from 2004 to 2009, and the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV significantly increased with age. PMID:23983576

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in dialysis encephalopathy and primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Rabin, P.; Stone, W.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in patients with dialysis encephalopathy, primary degenerative dementia, dialysis patients with no central nervous system (CNS) complications, and normal controls. Both groups of dialysis patients (with and without CNS complications) demonstrated higher CBF values, and the dementia patients, lower CBF values than the controls. The dialysis patients had lower hematocrit, which correlated inversely with the cerebral blood flow. No such correlations were present in normals and patients with primary degenerative dementia. The dialysis patients and controls obtained similar CBF when the flow values were adjusted for the differences in hematocrit.

  5. Assessing Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Depression Using 320-Slice Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Songlin; Liu, Xingde; O'Neil, Adrienne; Turner, Alyna; Chai, Fangxian; Chen, Fanying; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT), to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24) score >20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) score >53) and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Trancranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI). 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy) also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rate)and hematocrit (HCT) were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes. PMID:25251476

  6. Regional measurements of /sup 14/Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberg, R.; Horowitz, M.; Strong, J.; Molnar, P.; Patlak, C.; Owens, E.; Fenstermacher, J.

    1985-04-01

    Regional (/sup 14/C)misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with (/sup 131/I)iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma.

  7. Effect of nitroglycerin and dipyridamole on regional left ventricular blood flow during coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, L C

    1976-01-01

    Coronary vasodilators have been variously reported to increase, decrease, or have no effect upon blood flow to ischemic myocardium. Consequently, the effects of two different types of dilators, nitroglycerin (TNG) and dipyridamole, were studied with radioactive microspheres in open-chested dogs after coronary artery ligation. Given as a bolus i.v. injection 0.4 mg TNG resulted in an increase in blood flow to nonischemic areas of myocardium and a preservation of flow to ischemic regions, despite a fall in blood pressure. 5 min later blood pressure and nonischemic flow were back to base line, and a small selective increase in flow to ischemic myocardium was found (0.15-0.18 ml/min per g, P less than 0.05). During an 0.2 mg/min infusion of TNG, and also after 1 mg/kg i.v. dipyridamole, ischemic flow was maintained in the face of a 20-30% reduction in blood pressure. In this setting, nonischemic flow was unchanged during TNG and doubled after dipyridamole. With the addition of methoxamine in both dilator groups, blood pressure returned to base line while flow to ischemic areas increased above base-line values (TNG, 0.16-0.20 ml/min per g, P less than 0.01; dipyridamole, 0.18-0.31 ml/min per g, P less than 0.05). Epicardial ST segment elevations increased during TNG infusion and were unchanged after dipyridamole, but with addition of methoxamine, ST segments became less elevated in both drug groups, concomitant with the observed increase in collateral blood flow. These data indicate that both types of coronary vasodilators, when used in conjunction with methoxamine to support blood pressure, reduce collateral resistance, increase collateral flow, and reduce epicardial ST-segment elevations. PMID:825534

  8. Regional measurements of blood flow in experimental RG-2 rat gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Groothuis, D.R.; Pasternak, J.F.; Fischer, J.M.; Blasberg, R.G.; Bigner, D.D.; Vick, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    Regional measurements of blood flow (F) were performed in transplanted intracerebral RG-2 rat gliomas using (14C)iodoantipyrine, Kety-Schmidt blood flow equations, and quantitative autoradiography. Twenty-nine intracranial tumors in ten rats were analyzed by location; 18 intraparenchymal, seven meningeal, two third-ventricular, and two fourth-ventricular tumors were studied. For all tumors, averaged mean F was 91 +/- 33 (S.D.) ml/hg/min. In all but one tumor, mean F was intermediate between normal cortex and corpus callosum values. There was moderate regional variation: averaged mean F was lower in tumor center (78 +/- 47 ml/hg/min) than in tumor periphery (93 +/- 30 ml/hg/min). Within individual tumors, F showed moderate variation which correlated to some extent with histological features; a regional F of less than 10 ml/hg/min was observed in only one tumor within an area of necrosis. F in regions of brain immediately surrounding the tumor was higher than in tumor periphery. Blood flow to RG-2 tumors seems unlikely to limit drug delivery any more than to normal brain, and the consistent levels from tumor to tumor and within individual tumors make the RG-2 model an excellent one with which to study drug delivery in experimental brain tumors.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow utilizing the gamma camera and xenon inhalation: reproducibility and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.A.; Knuckey, N.W.; Fleay, R.F.; Stokes, B.A.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Surveyor, I.

    1985-11-01

    A modified collimator and standard gamma camera have been used to measure regional cerebral blood flow following inhalation of radioactive xenon. The collimator and a simplified analysis technique enables excellent statistical accuracy to be achieved with acceptable precision in the measurement of grey matter blood flow. The validity of the analysis was supported by computer modelling and patient measurements. Sixty-one patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular disease or dementia were retested to determine the reproducibility of our method. The measured coefficient of variation was 6.5%. Of forty-six patients who had a proven subarachnoid hemorrhage, 15 subsequently developed cerebral ischaemia. These showed a CBF of 42 +/- 6 ml X minute-1 X 100 g brain-1 compared with 49 +/- 11 ml X minute-1 X 100 g brain-1 for the remainder. There is evidence that decreasing blood flow and low initial flow correlate with the subsequent onset of cerebral ischemia.

  10. Changes in global cerebral blood flow in humans: effect on regional cerebral blood flow during a neural activation task.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, S C; Murphy, K; Shea, S A; Friston, K J; Lammertsma, A A; Clark, J C; Adams, L; Guz, A; Frackowiak, R S

    1993-11-01

    1. The primary objective of this study was to examine in man, how induced changes in global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) affected a regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increase resulting from a neural activation task (opening of eyes). A secondary objective was to quantify how such induced changes in gCBF were distributed between representative regions of either predominantly grey matter or white matter. 2. Positron emission tomography with intravenous infusion of H2(15)O, was used to measure gCBF in six normal males. Concomitant measures of rCBF were obtained in three different regions of interest (ROI): a representative area of predominantly grey matter, a representative area of predominantly white matter and an area of visual cortex. 3. Cerebral blood flow was altered by establishing steady-state changes in PCO2 at a near constant ventilation of approximately 30 l min-1. The mean PET,CO2 (+/- S.D.) levels (mmHg) that resulted were: low, 21.8 +/- 1.8; normal, 39.8 +/- 1.0, and high, 54.8 +/- 1.2. The normal and high levels were obtained by adding appropriate amounts of CO2 to the inspirate. The corresponding mean gCBF levels across all six subjects with eyes closed were: low, 24.2 +/- 4.6; normal, 37.2 +/- 3.9 and high, 66.8 +/- 7.6 ml min-1 dl-1. 4. Blood flow in grey matter (insular cortex) and white matter (centrum semiovale) at normal levels of PCO2 averaged 56.8 +/- 10.1 and 20.3 +/- 3.4 ml min dl-1 respectively. As PCO2 rose, the increase in rCBF to grey matter was approximately three times greater than that to white matter. 5. An activation state of eyes open in a brightly lit room was compared to a baseline state of eyes closed in a darkened room at the three levels of PCO2 (and hence at three levels of gCBF). Over the whole gCBF range a significant (P = 0.028) effect of increasing rCBF in the visual cortex ROI was found in response to opening the eyes; the effect of this activation on rCBF was not significantly dependent (P = 0.34) on the PCO2 (and hence g

  11. [F-18]-Fluoromisonidazole Quantification of Hypoxia in Human Cancer Patients using Image-derived Blood Surrogate Tissue Reference Regions

    PubMed Central

    Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; O’Sullivan, Janet N.; Fink, James R.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; McLaughlin, Lena J.; Muzi, John P.; Mankoff, David A.; Krohn, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    18F-FMISO is the most widely used PET agent for imaging hypoxia, a condition associated with resistance to tumor therapy. 18F-FMISO equilibrates in normoxic tissues, but is retained under hypoxic conditions because of reduction and binding to macromolecules. A simple tissue-to-blood ratio (TB) is suitable for quantifying hypoxia. A threshold of TB ≥ 1.2 is useful in discriminating the hypoxic volume (HV) of tissue; TBmax is the maximum intensity of the hypoxic region and does not invoke a threshold. Because elimination of blood sampling would simplify clinical use, we tested the validity of using imaging regions as a surrogate for blood sampling. Methods Patients underwent 20 min 18F-FMISO scans during the 90–140 min interval post-injection with venous blood sampling. 223 18F-FMISO patient studies had detectable surrogate blood regions in the field-of-view. Quantitative parameters of hypoxia (TBmax, HV) derived from blood samples were compared to values using surrogate blood regions derived from heart, aorta and/or cerebellum. In a subset of brain cancer patients, parameters from blood samples and from cerebellum were compared for their ability to independently predict outcome. Results Vascular regions of heart showed the highest correlation to measured blood activity (R2 = 0.84). For brain studies, cerebellar activity was similarly correlated to blood samples. In brain cancer patients, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that image-derived reference regions had nearly identical predictive power as parameters derived from blood, thus obviating the need for venous sampling in these patients. Conclusions Simple static analysis of 18F-FMISO PET captures both the intensity (TBmax) and spatial extent (HV) of tumor hypoxia. An image-derived region to assess blood activity can be used as a surrogate for blood sampling in quantification of hypoxia. PMID:26112020

  12. PL 01-2 BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION.

    PubMed

    Suh, Il

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global leading cause of death nowadays. Fortunately, the majority of risk factors which cause CVD are preventable. The INTERSTROKE study recently reported that about 90% of the population-attributable risk of stroke is associated with ten modifiable risk factors. Especially high blood pressure levels are well established to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Recently CVD mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries but increasing in some middle-income countries and low-income countries. Since 2000, CVD morality decreased by 16% among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, but increased by 4% in Asian countries. Even within the Asia-Pacific region, individual countries show different patterns of CVD mortality trends. Recent data show that CVD mortality is decreasing in South Korea, Singapore, New Zealand and Australia but the rate is increasing in Philippine, Pakistan, Myanmar and China. South Korea showed a dramatic reduction in CVD mortality reduction. Between 2000 and 2012, CVD mortality has been decreased by 37%, and population mean level of systolic blood pressure has been decreased by around 10 mmHg in the adult Koreans. This blood pressure reduction was mainly due to improved awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension. However, in countries where CVD mortality is increasing, hypertension control rate were reported to be still low about 10 to 20%, and the population blood pressure level is not decreasing.Prevention, identification, and management of hypertension might be a main factor, which explains the regional difference of CVD mortality in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, more efforts to prevent hypertension and to lower blood pressure and are essential to reduce CVD mortality, especially in countries with poor control rate of hypertension. PMID:27642874

  13. Encircling endocardial ventriculotomy for refractory ischemic ventricular tachycardia. II. Effects on regional myocardial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, R M; Holman, W L; Stanley, T E; Lofland, G K; Williams, J M; Smith, P K; Quick, G; Cox, J L

    1982-06-01

    Previous experimental studies of the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy (EEV) have shown a significant alteration of normal local electrical activity within the encompassed region. Although this procedure may result in isolation of ventricular arrhythmias, the data are more suggestive of a less specific effect on regional myocardial blood flow. This study examines the effect of EEV on local myocardial blood flow using the radioactive tracer microsphere technique in 10 dogs. Flows were determined before and after an EEV with the animals on cardiopulmonary bypass at controlled perfusion pressures, temperatures, and heart rates. Blood flow was studied at subepicardial and subendocardial levels inside, outside, and bordering the EEV. Prior to performance of the EEV, subepicardial blood flow in the left ventricular myocardium ranged from 0.81 +/- 0.07 to 0.89 +/- 0.08 ml/gm/min. Subendocardial flows ranged from 0.80 +/- 0.07 to 0.91 +/- 0.09 ml/gm/min. There was no significant difference between any of the flows across each respective layer of myocardium. Following the EEV procedure, blood flow to the subendocardium within the EEV fell to 0.33 +/- 0.07 ml/gm/min, while flow to the subendocardium of the normal regions of the same hearts actually increased to 1.21 +/- 0.23 ml/gm/min. Similar changes occurred at subepicardial levels, with flow at the center of the EEV falling to 0.66 +/- 0.10 ml/gm/min despite a tendency for normal subepicardial flow to increase to 1.78 +/- 0.24 ml/gm/min. Superimposed ischemia to the EEV-encompassed myocardium, created by occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), accentuated this abnormality by demonstrating that the region continues to receive some flow from epicardially based coronary vessels. The data from this study show that the EEV decreased regional blood flow to the encompassed myocardium and suggests that myocardial ischemia may be responsible for ablation of the delicate re-entrant mechanisms

  14. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  15. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System.

    PubMed

    Goff, Brandon Jesse; Naber, Jeremy Wingseng; McCallin, John Patrick; Lopez, Edward Michael; Guthmiller, Kevin Brant; Lautenschlager, Karl Alan; Lai, Tristan Toll; Hommer, Dean Harry; Marin, Gonzalez Raul

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient's rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery. PMID:25525522

  16. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Brandon Jesse; Naber, Jeremy Wingseng; McCallin, John Patrick; Lopez, Edward Michael; Guthmiller, Kevin Brant; Lautenschlager, Karl Alan; Lai, Tristan Toll; Hommer, Dean Harry; Marin, Gonzalez Raul

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient's rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery. PMID:25525522

  17. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  18. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens. PMID:27405207

  19. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  20. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Enosolease, Mathew Ebose; Bazuaye, Godwin Nosa

    2008-01-01

    ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly in compatibility test in blood transfusion practice. Data on frequency distribution of ABO and Rh-D in Niger-Delta region of Nigeria are not available; hence we made an attempt to retrospectively analyze the records on the blood donors, transfusion recipients and patients attending antenatal care or some other medical interventions. Over a twenty-year period between 1986 and 2005, a total of 160,431 blood samples were grouped for ABO and Rh-D at the blood bank of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Blood group distribution among these samples showed phenotypes A, B, AB and O as 23.72%, 20.09%, 2.97% and 53.22%, respectively. The Rh-D negative phenotype was found among 6.01% of the samples tested.

  1. A Rare Case of Pott’s Disease (Spinal Tuberculosis) Mimicking Metastatic Disease in the Southern Region of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Osmanagic, Azra; Emamifar, Amir; Bang, Jacob Christian; Hansen, Inger Marie Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Pott’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • nausea • vomiting • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Pott’s disease (PD) or spinal tuberculosis is a rare condition which accounts for less than 1% of total tuberculosis (TB) cases. The incidence of PD has recently increased in Europe and the United States, mainly due to immigration; however, it is still a rare diagnosis in Scandinavian countries, and if overlooked it might lead to significant neurologic complications. Case Report: A 78-year-old woman, originally from Eastern Europe, presented to the emergency department with a complaint of nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and severe back pain. On admission she was febrile and had leukocytosis and increased C-reactive protein. Initial spinal x-ray was performed and revealed osteolytic changes in the vertebral body of T11 and T12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine illustrated spondylitis of T10, T11, and T12, with multiple paravertebral and epidural abscesses, which was suggestive of PD. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the patient’s gastric fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). Based on MRI and PCR findings, standard treatment for TB was initiated. Results of the spine biopsy and culture showed colonies of MT and confirmed the diagnosis afterwards. Due to the instability of the spine and severe and continuous pain, spine-stabilizing surgery was performed. Her TB was cured after nine months of treatment. Conclusions: PD is an important differential diagnosis of malignancy that should be diagnosed instantly. History of exposure to TB and classic radiologic finding can help make the diagnosis. PMID:27272065

  2. Abnormal resting regional cerebral blood flow patterns and their correlates in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Tant, S.R.; Robinson, L.; Prakash, R.

    1988-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured under resting conditions in 108 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients and a matched group of normal controls with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Forty-six patients were free of all medication for two weeks. There were no significant differences in CBF to the two hemispheres. The patients showed a comparatively reduced anteroposterior (AP) gradient for CBF. Though there were no differences in frontal flow, the patients had higher flow to several postcentral brain regions, bilaterally. Cerebral blood flow in the patients correlated inversely with age and positively with carbon dioxide level. Women had higher flow than men. Duration of the illness was the only significant predictor of the reduced AP gradient in patients. Higher left temporal and right parietal flow were found to be the best discriminators between patients and controls. Mean hemispheric flow to both hemispheres and several brain regions correlated with the total score and the item, unusual thought content, of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no differences in regional CBF between medicated and unmedicated patients.

  3. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  4. A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

  5. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with moyamoya disease. A study of regional cerebral blood flow by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, R.; Ishii, R.; Tsuchida, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Arai, H.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in 20 young patients with moyamoya disease and five young healthy volunteers. Most patients showed low values of mean hemispheric blood flow in both hemispheres. Regional cerebral blood flow was at a low value in the upper frontal region and at an almost average value in the posterotemporal and occipital regions, which was different from the ''hyperfrontal'' pattern in healthy volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flow was reduced evenly by hyperventilation. By 5% CO/sub 2/ inhalation, regional cerebral blood flow was increased in the temporooccipital regions and was nearly unchanged or decreased in the frontal region.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-03-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia.

  7. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  8. Regional blood flow responses to thermal challenge and exercise in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, P.T.; Kregel, K.C.; Gisolfi, C.V.

    1986-03-05

    The authors recent work has explored interactions between circulation and thermoregulation controls. To further study the interaction of these systems, they chose to use Doppler flow probes to investigate regional blood flow in animals exposed to cool/hot environments (15/sup 0/C/40/sup 0/C, 60 min) and treadmill exercise (15-17 and 22-25 m/min, 15 min, 22/sup 0/C). In 7 350 gm male SD rats flow probes were implanted on the proximal portions of the superior mesenteric (M), iliac (hindlimb, H) and caudal (C) arteries. Blood flows (BF) in kHz doppler shifts were recorded continuously. Heart rates (HR) were obtained from phasic flow recordings. Colonic (T/sub c/) temperature was recorded from a copper-constantin thermocouple. The findings suggest the Doppler technique may be an appropriate tool to study the interactions between circulatory and temperature regulatory controls in this animal model.

  9. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  10. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  11. A study of regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J T; Eagger, S; Syed, G M; Sahakian, B J; Levy, R

    1992-01-01

    Thirty five patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and 35 controls matched for age, sex and handedness were investigated using single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) with 99m technetium HMPAO. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed semi-quantitatively in 18 cortical and 4 subcortical areas by normalising mean information density in each region to cerebellar mean information density. Analysis revealed significantly reduced rCBF to temporal, parietal, frontal and left occipital cortex in the patients whilst blood flow to subcortical areas showed no differences between the 2 groups. In addition, significant left-sided cortical hypoperfusion was seen in the DAT group but not in controls. When patients were sub-divided on the basis of disease severity, those with mild disease showed temporal, parietal and left frontal changes with more severely affected patients also showing right frontal and left occipital involvement. rCBF patterns did not distinguish between presenile and senile onset cases once duration and severity of illness were controlled. Eight cortical areas were also rated visually for perfusion deficits on a simple 4 point scale. Perfusion deficits were detected in 34 of 35 patients but in only 4 of 35 controls. In the DAT group significant correlations were found between many of the neuropsychological tests used and rCBF. Memory correlated with left temporal activity, praxis, perception, object assembly and block design with right parietal activity and language with activity throughout the left hemisphere. Significant correlations were also seen between subcortical and cortical blood flow, possibly explaining the correlations observed between many of the neuropsychological tests and thalamic blood flow. Images PMID:1479398

  12. Dombrock genotyping in Brazilian blood donors reveals different regional frequencies of the HY allele

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Fabiana Chagas Camargos; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; de Castilho, Lilian Maria; Baleotti Júnior, Wilson; Suzuki, Rodrigo Buzinaro; da Cunha, Débora Moura

    2013-01-01

    Background Dombrock blood group system genotyping has revealed various rearrangements of the Dombrock gene and identified new variant alleles in Brazil (i.e., DO*A-SH, DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL). Because of the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population, interregional differences are expected during the investigation of Dombrock genotypes. Objective The present study aims to determine the frequencies of Dombrock genotypes in blood donors from Minas Gerais and compare the frequencies of the HY and JO alleles to those of another population in Brazil. Methods The frequencies of the DO alleles in Minas Gerais, a southeastern state of Brazil, were determined from the genotyping of 270 blood donors. Genotyping involved polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the 323G>T, 350C>T, 793A>G, and 898C>G mutations, which are related to the HY, JO, DO*A/DO*B, and DO*A-WL/DO*B-WL alleles, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of rare HY and JO alleles were statistically compared using the chi-square test with data from another Brazilian region. Results The HY allele frequency in Minas Gerais (2.4%) was almost twice that of the JO allele (1.5%). The frequency of the HY allele was significantly higher (p-value = 0.001) than that in another Brazilian population and includes a rare homozygous donor with the Hy- phenotype. In addition, the DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL alleles, which were first identified in Brazil, were found in the state of Minas Gerais. Conclusions The data confirm that the frequencies of DO alleles differ between regions in Brazil. The population of Minas Gerais could be targeted in a screening strategy to identify the Hy- phenotype in order to develop a rare blood bank. PMID:24478605

  13. Analysis of immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Neto, Adriana Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is imperative when treating certain patients; however, it is not risk free. In addition to the possible transmission of contagious infectious diseases, incidents can occur immediately after transfusion and at a later time. Aims This study aimed to examine the immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank in the state of Minas Gerais between December 2006 and December 2009. A retrospective quantitative epidemiological study was conducted. Data were obtained from 202 transfusion incident reports of 42 health institutions served by the blood bank. Data processing and analysis were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The rate of immediate transfusion incidents reported in the period was 0.24%; febrile non-hemolytic reactions were the most common type of incident (56.4%). The most frequent clinical manifestations listed in transfusion incident reports were chills (26.9%) and fever (21.6%). There was a statistically significant association (p-value < 0.05) between the infusion of platelet concentrates and febrile non-hemolytic reactions and between fresh frozen plasma and febrile non-hemolytic reaction. The majority (73.3%) of transfused patients who suffered immediate transfusion incidents had already been transfused and 36.5% of the cases had previous transfusion incident reports. Conclusions Data from the present study corroborate the implementation of new professional training programs aimed at blood transfusion surveillance. These measures should emphasize prevention, identification and reporting of immediate transfusion incidents aiming to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:23049336

  14. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. )

    1987-09-01

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

  15. Infrared Free Electron Laser Induced Angioplasty for Arteriosclerotic Region of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Fukami, Yuko

    2004-08-01

    In order to estimate the optimum laser conditions for efficient dissociation of cholesterol ester in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels, we have investigated the relationship between laser wavelength and power density on cholesterol ester dissociation using a mid infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL). In this study, cholesteryl oleate, which is a typical cholesterol ester found in arteriosclerotic regions, was irradiated with 5.75-μm-FELs, which cause vibration of ester bonds. Two results were obtained. (1) Ester dissociated depending on the absorption coefficient, and the macropulse duration was shorter than the thermal relaxation time, showing that ester bonds dissociated into carboxylic acid and cholesterol by macropulse-induced thermal effects without accompanying thermal diffusion, (2) Using a wavelength of 5.75 μm, the maximum ester dissociation ratio was achieved under the optimum laser conditions of a macropulse energy density of 0.4-1.0 J/cm2. We conclude that MIR pulsed-lasers with a wavelength of 5.75 μm can be useful for removal of cholesteryl ester in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage

    SciTech Connect

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Halsey, J.H. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    Two groups of singers (n = 12,13) and a group of nonsingers (n = 12) each produced the national anthem by (1) speaking and (2) singing the words and by (3) humming the melody. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest and during each phonation task from seven areas in each hemisphere by the {sup 133}Xe-inhalation method. Intrahemisphere, interhemisphere, and global rCBF were generally similar across phonation tasks and did not yield appreciable differences among the nonsingers and the singers.

  17. The examination of soft tissue compliance in the thoracic region for the development of a spinal manipulation training mannequin

    PubMed Central

    Starmer, David J.; Duquette, Sean A.; Stainsby, Brynne E.; Giuliano, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the soft tissue compliance of the thoracic paraspinal musculature differs based on gender and body type to help create a foam human analogue mannequin to assist in the training of spinal manipulative therapy. Methods: 54 volunteers were grouped based on their gender and body types. In the prone position, thoracic paraspinal soft tissue compliance was measured at T1, T3 T6, T9 and T12 vertebrae levels bilaterally using a tissue compliance meter. Results: There was no significant difference in tissue compliance when comparing the genders except at T1 (p=0.026). When comparing body types, significantly higher tissue compliance was found between endomorphs and the other groups. No significant difference was found between ectomorphs and mesomorphs. The compliance for the participants in this study ranged from 0.122 mm/N to 0.420 mm/N. Conclusion: There are significant differences in thoracic spine soft tissue compliance in healthy asymptomatic patients between genders in the upper thoracic spine, and between different body types throughout the thoracic spine. It may be beneficial to create multiple versions of practice mannequins to simulate variations amongst different patients. PMID:26136607

  18. Apparent gene conversions involving the SMN gene in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy locus on chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Steege, G. van der; Grootscholten, P.M.; Cobben, J.M.; Scheffer, H.; Buys, C.H.C.M.

    1996-10-01

    The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene has been described as a determining gene for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN has a closely flanking, nearly identical copy ({sup C}BCD541). Gene and copy gene can be discriminated by sequence differences in exons 7 and 8. The large majority of SMA patients show homozygous deletions of at least exons 7 and 8 of the SMN gene. A minority of patients show absence of SMN exon 7 but retention of exon 8. This is explained by results of our present analysis of 13 such patients providing evidence for apparent gene-conversion events between SMN and the centromeric copy gene. Instead of applying a separate analysis for absence or presence of SMN exons 7 and 8, we used a contiguous PCR from intron 6 to exon 8. In every case we found a chimeric gene with a fusion of exon 7 of the copy gene and exon 8 of SMN and absence of a normal SMN gene. Similar events, including the fusion counterpart, were observed in a group of controls, although in the presence of a normal SMN gene. Chimeric genes as the result of fusions of parts of SMN and {sup C}BCD541 apparently are far from rare and may partly explain the frequently observed SMN deletions in SMA patients. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Continuous determination of regional myocardial blood flow with intracoronary krypton-81m in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Remme, W J; Krauss, X H; van Hoogenhuyze, D C; Cox, P H; Storm, C J; Kruyssen, D A

    1985-09-01

    Pacing-induced changes in regional coronary flow were studied continuously with krypton-81m by intracoronary infusion in 25 patients: 21 with 50% or greater diameter narrowing of 1 or more left coronary arteries (group I) and 4 with less than 50% diameter reduction of a left coronary artery (group II). No changes occurred in group II. In group I, krypton-81m perfusion decreased progressively in all areas with more than 70% diameter narrowing, with a simultaneous increase in normal regions. At the end of pacing during angina, krypton-81m perfusion was reduced to 81 +/- 4% of control in areas with 71 to 90% diameter reduction (n = 8) and to 69 +/- 6% in areas with more than 90% diameter narrowing (n = 15). In contrast, in regions with 50 to 70% diameter reduction changes were variable (decrease in 4 regions, increase in 2 and an unchanged distribution in 1 region). Krypton-81m perfusion decreased early, before general signs of ischemia in areas with more than 90% diameter reduction, whereas this decrease occurred later in regions with 71 to 90% diameter narrowing, concurrently with ST-segment changes but before anginal pain. Although all signs of ischemia had disappeared between 2 and 5 minutes after pacing, changes in krypton-81m distribution persisted in most areas for 5 to 15 minutes after pacing. It is concluded that the functional significance of coronary arterial narrowing can be assessed with a continuous intracoronary infusion of krypton-81m. Changes in regional distribution persisted after cessation of pacing-induced ischemia, indicating an ongoing decrease in regional myocardial blood flow.

  20. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  1. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  2. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    SciTech Connect

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F. )

    1989-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation.

  4. Comparing the trends of elevated blood pressure in appalachian and non-Appalachian regions.

    PubMed

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Han, Dong Y; Rose, Danny; Aroor, Sushanth R; Schmitt, Frederick; Bellamy, Lisa M; Dobbs, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    As an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, hypertension risks are often thought to be more prevalent in Appalachian mountain ranges when compared with other neighboring counterpart regions. This study evaluated blood pressure (BP) readings among 2358 Kentucky residents attending community stroke risk screening events held in 15 counties, including nine Appalachian counties (n=1134) and six non-Appalachian counties (n=1224). With high BP being operationally defined as ≥140/90 mm Hg, 41.5% of Appalachian county residents had elevated BP compared with 42.6% among those from non-Appalachian counties. Although the counties with the highest rates of elevated BP did tend to reside in the Appalachian region, there was no significant difference between rates of elevated BP in Appalachia vs non-Appalachian counties. This dataset is proposed as a pilot project to encourage further pursuit of a larger controlled project.

  5. Regional blood-to-tissue transport in RT-9 brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Molnar, P; Blasberg, R G; Horowitz, M; Smith, B; Fenstermacher, J

    1983-06-01

    Regional blood-to-tissue transport, expressed as a unidirectional transfer rate constant (K), was measured in experimental RT-9 brain tumors using 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and quantitative autoradiographic techniques. The magnitude of K depends on the permeability, surface area, and blood flow of the tissue capillaries. The transfer rate constant was variable within tumor tissue (range 0.001 to 0.178 ml/gm/min) and depended on tumor size, location (intraparenchymal, meningeal, or choroid plexus associated), and to a lesser extent on necrosis and cyst formation. Brain adjacent to tumor had higher K values, particularly around larger tumors (0.004 to 0.014 ml/gm/min), than corresponding brain regions in the contralateral hemisphere (0.001 to 0.002 ml/gm/min). Estimates of the fractional extraction of AIB by intraparenchymal tumors were between 0.008 and 0.4 ml/gm/min. Values of fractional extraction in this range indicate that tumor capillaries are not freely permeable to this solute. The values of K measured with AIB in this study, for the most part, approximate the permeability-surface area product of tumor and brain capillaries. The experimental data suggest that the permeability-surface area characteristics of the microvasculature in small RT-9 tumors are similar to those of the host tissue, whereas the microvasculature of larger RT-9 tumors is influenced more by intrinsic tumor factors.

  6. Duffy blood group genotypes among African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Perna, S J Q; Cardoso, G L; Guerreiro, J F

    2007-03-29

    Duffy blood group genotype was studied in 95 unrelated subjects from four African-Brazilian communities of the Amazon region: Trombetas, Pitimandeua, Curiaú, and Mazagão Velho. Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the three major alleles at FY blood group, and as expected, FY*O allele was the most common one, with frequencies ranging from 56.4% in Mazagão Velho to 72.2% in Pitimandeua, whereas the FY*O/FY*O genotype was found with frequencies between 32.3% in Mazagão Velho and 58.8% in Curiaú. Genotype and allele distributions in the four Amazonian communities are consistent with a predominantly African origin with some degree of local differentiation and admixture with people of Caucasian ancestry and/or Amerindians. These results reveal that the impact of the FY*O/FY*O genotype on the transmission and endemicity of the vivax malaria deserves to be investigated in full detail in an attempt to identify the contribution of host biological factors and explain the non-homogeneous prevalence of malaria in the region expressed by its different levels of exposure.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, T.; Hoshi, H.; Nagamachi, S.; Jinnouchi, S.; Futami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Mitsuyama, Y. )

    1991-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in 11 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type, three patients with progressive dementia and motor neuron disease, and eight healthy control subjects. Regional blood flow measurements in the bilateral frontal, parietal association, and temporal cortices were lower in the Alzheimer dementia patients than in controls. Flow deficits in the parietal association cortex were demonstrated in all patients with Alzheimer-type dementia; these deficits were correlated with the severity of disease. Lateral hemispheric asymmetry was seen in nine of 11 patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. In all three patients with progressive dementia and motor neuron disease, flow deficits were demonstrated in the bilateral frontal and temporal cortices, but no flow deficits were seen in the parietal association cortex. Brain SPECT with 123I-IMP may be useful in the differential diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of degenerative dementia.

  8. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  9. Diurnal variation in baseline human regional cerebral blood flow demonstrated by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, D.J.; Mintun, M.A.; Moore, R.Y.

    1994-05-01

    We have previously described the diurnal variation in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to bright light in human subjects as demonstrated by the positron emission tomography (PET) activation method. In this abstract, we report the differences in rCBF (an indicator of differences in regional neuronal activity) between the evening and midday dim light baseline scans which served as the control states in the above bright light activation study. Five right-handed, healthy volunteers underwent both an evening (8pm) and a midday (12N) O-15 water PET scanning session. Each scanning session was preceded by one hour of dim light adaptation (50 lux) and consisted of six rCBF scans at three different light intensities in an AABBCC sequence (A=50 lux, B=2500 lux, C=7000lux). Significant differences in rCBF between the evening and midday 50 lux states were identified using the statistical parametric mapping method developed by Friston et al (p<.001). The evening scans demonstrated areas of greater relative blood flow in the pineal gland, the lateral temporal cortex bilaterally, the right lateral prefrontal cortex, the superior aspect of the anterior cingulate, and the left thalamus. The midday scans showed areas of greater relative blood flow in the visual cortex, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. the inferior aspect of the anterior cingulate, the left parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Our results demonstrate an extensive diurnal variation in baseline human rCBF. This indicates that time of day may be an important variable in conducting and interpreting functional brain imaging studies. Furthermore, these results suggest possible neuroanatomical substrates through which the circadian system may regulate the various physiologic and behavioral processes that manifest circadian rhythms.

  10. D5S351 and D5S1414 located at the spinal muscular atrophy critical region represent novel informative markers in the Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Maryam; Vallian, Sadeq

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a degenerative neuromuscular disease associated with progressive symmetric weakness and atrophy of the limb muscles. In view of the involvement of numerous point mutations and deletions associated with the disease, the application of polymorphic markers flanking the SMA critical region could be valuable in molecular diagnosis of the disease. In the present study, D5S351 and D5S1414 polymorphic markers located at the SMA critical region in the Iranian populations were characterized. Genotyping of the markers indicated the presence of six and nine different alleles for D5S351 and D5S1414, respectively. Haplotype frequency estimation in 25 trios families and 75 unrelated individuals indicated the presence of six informative haplotypes with frequency higher than 0.05 in the studied population. Furthermore, the D′ coefficient and the χ2 value for D5S351 and D5S1414 markers revealed the presence of linkage disequilibrium between the two markers in the Iranians. These data suggested that D5S351 and D5S1414 could be suggested as informative markers for linkage analysis and molecular diagnosis of SMA in the Iranian population. PMID:26693404

  11. Regional Choroidal Blood Flow and Multifocal Electroretinography in Experimental Glaucoma in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T. Michael; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Munsey, Kaitlyn M.; Dashek, Ryan J.; Hoeve, James N. Ver

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To test a hypothesis of regional variation in the effect of experimental glaucoma on choroidal blood flow (ChBF) and retinal function. Methods. Five rhesus macaques underwent laser trabecular destruction (LTD) to induce elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Intraocular pressures were elevated for 56 to 57 weeks. Multifocal electroretinographic (mfERG) and multifocal visual evoked cortical potential (mfVEP) testing were performed at regular intervals before and during the period of IOP elevation. At euthanasia, the IOP was manometrically controlled at 35 (experimentally glaucomatous eye) and 15 (fellow control eye) mm Hg. Fluorescent microspheres were injected into the left ventricle. Regional ChBF was determined. Results. All of the experimentally glaucomatous eyes exhibited supranormal first-order kernel (K1) root mean square (RMS) early portions of the mfERG waveforms and decreased amplitudes of the late waveforms. The supranormality was somewhat greater in the central macula. Second-order kernel, first slice (K2.1) RMS mfVEP response was inversely correlated (R2 = 0.97) with axonal loss. Total ChBF was reduced in the experimentally glaucomatous eyes. The mean blood flow was 893 ± 123 and 481 ± 37 μL/min in the control and glaucomatous eyes, respectively. The ChBF showed regional variability with the greatest proportional decrement most often found in the central macula. Conclusions. This is the first demonstration of globally reduced ChBF in chronic experimental glaucoma in the nonhuman primate. Both the alteration of mfERG waveform components associated with outer retinal function and the reduction in ChBF were greatest in the macula, suggesting that there may be a spatial colocalization between ChBF and some outer retinal effects in glaucoma. PMID:25370515

  12. Dynamic change of collateral flow varying with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic rat cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Luo, Weihua; Zhou, Fangyuan; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, there was no obvious significance about the onset time and duration of CCs between rats with and without PID. These results suggest that the initial arising of CCs does not ensure their persistence, and that collateral flow could be varied with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic stroke, which may facilitate the understanding of collateral recruitment and promote the development of collateral therapeutics in the future.

  13. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  14. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  15. Spinal Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Katonis, P.; Datsis, G.; Karantanas, A.; Kampouroglou, A.; Lianoudakis, S.; Licoudis, S.; Papoutsopoulou, E.; Alpantaki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Although osteosarcoma represents the second most common primary bone tumor, spinal involvement is rare, accounting for 3%–5% of all osteosarcomas. The most frequent symptom of osteosarcoma is pain, which appears in almost all patients, whereas more than 70% exhibit neurologic deficit. At a molecular level, it is a tumor of great genetic complexity and several genetic disorders have been associated with its appearance. Early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are the most important factors in accomplishing sufficient management. Even though overall prognosis remains poor, en-block tumor removal combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is currently the treatment of choice. This paper outlines histopathological classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and current concepts of management of spinal osteosarcoma. PMID:24179411

  16. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Devous, M.D. Sr.; Rush, A.J.; Schlesser, M.A.; Debus, J.; Raese, J.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of 133-Xe washout in 29 normal volunteers, 22 unipolar endogenous depressives (UPE), 9 unipolar nonendogenous depressives (UPNE), 13 bipolar depressed patients (BPD), and 14 schizophrenic patients (SCHZ). RCBF was measured 2 and 6 cm above and parallel to the cantho-meatal line and quantitated in 14 gray matter regions. Most subjects were drug-free for 4-14 days. Diagnoses were made by experienced clinicians employing the Research Diagnostic Criteria, the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the dexamethasone suppression test. SCHZ were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. UPE had reduced flow compared to normals in the right parietal and temporal lobes and a nonsignificant trend toward left temporal flow reductions. UPNE were not different from normal or other patient groups. BPD had significant flow elevations in the left hemisphere relative to normal, and in both hemispheres relative to UPE. SCHZ were not significantly different from normal or other patient groups. Anterior-posterior flow shifts were evaluated by subtracting parietal or temporal flows from frontal flows. SCHZ demonstrated a greater posterior shift (lower relative frontal lobe flow) in comparison to both UPE and UPNE. The most significant regional flow abnormalities were observed as frontal flow reductions in individual SCHZ, although these were not significant in the whole group in comparison to normal.

  17. Spinal Bracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

  18. Numerical simulations of the blood flow in the patient-specific arterial cerebral circle region.

    PubMed

    Reorowicz, Piotr; Obidowski, Damian; Klosinski, Przemyslaw; Szubert, Wojciech; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Jozwik, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    The Cerebral Circle Region, also known as the Circle of Willis (CoW), is a loop of arteries that form arterial connections between supply arteries to distribute blood throughout the cerebral mass. Among the population, only 25% to 50% have a complete system of arteries forming the CoW. 3D time-varying simulations for three different patient-specific artery anatomies of CoW were performed in order to gain a better insight into the phenomena existing in the cerebral blood flow. The models reconstructed on the basis of computer tomography images start from the aorta and include the largest arteries that supply the CoW and the arteries of CoW. Velocity values measured during the ultrasound examination have been compared with the results of simulations. It is shown that the flow in the right anterior artery in some cases may be supplied from the left internal carotid artery via the anterior communicating artery. The investigations conducted show that the computational fluid dynamic tool, which provides high resolution in both time and space domains, can be used to support physicians in diagnosing patients of different ages and various anatomical arterial structures.

  19. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological ...

  20. Spinal Cord Infarction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Spinal Cord Infarction Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... Organizations Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Spinal Cord Infarction? Spinal cord infarction is a stroke either ...

  1. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the severity of the injury. Tap this spinal column to see how the level of injury affects loss of function and control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the ...

  3. Spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Sgouros, Spyros

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade there have been significant improvements in all the fields of management of patients with spinal dysraphism, which have increased dramatically the quality of life of these children. Prevention of spina bifida with food fortification is becoming increasingly practiced worldwide. As result, in many parts of the world the frequency of myelomeningocele has decreased. Intrauterine closure of myelomeningocele has been attempted in many institutions with variable results. While it is still at the sphere of experimental therapy, it is reasonable to anticipate progress in this field in the next decade. Antenatal MR imaging is already providing very high level of detail even before the child is born. This creates new ethical dilemmas and requires additional care, but has improved significantly the overall management of patients and their families. Further improvements are anticipated in this field. Management of neuropathic bladder has improved significantly in the last decade and is anticipated to play an increasing role in the long term follow up. Surgery for spinal cord tethering in all its forms has improved in the last decade, with far more chances of complete untethering now in comparison to 10-15 years ago, with the use of micro-neurosurgical techniques and intraoperative monitoring. It is reasonable to expect that in the next decade, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during spinal cord surgery will become mandatory. In the 2013 Annual Special Issue we have assembled a team of authors distinguished in their fields, who bring us up to date with all the latest developments. PMID:24013314

  4. Assessment of Glial Scar, Tissue Sparing, Behavioral Recovery and Axonal Regeneration following Acute Transplantation of Genetically Modified Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Mukhamedshina, Yana O.; Garanina, Ekaterina E.; Masgutova, Galina A.; Galieva, Luisa R.; Sanatova, Elvira R.; Chelyshev, Yurii A.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and Methods This study investigated the potential for protective effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs) genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes on contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. An adenoviral vector was constructed for targeted delivery of VEGF and GDNF to UCB-MCs. Using a rat contusion SCI model we examined the efficacy of the construct on tissue sparing, glial scar severity, the extent of axonal regeneration, recovery of motor function, and analyzed the expression of the recombinant genes VEGF and GNDF in vitro and in vivo. Results Transplantation of UCB-MCs transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF and GDNF at the site of SCI induced tissue sparing, behavioral recovery and axonal regeneration comparing to the other constructs tested. The adenovirus encoding VEGF and GDNF for transduction of UCB-MCs was shown to be an effective and stable vehicle for these cells in vivo following the transplantation into the contused spinal cord. Conclusion Our results show that a gene delivery using UCB-MCs-expressing VEGF and GNDF genes improved both structural and functional parameters after SCI. Further histological and behavioral studies, especially at later time points, in animals with SCI after transplantation of genetically modified UCB-MCs (overexpressing VEGF and GDNF genes) will provide additional insight into therapeutic potential of such cells. PMID:27003408

  5. A mathematical model and image analysis technique for calculating regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, D R; Toga, A W

    1989-05-01

    This paper discusses the theory and implementation of a modular data analysis system for the calculation and imaging of regional cerebral blood flow. The program may be generalized to any system requiring instantaneous and controllable visual data display, and we have set it up for compartmental analysis as described by the Fick equation with certain correction factors. We have included flow charts of the program source code and data paths for the various modules. We also describe the functional hardware components necessary for the execution of these algorithms. Finally, analyzed data are represented from a set of experiments employing differential visual stimulation. The results obtained using our methods are comparable to those in the existing literature; they are more accurately and easily obtained, and have the added power of manipulable digitization of the original image without loss of data. PMID:2714080

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Brian A; Keilp, John; Prohovnik, Isak; Heertum, Ronald Van; Mann, J John

    2003-01-01

    This study examined brain functioning in patients with Lyme encephalopathy. Eleven patients underwent neuropsychological tests and Xenon(133)-regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies, using an external detector system. Each rCBF scan was age- and sex-matched to two archival, normal controls. While few differences were noted on gray-matter flow indices (ISI, fg), Lyme patients demonstrated significant flow reductions in white matter index (k(2)) (p=.004), particularly in the posterior temporal and parietal lobes bilaterally (p=.003). Flow reductions in white matter areas were significantly associated with deficits in memory (r=.66, p=.027) and visuospatial organization (r=.62, p=.041). Results suggest that Lyme encephalopathy may be a disease primarily affecting the cerebral white matter.

  7. Smart catheter flow sensor for real-time continuous regional cerebral blood flow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-Ming; Hartings, Jed A.; Wu, Zhizhen; Ahn, Chong H.; LeDoux, David; Shutter, Lori A.; Narayan, Raj K.

    2011-12-01

    We present a smart catheter flow sensor for real-time, continuous, and quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using in situ temperature and thermal conductivity compensation. The flow sensor operates in a constant-temperature mode and employs a periodic heating and cooling technique. This approach ensures zero drift and provides highly reliable data with microelectromechanical system-based thin film sensors. The developed flow sensor has a sensitivity of 0.973 mV/ml/100 g/min in the range from 0 to 160 ml/100 g/min with a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9953. It achieves a resolution of 0.25 ml/100 g/min and an accuracy better than 5 ml/100 g/min.

  8. YAC contigs of the Rab1 and wobbler (wr) spinal muscular atrophy gene region on proximal mouse chromosome 11 and of the homologous region on human chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, N.; Lengeling, A.; Ronsiek, M.

    1996-03-05

    Despite rapid progress in the physical characterization of murine and human genomes, little molecular information is available on certain regions, e.g., proximal mouse chromosome 11 (Chr 11) and human chromosome 2p (Chr2p). We have localized the wobbler spinal atrophy gene wr to proximal mouse Chr 11, tightly linked to Rab1, a gene coding for a small GTP-binding protein, and Glns-ps1, an intronless pseudogene of the glutamine synthetase gene. We have not used these markers to construct a 1.3-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of the Rab1 region on mouse Chr 11. Four YAC clones isolated from two independent YAC libraries were characterized by rare-cutting analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and sequence-tagged site (STS) isolation and mapping. Rab1 and Glns-ps1 were found to be only 200 kb apart. A potential CpG island near a methylated NarI site and a trapped exon, ETG1.1, were found over 250 kb from Rab1. Two overlapping YACs were identified that contained a 150-kb region of human Chr 2p, comprising the RAB1 locus, AHY1.1, and the human homologue of ETG1.1, indicating a high degree of conservation of this region in the two species. We mapped AHY1.1 and thus human RAB1 on Chr 2p13.4-p14 using somatic cell hybrids and a radiation hybrid panel, thus extending a known region of conserved synteny between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 2p. Recently, the gene LMGMD2B for a human recessive neuromuscular disease, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, has been mapped to 2p13-p16. The conservation between the mouse Rab1 and human RAB1 regions will be helpful in identifying candidate genes for the wobbler spinal muscular atrophy and in clarifying a possible relationship between wr and LMGMD2B. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states. PMID:26589329

  10. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states.

  11. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine ...

  12. Study of red blood cell alloimmunization in multitransfused thalassemic children of Jammu region

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Ashu; Sidhu, Meena; Kapoor, Raman; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis in Jammu region. Although RBC transfusion is life saving for these patients, it may be associated with some complications like RBC alloimmunization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alloimmunization and the most common alloantibodies involved. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study involving a total of 70 thalassemic patients in the age range of 2-17 years receiving regular blood transfusions, registered at SMGS Blood Bank, Jammu. Relevant clinical and laboratory data was collected with reference to age at the start of transfusions, total number of transfusions received and splenectomy status. Antibodies screening, antibody identification, and cross matching was done on allpatient samples included in the study, during the period between November 2009 and October 2010. Results: In this study, a total of six alloantibodies six patients (8.5%) and one autoantibody (1.42%) was detected. All identified alloantibodies belonged to Rh system (i.e. anti-E, in 3 patients (50%), anti D, in one patient (16.66%)) and Kell system (anti-K, in two patients (33.34%)). Higher frequency of alloimmunization was found, with increase in number of transfusions and in those who received transfusions after 1 year of age. Alloimmunization was not significantly associated with gender and splenectomy status (P-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Red cell alloantibodies developed in 8.5% of thalassemic patients and 1.42% had autoantibodies. The most common alloantibodies identified were anti Rh system antibodies (anti-E and anti-D) present in 50% and 16.66% of patients respectively. Alloimmunization is not an uncommon problem faced by blood banks and finding compatible units for regularly transfused thalassemic patients may become very difficult. In order to reduce alloimmunization, a policy for performing extended red cell phenotyping of these patients is essential and

  13. Refined physical map of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy gene (SMA) region at 5q13 based on YAC and cosmid contiguous arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, N.; Yaraghi, Z.; McLean, M.D.

    1995-04-10

    The gene for the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder spinal muscular atrophy has been mapped to a region of 5q13 flanked proximally by CMS-1 and distally by D5S557. We present a 2-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig constructed from three libraries encompassing the D5S435/D5S629/CMS-1-SMA-D5S557/D5S112 interval. The D5S629/CMS-1-SMA-D5S557 interval is unusual insofar as chromosome 5-specific repetitive sequences are present and many of the simple tandem repeats (STR) are located at multiple loci that are unstable in our YAC clones. A long-range restriction map that demonstrates the SMA-containing interval to be 550 kb is presented. Moreover, a 210-kb cosmid array from both a YAC-specific and a chromosome 5-specific cosmid library encompassing the multilocus STRs CATT-1, CMS-1, D5F149, D5F150, and D5F153 has been assembled. We have recently reported strong linkage disequilibrium with Type I SMA for two of these STRs, indicating that the gene is located in close proximity to or within our cosmid clone array. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared with teaching hospital cultures.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bzdyl, Nicole; Chua, I-Ly Joanna; Urosevic, Nadezda M; Leung, Michael J; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now in wide spread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for blood culture isolate identification (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in a teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MALDI-TOF and proprietary molecular methods. The BCID FilmArray contained 18 of 34 species and 20 of 23 species isolated from teaching and regional hospital, respectively. Overall, 85 % of the teaching hospital and 100 % of the regional hospital monomicrobial blood cultures were identified, compared with 60 and 68 %, respectively, for direct MALDI-TOF on the same cultures. There were no incorrect results from blood cultures containing Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae. The three discrepant results were all in mixed cultures. The mean reduction in time to identification of blood culture isolates was 53 h, which did not include the time required to transport cultures from regional centres to a central laboratory. The overall performance of the BCID FilmArray is stronger in blood cultures from smaller regional hospitals that encounter a narrower range of bacterial species dominated by the commonest species. This approach is more suited to smaller clinical laboratories than the MALDI-TOF direct method.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 act synergistically to support migration of blood-borne monocytes into the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoqian; Trivedi, Alpa; Lee, Jung-Uek; Lohela, Marja; Lee, Sang Mi; Fandel, Thomas M; Werb, Zena; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2011-11-01

    The infiltration of monocytes into the lesioned site is a key event in the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that the molecular events governing the infiltration of monocytes into the injured cord involve cooperativity between the upregulation of the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 in the injured cord and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9/gelatinase B), expressed by infiltrating monocytes. SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 mRNAs were upregulated in the injured cord, while macrophages immunoexpressed CXCR4. When mice, transplanted with bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, were subjected to SCI, GFP+ monocytes infiltrated the cord and displayed gelatinolytic activity. In vitro studies confirmed that SDF-1α, acting through CXCR4, expressed on bone marrow-derived macrophages, upregulated MMP-9 and stimulated MMP-9-dependent transmigration across endothelial cell monolayers by 2.6-fold. There was a reduction in F4/80+ macrophages in spinal cord-injured MMP-9 knock-out mice (by 36%) or wild-type mice, treated with the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 (by 30%). Mice were adoptively transferred with myeloid cells and treated with the MMP-9/-2 inhibitor SB-3CT, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, or a combination of both drugs. While either drug resulted in a 28-30% reduction of infiltrated myeloid cells, the combined treatment resulted in a 45% reduction, suggesting that SDF-1 and MMP-9 function independently to promote the trafficking of myeloid cells into the injured cord. Collectively, these observations suggest a synergistic partnership between MMP-9 and SDF-1 in facilitating transmigration of monocytes into the injured spinal cord.

  16. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H/sub 2/O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, /sup 15/O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement.

  17. Relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and electrocorticographic activities under sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kimiko; Morioka, Takato; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Kawamura, Tadao; Irita, Kazuo; Hoka, Sumio; Sasaki, Tomio; Takahashi, Shosuke

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to assess the effects of volatile anesthetics on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and electrocorticography (ECoG), and (2) to investigate the relationship between rCBF and ECoG influenced by volatile anesthetics. The authors measured rCBF using laser Doppler flowmetry and ECoG simultaneously and continuously from the same cortex during craniotomy, using the specially arranged probe. Patients received intravenous anesthetics with nitrous oxide until craniotomy, and after opening of dura, volatile anesthetic, either isoflurane or sevoflurane, was started and was gradually increased for the measurement. Four of the nine cases (44.4%) of the sevoflurane group showed no change both in rCBF and ECoG. In three cases (33.3%), rCBF increased as the frequency of the paroxysmal activities increased. In two cases (22.2%), decreased rCBF was accompanied by slow waves. In 12 cases of the isoflurane group, no apparent rCBF and ECoG changes were seen, except a case with decreased rCBF and slow waves. This is the first report of simultaneous recordings of regional CBF and neuronal activity under general anesthesia. During sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia <2.5 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, rCBF is affected by ECoG activities rather than pharmacologic action of inhalational anesthetics. PMID:20505374

  18. Effects of arterial cannulation stress on regional cerebral blood flow in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Jonathan; Nugent, Allison C.; Cannon, Dara M.; Carlson, Paul J.; Davis, Rebecca; Neumeister, Alexander; Rallis-Frutos, Denise; Fromm, Steve; Herscovitch, Peter; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) display abnormal neurophysiological responses to psychological stress but little is known about their neurophysiological responses to physiological stressors. Using [15O-H2O] positron emission tomography we assessed whether the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to arterial cannulation differed between patients with MDD and healthy controls (HCs). Fifty-one MDD patients and 62 HCs were scanned following arterial cannulation and 15 MDD patients and 17 HCs were scanned without arterial cannulation. A region-of-interest analysis showed that a significantly increased rCBF of the anterior cingulate cortex and right amygdala was associated with arterial cannulation in MDD. A whole brain analysis showed increased rCBF of the right post-central gyrus, left temporopolar cortex, and right amygdala during arterial cannulation in MDD patients. The rCBF in the right amygdala was significantly correlated with depression severity. Conceivably, the limbic response to invasive physical stress is greater in MDD subjects than in HCs. PMID:22403745

  19. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply.

  20. [Effects of therapeutic complexes including balneoradonokinesitherapy, electromyostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy on regional blood flow in patients with postrraumatic gonarthritis].

    PubMed

    Raspopova, E A; Udartsev, E Iu

    2006-01-01

    Balneoradonokinesitherapy alone and its combination with electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy were used for the treatment of regional blood flow disorders in 76 patients with posttraumatic gonarthritis. Balneoradonokinesitherapy in combination with electromyostimulation improved blood circulation. When low-frequency magnetotherapy was added to the latter complex, the regress of regional blood flow disorders of a damaged extremity was most significant. PMID:17144554

  1. Associations between regional differences in polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in blood of nestling bald eagles and reproductive productivity.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, William W; Best, David A; Giesy, Ohn P; Shieldcastle, Mark C; Meyer, Michael W; Postupalsky, Sergej; Sikarskie, James G

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between regional reproduction rates of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and concentrations of p.p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood plasma from nestling bald eagles was assessed. Blood was analyzed from 309 nestlings from 10 subpopulations of eagles across the Great Lakes region. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were inversely correlated to the productivity and success rates of nesting bald eagles within nine subpopulations. Nestlings eight weeks of age and older had significantly greater geometric mean concentrations of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE than nestlings less than eight weeks of age. The ability to use measurements of p,p'-DDE and total PCBs in nestling blood to determine the potential impact of these contaminants on adult nesting on a regional scale was demonstrated.

  2. Edaravone increases regional cerebral blood flow after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Dohi, Kenji; Tsumuraya, Tomomi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Kiriyama, Keisuke; Song, Dandan; Aruga, Tohru; Shioda, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity, with subsequent low cerebral blood flow (CBF) considered to be associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on regional CBF (rCBF) after TBI. Male mice (C57/BL6) were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impactor device. Immediately after TBI, the animals were intravenously administered 3.0 mg/kg of edaravone or a vehicle saline solution. Two-dimensional rCBF images were acquired before and 24 h post-TBI, and were quantified in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres (n = 5 animals per group). CBF in the vehicle-treated animals decreased broadly over the ipsilateral hemisphere, with the region of low rCBF spreading from the frontal cortex to the occipital lobe. The zone of lowest rCBF matched that of the contusion area. The mean rCBF at 24 h for a defined elliptical region between the bregma and lambda was 73.7 ± 5.8 %. In comparison, the reduction of rCBF in edaravone-treated animals was significantly attenuated (93.4 ± 5.7 %, p < 0.05). The edaravone-treated animals also exhibited higher rCBF in the contralateral hemisphere compared with that seen in -vehicle-treated animals. It is suggested that edaravone reduces neuronal damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by maintaining intact the autoregulation of the cerebral vasculature.

  3. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow In Dementia: Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Alexander; Barclay, Laurie; Sansone, Joseph; Blass, John P.; Metz, Charles E.

    1985-06-01

    The coupling of mentation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has prompted the application of the Xe-133 inhalation method of measuring rCBF in the differential diagnosis of the two most common dementing diseases, Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia (MID). In this study receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of a 32 detector Xe-133 inhalation system in discriminating between patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls, MID patients and normal controls and between patients with Alzheimer's disease and MID. The populations were clinically evaluated as 1) normal (age 63.1 + 13.1, n=23), 2) Alzheimer's disease (age 72.7 + 7.0, n=82), 3) MID (age 76.4 + 7.6, n=27): The mean flow values for all detectors were lowest for the Alzheimer's disease group, larger for the MID group and largest for the normal controls. The dynamic relationship between the correct identifications (true posi-tives) versus incorrect identifications (false positives) per detector for any 2 pairs of clinical groups varies as the cutoff value of flow is changed over the range of experimental blood flow values. Therefore a quantitative characterization of the "decision" or ROC curve (TP vs FP) for each detector and for each pair of clinical groups provides a measure of the overall diagnostic efficacy of the detector. Detectors directed approximately toward the speech, auditory and association cortices were most effective in disciminatinq between each of the dementia groups and the controls. Frontal detectors were diagnostically inefficient. The Xe-133 inhalation system provided virtually no diagnostic power in discriminating between the two forms of dementia, however. Therefore this imaging technology is most useful when assessing the general diagnostic state of dementia (Alz-heimer's disease and MID) from normal cognitive function.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous ( sup 15 O)water bolus and ( sup 18 F)fluoromethane inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Wienhard, K.; Hebold, I.; Pawlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Holthoff, V.; Klinkhammer, P.; Heiss, W.D. )

    1989-09-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of ({sup 15}O)water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic ({sup 15}O)water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic ({sup 15}O)water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with ({sup 15}O)water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of ({sup 15}O)water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error.

  5. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, G.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Rosenspire, K.C.; Krivokapich, J.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization.

  6. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  7. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  8. Regional differences in the cerebral blood flow velocity response to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Feddersen, Berend; Neupane, Pritam; Thanbichler, Florian; Hadolt, Irmgard; Sattelmeyer, Vera; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Waanders, Robb; Noachtar, Soheyl; Ausserer, Harald

    2015-11-01

    Symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) may appear above 2,500 m altitude, if the time allowed for acclimatization is insufficient. As the mechanisms underlying brain adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxic environment are not fully understood, a prospective study was performed investigating neurophysiological changes by means of near infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalograpy (EEG), and transcranial doppler sonography at 100, 3,440 and 5,050 m above sea level in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Fourteen of the 26 mountaineers reaching 5,050 m altitude developed symptoms of AMS between 3,440 and 5,050 m altitude (Lake-Louise Score ⩾3). Their EEG frontal beta activity and occipital alpha activity increased between 100 and 3,440 m altitude, i.e., before symptoms appeared. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) increased in all mountaineers between 100 and 3,440 m altitude. During further ascent to 5,050 altitude, mountaineers with AMS developed a further increase in CBFV in the MCA, whereas in all mountaineers CBFV decreased continuously with increasing altitude in the posterior cerebral arteries. These results indicate that hypobaric hypoxia causes different regional changes in CBFV despite similar electrophysiological changes.

  9. Regional differences in the cerebral blood flow velocity response to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Feddersen, Berend; Neupane, Pritam; Thanbichler, Florian; Hadolt, Irmgard; Sattelmeyer, Vera; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Waanders, Robb; Noachtar, Soheyl; Ausserer, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) may appear above 2,500 m altitude, if the time allowed for acclimatization is insufficient. As the mechanisms underlying brain adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxic environment are not fully understood, a prospective study was performed investigating neurophysiological changes by means of near infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalograpy (EEG), and transcranial doppler sonography at 100, 3,440 and 5,050 m above sea level in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Fourteen of the 26 mountaineers reaching 5,050 m altitude developed symptoms of AMS between 3,440 and 5,050 m altitude (Lake-Louise Score ⩾3). Their EEG frontal beta activity and occipital alpha activity increased between 100 and 3,440 m altitude, i.e., before symptoms appeared. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) increased in all mountaineers between 100 and 3,440 m altitude. During further ascent to 5,050 m altitude, mountaineers with AMS developed a further increase in CBFV in the MCA, whereas in all mountaineers CBFV decreased continuously with increasing altitude in the posterior cerebral arteries. These results indicate that hypobaric hypoxia causes different regional changes in CBFV despite similar electrophysiological changes. PMID:26082017

  10. The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, D.G.; Weinberger, D.R.; Jones, D.W.; Zigun, J.R.; Coppola, R.; Handel, S.; Bigelow, L.B.; Goldberg, T.E.; Berman, K.F.; Kleinman, J.E. )

    1991-07-01

    To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized for at least 6 weeks on 0.4 mg/kg haloperidol participated. Amphetamine produced a modest, nonsignificant, task-independent, global reduction in rCBF. However, the effect of amphetamine on task-dependent activation of rCBF (i.e., WCST minus control task) was striking. Whereas on placebo no significant activation of rCBF was seen during the WCST compared with the control task, on amphetamine significant activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) occurred (p = 0.0006). Both the mean number of correct responses and the mean conceptual level increased (p less than 0.05) with amphetamine relative to placebo. In addition, with amphetamine, but not with placebo, a significant correlation (p = -0.71; p less than 0.05) emerged between activation of DLPFC rCBF and performance of the WCST task. These findings are consistent with animal models in which mesocortical catecholaminergic activity modulates and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of evoked cortical activity.

  11. Effects of simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow specifically during cardiovascular stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Significant changes in the cardiovasular system of humans and animals have been observed following exposure to prolonged periods of weightlessness during space flight. Although adaption to weightlessness is relatively uncomplicated, marked changes in cardiovascular deconditioning become evident upon return to normal gravity, including orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Some evidence that myocardial degeneration occurs has been demonstrated in animals who have been immobilized for two months. Also, evidence of possible loss of myocardial mass following manned space flight has been obtained by means of echocardiographic studies. These findings have serious implications in light of the increasing frequency and duration of Space Shuttle missions and the prospect of extended space station missions in the future. A number of both military and civilian investigators, including middle-aged scientists, will probably encounter prolonged periods of weightlessness. It has been imperative, therefore, to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on cardiovascular deconditioning and whether such effects are cumulative or reversible. The research project conducted under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-126 was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow. Research results are reported in the three appended publications.

  12. Apnea after awake-regional and general anesthesia in infants: The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnea and neurodevelopmental outcomes, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Andrew J.; Morton, Neil S.; Arnup, Sarah J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; Frawley, Geoff; Hunt, Rodney W.; Hardy, Pollyanna; Khotcholava, Magda; von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S.; Wilton, Niall; Tuo, Pietro; Salvo, Ida; Ormond, Gillian; Stargatt, Robyn; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-operative apnea is a complication in young infants. Awake-regional anesthesia (RA) may reduce the risk; however the evidence is weak. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study is a randomized, controlled, trial designed to assess the influence of general anesthesia (GA) on neurodevelopment. A secondary aim is to compare rates of apnea after anesthesia. Methods Infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age scheduled for inguinal herniorraphy were randomized to RA or GA. Exclusion criteria included risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome and infants born < 26 weeks’ gestation. The primary outcome of this analysis was any observed apnea up to 12 hours post-operatively. Apnea assessment was unblinded. Results 363 patients were assigned to RA and 359 to GA. Overall the incidence of apnea (0 to 12 hours) was similar between arms (3% in RA and 4% in GA arms, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.63, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.31 to 1.30, P=0.2133), however the incidence of early apnea (0 to 30 minutes) was lower in the RA arm (1% versus 3%, OR 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05 to 0.91, P=0.0367). The incidence of late apnea (30 minutes to 12 hours) was 2% in both RA and GA arms (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 0.41 to 3.33, P=0.7688). The strongest predictor of apnea was prematurity (OR 21.87, 95% CI 4.38 to 109.24) and 96% of infants with apnea were premature. Conclusions RA in infants undergoing inguinal herniorraphy reduces apnea in the early post-operative period. Cardio-respiratory monitoring should be used for all ex-premature infants. PMID:26001033

  13. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

  15. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  16. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Allut, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for only 0.04–1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5–85 years, mean 44.03) spanning from 1890 to 2006. Prior to diagnosis 40.6% of the patients had weakness of the lower limbs. The interval between the initial symptoms and tumor diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 17 years (mean 20.2 months). Except for four cases diagnosed at autopsy, 109 patients underwent surgery and gross-total resection was performed in 79 cases (72.4%). Spinal angiolipomas are tumors containing angiomatous and lipomatous tissue, predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. All angiolipomas show iso- or hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and most lesions enhance with gadolinium administration. The treatment for spinal extradural angiolipomas is total surgical resection and no adjuvant therapy should be administered. PMID:19127373

  17. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, Miguel; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2009-03-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for only 0.04-1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5-85 years, mean 44.03) spanning from 1890 to 2006. Prior to diagnosis 40.6% of the patients had weakness of the lower limbs. The interval between the initial symptoms and tumor diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 17 years (mean 20.2 months). Except for four cases diagnosed at autopsy, 109 patients underwent surgery and gross-total resection was performed in 79 cases (72.4%). Spinal angiolipomas are tumors containing angiomatous and lipomatous tissue, predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. All angiolipomas show iso- or hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and most lesions enhance with gadolinium administration. The treatment for spinal extradural angiolipomas is total surgical resection and no adjuvant therapy should be administered.

  18. Inter-individual differences in pain processing investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Khan, H S; Stroman, P W

    2015-10-29

    The experience of pain is a highly complex and personal experience, characterized by tremendous inter-individual variability. The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize responses in the brainstem and spinal cord to the same heat stimulus in healthy participants, to further our understanding of individual differences in pain perception. Responses to noxious heat stimuli at 49°C were investigated in 20 healthy individuals by means of fMRI of the brainstem and spinal cord, at 3 Tesla, and were compared with brain fMRI and quantitative sensory testing. Blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses were detected with a general linear model (GLM) and effective connectivity was examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). Reported pain ratings ranged from 18 to 84/100 across the participants. Consistent with previous research, brain fMRI results show that BOLD responses in a number of cortical regions are correlated with individual pain ratings. Correlations between pain scores and BOLD responses are also demonstrated in the spinal cord dorsal horn, locus coeruleus, and thalamus. SEM results demonstrate the network of brainstem and spinal cord regions that contribute to the pain response, and reveal differences related to individual pain sensitivity. The results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that individual differences in pain perception in healthy participants are a consequence of differences in descending modulation of spinal nociceptive processes from brainstem regions. PMID:26335379

  19. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients' sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability.

  20. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

  1. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  2. Pathophysiology of primary spinal syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, John D.; Snyder, Kendall; Peterson, Matthew M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Butman, John A.; Smith, René K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Sansur, Charles A.; Eskioglu, Eric; Kammerer, William A.; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    was increased (2.7 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.004), pressure transmission to the thecal sac below the block was reduced, and spinal CSF compliance was decreased. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that pulse pressure waves compressed the outer surface of the spinal cord superior to regions of obstruction of the subarachnoid space. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the theory that a spinal subarachnoid block increases spinal subarachnoid pulse pressure above the block, producing a pressure differential across the obstructed segment of the SAS, which results in syrinx formation and progression. These findings are similar to the results of the authors' previous studies that examined the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with obstruction of the SAS at the foramen magnum in the Chiari Type I malformation and indicate that a common mechanism, rather than different, separate mechanisms, underlies syrinx formation in these two entities. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00011245. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.8.SPINE111059) PMID:22958075

  3. Regional Fat Distribution and Blood Pressure Level and Variability: The Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Ayers, Colby; Turer, Aslan; Chandra, Alvin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Greenland, Philip; de Lemos, James A; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations of regional fat distribution with home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and variability. Participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic cohort, underwent 5 BP measurements on 3 occasions during 5 months (2 in home and 1 in office) and quantification of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and lower body subcutaneous fat by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The relation of regional adiposity with short-term (within-visit) and long-term (overall visits) mean BP and average real variability was assessed with multivariable linear regression. We have included 2595 participants with a mean age of 44 years (54% women; 48% black), and mean body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 127/79 mm Hg and average real variability systolic BP was 9.8 mm Hg during 3 visits. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher amount of visceral adipose tissue was associated with higher short-term (both home and office) and long-term mean systolic BP (β[SE]: 1.9[0.5], 2.7[0.5], and 2.1[0.5], respectively; all P<0.001) and with lower long-term average real variability systolic BP (β[SE]: -0.5[0.2]; P<0.05). In contrast, lower body fat was associated with lower short-term home and long-term mean BP (β[SE]: -0.30[0.13] and -0.24[0.1], respectively; both P<0.05). Neither subcutaneous adipose tissue or liver fat was associated with BP levels or variability. In conclusion, excess visceral fat was associated with persistently higher short- and long-term mean BP levels and with lower long-term BP variability, whereas lower body fat was associated with lower short- and long-term mean BP. Persistently elevated BP, coupled with lower variability, may partially explain increased risk for cardiac hypertrophy and failure related to visceral adiposity.

  4. Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms among malaria vivax patients in four areas of the Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    Cavasini, Carlos E; de Mattos, Luiz C; Couto, Álvaro AR D'Almeida; Couto, Vanja SC D'Almeida; Gollino, Yuri; Moretti, Laurence J; Bonini-Domingos, Cláudia R; Rossit, Andréa RB; Castilho, Lilian; Machado, Ricardo LD

    2007-01-01

    Background Duffy blood group polymorphisms are important in areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates, because this molecule acts as a receptor for this protozoan. In the present study, Duffy blood group genotyping in P. vivax malaria patients from four different Brazilian endemic areas is reported, exploring significant associations between blood group variants and susceptibility or resistance to malaria. Methods The P. vivax identification was determined by non-genotypic and genotypic screening tests. The Duffy blood group was genotyped by PCR/RFLP in 330 blood donors and 312 malaria patients from four Brazilian Amazon areas. In order to assess the variables significance and to obtain independence among the proportions, the Fisher's exact test was used. Results The data show a high frequency of the FYA/FYB genotype, followed by FYB/FYB, FYA/FYA, FYA/FYB-33 and FYB/FYB-33. Low frequencies were detected for the FYA/FYX, FYB/FYX, FYX/FYX and FYB-33/FYB-33 genotypes. Negative Duffy genotype (FYB-33/FYB-33) was found in both groups: individuals infected and non-infected (blood donors). No individual carried the FYX/FYB-33 genotype. Some of the Duffy genotypes frequencies showed significant differences between donors and malaria patients. Conclusion The obtained data suggest that individuals with the FYA/FYB genotype have higher susceptibility to malaria. The presence of the FYB-33 allele may be a selective advantage in the population, reducing the rate of infection by P. vivax in this region. Additional efforts may contribute to better elucidate the physiopathologic differences in this parasite/host relationship in regions endemic for P. vivax malaria, in particular the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID:18093292

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation and characterization from human spinal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Asari, Toru; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Sunao; Kudo, Hitoshi; Mizukami, Hiroki; Ono, Atsushi; Numasawa, Takuya; Kumagai, Gentaro; Motomura, Shigeru; Yagihashi, Soroku; Toh, Satoshi

    2012-01-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a fibroblast-like morphology, multilineage potential, long-term viability and capacity for self-renewal. While several articles describe isolating MSCs from various human tissues, there are no reports of isolating MSCs from human spinal ligaments, and their localization in situ. If MSCs are found in human spinal ligaments, they could be used to investigate hypertrophy or ossification of spinal ligaments. To isolate and characterize MSCs from human spinal ligaments, spinal ligaments were harvested aseptically from eight patients during surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. After collagenase digestion, nucleated cells were seeded at an appropriate density to avoid colony-to-colony contact. Cells were cultured in osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic media to evaluate their multilineage differentiation potential. Immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface markers was performed by flow cytometry. Spinal ligaments were processed for immunostaining using MSC-related antibodies. Cells from human spinal ligaments could be extensively expanded with limited senescence. They were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic cells. Flow cytometry revealed that their phenotypic characteristics met the minimum criteria of MSCs. Immunohistochemistry revealed the localization of CD90-positive cells in the collagenous matrix of the ligament, and in adjacent small blood vessels. We isolated and expanded MSCs from human spinal ligaments and demonstrated localization of MSCs in spinal ligaments. These cells may play an indispensable role in elucidating the pathogenesis of numerous spinal diseases.

  6. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in blood and semen quality for residents in Pearl River Delta Region in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao Fei; Chen, Zhi Yuan; Zang, Zhi Jun; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zeng, Feng; Peng, Yen Ping; Yang, Chen

    2013-10-01

    This study is the first one investigating the correlation between the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in blood and semen qualities for residents in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Blood samples from 53 infertile volunteers were studied for measures of semen quality and 16 PAHs. Information on the study subjects' living habits (such as smoking, drinking and preference of consumption for food) and general information (age, body-mass-index (BMI) and educational background) were also collected. Statistical results showed that age and BMI were significantly and negatively related to semen motilities. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑16 PAHs) in the blood were 12,010, 7493, 9105 and 8647ng/g for factory workers, office workers, technicians and salespersons, respectively. In addition, ∑16 PAHs in the blood of smokers, drinkers and heavy-taste food consumers were 11,950, 11,266 and 12,141ng/g, which were higher than those observed in nonsmokers (10,457ng/g), nondrinkers (10,920ng/g) and light-taste food consumers (9202ng/g), individually. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant positive correlations between BMI and ∑16 PAHs in the blood. Statistically significant correlations were observed between semen motilities and ∑16 PAHs in the blood as well. Logistic regression results showed that for each 1ng/g increase in ∑16 PAHs in blood samples, the log odds of experiencing a pregnancy decrease by 0.039 on average. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the impact of PAHs in the blood to male infertility. PMID:24021720

  7. Regenerative treatment in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Mevci; Attar, Ayhan; Kuzu, Isinsu

    2012-09-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating, traumatic event, and experienced mainly among young people. Until the modern era, spinal cord injury was so rapidly fatal that no seriously injured persons would survive long enough for regeneration to occur. Treatment of spinal cord injury can be summarized as follows: prevent further cord injury, maintain blood flow, relieve spinal cord compression, and provide secure vertebral stabilization so as to allow mobilization and rehabilitation, none of which achieves functional recovery. Previous studies have focused on analyzing the pathogenesis of secondary injury that extends from the injury epicenter to the periphery, as well as the tissue damage and neural cell death associated with secondary injury. Now, there are hundreds of current experimental and clinical regenerative treatment studies. One of the most popular treatment method is cell transplantation in injured spinal cord. For this purpose bone marrow stromal cells, mononuclear stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells can be used. As a result, cell transplantation has become a promising therapeutic option for spinal cord injury patients. In this paper we discuss the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury.

  8. Acute Paraplegia as a Result of Hemorrhagic Spinal Ependymoma Masked by Spinal Anesthesia: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Park, David Jaehyun; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in adults. Although a hemorrhage within spinal ependymoma on imaging studies is not uncommon, it has rarely been reported to bea cause of acute neurological deficit. In the present report, we describe a case of a 24-year-old female patient who developed acute paraplegia as a result of hemorrhagic spinal ependymoma immediately after a cesarean delivery under spinal regional anesthesia. We review the literature of hemorrhagic spinal ependymomas presenting with acute neurological deficit and discuss the most appropriate treatment for a good neurological recovery. PMID:27195260

  9. Acute Paraplegia as a Result of Hemorrhagic Spinal Ependymoma Masked by Spinal Anesthesia: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in adults. Although a hemorrhage within spinal ependymoma on imaging studies is not uncommon, it has rarely been reported to bea cause of acute neurological deficit. In the present report, we describe a case of a 24-year-old female patient who developed acute paraplegia as a result of hemorrhagic spinal ependymoma immediately after a cesarean delivery under spinal regional anesthesia. We review the literature of hemorrhagic spinal ependymomas presenting with acute neurological deficit and discuss the most appropriate treatment for a good neurological recovery. PMID:27195260

  10. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  11. Reproducibility of measurements of regional resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow assessed with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamachi, S.; Czernin, J.; Kim, A.S.

    1996-10-01

    PET with {sup 13}N-ammonia permits the noninvasive quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans. The present study was done to assess the reproducibility of quantitative blood flow measurements at rest and during pharmacologically induced hyperemia in healthy individuals. Thirty healthy volunteers (26 men, 4 women) were studied. Paired measurements of MBF at rest (n = 21), during adenosine (n = 15) and during dipyridamole (n = 7) were performed using a two-compartment model for {sup 13}N-ammonia PET. The mean difference between baseline and follow-up blood flow (% difference) was calculated to assess reproducibility. No significant difference was observed between resting blood flow at baseline or follow-up (15.8% {plus_minus} 15.8%; p = ns). Baseline and follow-up resting blood flow were linearly correlated (r = 0.63, p < 0.005). Normalization of resting blood flow to the rate pressure product improved the reproducibility significantly (15.8% {plus_minus} 15.8% versus 10.1% {plus_minus} 10.5%, p < 0.05). Baseline and follow-up hyperemic myocardial blood flow did not differ (11.8% {plus_minus} 9.4%; p = ns) and were linearly correlated (r = 0.69, p < 0.0005). MBF at rest can be measured reproducibly with {sup 13}N-ammonia PET. The individual response to pharmacologic stress appears to be relatively consistent. Thus, serial blood flow measurements with {sup 13}N-ammonia PET can be used to quantify the effect of various interventions on MBF and vasodilatory reserve. 41 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. The effects of blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shuzo; Mochida, Yasuhiro; Ishioka, Kunihiro; Oka, Machiko; Maesato, Kyouko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Hidaka, Sumi; Ohtake, Takayasu

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients. Little is known about the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive function in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We used quantitative single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to determine whether rCBF decreased in these patients. Fifty-four consecutive HD patients who were able to visit the hospital unassisted and had no history of stroke underwent cognitive assessment based on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Using quantitative image-analysis software, the SPECT imaging data were used to compare rCBF in HD patients and age-matched healthy controls. Thirty-four patients (63%) had MMSE scores ⩾28 (non-dementia). Regarding the extent of decreased rCBF in HD patients compared with rCBF in normal control patients, SPECT demonstrated significant rCBF decreases in all patients. rCBF in the perfusion area of the middle cerebral artery was significantly more decreased than in other areas. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence or absence of a previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention, drug therapy with angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were independent risk factors for the extent of decreased rCBF. Regarding the severity of decreased rCBF, stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that HD duration and systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) were chosen. In conclusion, rCBF decreased in all HD patients studied, irrespective of their clinical symptoms or MMSE scores. Blood pressure was an independent risk factor affecting the extent of decreased rCBF.

  13. Evaluation of Blood Transfusions in Anemic Children in Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Orish, Verner N; Ilechie, Alex; Combey, Theophilus; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Okorie, Chuku; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O

    2016-03-01

    Blood transfusion is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa as a way of correcting anemia in children with mild and severe sicknesses. This study evaluated this practice in a secondary health-care institution in Ghana. A retrospective study was done over a 3-year period from January 2010 to December 2012. Medical records of children admitted, successfully treated, and discharged from the hospital were collected and analyzed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 7. Transfusions were more among male children (89, 63.1%) than female children (52, 36.9%). The highest number of blood transfusions were carried out on children in the age range 0-1 year (66, 46.8%). The majority of the blood transfusions were done on children with hemoglobin concentration level of 5 g/dL and below. Children with malaria parasitemia (83, 58.9%) had more transfusions than children without malaria parasitemia (58, 41.1%). Fever alone (43, 30.5%) and fever with gastrointestinal symptoms (33, 23.4%) were the predominant symptoms among children who had blood transfusions. In conclusion, younger children received more transfusions than older children. Also, male children received more blood transfusions than female children. Malaria was observed as a major contributory factor to the requirement for blood transfusions among the children. PMID:26787159

  14. Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-12-01

    In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

  15. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as ‘adequate’ (≥80 points), ‘partially adequate’ (from 50 to 80 points), or ‘inadequate’ (<50 points). The following components were evaluated: ‘donor education’ (5 points), ‘clinical screening’ (40 points), ‘laboratory screening’ (40 points) and ‘hemovigilance’ (15 points). Results The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as ‘inadequate’ and five as ‘partially adequate’. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as ‘adequate’ in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. PMID:25453648

  16. Effects of naftidrofuryl oxalate on microsphere embolism-induced decrease in regional blood flow of rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, K.; Takagi, N.; Takeo, S.

    1994-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether naftidrofuryl oxalate (naftidrofuryl), a vasodilator, is capable of improving brain regional blood flow of animals in sustained ischaemia. 2. Cerebral ischaemia was induced by injecting 900 microspheres (48 microns in diameter) into the right internal carotid artery of rats. Cerebral blood flow of brain regions was measured by a hydrogen clearance method on the 3rd, 7th and 28th days after the onset of ischaemia. Ischaemic animals were treated with naftidrofuryl, 15 mg kg-1 day-1 i.p., from the first to 28th day. 3. Microsphere-embolism caused a sustained decrease in cortical and striatal blood flow over a period of 28 days, whereas hippocampal blood flow was decreased on the 3rd day but not on the 7th or 28th day. On the 3rd day, the striatal and hippocampal but not cortical blood flow of naftidrofuryl-treated, microsphere-embolized rats was higher than untreated rats. On the 7th and 28th days, the cortical and striatal blood flow of the treated and untreated animals did not differ. 4. Brain slices from microsphere-embolized rats contained areas, which were not stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), to a similar degree on the 3rd, 7th and 28th days, indicating the genesis of cerebral infarction. TTC-unstained areas of microsphere-embolized rats that had received naftidrofuryl treatment were smaller than those of untreated rats on the 3rd and 7th days, but not on the 28th day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032646

  17. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Early Region 1A Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Pretto, Carla D.; Castro Jorge, Luiza A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infects endothelial cells and disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causing encephalitis in inbred and outbred mice. Using a virus mutant that does not produce the early region 1A protein E1A, we investigated whether the activity of this known viral transcriptional regulator is needed for BBB disruption and other phenotypes associated with encephalitis. The wild-type (wt) virus and E1A mutant virus caused similar levels of permeability of sodium fluorescein in brains of infected mice. In an in vitro assay of BBB integrity, wt and mutant virus caused similar decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance in primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayers. These results indicate that E1A protein does not contribute to disruption of BBB integrity in animals or cultured cells. Both wt and E1A mutant virus infection of mice led to similar increases in the activity of two matrix metalloproteinases known to correlate with BBB disruption, MMP2 and MMP9, while causing no increase in the steady-state expression of MMP2 or MMP9 mRNA. In contrast, the amount of MMP3 transcripts increased upon infection by both viruses and to a higher level in infections by the mutant virus lacking E1A protein production. There was no difference in the levels of steady-state expression of mRNA for tight junction proteins among mock virus, wt virus, and mutant virus infections. Thus, the MAV-1 E1A protein does not measurably affect BBB integrity in the parameters assayed, although it reduces the amount of MMP3 mRNA steady-state expression induced in brains upon infection. IMPORTANCE Encephalitis can be caused by viruses, and it is potentially life-threatening because of the vital nature of the brain and the lack of treatment options. MAV-1 produces viral encephalitis in its natural host, providing a model for investigating factors involved in development of encephalitis. MAV-1 infection disrupts the BBB and increases activity of matrix

  18. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  19. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Michael D; Armstrong, R B; Godfrey, Donald A; Laughlin, M Harold; Ross, C David; Wilkerson, M Keith

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (). Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 %, respectively. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 %, respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis. PMID:11410640

  20. Spinal cord trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the bones or disks have been weakened Fragments of bone (such as from broken vertebrae, which are the ... presses on the spinal cord (decompression laminectomy ) Remove bone fragments, disk fragments, or foreign objects Fuse broken spinal ...

  1. [Regional anesthesia in geriatric surgery. Possibilities and limitations: (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sehhati, G; Sarvestani, M

    1976-10-01

    Modern anesthetic techniques are superior to regional anesthesia for most operative procedures. Yet because of new advances in techniques and methods and sound pathophysiological knowledge, there are some operations for which regional anesthesia has distinct advantages over general anesthesia. This is the case, for example, in geriatric surgery. Here, the technical simplicity and short amount of time required give spinal anesthesia marked advantages over general anesthesia. Post-spinal headaches and slight falls in blood pressure have become rarer due to technical innovations and can reasonably be accepted. PMID:825724

  2. [Regional effect research of blood lead concentrations and isotopic fingerprints in four cities by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Wang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Ouyang, Li

    2011-11-01

    Blood lead is a reflection of environment lead in vivo, its concentration could be used to assess lead exposure of environment quantitatively, and its isotopic ratio could be used to fingerprint environment source qualitatively. In the present study, concentrations and isotopic ratios of blood lead (BPb) of four cities in China were measured by ICP-MS for the first time. The regional effects of BPb in four Chinese cities were observed in our study. The BPb levels of industrial cities (Taiyuan and Chengdu) are higher than that of non-industrial cities (Suzhou and Beijing), indicating that industrial pollution remains primary lead contamination factor. The BPb isotopic ratios are diverse with the different character of environment the individuals live in. Food-borne lead probably has replaced the air-borne lead to be the major source of BPb in Beijing. Besides, regional effect of BPb in some developed cities is partly weakened by diversity of vast majority of imported resources.

  3. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P < 0.0002). Similarly, mean blood lead concentrations in birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P < 0.05). In addition, samples from insectivorous birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  4. Epidemiology of Syphilis in regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bisseye, Cyrille; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Kiba, Alice; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Tao, Issoufou; Simpore, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. However, few published data are available on the prevalence of syphilis in the general population. This study had two main objectives: to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in a cohort of 37,210 first time blood donors and to study socio-demographic factors associated with the risk of infection by Treponema pallidum. Methods Antibodies to Treponema pallidum were screened for, by using Reagin Rapid Test (RPR) and their presence was confirmed by treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA). Results The overall seroprevalence of syphilis was 1.5% among first time blood donors and was significantly different between centers (p <0.001). The infection was significantly higher in men than women among blood donors in Ouagadougou and Fada N′gourma (P = 0.001 and P = 0.034). The overall seroprevalence of syphilis among blood donors was not associated with either age group or HIV status. In contrast, a significantly high seroprevalence of syphilis was observed in blood donors with HBsAg (P = 0.014) and anti-HCV (P = 0.007) positive. Conclusion Our report shows a low seroprevalence of syphilis in the representative sample of the population of Burkina Faso. The seroprevalence of syphilis remains unequally distributed between urban and rural areas and was not associated with HIV infection. PMID:24711869

  5. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  6. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  8. Management of Spinal Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Schmidt, Meic H

    2016-04-01

    Spinal meningiomas are the most common spinal tumors encountered in adults, and account for 6.5% of all craniospinal tumors. The treatment for these lesions is primarily surgical, but emerging modalities may include chemotherapy and radiosurgery. In this article, the current management of spinal meningiomas and the body of literature surrounding conventional treatment is reviewed and discussed.

  9. Observations on regional cerebral blood flow in cortical and subcortical structures during language production in normal man

    SciTech Connect

    Wallesch, C.W.; Henriksen, L.; Kornhuber, H.H.; Paulson, O.B.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133 in six normal volunteers during various language, articulatory, and control conditions. Language production increased rCBF in predominantly left-sided cortical and subcortical areas. The involved regions were anatomically related to a left frontal area (Broca's), to both caudate nuclei, to a left thalamic/pallidal area, and bilaterally in retrorolandic areas. The failure to demonstrate lateralized retrorolandic activity is thought to reflect the complexity of the tasks.

  10. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  11. Optical Monitoring and Detection of Spinal Cord Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rickson C.; D’Souza, Angela; Bilfinger, Thomas V.; Galler, Robert M.; Emanuel, Asher; Schenkel, Steven S.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia can lead to paralysis or paraparesis, but if detected early it may be amenable to treatment. Current methods use evoked potentials for detection of spinal cord ischemia, a decades old technology whose warning signs are indirect and significantly delayed from the onset of ischemia. Here we introduce and demonstrate a prototype fiber optic device that directly measures spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. This technical advance in neurological monitoring promises a new standard of care for detection of spinal cord ischemia and the opportunity for early intervention. We demonstrate the probe in an adult Dorset sheep model. Both open and percutaneous approaches were evaluated during pharmacologic, physiological, and mechanical interventions designed to induce variations in spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. The induced variations were rapidly and reproducibly detected, demonstrating direct measurement of spinal cord ischemia in real-time. In the future, this form of hemodynamic spinal cord diagnosis could significantly improve monitoring and management in a broad range of patients, including those undergoing thoracic and abdominal aortic revascularization, spine stabilization procedures for scoliosis and trauma, spinal cord tumor resection, and those requiring management of spinal cord injury in intensive care settings. PMID:24358279

  12. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Justin A.; Jakoi, Andre M.

    2016-01-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  13. Fictive motor patterns in chronic spinal cats.

    PubMed

    Pearson, K G; Rossignol, S

    1991-12-01

    1. Fictive motor patterns were recorded in hind leg nerves of 10 adult chronic spinal cats (spinalized at T13). Four of these animals had been trained to step with their hind legs on a treadmill (late-spinal animals), whereas the remainder received no training and were examined a short time after spinalization (early-spinal animals). 2. A fictive pattern resembling the locomotor pattern for stepping was evoked in all animals in response to stimulation of the skin of the perineal region. (2-[2,6-Dichloroaniline]-2-imidazoline) hydrochloride (Clonidine) at doses ranging from 100 to 500 micrograms/kg iv facilitated the production of this pattern, particularly in early-spinal animals. 3. The fictive locomotor pattern in late-spinal animals was more complex than that occurring in early-spinal animals. In the latter the pattern consisted of an alternation of activity in flexor and extensor nerves, and changing leg position did not qualitatively alter the pattern, whereas in late-spinal animals the relative durations of the bursts in different flexors were usually not the same, and the pattern of flexor activity was dependent on leg position. 4. Moving the legs from extension to flexion progressively decreased the duration of flexor bursts, increased the cycle period, and decreased the ease with which the pattern could be evoked in both early- and late-spinal animals. 5. 1-beta-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)/Isonocotinic acid 2-[(2-benzylcarbamoyl)ethyl]hydrazide (Nialamide) treatment following Clonidine in early-spinal animals increased the complexity of flexor burst activity. This, and other observations, indicates that DOPA and Clonidine do not have strictly identical actions on the locomotor pattern generator. 6. Stimulation of the paws in late-spinal animals produced two patterns of activity distinctly different from the locomotor pattern. of activity distinctly different from the locomotor pattern. One was a short sequence of high-frequency rhythmic activity (at

  14. The Effect of Morphine on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by 99mTc-ECD SPECT in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Adriaens, Antita; Peremans, Kathelijne; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Croubels, Siska; Duchateau, Luc; Dobbeleir, André; Audenaert, Kurt; Eersels, Jos; Vermeire, Simon; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights into the working mechanism of morphine, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns after morphine administration were assessed in dogs. In a randomized cross-over experimental study, rCBF was estimated with 99mTc-Ethylcysteinate Dimer single photon emission computed tomography in 8 dogs at baseline, at 30 minutes and at 120 minutes after a single bolus of morphine. Perfusion indices (PI) in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and in the subcortical and cerebellar region were calculated. PI was significantly decreased 30 min after morphine compared to baseline in the right frontal cortex. The left parietal cortex and subcortical region showed a significantly increased PI 30 min after morphine compared to baseline. No significant differences were noted for the other regions or at other time points. In conclusion, a single bolus of morphine generated a changing rCBF pattern at different time points. PMID:25295733

  15. Regional distribution of blood flow during swimming in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L; Al-Wassia, A; Bevan, R M

    1988-03-01

    The distribution of blood flow to a number of organs and tissues of the tufted duck was determined (by the microsphere technique) before and while the birds were swimming at close to their maximum sustainable velocity (i.e. at 0.69 +/- 0.01 ms-1). During swimming, oxygen uptake was twice the pre-exercise value. Cardiac output increased by 70%, there was no significant change in arterial blood pressure and total systemic conductance increased by 44%. There were no significant changes in blood flow to the brain, liver, adrenal glands, spleen and respiratory muscles. Not surprisingly, there were increases in blood flow to the heart (30% increase) and to the muscles of the hindlimbs (to 3.1 times the pre-exercise value). Significant reductions in flow occurred to various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (although not to the gastrointestinal tract as a whole), to the pancreas and to the pectoralis muscles. In the case of the flight musculature as a whole, the reduction was to approximately 40% of the values in the ducks before exercise. Thus, despite the fact that cardiac output was some three times lower than it would have been during flight, there was a clear redistribution of blood away from some visceral organs and inactive muscles during surface swimming in the tufted duck. This lends support to the suggestion that blood is selectively directed to the legs, as well as to the brain and central nervous system (CNS) and away from the visceral organs and inactive muscles during voluntary diving in these birds. PMID:3373144

  16. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in patient with atypical senile dementia with asymmetrical calcification.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Masaru; Ukai, Satoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We report an 83-year-old woman with atypical senile dementia with Fahr-type calcification. Brain computed tomography demonstrated asymmetrical calcification predominant in the basal ganglia on the right side and pronounced diffuse cortical atrophy in the frontotemporal areas. The patient was clinically diagnosed with diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification. Brain single photon emission computed tomography findings revealed that cerebral blood flow was reduced on the right side, as compared with the left side, in widespread areas. Hemispheric asymmetry in both calcification and cerebral blood flow suggests a relationship between calcification and vascular changes. PMID:25737312

  17. Effects of striatal nitric oxide production on regional cerebral blood flow and seizure development in rats exposed to extreme hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Demchenko, Ivan T; Allen, Barry W; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous vasodilator and signaling molecule nitric oxide has been implicated in cerebral hyperemia, sympathoexcitation, and seizures induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA). It is unknown whether these events in the onset of central nervous system oxygen toxicity originate within specific brain structures and whether blood flow is diverted to the brain from peripheral organs with high basal flow, such as the kidney. To explore these questions, total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in brain structures of the central autonomic network in anesthetized rats in HBO2 at 6 ATA. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and renal blood flow (RBF) were also monitored. As expected, mean arterial blood pressure and total and regional CBF increased preceding EEG spikes while RBF was unaltered. Of the brain structures examined, the earliest rise in CBF occurred in the striatum, suggesting increased neuronal activation. Continuous unilateral or bilateral striatal infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated CBF responses in that structure, but global EEG discharges persisted and did not differ from controls. Our novel findings indicate that: 1) cerebral hyperemia in extreme HBO2 in rats does not occur at the expense of renal perfusion, highlighting the remarkable autoregulatory capability of the kidney, and 2) in spite of a sentinel increase in striatal blood flow, additional brain structure(s) likely govern the pathogenesis of HBO2-induced seizures because EEG discharge latency was unchanged by local blockade of striatal nitric oxide production and concomitant hyperemia.

  18. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  19. Control of intraoperative hypertension with isoflurane in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, L; Milocco, I; Appelgren, L; William-Olsson, G; Ricksten, S E

    1989-02-01

    The effect of isoflurane on regional myocardial metabolism and blood flow, when used as an adjunct to fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia, to control intraoperative hypertension was investigated. Twenty-two patients with two- or three-vessel coronary artery disease with an ejection fraction greater than 0.5 and on beta-blockers up to the morning of surgery were studied during elective coronary artery by-pass grafting. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, and regional (great cardiac vein, GCVF) myocardial blood flow and myocardial metabolic parameters were measured. In 10 patients, both GCVF and global (coronary sinus, CSF) myocardial blood flows were recorded. Measurements were made 1) after induction of anesthesia but prior to skin incision, 2) during sternotomy, and 3) during isoflurane administration after its use to reduce arterial pressure to the presternotomy level. The increase in systemic arterial pressure during sternotomy was due to an increase in systemic vascular resistance accompanied by increases in heart rate, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, (PCWP) regional myocardial oxygen consumption and extraction, GCVF and total coronary vascular resistance. Isoflurane reduced systemic arterial pressure but not PCWP, to presternotomy levels within 6.9 +/- 0.7 minutes at an end-tidal concentration of 1.5 +/- 0.2%. Isoflurane induced a pronounced systemic and coronary vasodilatation and increases in cardiac index, heart rate and regional myocardial oxygen extraction while the GCVF/CSF ratio remained unchanged. While mean regional--MLE% values were not effected by sternotomy, in two patients myocardial lactate production was seen during sternotomy but not during isoflurane. In another two patients, isoflurane induced lactate production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2783640

  20. Multiple blood pressure loci with opposing blood pressure effects on rat chromosome 1 in a homologous region linked to hypertension on human chromosome 15.

    PubMed

    Mell, Blair; Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Waghulde, Harshal; Pillai, Resmi; Nie, Ying; Joe, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Genetic dissection of blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rats has facilitated the fine-mapping of regions linked to the inheritance of hypertension. The goal of the current study was to further fine-map one such genomic region on rat chromosome 1 (BPQTL1b1), the homologous region of which on human chromosome 15 harbors BP QTLs, as reported by four independent studies. Of the six substrains constructed and studied, the systolic BP of two of the congenic strains were significantly lower by 36 and 27 mm Hg than that of the salt-sensitive (S) rat (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0003, respectively). The congenic segments of these two strains overlapped between 135.12 and 138.78 Mb and contained eight genes and two predicted miRNAs. None of the annotations had variants within expressed sequences. These data taken together with the previous localization resolved QTL1b1 with a 70% improvement from the original 7.39 Mb to the current 2.247 Mb interval. Furthermore, the systolic BP of one of the congenic substrains was significantly higher by 20 mm Hg (P < 0.0001) than the BP of the S rat. The limits of this newly identified QTL with a BP increasing effect (QTL1b1a) were between 134.12 and 135.76 Mb, spanning 1.64 Mb, containing two protein-coding genes, Mctp2 and Rgma, and a predicted miRNA. There were four synonymous variants within Mctp2. These data provide evidence for two independent BP QTLs with opposing BP effects within the previously identified BP QTL1b1 region. Additionally, these findings illustrate the complexity underlying the genetic mechanisms of BP regulation, wherein inherited elements beyond protein-coding sequences or known regulatory regions could be operational. PMID:25231251

  1. Hemodynamic study of internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion: value of combined isotopic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume

    SciTech Connect

    Derlon, J.M.; Bouvard, G.; Lechevalier, B.; Dupuy, B.; Maiza, D.; Hubert, P.; Courtheoux, P.; Peres, J.C.; Houtteville, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    The assessment of the intracranial hemodynamic consequences of obstructive lesions of the carotid artery by measuring resting rCBF is inadequate because cerebral blood flow may remain constant in spite of significant drops in the intraluminal pressure due to autoregulation. Moreover, flow may be permanently decreased following cerebral infarction, even if the arterial anatomical conditions have resumed their normal state because of the decreased metabolic demand of an infarcted area. Measurement of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) helps with the hemodynamic assessment of these conditions, since there is a linear and inverse relationship between intraarterial pressure and intracranial blood volume. In 24 patients exhibiting various carotid and ischemic brain lesions we studied both rCBF and rCBV. The latter is a comparative measure between hemispheres obtained by single photon emission tomography after autotransfusion of 99mTechnetium labeled erythrocytes. There was no correlation between rCBF and clinical status, CT scan or arterial lesions. There was no correlation between rCBV and clinical status or CT scan. There was, however, an interesting correlation between rCBV and the severity of the arterial lesion. The rCBV was symmetrical in all patients with normal or moderately stenotic carotid arteries before and after operation. In some patients with severe unilateral stenosis or occlusion, there was a significant relative increase of rCBV in the hemisphere downstream from the lesion, which disappeared after surgery (endarterectomy or extra-intracranial bypass). In some patients with severe and bilateral carotid lesions, we noted an asymmetry in rCBV that disappeared after a unilateral operation. Other patients with similar lesions develop asymmetry only after an operation that resulted in a relative increase in rCBV in the hemisphere supplied by the non-operated artery.

  2. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  3. Spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Izzo, R; Popolizio, T; D'Aprile, P; Muto, M

    2015-05-01

    The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic pain, much more difficult to treat. The clinical assessment of pain source can be a challenge because of the complex anatomy and function of the spine; the advanced imaging methods are often not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis because similar findings could be present in either asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects: a clinical correlation is always mandatory and the therapy cannot rely uniquely upon any imaging abnormalities. Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally

  4. Prophylactic neuroprotective efficiency of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense against sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity and dementia in different regions of brain and spinal cord of rats.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; El Mekkawy, Desouki A; Al-Shami, Ahmed S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba, Trifolium pretenseagainst sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity in different parts of brain (Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, striatum and Hind brain) and in the spinal cord of rats. Sodium arsenite caused impairment in the acquisition and learning in all the behavioral tasks and caused significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α,thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances andlipid profile, while caused significant decrease in glutathione, total thiol content, total antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and ATPases activities. These results were confirmed by histopathological, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy examination of different regions of brain. From these results sodium arsenite-induced neurodegenerative disorder in different regions of brain and spinal cord and this could be mediated through modifying the intracellular brain ions homeostasis, cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative damage. The presence of Ginkgo biloba and/orTrifolium pretense with sodium arsenite minimized its neurological damages. It was pronounced that using Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense in combination was more effective as protective agents compared to use eachone of them alone. PMID:27234133

  5. Prophylactic neuroprotective efficiency of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense against sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity and dementia in different regions of brain and spinal cord of rats.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; El Mekkawy, Desouki A; Al-Shami, Ahmed S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of co-administration of Ginkgo biloba, Trifolium pretenseagainst sodium arsenite-induced neurotoxicity in different parts of brain (Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, striatum and Hind brain) and in the spinal cord of rats. Sodium arsenite caused impairment in the acquisition and learning in all the behavioral tasks and caused significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α,thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances andlipid profile, while caused significant decrease in glutathione, total thiol content, total antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and ATPases activities. These results were confirmed by histopathological, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy examination of different regions of brain. From these results sodium arsenite-induced neurodegenerative disorder in different regions of brain and spinal cord and this could be mediated through modifying the intracellular brain ions homeostasis, cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative damage. The presence of Ginkgo biloba and/orTrifolium pretense with sodium arsenite minimized its neurological damages. It was pronounced that using Ginkgo biloba and Trifolium pretense in combination was more effective as protective agents compared to use eachone of them alone.

  6. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids.

  7. Peripheral nerve injury induces aquaporin-4 expression and astrocytic enlargement in spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Oklinski, M K; Choi, H-J; Kwon, T-H

    2015-12-17

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, is expressed mainly in the perivascular end-feet of astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord. Dysregulation of AQP4 is critically associated with abnormal water transport in the astrocytes. We aimed to examine whether peripheral nerve injury (PNI) could induce the changes of AQP4 expression and astrocytic morphology in the spinal cord. Two different PNI models [partial sciatic nerve transection (PST) and chronic constriction injury (CCI)] were established on the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats, which decreased the pain withdrawal threshold in the ipsilateral hind paws. Both PNI models were associated with a persistent up-regulation of AQP4 in the ipsilateral dorsal horn at the lower lumbar region over 3 weeks, despite an absence of direct injury to the spinal cord. Three-dimensional reconstruction of astrocytes was made and morphometric analysis was done. Up-regulation of AQP4 was accompanied by a significant increase in the length and volume of astrocytic processes and the number of branch points. The most prominent changes were present in the distal processes of the astrocytes and the changes were maintained throughout the whole experimental period. Extravasation of systemically administered tracers Evans Blue and sodium fluorescein was not seen in both models. Taken together, PNI was associated with a long-lasting AQP4 up-regulation and enlargement of astrocytic processes in the spinal cord in rats, both of which were not related to the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier. The findings could provide novel insights on the understanding of pathophysiology of spinal cords after PNI.

  8. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Coderre, Terence J; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2009-01-01

    Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients. PMID:19775468

  9. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in cat brain using intracarotid 2H2O and 2H NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Detre, J.A.; Subramanian, V.H.; Mitchell, M.D.; Smith, D.S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zaman, A.; Leigh, J.S. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in cat brain in vivo at 2.7 T using 2H NMR to monitor the washout of deuterated saline injected into both carotid arteries via the lingual arteries. In anesthetized cats, global CBF varied directly with PaCO{sub 2} over a range of 20-50 mm Hg, and the corresponding global CBF values ranged from 25 to 125 ml.100 g-1.min-1. Regional CBF was measured in a 1-cm axial section of cat brain using intracarotid deuterated saline and gradient-echo 2H NMR imaging. Blood flow images with a maximum pixel resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.0 cm were generated from the deuterium signal washout at each pixel. Image derived values for CBF agreed well with other determinations, and decreased significantly with hypocapnia.

  10. DDT and DDE concentrations in the blood of Mexican children residing in the southeastern region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood of children living in the southeastern region of Mexico. In this study, we found high levels of DDT and its principal metabolite (DDE) in the blood of children residing in the communities studied. The levels of total DDT found in our study ranged from 4,676.4 ng/g lipid to 64,245.2 ng/g lipid. All of the children in the study had detectable levels of DDT and/or DDE. In conclusion, our data indicate that children living within the study areas are exposed to high levels of DDT and DDE. Moreover, these results can be used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures.

  11. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  12. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl. PMID:9813839

  13. Regional blood flow and skeletal muscle energy status in endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jepson, M.M.; Cox, M.; Bates, P.C.; Rothwell, N.J.; Stock, M.J.; Cady, E.B.; Millward, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxins induce muscle wasting in part as a result of depressed protein synthesis. To investigate whether these changes reflect impaired energy transduction, blood flow, O/sub 2/ extraction, and high-energy phosphates in muscle and whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption (Vo/sub 2/) have been measured. Vo/sub 2/ was measured for 6 h after an initial sublethal dose of endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 0.3 mg/100 g body wt sc) or saline and during 6 h after a second dose 24 h later. In fed or fasted rats, Vo/sub 2/ was either increased or better maintained after endotoxin. In anesthetized fed rats 3-4 h after the second dose of endotoxin Vo/sub 2/ was increased, and this was accompanied by increased blood flow measured by /sup 57/Co-labelled microspheres to liver (hepatic arterial supply), kidney, and perirenal brown adipose tissue and a 57 and 64% decrease in flow to back and hindlimb muscle, respectively, with no change in any other organ. Hindlimb arteriovenous O/sub 2/ was unchanged, indicating markedly decreased aerobic metabolism in muscle, and the contribution of the hindlimb to whole-body Vo/sub 2/ decreased by 46%. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in muscle were unchanged in endotoxin-treated rats, and this was confirmed by topical nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which also showed muscle pH to be unchanged. These results show that, although there is decreased blood flow and aerobic oxidation in muscle, adenosine 5'-triphosphate availability does not appear to be compromised so that the endotoxin-induced muscle catabolism and decreased protein synthesis must reflex some other mechanism.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in man during perception of radiant warmth and heat pain.

    PubMed

    Ryding, E; Eriksson, M B; Rosén, I; Ingvar, D H

    1985-08-01

    The present study concerns the effects of experimental pain (radiant warmth and heat pain) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in pretrained subjects. The radiant warmth caused a general rCBF increase. However, if anxiety was avoided, heat pain caused the general rCBF level to return towards the level at rest. Thus, pain sensation per se may not cause a larger rCBF (and metabolic) response than that of the localized tactile stimulation, provided that the element of psychic apprehension and anxiety is eliminated or controlled.

  15. Integration of vascular systems between the brain and spinal cord in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eiji; Isogai, Sumio; Hitomi, Jiro

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral and spinal vascular systems are organized individually, and they then conjugate at their border, through the integration of basilar artery and vertebral arteries. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal organism for studying early vascular development, and the precise procedure of cranial and truncal vascular formation has been previously demonstrated using this model. However, the stepwise process of the integration between the brain and spinal cord has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we describe the integration of the independent vascular systems for the brain and spinal cord, using transgenic zebrafish expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in endothelial cells. Initially, basilar artery and primordial hindbrain channels, into which internal carotid arteries supplied blood, were connected with dorsal longitudinal anastomose vessels, via the first intersegmental artery. This initial connection was not influenced by flow dynamics, suggesting that vascular integration in this region is controlled by genetic cues. Vertebral arteries were formed individually as longitudinal vessels beneath the spinal cord, and became integrated with the basilar artery during subsequent remodeling. Furthermore, we confirmed the basal vasculature was well conserved in adult zebrafish. Observations of vascular integration presented herein will contribute to an understanding of regulatory mechanisms behind this process. PMID:26234750

  16. Calculus Bovis-Fel Uris-Moschus Pharmacopuncture’s Effect on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Lee, Ho-Young; Choi, Na-Rae; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Calculus Bovis-Fel Uris-Moschus pharmacopuncture(BUM) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in normal and cerebral ischemic rats and to investigate a possible pathway involved in the effects of BUM. Methods: The changes in the rCBF and the MABP following BUM into Fengfu (GV16) were determined by using a laser-Doppler flow meter and a pressure transducer, respectively. Results: BUM significantly increased the rCBF and decreased the MABP in normal rats in a dose-dependent manner. The effect on the rCBF was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with methylene blue (0.01 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, but was not affected by pretreatment with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. The BUM-induced decrease of the MABP was changed neither by methylene blue nor by indomethacin pretreatment. In the cerebral ischemic rats, the rCBF was stably increased upon cerebral reperfusion in the BUM group in contrast to the rapid and marked increase in the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that BUM into Fengbu (GV16) increased the rCBF in a dose-dependent manner in the normal state; furthermore, it improved the stability of the rCBF in the ischemic state upon reperfusion. Also, the effects of BUM on the rCBF were attenuated by inhibition of guanylate cyclase, suggesting that the effects involved the guanylate cyclase pathway. PMID:25780680

  17. Surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by cervical spine fracture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few reports regarding surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis with spinal cord injury. Our purpose is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of open-door expansive laminoplasty in combination with transpedicular screw fixation for the treatment of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury in the trauma population. Methods This was a retrospective study of 21 patients who had multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury with unstable fracture. An open-door expansive posterior laminoplasty combined with transpedicular screw fixation was performed under persistent intraoperative skull traction. Outcome measures included postoperative improvement in Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and incidence of complications. Results The average operation time was 190 min, with an average blood loss of 437 ml. A total of 120 transpedicular screws were implanted into the cervical vertebrae between vertebral C3 and C7, including 20 into C3, 34 into C4, 36 into C5, 20 into C6, and 10 into C7. The mean preoperative JOA score was 3.67 ± 0.53. The patients were followed for an average of 17.5 months, and the average JOA score improved to 8.17 ± 1.59, significantly higher than the preoperative score (t = 1.798, P < 0.05), with an average improvement of 44.7 ± 11.7%. Postoperative complications in four patients included cerebrospinal fluid leakage, delayed wound healing, pulmonary infection, and urinary system infection. All four patients were responsive to antibiotic treatment; one died from respiratory failure 3 months postoperatively. Conclusions The open-door expansive laminoplasty combined with posterior transpedicular screw fixation is feasible for treating multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by unstable fracture. Its advantages include minimum surgical trauma, less intraoperative blood loss, and satisfactory stable supportive effect for

  18. PCR detection and DNA sequence analysis of the regulatory region of lymphotropic papovavirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an immunocompromised rhesus macaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    A lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) archetypal regulatory region was amplified from DNA from the blood of an immunocompromised rhesus monkey. We believe this is the first nonserological evidence of LPV infection in rhesus monkeys.

  19. Regional brain blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Aníbal J; Riquelme, Raquel A; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Herrera, Emilio; Cabello, Gertrudis; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T

    2002-01-01

    Unlike fetal animals of lowland species, the llama fetus does not increase its cerebral blood flow during an episode of acute hypoxaemia. This study tested the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral O2 extraction rather than decreasing cerebral oxygen utilisation during acute hypoxaemia. Six llama fetuses were surgically instrumented under general anaesthesia at 217 days of gestation (term ca 350 days) with vascular and amniotic catheters in order to carry out cardiorespiratory studies. Following a control period of 1 h, the llama fetuses underwent 3 × 20 min episodes of progressive hypoxaemia, induced by maternal inhalational hypoxia. During basal conditions and during each of the 20 min of hypoxaemia, fetal cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, cerebral oxygen extraction was calculated, and fetal cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption was determined by the modified Fick principle. During hypoxaemia, fetal arterial O2 tension and fetal pH decreased progressively from 24 ± 1 to 20 ± 1 Torr and from 7.36 ± 0.01 to 7.33 ± 0.01, respectively, during the first 20 min episode, to 16 ± 1 Torr and 7.25 ± 0.05 during the second 20 min episode and to 14 ± 1 Torr and 7.21 ± 0.04 during the final 20 min episode. Fetal arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2, 42 ± 2 Torr) remained unaltered from baseline throughout the experiment. Fetal cerebral hemispheric blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen extraction were unaltered from baseline during progressive hypoxaemia. In contrast, a progressive fall in fetal cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption occurred during the hypoxaemic challenge. In conclusion, these data do not support the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral hemispheric O2 extraction. Rather, the data show that in the llama fetus, a reduction in cerebral hemispheric metabolism occurs during acute

  20. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Analysis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using TC-99M Hmpao and a Three - Spect System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Maximian Felix

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with a cognitive task of semantic word retrieval (verbal fluency) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and compare with the rCBF distribution of normal controls. Two groups of patients with low and high verbal fluency scores and two groups of normal controls were selected to determine a relationship between rCBF and verbal performance. A three-detector gamma camera (TRIAD 88) was used with radiotracer Tc-99m HMPAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to obtain 3D rCBF maps. The performance characteristics of the camera was comprehensively studied before being utilized for clinical studies. In addition, technical improvements were implemented in the form of scatter correction and MRI-SPECT coregistration to potentially enhance the quantitative accuracy of the rCBF data. The performance analysis of the gamma camera showed remarkable consistency among the three-detector heads and yielded results that were consistent with the manufacturer's specification. Measurements of physical objects also showed excellent image quality. The coregistration of SPECT and MRI images allowed more accurate anatomical localization for extraction of regional blood flow information. The validation of the scatter correction technique with physical phantoms indicated marked improvements in quantitative accuracy. There was marked difference in activation patterns between patients and normals. In normals, individually subjects showed either an increase or a decrease in blood flow to left frontal and temporal, however, on average, there was not a statistically significant change. The lack of significant change may suggest large variability among subjects chosen or that the individual changes are not large enough to be significant. The results from MS patients showed several left cortical areas with statistically significant change in blood flow after cognitive activation

  1. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding.

    PubMed

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts.

  2. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts. PMID:27441646

  3. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding.

    PubMed

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts. PMID:27441646

  4. Spinal cord mensuration--a comparative study on the spinal cord segments and spinal nerves in Zambian goats.

    PubMed

    Ramkrishna, V; Lovelace, C E; Sakala, L

    1991-06-01

    It has been known that the relative length of spinal cord and its segmental volume in domestic animals has established that the dynamics of spinal cord is directly related with the functions of the limbs and in particular to their feeding habits. Bilateral rostrocaudal measurements of spinal nerves involving their root attachment length, root emergence length, interroot length, segment length and cross sectional area were recorded on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of each segment of the spinal cords of five local healthy Zambian goats. We identified that the brachial and lumbar enlargements have involved identical number of spinal cord segments. Brachial and lumbar enlargements extended from C6 to T1 and L4 to L7. The average length of spinal cord was 59.9 cm and it extended up to caudal end of 5th sacral vertebrae. The root emergence length appeared to decrease gradually from C2 segment, which remained less variable in thoracic and lumbar segments and then receded sharply through sacral segments. The dorsal nerves entered spinal cord over a greater area than ventral because of more spinal rootlets. The greatest segment length lied in mid cervical region and then from lumbar segment it decreased sharply up to the end of sacral segments. It is concluded that these goats have a feeding habit similar to that of cattle rather than resting their forelimbs on the shrubs while nibbling the leaves as recorded in Asian goats. It also confirmed that the shrubs were more drooping along with grasses in the Gwembe Valley of Zambia.

  5. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, W.W.; Konhilas, J.; Wolfkiel, C.

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to regional pulmonary flow (RPF) in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean {+-} standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 {+-} 0.4, 1.1 {+-} 0.4 and 1.3 {+-} 0.4 for A, M and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0--41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  6. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  7. Permeation of blood-borne IL15 across the blood-brain barrier and the effect of LPS.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Yu, Chuanhui; Kastin, Abba J

    2008-07-01

    Interleukin15 (IL 15) is a proinflammatory cytokine with elevated concentrations in autoimmune diseases involving the periphery (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) and CNS (e.g. multiple sclerosis). Its interactions with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were studied in normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. (125)I-IL15 remained intact for at least 10 min after i.v. injection and reached CNS parenchyma with regional differences between brain and spinal cord. Both in vivo and in situ brain perfusion of (125)I-IL15 showed that its permeation of the BBB was non-saturable. LPS induced a significant increase of IL15 uptake by the brain and spinal cord, partly related to a higher general permeability of the BBB. The results suggest that the BBB is an interface for blood-borne IL15 to interact with the CNS in the basal state and during inflammation.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow and anxiety: a correlation study in neurologically normal patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Cogorno, P.; Gris, A.; Marenco, S.; Mesiti, C.; Nobili, F.; Rosadini, G.

    1989-06-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) was evaluated by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in 60 neurologically normal patients (30 men and 30 women) and hemispheric and regional values were correlated with anxiety measurements collected by a self-rating questionnaire before and after the examination. Statistically significant negative correlations between rCBF and anxiety measures were found. rCBF reduction for high anxiety levels is in line with results previously reported by others and could be related to lower performance levels for moderately high anxiety scores as those reported in the present population. This could perhaps be explained by rearrangement of flow from cortical zones to deeper areas of the brain, classically known to be implicated in the control of emotions. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously, since they were obtained in patients and not in normal subjects.

  9. Age-related regional variations of human skin blood flow response to histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Brenner, Sarah

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess age-related regional variations in skin function, by measuring the cutaneous microvascular response to histamine. Histamine was topically applied to the back and forearm of young and aged volunteers, and the response was quantified utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry. Each group comprised of 14 volunteers. The cutaneous vascular response to histamine was significantly greater on the back than on the forearm of young healthy volunteers, whereas in aged ones the response over these two sites did not significantly differ. These observations indicate anatomical or functional differences between old and young skin as relates to regional variations. They may underlie some of the differences in the manifestations of disease processes in various age groups.

  10. Changes in Pain Processing in the Spinal Cord and Brainstem after Spinal Cord Injury Characterized by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Patrick W; Khan, Hamza S; Bosma, Rachel L; Cotoi, Andrea I; Leung, Roxanne; Cadotte, David W; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has a number of devastating consequences, including high prevalence of chronic pain and altered pain sensitivity. The causes of altered pain states vary depending on the injury and are difficult to diagnose and treat. A better understanding of pain mechanisms after SCI is expected to lead to better diagnostic capabilities and improved treatments. We therefore applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brainstem and spinal cord in a group of participants with previous traumatic SCI to characterize changes in pain processing as a result of their injuries. The same thermal stimulus was applied to the medial palm (C8 dermatome) as a series of repeated brief noxious thermal pulses in a group of 16 participants with a cervical (n = 14) and upper thoracic (n = 2) injuries. Functional MRI of the brainstem and spinal cord was used to determine the neuronal activity evoked by the noxious stimulation, and connectivity between regions was characterized with structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that pain ratings, the location and magnitude of blood oxygenation-level dependent fMRI results, and connectivity assessed with SEM varied widely across participants. However, the results varied in relation to the perceived pain and the level/severity of injuries, particularly in terms of hypothalamus connectivity with other regions, and descending modulation via the periaqueductal gray matter-rostral ventromedial medulla-cord pathway. The results, therefore, appear to provide sensitive indicators of each individual's pain response, and information about the mechanisms of altered pain sensitivity. The ability to characterize changes in pain processing in individuals with SCI represents a significant technological advance. PMID:26801315

  11. Spinal cord injury following operative shoulder intervention: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Christine; Walker, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Context Cervical myelopathy is a spinal cord dysfunction that results from extrinsic compression of the spinal cord, its blood supply, or both. It is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients greater than 55 years of age. Findings: A 57-year-old male with right shoulder septic arthritis underwent surgical debridement of his right shoulder and sustained a spinal cord injury intraoperatively. The most likely etiology is damage to the cervical spinal cord during difficult intubation requiring multiple attempts in this patient with underlying asymptomatic severe cervical stenosis. Conclusion Although it is not feasible to perform imaging studies on all patients undergoing intubation for surgery, this patient's outcome would suggest consideration of inclusion of additional pre-surgical screening examination techniques, such as testing for a positive Hoffman's reflex, is appropriate to detect asymptomatic patients who may have underlying cervical stenosis. PMID:24679185

  12. Effects of raised intracranial pressure on regional cerebral blood flow: a comparison of effects of naloxone and TRH on the microcirculation in partial cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and of naloxone and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) during this condition were studied in anaesthetized rabbits. The ICP was elevated until a central ischaemic response was observed. The regional blood flow was determined with the microsphere technique before and during elevation of the ICP (ICPe) and after drug treatment. Total CBF was reduced by about 70% during ICPe while the uveal blood flow increased slightly and some other peripheral tissue blood flows remained unaffected. The administration of TRH caused an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) from 11.9 +/- 0.6 to 14.6 +/- 0.7 kPa and a normalization of the rCBF. In some peripheral tissues, e.g. gastric mucosa and spleen, TRH reduced the blood flow by 53% and 76%, respectively. In blood pressure stabilized animals no effect on rCBF was seen after TRH. Naloxone had no consistent effect on MAP or local blood flow. It was concluded that in the range of cerebral perfusion pressure studied there was a passive relationship between cerebral blood flow and perfusion pressure. The lack of effect of naloxone and the marked effect of TRH during cerebral ischaemia are consistent with a mechanism of action of TRH not related to a 'physiological' antagonism of opioids. PMID:3928009

  13. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, William W.; Konhilas, John; Wolfkiel, Christopher J.

    1995-05-01

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to RPF in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle, and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean +/- standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 +/- 0.4, 1.1 +/- 0.4, and 1.3 +/- 0.4 for A, M, and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0-41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  14. Does a dose-response relation exist between spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Birgitta; Malker, Hans; Englund, Erling; Wänman, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test whether a reciprocal dose-response relation exists between frequency/severity of spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Methods A total of 616 subjects with varying severity of spinal pain or no spinal pain completed a questionnaire focusing on symptoms in the jaw, head and spinal region. A subset of the population (n = 266) were sampled regardless of presence or absence of spinal pain. We used two different designs, one with frequency/severity of spinal pain, and the other, with frequency/severity of TMD symptoms as independent variable. All 616 participants were allocated to four groups, one control group without spinal pain and three spinal pain groups. The subjects in the subset were allocated to one control group without TMD symptoms and three TMD groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for presence of frequent TMD symptoms in the separate spinal pain groups as well as for frequent spinal pain in the separate TMD groups. Results The analysis showed increasing ORs for TMD with increasing frequency/severity of spinal pain. We also found increasing ORs for spinal pain with increasing frequency/severity of TMD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows a reciprocal dose-response-like relationship between spinal pain and TMD. The results indicate that these two conditions may share common risk factors or that they may influence each other. Studies on the temporal sequence between spinal pain and TMD are warranted. PMID:19254384

  15. Blood pressure patterns in urban and rural children and adolescents of the Kakheti region (East Georgia).

    PubMed

    Kharabadze, M; Khetsuriani, R; Betaneli, M; Kandelaki, S; Khutsishvili, L

    2015-01-01

    Research was conducted in urban and rural areas of the city Telavi in 2012-2013. 493 public school pupils aged 6-18 were studied (267-urban resident, 226-rural resident). Results are grouped separately for all (13) aging clusters. This indicator is compared to each other by sex and living area (urban/rural) and received results are then grouped for 3 aging groups: I - early childhood 6-8 years of age n=136 (boys - 71, girls - 65; II - middle childhood 9 - 11 years of age n=147 (boys - 82, girls - 65) and III - adolescence 12-18 years of age n=213 (boys - 98, girls - 115). Measurements were taken on the right arm, three times with 3 minutes intervals. Both rural and urban area resident children's (boys, girls) SAP/DAP was evaluated. Data was processed statistically by "ANOVA". To determine correlation between different study groups, parametric and nonparametric methods were used.Significance was determined with 95% of variability. Results of the comparison of systolic and diastolic blood pressure for boys and girls living in rural and urban areas demonstrated: There seems to be no significant difference between boys and girls living in urban and rural areas. The biggest difference was identified in: 1) Boys in Aging Group I - SAP rural pupil boys averagely is 5.7 mm/Hg higher compared to urban resident boys; 2) For girls in Aging Group III of rural residents, SAP is averagely 3mm/Hg higher compared to same group of urban residents. Same difference was identified in girls considering DAP data.This may be due to several reasons, such as: 1) village inhabitants are more physically active. 2) BMI of the residents living in the rural areas is lower compeard to the residents living in the citie. Our findings are in line with the results obtained in Iraq and Russia. PMID:25693220

  16. Spinal subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia: case report.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Marion; Strzelecki, Antoine; Houadec, Mireille; Krikken, Isabelle Ranz; Danielli, Antoine; Souza Neto, Edmundo Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia is known to be very rare. In the majority of these cases, spinal anaesthesia was difficult to perform and/or unsuccessful; other risk factors included antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, and direct spinal cord trauma. We report a case of subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia in a young patient without risk factors. PMID:27591468

  17. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donor Screening for Babesia microti in Endemic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew S.; Leff, Jared A.; Pandya, Ankur; Cushing, Melissa; Shaz, Beth H.; Calfee, David P.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Mushlin, Alvin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Babesia microti is the leading reported cause of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States (US). Donor screening assays are in development. Study Design and Methods A decision analytic model estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in a hypothetical cohort of transfusion recipients in Babesia-endemic areas of the US. Strategies included: (1) No screening, (2) Uniform Donor Health History Questionnaire (UDHQ), “status quo”, (3) Recipient risk-targeting using donor antibody (Ab) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, (4) Universal endemic donor Ab screening, (5) Universal endemic donor Ab and PCR screening. Outcome measures were TTB cases averted, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($/QALY). We assumed a societal willingness to pay of $1 million/QALY based on screening for other transfusion-transmitted infections. Results Compared to no screening, the UDHQ avoids 0.02 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $160,000/QALY whereas recipient risk-targeted strategy using Ab/PCR avoids 1.62 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $713,000/QALY compared to the UDHQ. Universal endemic Ab screening avoids 3.39 cases at an ICER of $760,000/QALY compared to the recipient-risk targeted strategy. Universal endemic Ab/PCR screening avoids 3.60 cases and has an ICER of $8.8 million/QALY compared to universal endemic Ab screening. Results are sensitive to blood donor Babesia prevalence, TTB transmission probability, screening test costs, risk and severity of TTB complications, and impact of babesiosis diagnosis on donor quality of life. Conclusion Antibody screening for Babesia in endemic regions is appropriate from an economic perspective based on the societal willingness to pay for preventing infectious threats to blood safety. PMID

  19. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template: validation using magnetic resonance imaging--technical note.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Takeda, Shigenori Katayama Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo; Konishi, Junji

    2003-03-01

    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using 99mTc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the RVR method.

  20. Correlation of clinical and angiographic findings in brain ischemia with regional cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon inhalation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, I.; Little, J.R.; Furlan, A.J.; Weinstein, M.

    1982-07-01

    Eighty-eight patients with brain ischemia underwent cerebral angiography and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after /sup 133/Xe inhalation. A fast compartment flow rate and an initial slope index were computed for each detector and for each hemisphere. The clinical presentation, angiographic findings, and rCBF results were then examined for significant correlations. Patients with hemispheric infarction most frequently showed bilateral diffusely decreased rCBF. In patients with transient ischemic attacks, no specific pattern emerged. Patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion frequently hd bilateral diffusely decreased rCBF. Patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis were more likely to show decreased rCBF than were patients with mild or moderate stenosis. The initial slope index seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of brain ischemia than the fast compartment flow rate. The possible pathophysiological significance and relationship to patient management of the various rCBF patterns are discussed.

  1. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2(/sup 15/)O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism.

  2. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  3. Beliefs and Practice Patterns in Spinal Manipulation and Spinal Motion Palpation Reported by Canadian Manipulative Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Macdermid, Joy C.; Santaguida, P. Lina; Thabane, Lehana; Giulekas, Kevin; Larocque, Leo; Millard, James; Williams, Caitlin; Miller, Jack; Chesworth, Bert M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This practice survey describes how Fellows of the Canadian Academy of Manipulative Physiotherapy (FCAMPT) use spinal manipulation and mobilization and how they perceive their competence in performing spinal assessment; it also quantifies relationships between clinical experience and use of spinal manipulation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed based on input from experts and the literature was administered to a random sample of the FCAMPT mailing list. Descriptive (including frequencies) and inferential statistical analyses (including linear regression) were performed. Results: The response rate was 82% (278/338 eligible FCAMPTs). Most (99%) used spinal manipulation. Two-thirds (62%) used clinical presentation as a factor when deciding to mobilize or manipulate. The least frequently manipulated spinal region was the cervical spine (2% of patients); 60% felt that cervical manipulation generated more adverse events. Increased experience was associated with increased use of upper cervical manipulation among male respondents (14% more often for every 10 years after certification; β, 95% CI=1.37, 0.89–1.85, p<0.001) but not among female respondents. Confidence in palpation accuracy decreased in lower regions of the spine. Conclusion: The use of spinal manipulation/mobilization is prevalent among FCAMPTs, but is less commonly used in the neck because of a perceived association with adverse events. PMID:24403681

  4. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury. PMID:27604741

  5. Coordination of spinal locomotor activity in the lamprey: long-distance coupling of spinal oscillators.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; Hagevik, A

    1999-05-01

    -distance coupling, although producing qualitatively different effects, are comparatively weak. In particular, the descending component of long-distance coupling appears to become progressively weaker with increasing distance between two given regions of spinal cord. Therefore, short-distance coupling probably contributes substantially to normal rostrocaudal phase lags for locomotor activity along the spinal cord. However, short-distance coupling may be more extensive than "nearest neighbor coupling."

  6. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during the complex cognitive task of meditation: a preliminary SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Newberg, A; Alavi, A; Baime, M; Pourdehnad, M; Santanna, J; d'Aquili, E

    2001-04-10

    This study measured changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the complex cognitive task of meditation using single photon emission computed tomography. Eight experienced Tibetan Buddhist meditators were injected at baseline with 7 mCi HMPAO and scanned 20 min later for 45 min. The subjects then meditated for 1 h at which time they were injected with 25 mCi HMPAO and scanned 20 min later for 30 min. Values were obtained for regions of interest in major brain structures and normalized to whole brain activity. The percentage change between meditation and baseline was compared. Correlations between structures were also determined. Significantly increased rCBF (P<0.05) was observed in the cingulate gyrus, inferior and orbital frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and thalamus. The change in rCBF in the left DLPFC correlated negatively (P<0.05) with that in the left superior parietal lobe. Increased frontal rCBF may reflect focused concentration and thalamic increases overall increased cortical activity during meditation. The correlation between the DLPFC and the superior parietal lobe may reflect an altered sense of space experienced during meditation. These results suggest a complex rCBF pattern during the task of meditation.

  7. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Effects of hypnosis on regional cerebral blood flow during ischemic pain with and without suggested hypnotic analgesia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H J; Gur, R C; Skolnick, B; Gur, R E; Benson, D M

    1993-11-01

    Using 133Xe regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging, two male groups having high and low hypnotic susceptibility were compared in waking and after hypnotic induction, while at rest and while experiencing ischemic pain to both arms under two conditions: attend to pain and suggested analgesia. Differences between low and highly-hypnotizable persons were observed during all hypnosis conditions: only highly-hypnotizable persons showed a significant increase in overall CBF, suggesting that hypnosis requires cognitive effort. As anticipated, ischemic pain produced CBF increases in the somatosensory region. Of major theoretical interest is a highly-significant bilateral CBF activation of the orbito-frontal cortex in the highly-hypnotizable group only during hypnotic analgesia. During hypnotic analgesia, highly-hypnotizable persons showed CBF increase over the somatosensory cortex, while low-hypnotizable persons showed decreases. Research is supportive of a neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1991; Crawford and Gruzelier, 1992) and suggests that hypnotic analgesia involves the supervisory, attentional control system of the far-frontal cortex in a topographically specific inhibitory feedback circuit that cooperates in the regulation of thalamocortical activities. PMID:8166843

  9. Expression of human histo-blood group ABO genes is dependent upon DNA methylation of the promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Y; Hata, Y; Takizawa, H; Tsuchiya, T; Tsukada, J; Yamamoto, F

    1999-12-24

    We have investigated the regulatory role of DNA methylation in the expression of the human histo-blood group ABO genes. The ABO gene promoter region contains a CpG island whose methylation status correlates well with gene expression in the cell lines tested. The CpG island was found hypomethylated in some cell lines that expressed ABO genes, whereas the other cell lines that did not express ABO genes were hypermethylated. Whereas constitutive transcriptional activity of the ABO gene promoter was demonstrated in both expressor and nonexpressor cell lines by transient transfection of reporter constructs containing the ABO gene promoter sequence, HhaI methylase-catalyzed in vitro methylation of the promoter region prior to DNA transfection suppressed the promoter activity when introduced into the expressor gastric cancer cell line KATOIII cells. On the other hand, in the nonexpressor gastric cancer cell line MKN28 cells, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the ABO gene promoter and appearance of A-transferase messages, as well as A-antigens synthesized by A-transferase. Taken together, these studies suggest that DNA methylation of the ABO gene promoter may play an important role in the regulation of ABO gene expression. PMID:10601288

  10. Effects of halothane and methoxyflurane on regional brain and spinal cord substance P-like and beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivities in the rat.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A R; Agarwal, R K; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-03-15

    Effects of acute exposure (2 hr) to either 1.5% halothane or 0.5% methoxyflurane were investigated in the Sprague Dawley rat. Pituitary (PIT) and central nervous system (CNS) substance P (SP)-like and beta-endorphin (beta-end)-like immunoreactivities were evaluated immediately after anesthetic exposure (2 h), after righting reflex (4 h) or 24 hr postexposure (24 h). Only halothane significantly reduced SP-like immunoreactivity in olfactory bulbs in both the 2-h and 4-h groups. Halothane elevated SP-like immunoreactivity of hippocampus at all three time periods, and in the hypothalamus at 2 h. Both anesthetics significantly depleted thalamic concentrations of SP-like immunoreactivity. Methoxyflurane anesthesia resulted in a drastic decrease in SP-like immunoreactivity in PIT at all three time periods periods, while halothane elevated PIT concentrations of this peptide at 4 h. Both anesthetics significantly decreased beta-end-like immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulbs and thalami at 2, 4, and 24 h. However, halothane alone significantly elevated beta-end-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord at 24 h. Halothane significantly elevated PIT beta-end-like immunoreactivity at 2 and 24 h, while methoxyflurane significantly lowered it in the 4-h group, but elevated the levels of the same in the 24-h group. Brain stem beta-end immunoreactivity were significantly reduced at 2 h by both anesthetics, and at 4 h by methoxyflurane. Results indicate that halothane and methoxyflurane may differ significantly in their actions on SP and beta-end secreting neurons in the CNS.

  11. Lumbar spinal extradural angiolipomas. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Seref; Arslan, Erhan; Sahin, Soner; Aksoy, Kaya; Aker, Sibel

    2006-03-01

    Spinal extradural angiolipomas are benign tumors mostly localized in the thoracic region. A 50-year-old woman and a 36-year-old man presented with rare lumbar spinal angiolipoma manifesting as low back pain but without neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lumbar extradural tumors at the L4-5 and L1-2 levels, respectively. Each patient underwent complete surgical resection of the epidural tumors. Histological examination revealed characteristics of angiolipomas in both tumors. The symptoms of both patients improved postoperatively and no recurrence of the tumors was found 1 year after surgery.

  12. Spinal and epidural anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    Intraspinal anesthesia; Subarachnoid anesthesia; Epidural; Peridural anesthesia ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia have fewer side effects and risks than general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). Patients usually recover their senses ...

  13. Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that progressively destroy lower motor neurons—nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord that control essential voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dramatically Improves Function After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats May 2004 press release on an experimental treatment ... NINDS). Signaling Molecule Improves Nerve Cell Regeneration in Rats August 2002 news summary on a signaling molecule ...

  16. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To order the Sports Injuries Handout on Health full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ... publication. To order the Spinal Stenosis Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ...

  17. Spinal cord abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... irritation (inflammation) and the collection of infected material (pus) in or around the spinal cord. ... occurs as a complication of an epidural abscess . Pus forms as a collection of: Destroyed tissue cells ...

  18. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  19. Is perivetricular hyperintensity region caused by decreased cerebral blood flow?; assessment by {sup 15}O-PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminaga, T.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The clinical significance of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism has not been established in patients who had periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study is to correlate the results of rCBF and oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography (PET) with PVH by MRI. The subjects were 27 patients; 16 patient (group I) (male; 7, female; 9, age; 56.8{plus_minus}18.6) with PVH and age matched 11 patients (group II) (male; 6, female; 5, age; 55.3{plus_minus}13.6) without PVH. {sup 15}O-PET study was carried out by Headtome IV and rCBF, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) of PVH and cerebellum was calculated. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in all patients. Angiography was performed over 11 patients. The mean rCBF of group I in PVH (28.5{plus_minus}7.5 ml/100g/min) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that of group II (38.6{plus_minus}5.7). The mean rCBF of group I and group II in cerebellum were 49.5{plus_minus}9.9 ml/100g/min and 50.2{plus_minus}8.9 respectively. There was no significant difference on CMRO{sub 2} and OEF between group I and group II. In MRI examination, PVH was detected in all group I patients and multiple high intensities were also detected in 7 patients of group I and 4 patients of group II on T2-weighted images. No significant stenosis (more than 75%) was detected in 11 patients by angiography. These data strongly indicate that PVH might be caused by decreased cerebral blood flow.

  20. The prediction of rapid conversion to Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment using regional cerebral blood flow SPECT.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Kentaro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Hirata, Yoko; Yamashita, Fumio; Mori, Takeyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Yamada, Minoru; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Arima, Kunimasa; Asada, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) comprises a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and they are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prediction of conversion from MCI to AD using the initial neuroimaging studies is an important research topic. We investigated the initial regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in individuals with 76 amnesic MCI (52 subjects converted to AD and 24 subjects did not convert to AD at 3-year follow-up) and 57 age- and gender-matched controls. We sought functional profiles associated with conversion to AD, then evaluated the predictive value of the initial rCBF SPECT. As compared with controls, AD converters demonstrated reduced blood flow in the bilateral parahippocampal gyri, precunei, posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral parietal association areas, and the right middle temporal gyrus. Non-converters also demonstrated significant reduction of rCBF in the posterior cingulated cortices and the right caudate nucleus when compared to controls. As compared with non-converters, converters showed reductions of rCBF in the bilateral temporo-parietal areas and the precunei. The logistic regression model revealed that reduced rCBF in the inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and precunei has high predictive value and discriminative ability. Although a cross-validation study is needed to conclude the usefulness of rCBF SPECT for the prediction of AD conversion in individuals with MCI, our data suggest that the initial rCBF SPECT studies of individuals with MCI may be useful in predicting who will convert to AD in the near future.

  1. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Krauss, Joachim K; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4-9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  2. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H.; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M.; Krauss, Joachim K.; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4–9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  3. [Meningitis after spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mouchrif, Issam; Berdaii, Adnane; Labib, Ismail; Harrandou, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is a rare but serious complication of epidural and spinal anesthesia. Bacterial meningitis is mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci, implying an exogenous contamination which suggests a lack of asepsis. The evolution is usually favorable after treatment, but at the expense of increased health care costs and, sometimes, of significant neurological sequelae. We report a case of bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section. PMID:27642477

  4. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  5. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerve Root Involvement (Myeloradiculopathy) in Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most of the information about spinal cord and nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis is available in the form of isolated case reports or case series. In this article, we evaluated the incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis. In this prospective study, 71 consecutive patients of newly diagnosed tuberculous meningitis were enrolled. In addition to clinical evaluation, patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and spine. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Out of 71 patients, 33 (46.4%) had symptoms/signs of spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement, 22 (30.9%) of whom had symptoms/signs at enrolment. Eleven (15.4%) patients had paradoxical involvement. Paraparesis was present in 22 (31%) patients, which was of upper motor neuron type in 6 (8.4%) patients, lower motor neuron type in 10 (14%) patients, and mixed type in 6 (8.4%) patients. Quadriparesis was present in 3 (4.2%) patients. The most common finding on spinal MRI was meningeal enhancement, seen in 40 (56.3%) patients; in 22 (30.9%), enhancement was present in the lumbosacral region. Other MRI abnormalities included myelitis in 16 (22.5%), tuberculoma in 4 (5.6%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) loculations in 4 (5.6%), cord atrophy in 3 (4.2%), and syrinx in 2 (2.8%) patients. The significant predictor associated with myeloradiculopathy was raised CSF protein (>250 mg/dL). Myeloradiculopathy was significantly associated with poor outcome. In conclusion, spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis is common. Markedly raised CSF protein is an important predictor. Patients with myeloradiculopathy have poor outcome. PMID:25621686

  6. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity. PMID:26264838

  7. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity.

  8. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, M.; Henriksen, L.; Lassen, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating (''dynamic''), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1-min period at a concentration of 10 mCi/L. The arrival and washout of the radioisotope was recorded during four 1-min periods. Two slices, 2 cm thick, 7 and 12 cm above the orbitomeatal line were obtained in every study. CBF averaged 60 ml/100 g/min (SD +/- 11) in the lower slice and 51 ml/100 g/min (SD +/- 13) in the upper slice. A symmetric pattern comparing right to left sides was found in both slices. Finger tapping and writing with the right hand increased CBF in specific areas of the upper slice: in the contralateral hand area by 35 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025), and in the supplementary motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025).

  10. Association of EEG, MRI, and regional blood flow biomarkers is predictive of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide Vito

    2015-01-01

    Background Thinning in the temporoparietal cortex, hippocampal atrophy, and a lower regional blood perfusion is connected with prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of note, an increase of electroencephalography (EEG) upper/low alpha frequency power ratio has also been associated with these major landmarks of prodromal AD. Methods Clinical and neuropsychological assessment, EEG recording, and high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging were done in 74 grown up subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This information was gathered and has been assessed 3 years postliminary. EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography assessment was done in 27 subjects. Alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio, including cortical thickness, was figured for every subject. Contrasts in cortical thickness among the groups were assessed. Pearson’s r relationship coefficient was utilized to evaluate the quality of the relationship between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and EEG markers. Results The higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio group corresponded with more prominent cortical decay and a lower perfusional rate in the temporoparietal cortex. In a subsequent meetup after 3 years, these patients had AD. Conclusion High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was connected with cortical diminishing and lower perfusion in the temporoparietal brain area. The increase in EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be helpful in recognizing people in danger of conversion to AD dementia and this may be quality information in connection with clinical assessment. PMID:26604762

  11. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  12. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  13. Cognitive neuropsychological and regional cerebral blood flow study of a Japanese-English bilingual girl with specific language impairment (SLI).

    PubMed

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N; Kato, Motoichiro; Itoh, Kanae; Yoshino, Fumihiro

    2009-02-01

    We report here on an investigation into the possible factors which might have contributed to language impairment (LI) in EM, a 14-year-old Japanese-English bilingual girl. EM was born in the UK to Japanese parents with no other siblings, and used English to communicate with all other people except for her parents. A delay in her English language development was identified at primary school in the UK, which was attributed to her bilingualism. The deficiency in her English language skills persisted into her adolescence despite more than adequate educational opportunities (including additional language support). At the start of her secondary education, language ability/literacy attainment tests were conducted in both English and Japanese, and the results suggested specific language impairment (SLI) in both languages. Further, her brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) revealed significantly lower Regional Cerebral Blood Flow(rCBF) in the left temporo-parietal area, which is also similar to the area of dysfunction often found among Japanese individuals with SLI.

  14. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  15. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. Results Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. Conclusions The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was

  16. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  17. Pilot clinical study to investigate the human whole blood spectrum characteristics in the sub-THz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; You, Borwen; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  18. Pediatric spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Tekes, Aylin; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spinal trauma is unique. The developing pediatric spinal column and spinal cord deal with direct impact and indirect acceleration/deceleration or shear forces very different compared to adult patients. In addition children are exposed to different kind of traumas. Moreover, each age group has its unique patterns of injury. Familiarity with the normal developing spinal anatomy and kind of traumas is essential to correctly diagnose injury. Various imaging modalities can be used. Ultrasound is limited to the neonatal time period; plain radiography and computer tomography are typically used in the acute work-up and give highly detailed information about the osseous lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for disco-ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. Depending on the clinical presentation and timing of trauma the various imaging modalities will be employed. In the current review article, a summary of the epidemiology and distribution of posttraumatic lesions is discussed in the context of the normal anatomical variations due to progressing development of the child. PMID:25512255

  19. Speed and spinal injuries.

    PubMed

    Healy, D G; Connolly, P; Stephens, M M; O'Byrne, J M; McManus, F; McCormack, D

    2004-09-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a significant cause of spinal trauma. On the 31st of October 2002 a new penalty system for speed related driving offences was introduced in Ireland. Our intention was to assess the effects of the introduction of this system on the activity of the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) with a retrospective review of all admissions from November 1998 until October 2003. The number of new acute admissions to the spinal injury unit during the study period was 831. In the first 6 months of the new system the number of RTA related admissions fell significantly to 17 compared to an average of 33 in the preceding 4 years. However, this effect was not maintained in the second 6 months. The fall in spinal injuries following RTA in the first 6 months of the new system parallels the pattern of road death reduction in this period. This suggests that driving behaviour can be modified with direct benefits in reducing spinal injuries. However, this effect has not persisted in the second 6 months of the new system suggesting that to maintain this change the perception and familiarity of a penalty are important factors in its impact.

  20. Learning Spinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Marie-Pierre; Wynd, Shari; Richardson, Lance; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of the present study was to quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation biomechanical parameters in two cohorts of students from different teaching institutions. The first cohort of students was taught chiropractic techniques in a patient–doctor positioning practice setting, while the second cohort of students was taught in a “complete practice” manipulation setting, thus performing spinal manipulation skills on fellow student colleagues. It was hypothesized that the students exposed to complete practice would perform the standardized spinal manipulation with better biomechanical parameters. Methods: Participants (n = 88) were students enrolled in two distinct chiropractic programs. Thoracic spine manipulation skills were assessed using an instrumented manikin, which allowed the measurement of applied force. Dependent variables included peak force, time to peak force, rate of force production, peak force variability, and global coordination. Results: The results revealed that students exposed to complete practice demonstrated lower time to peak force values, higher peak force, and a steeper rate of force production compared with students in the patient–doctor positioning scenario. A significant group by gender interaction was also noted for the time to peak force and rate of force production variables. Conclusion: The results of the present study confirm the importance of chiropractic technique curriculum and perhaps gender in spinal manipulation skill learning. It also stresses the importance of integrating spinal manipulation skills practice early in training to maximize the number and the quality of significant learner–instructor interactions. PMID:22069337

  1. Complications after spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jie; Guan, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Sheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Since little has been reported about complications of spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome (TCS), we sought to delineate the characteristics of the condition.A total of 4 cases of adult TCS after spinal anesthesia were reviewed. The medical charts of the patients were obtained. Anesthesia, which was combined spinal and epidural anesthesia or spinal anesthesia was performed, and follow-up were carried out in all patients.The most common neurological symptom of adult TCS before surgery was occasional severe pain in back, perineal region, or legs. Frequent micturition, diminished knee and ankle reflexes, and difficulty in bending were exhibited in partial patients. Paraesthesia of perineal region or/and lower extremities existed 2 to 3 days after spinal anesthesia in all the cases. Weakness of lower extremities existed in 1 case. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the low location of conus medullaris. At follow-up, 3 cases recovered completely within 3 weeks, and 1 case underwent permanent disability.These cases suggest anesthesiologists and surgeons alert to the association of adult TCS and spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia should be prohibited in patients with adult TCS to prevent neurological damages. PMID:27442670

  2. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  3. Lack of effect of spinal anesthesia on drug metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.; Wood, A.J.; Shay, S.; Wood, M. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of spinal anesthesia on drug disposition was determined in six dogs with chronically implanted vascular catheters using propranolol as a model compound. On the first study day, 40 mg of unlabeled propranolol and 200 microCi of (3H)propranolol were injected into the portal and femoral veins respectively. Arterial blood samples were taken for 4 hr for measurement of plasma concentrations of labeled and unlabeled propranolol by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and of (3H)propranolol by liquid scintillation counting of the HPLC eluant corresponding to each propranolol peak. Twenty-four hr later, spinal anesthesia was induced with tetracaine (mean dose 20.7 +/- 0.6 mg) with low sacral to midthoracic levels and the propranolol infusions and sampling were then repeated. Spinal anesthesia had no significant effect on either the intrinsic clearance of propranolol (2.01 +/- 0.75 L/min before and 1.9 +/- 0.7 L/min during spinal anesthesia), or on mean hepatic plasma flow (2.01 +/- 0.5 L/min before and 1.93 +/- 0.5 L/min during spinal anesthesia). The systemic clearance and elimination half-life of propranolol were also unchanged by spinal anesthesia (0.9 +/- 0.23 L/min on the first day, 0.7 +/- 0.1 L/min during spinal anesthesia; and 101 +/- 21 min on the first day, 115 +/- 16 min during spinal anesthesia, respectively). The volume of distribution (Vd) of propranolol was similarly unaffected by spinal anesthesia.

  4. Alteration of Regional Homogeneity within the Sensorimotor Network after Spinal Cord Decompression in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongming; Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Zhili; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan; He, Laichang

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research to evaluate the function of neurons' adaptive changes within the sensorimotor network (SMN) following recovery after cervical cord decompression. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) may provide information that is critical to fully understand CSM-related functional neural synchrony alterations. The purpose of this study was to assess the ReHo alterations of resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) within pre- and postdecompression CSM and healthy controls (HC) and its correlations with clinical indices. Predecompression CSM demonstrated a significantly lower ReHo in the left primary sensory cortex and primary motor cortex (PostG/PreG) but enhanced ReHo in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) compared with HC. In comparison with predecompression CSM, the postdecompression CSM showed increased ReHo in the left PostG/PreG but significantly lower ReHo in the right SPL compared with HC patients. Abnormal ReHo regions in pre- or postdecompression CSM showed no significant correlation with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and disease duration (P > 0.05). This result demonstrated disrupted regional homogeneity within SMN in CSM. This adaptive change in the brain may favor the preservation of sensorimotor networks before and after cervical cord decompression and clinical symptoms independent of ReHo within SMN. PMID:26605335

  5. Onyx injection by direct puncture for the treatment of hypervascular spinal metastases close to the anterior spinal artery: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Clarençon, Frédéric; Di Maria, Federico; Cormier, Evelyne; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Enkaoua, Eric; Sailhan, Frédéric; Iosif, Christina; Le Jean, Lise; Chiras, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases has been shown to be effective in preventing major blood loss during open surgery. Most often, embolization can be performed using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microparticles. However, in some cases, the close relationship between the feeders of the metastases and the feeders of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) poses a risk of spinal cord ischemia when PVA microparticle embolization is performed. The authors present their early experience in the treatment of spinal metastases close to the ASA; in 2 cases they injected Onyx-18, by direct puncture, into hypervascular posterior arch spinal metastases situated close to the ASA. Two women, one 36 and the other 55 years of age, who presented with spinal lesions (at the posterior arch of C-4 and T-6, respectively) from thyroid and a kidney tumors, were sent to the authors' department to undergo presurgical embolization. After having performed a complete spinal digital subtraction angiography study, a regular angiography catheter was positioned at the ostium of the artery that mainly supplied the lesion. Then, with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position, direct puncture with 18-gauge needles of the lesion was performed using roadmap guidance. Onyx-18 was injected through the needles under biplanar fluoroscopy. Satisfactory devascularization of the lesions was obtained; the ASA remained patent in both cases. The metastases were surgically removed in both cases within the 48 hours after the embolization and major blood loss did not occur. Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases close the ASA by direct puncture with Onyx-18 seems to be an effective technique and appears to be safe in terms of the preserving the ASA's patency. PMID:23600580

  6. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. PMID:27263067

  7. Spinal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J L

    1975-05-01

    Spinal injuries with neurologic sequelae are a rare but catastrophic injury. Many of these injuries might be preventable through proper parent and child education, particularly in water sports and vehicles accidents. A significant number of neurologic injuries are incomplete at the time of injury and proper rescue and initial care may make the difference between life as a quadriplegic and life as a normal individual. Because of the complexity of the management of the child with spinal injuries and their relative rarity, the definitive care is best undertaken at hospitals which specialize in the care of spinal injuries. Progressive deformity of the spine, a problem unique to childhood and adolescent paralysis, is often preventable with prolonged immobilization and protection of the spine. Progressive deformities which interfere with function or result in neurologic deterioration require an aggressive surgical approach. PMID:1124228

  8. Spinal Subdural Haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Manish K, Kothari; Chandrakant, Shah Kunal; Abhay M, Nene

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal Subdural hematoma is a rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal cord compression syndromes. It’s early diagnosis is essential. Chronological appearance of these bleeds vary on MRI. Case Report: A 56 year old man presented with progressive left lower limb radiculopathy and paraesthesias with claudication of three days duration. MRI revealed a subdural space occupying lesion compressing the cauda equina at L5-S1 level producing a ‘Y’ shaped dural sac (Y sign), which was hyperintense on T1W imaging and hypointense to cord on T2W image. The STIR sequence showed hyperintensity to cord. There was no history of bleeding diathesis. The patient underwent decompressive durotomy and biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion: Spinal subdural hematoma may present with rapidly progressive neurological symptoms. MRI is the investigation of choice. The knowledge of MRI appearance with respect to the chronological stage of the bleed is essential to avoid diagnostic and hence surgical dilemma PMID:27299051

  9. [Spinal cord infarction].

    PubMed

    Naumann, N; Shariat, K; Ulmer, S; Stippich, C; Ahlhelm, F J

    2012-05-01

    Infarction of the spinal cord can cause a variety of symptoms and neurological deficits because of the complex vascular supply of the myelon. The most common leading symptom is distal paresis ranging from paraparesis to tetraplegia caused by arterial ischemia or infarction of the myelon. Venous infarction, however, cannot always be distinguished from arterial infarction based on the symptoms alone.Modern imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) assist in preoperative planning of aortic operations to reliably identify not only the most important vascular structure supplying the spinal cord, the artery of Adamkiewicz, but also other pathologies such as tumors or infectious disorders. In contrast to CT, MRI can reliably depict infarction of the spinal cord.

  10. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection.

  11. Skiing and spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, J W; Pope, M H; Kristiansen, T

    1982-07-01

    Spinal injury in skiers can either be acute or chronic. Acute spinal injury accounts for 3 to 3.6 per cent of all injuries occurring in Alpine skiing. Fewer acute injuries occur in cross-country skiing, and those that do usually are the result of a sudden, compressive force from a seated fall. The prevalence of chronic spinal trauma in skiing is unknown. Both cross-country and Alpine skiers appear to have greater complaints of mild to moderate low back pain as compared with their nonskiing counterparts. These differences may be the result of a complex interaction between recreational and occupational activities. Theoretical analyses suggest a risk for low-grade torsional injury to the Alpine skier's spine, whereas in cross-country skiing significant shear forces are applied to lumbar discs during the kick but not the double-poling phase.

  12. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology.

  13. Pre-surgical regional blocks in orthognathic surgery: prospective study evaluating their influence on the intraoperative use of anaesthetics and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y A; Rivera-Serrano, C M; Chen, C; Chen, Y R

    2016-06-01

    In orthognathic surgery, maxillary (CNV2) and mandibular (CNV3) divisions of the trigeminal nerve can be blocked successfully prior to surgery. In this study, it was hypothesized that regional blocks (nerve block over a particular region: bilateral CNV2 and CNV3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve) would decrease the total requirement for intraoperative anaesthetic agents and facilitate the process of hypotensive anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia containing 1/100,000 epinephrine and 10ml 0.5% levobupivacaine was injected into the planned incisions in 50 patients. Twenty-five patients (group A) underwent orthognathic surgery without regional blocks and another 25 patients (group B) underwent surgery with regional blocks. The anaesthetic protocol was the same in both groups and administered by a single anaesthesiologist. The mean arterial pressure was recorded at several points throughout the operation, as well as all the medications used. The blood loss and the amounts of medications administered were lower in group B than in group A. In patients receiving regional blocks, the amounts of fentanyl and nicardipine required were significantly lower. The use of pre-emptive anaesthesia in orthognathic surgery may reduce the overall amounts of medications required for hypotensive anaesthesia, facilitate the intraoperative control of blood pressure, and decrease intraoperative blood loss.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow during light sleep--a H(2)(15)O-PET study.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Troels W; Law, Ian; Wiltschiøtz, Gordon; Paulson, Olaf B; Madsen, Peter L

    2002-09-01

    This is the first report on the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during stage-1 sleep or somnolence. Two hypotheses were tested: (A) that rCBF differed between the awake relaxed state and stage-1 sleep, (B) that hypnagogic hallucinations frequently experienced at sleep onset would be accompanied by measurable changes in rCBF using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight subjects were PET-scanned with (15)O-labeled water injection in three conditions: awake, stage-1 sleep with reportable experiences and stage-1 sleep without reportable experiences. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed continuously during the experiment. Sleep interviews were performed after each scan. The EEG was scored blindly to determine sleep stage. The sleep interviews revealed a substantial increase in how unrealistic and how leaping the thoughts were during stage-1 sleep. During sleep there was a relative flow increase in the occipital lobes and a relative flow decrease in the bilateral cerebellum, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the right premotor cortex and the left thalamus. Hypnagogic experiences seemed not to be associated with any relative flow changes. The topography of the occipital activation during stage-1 sleep supports a hypothesis of this state being a state of imagery. The rCBF decreases in premotor cortex, thalamus and cerebellum could be indicative of a general decline in preparedness for goal directed action during stage-1 sleep. Stage-1 sleep seems more similar to other forms of altered awareness, for example, relaxation meditation than to deeper sleep stages. We are of the opinion that stage-1 sleep represents the dreaming state of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reflects the dreaming state of the unaware, sleeping brain.

  16. [Evaluation of gamma camera collimator for regional cerebral blood flow measurements using a 133Xe inhalation method].

    PubMed

    Saegusa, K; Arimizu, N; Uematsu, S

    1984-09-01

    In the measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using inhalation of 133Xe gas, the activity present is generally limited in lower levels than those of usual brain scintigraphy. Measurements with low count-rate are usually resulted in diminishing the accuracies of results obtained. Therefore, it is necessary to make measurements using a high sensitive collimator for getting as much count-rate as possible when a gamma camera is used. The relationships among sensitivity and structures of multi-parallel collimator were mathematically analyzed. The results of analysis suggested that sensitivity usually increased by using a collimator with holes of reduced height and diameter. A prototype multi-parallel collimator with holes of low height and small diameter was made in our laboratory for testing sensitivity and resolution. The collimator possessing 1141 holes of 6 mm phi in hole diameter, 1.5 cm is hole height and septal thickness of 1 mm lead showed 24 times more sensitive than those of a general all purpose collimator supplied by the manufacturer. However, resolution measured in FWHM was of 9 to 14 mm at the collimator face and of 29 to 38 mm at 5 cm from the face. The results indicated that this collimator was useful enough in rCBF measurements with 133Xe inhalation using a gamma camera. The mathematical analysis however, suggested that optimum collimator for rCBF measurements was approximate 4.5 mm phi in hole diameter and 1.0 cm in hole height. PMID:6515050

  17. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  18. Heterogeneity in malignant gliomas: a magnetic resonance analysis of spatial distribution of metabolite changes and regional blood volume.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marlies; Nafe, Reinhold; Jurcoane, Alina; Pilatus, Ulrich; Franz, Kea; Rieger, Johannes; Steinbach, Joachim P; Hattingen, Elke

    2011-07-01

    First-pass contrast-enhanced dynamic perfusion imaging provides information about the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), an increase of which indicates neovascularization. MR spectroscopic imaging informs about metabolite changes in brain tumors, with elevated choline (Cho) values revealing cell proliferation and density, and the glial metabolite creatine (Cr) representing high-energy storage. This study investigates metabolite changes within the tumor voxel of maximal rCBV value (rCBVmax). Anatomically coregistered parameter maps of rCBV, Cho and Cr were evaluated in 36 patients with primary or recurrent WHO grade III or IV gliomas. Apart from Cho and Cr values within the voxel of rCBVmax (Choperf, Crperf), the maximal Cho and Cr values of the tumor tissue were recorded (Chomax, Crmax). The correlation between these parameters was analyzed with Spearman’s rho test while a binomial test was performed to check whether Chomax = Choperf and Crmax = Crperf. We found that, in 29 of the 36 patients, neither Cho nor Cr had their maxima in the voxel of rCBVmax (Choperf, Crperf < Chomax, Crmax, P < 0.001). However, Choperf was highly correlated with Chomax (r = 0.76, P < 0.001) and Crperf with Crmax (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). Further Choperf correlated with Crperf (r = 0.55, P < 0.001). Neither of the spectroscopic parameters (Chomax, Crmax, Choperf, Crperf,) correlated with rCBVmax. In conclusion, in WHO grade III and IV gliomas the voxel with maximal rCBV often differs from the voxel with the maximal Cho and Cr, indicating the spatial divergence between neovascularization and tumor cell proliferation, cell density and glial processes. However, tCho and tCr changes within the area of neovascularization are positively correlated with the maximal increase within the tumor tissue. These results demonstrate aspects of regional tumor heterogeneity as characterized by different MR modalities that, apart from histopathological grading might be crucial for neurosurgical biopsy

  19. The gene for spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is located in a region of {approximately} 3 cM on chromosome 14q24.3-q32.2

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanin, G.; Cancel, G.; Duerr, A.; Dubourg, O.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.; Chneiweiss, H.; Weissenbach, J.; Cann, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    SCA3, the gene for spinal cerebellar ataxia 3, was recently mapped to a 15-cM interval between D14S67 and D14S81 on chromosome 14q, by linkage analysis in two families of French ancestry. The SCA3 candidate region has now been refined by linkage analysis with four new microsatellite markers (D14S256, D14S291, D14S280, and AFM343vf1) in the same two families, in which 19 additional individuals were genotyped, and in a third French family. Combined two-point linkage analyses show that the new markers, D14S280 and AFM343vf1, are tightly linked to the SCA3 locus, with maximal lod scores, at recombination fraction, ({theta}) = .00, of 7.05 and 13.70, respectively. Combined multipoint and recombinant haplotype analyses localize the SCA3 locus to a 3-cM interval flanked by D14S291 and D14S81. The same allele for D14S280 segregates with the disease locus in the three kindreds. This allele is frequent in the French population, however, and linkage disequilibrium is not clearly established. The SCA3 locus remains within the 29-cM region on 14q24.3-q32.2 containing the gene for the Machado-Joseph disease, which is clinically related to the phenotype determined by SCA3, but it cannot yet be concluded that both diseases result from alterations of the same gene. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The beneficial effects of a thromboxane receptor antagonist on spinal cord perfusion following experimental cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tempel, G E; Martin, H F

    1992-06-01

    The eicosanoids thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin have opposing actions causing vasoconstriction and vasodilation respectively. The ratio of these two eicosanoids is thus an important determinant of circulatory homeostasis. An increase in this ratio occurs in certain inflammatory conditions with dramatic consequences in organ perfusion. In spinal cord trauma, in addition to direct physical perturbation of the spinal cord, it is likely that further structural and functional loss occurs as a result of decreased tissue perfusion precipitated by an increase in the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio. This study evaluated hemodynamics and organ perfusion, 3 h following 24 g-cm spinal cord trauma in the rat. The role of thromboxane was investigated with an inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis (Dazoxiben) and with a receptor antagonist (13-APT). Cardiac output and blood pressure were unaffected by Dazoxiben, 13-APT, or spinal cord trauma. Injury effected approximately a 40% decrease in spinal cord perfusion from 0.41 to 0.25 ml/min/g which was not improved by the thromboxane synthase inhibitor, Dazoxiben. 13-ATP completely abrogated the decline in spinal cord blood flow flowing injury. Perfusion of other selected organs demonstrated little change as a result of the spinal trauma. Brain flow remained constant at 0.78 ml/min/g brain. Coronary blood flow, however, declined from 3.2 to 2.0 ml/min/g heart tissue. The data suggest consideration of the importance of thromboxane in therapeutic attempts to reduce secondary injury arising in spinal cord trauma. PMID:1386102

  1. Changes in spinal alignment.

    PubMed

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of light interaction with blood vessels in human skin in the red-wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Henrik; Nilsson, Gert E.

    1998-06-01

    An attempt was made at determining if the elastically backscattered Doppler shifted light from cutaneous blood vessels merely emanates from the peripheral parts, or also from the more central core of these vessels, after illumination by red laser light (632 nm). A multilayered, semi-infinite Monte Carlo model of human skin was constructed accordingly, with separate layers or epidermis, dermis including blood, inferior vascular plexus and subcutaneous fat. Two concentric cylinders of infinite length and with varying diameters, representing core and peripheral parts of a blood vessel, were located at various depths in the skin model, either in the superior or inferior vascular plexus. In order to test the stability of the model predictions, widely varying values of the optical properties were employed in the calculations, trying to encompass most of the extreme values found in the literature. The number of photons Doppler shifted by a fixed size central core of a small blood vessel, is independent of the volume of blood surrounding this core in the rest of the blood vessel, provided the total number of detected photons is maintained constant, and the vessel dimensions are within human physiological limits. For the source/detector system simulated (one optical fiber 700 micrometer diameter), backscattered light Doppler shifted in superficial blood vessels constituted almost all the photons detected, with only very few photons having interacted with the inferior plexus.

  3. [EFFECT OF VOLUNTARY BREATH-HOLDING AND COGNITIVE LOADS ON REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND BIOELECTRIC ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN].

    PubMed

    Moreva, T I; Pasekova, O B; Kriushev, E S; Dobrokvashina, E I; Moreva, O V; Builov, S P; Smirnov, O A; Bragin, L Kh; Voronkov, Iu I

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and bioelectric activity were studied in 10 normal volunteers in order to assess cerebrovascular reactivity during different types of functional testing. The transcranial Doppler was used to measure linear blood velocity (LBV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during maximal voluntary breath-holding (apnea), controlled verbal association test and tactile memory test. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) registered the bioelectric activity of the brain cortex. Both investigations were performed continuously in the course of each test. Breath-holding induced a smooth symmetric increase of CMA blood velocity; LBV rose to maximum values in the majority of the volunteered subjects. Two subjects with small focal changes in the brain's white matter displayed an asymmetric blood flow reaction to apnea. Gain in LBV was materially less during the cognitive tests; the verbal test decreased LBV in one half of the subjects and increased LBV in the other. The tactile memory test increased LBV which was particularly high in the left CMA of all subjects. LBV dynamics during the cognitive tests was essentially different from what was observed in apnea. Blood flow variations in the course of equally the verbal and tactile tests had a regular undulatory character. Concurrent LBV and EEG monitoring made it possible to compare and contrast dynamics of the cerebral blood velocity and bioelectric activity directly during testing and thus to reveal peculiar reactions of the cerebral blood flow to cognitive and physiological testing.

  4. Intravenous dexmedetomidine versus propofol for intraoperative moderate sedation during spinal anesthesia: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pratibha Jain; Dubey, Kamta Prasad; Sahare, Kamal Kishore; Agrawal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: There has been a paradigm shift of focus toward quality of spinal anesthesia with sedation being an integral aspect of this regional anesthesia technique. Thus, this study was designed to compare efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine and propofol for moderate sedation during spinal anesthesia. Material and Methods: A total of 120 patients of age group 18-60 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I & II, posted for surgeries under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided in to three groups (n = 40 each); Group D received infusion of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by maintenance infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h. Group P received infusion of propofol 6 mg/kg/h for 10 min followed by the infusion maintenance of 2.5 mg/kg/h. Group C (control group) received normal saline. Level of sedation (using observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score), pain intensity (by visual analogue scale), onset and recovery from sedation, hemodynamic changes, and overall patient's satisfaction were assessed. Results: The onset and recovery from sedation were significantly earlier with propofol (15.57 ± 1.89 min vs. 27.06 ± 2.26 min; P < 0.001) however intraoperative sedation (level 4), and overall patient's satisfaction was significantly better with dexmedetomidine group (p < 0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly prolonged with dexmedetomidine (225.53 ± 5.61 min vs. 139.60 ± 3.03 min; P = 0.0013). Mean heart rate and blood pressure were significantly lower in the propofol group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine with its stable cardio-respiratory profile, better sedation, overall patient's satisfaction, and analgesia could be a valuable adjunct for intraoperative sedation during spinal anesthesia. PMID:27275058

  5. Neurosurgical approaches to spinal infections.

    PubMed

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Ayhan, Selim; Palaoglu, Selcuk

    2015-05-01

    Spinal infection is rare. Clinical suspicion is important in patients with nonmechanical neck and/or back pain to make the proper diagnosis in early disease. Before planning surgery, a thorough evaluation of the spinal stability, alignment, and deformity is necessary. Timing of surgery, side of approach, appropriate surgical technique, and spinal instruments used are crucial. Biomechanical preservation of the spinal column during and after the infection is a significant issue. Postoperative spine infection is another entity of which spinal surgeons should be aware of. Proper septic conditions with meticulous planning of surgery are essential for successful spine surgery and better outcome. PMID:25952179

  6. [Spinal cord stimulation in teenager with complex regional pain syndrome for Lyme’s disease. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Terrazas, G E; López-Ruiz, V G; Infante-Cosío, G; Carapia-Sadurni, A; Hernández-Méndez-Villamil, E

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Lyme es una enfermedad emergente presente en México, productora de cuadros de dolor musculoesquelético o bien neurótico de difícil control. Se presenta el caso de una adolescente con síndrome de dolor regional complejo secundario a la misma de miembro pélvico donde se instauró un manejo multidisciplinario que finalmente se controló con la colocación de un estimulador de cordones posteriores, situación inusual en un adolescente, así como su evolución por 60 meses, ya que en la literatura sólo se encuentra reportada en pocos casos.

  7. Pilot clinical study to investigate the human whole blood spectrum characteristics in the sub-THz region.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; You, Borwen; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the sub-THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those sub-THz spectra. A great difference between the sub-THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglycerides and the number of red blood cells were two dominant factors to have significant negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients. PMID:25968774

  8. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  9. [Distribution of ABO blood groups and incidence of Rh factor (D) in various ethnic groups in the Hindu Kush region (Kafirs, Kalash Chitrali)].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, W

    1980-02-01

    With the aid of Eldon cards the distribution of the ABO blood groups and of the Rh factor (D) was investigated in different native ethnic groups (Kafirs, Kalash, Chitrali) in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. All studied groups are characterized by a relatively high frequency of blood group gene A and extremely low frequencies of B and O. This distribution differs appreciably from that of the rest of the Indian subcontinent as well as that of the adjacent Central Asiatic areas. The possible causes of the exceptional position of the native Hindu Kush groups in the ABO blood group system are discussed. It may be assumed that selection as a result of mother-child compatibility played a role as will be shown in a later paper. Concerning the studied traits of the Rhesus system, all investigated groups fit in the range of variation of the South Asian area. PMID:6773468

  10. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  11. Neurological complications in adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Justin A; Reid, Patrick; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    The number of surgeries performed for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been increasing due to an aging population, longer life expectancy, and studies supporting an improvement in health-related quality of life scores after operative intervention. However, medical and surgical complication rates remain high, and neurological complications such as spinal cord injury and motor deficits can be especially debilitating to patients. Several independent factors potentially influence the likelihood of neurological complications including surgical approach (anterior, lateral, or posterior), use of osteotomies, thoracic hyperkyphosis, spinal region, patient characteristics, and revision surgery status. The majority of ASD surgeries are performed by a posterior approach to the thoracic and/or lumbar spine, but anterior and lateral approaches are commonly performed and are associated with unique neural complications such as femoral nerve palsy and lumbar plexus injuries. Spinal morphology, such as that of hyperkyphosis, has been reported to be a risk factor for complications in addition to three-column osteotomies, which are often utilized to correct large deformities. Additionally, revision surgeries are common in ASD and these patients are at an increased risk of procedure-related complications and nervous system injury. Patient selection, surgical technique, and use of intraoperative neuromonitoring may reduce the incidence of complications and optimize outcomes. PMID:27250041

  12. Ischemic spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Golomb, Meredith R.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord infarction in children is a rare condition which is becoming more widely recognized. There are few reports in the pediatric literature characterizing etiology, diagnosis, treament and prognosis. The risk factors for pediatric ischemic spinal cord infarction include obstruction of blood flow associated with cardiovascular compromise or malformation, iatrogenic or traumatic vascular inujury, cerebellar herniation, thrombotic or embolic disease, infection, and vasculitis. In many children the cause of spinal cord ischemia in the absence of vertebral fracture is unknown. Imaging diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia is often difficult due to the small transverse area of the cord, cerebrospinal fluid artifact and inadequate resolution of MRI. Physical therapy is the most important treatment option. The prognosis is dependent on the level of spinal cord damage, early identification and reversal of ischemia, and follow-up with intensive physical therapy and medical support. In addition to summarizing the literature regarding spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture, this review article adds two cases to the literature which highlight the difficulties and controversies in the management of this condition. PMID:17437902

  13. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation.

  14. Hemodynamic and regional blood flow distribution responses to dextran, hydralazine, isoproterenol and amrinone during experimental cardiac tamponade

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, R.W.; Fowler, N.O.; Gabel, M.

    1983-06-01

    Four different interventions were examined in dogs with cardiac tamponade. Infusion of 216 to 288 ml saline solution into the pericardium reduced cardiac output from 3.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 liters/min as systemic vascular resistance increased from 4,110 +/- 281 to 6,370 +/- 424 dynes . s . cm-5. Left ventricular epicardial and endocardial blood flows were 178 +/- 13 and 220 +/- 12 ml/min per 100 g, respectively, and decreased to 72 +/- 14 and 78 +/- 11 ml/min per 100 g with tamponade. Reductions of 25 to 65% occurred in visceral and brain blood flows and in a composite brain sample. Cardiac output during tamponade was significantly increased by isoproterenol, 0.5 microgram/kg per min intravenously; hydralazine, 40 mg intravenously; dextran infusion or combined hydralazine and dextran, but not by amrinone. Total systemic vascular resistance was reduced by all interventions. Left ventricular epicardial flow was increased by isoproterenol, hydralazine and the hydralazine-dextran combination. Endocardial flow was increased by amrinone and the combination of hydralazine and dextran. Right ventricular myocardial blood flow increased with all interventions except dextran. Kidney cortical and composite brain blood flows were increased by both dextran alone and by the hydralazine-dextran combinations. Blood flow to small intestine was increased by all interventions as was that to large intestine by all except amrinone and hydralazine. Liver blood flow response was variable. The most pronounced hemodynamic and tissue perfusion improvements during cardiac tamponade were effected by combined vasodilation-blood volume expansion with a hydralazine-dextran combination. Isoproterenol had as dramatic an effect but it was short-lived. Amrinone was the least effective intervention.

  15. Characterization of the non-coding control region of polyomavirus KI isolated from nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and from blood from healthy blood donors in Norway.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobo; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Ludvigsen, Maria; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Ehlers, Bernhard; Moens, Ugo

    2016-07-01

    Seroepidemiological studies showed that the human polyomavirus KI (KIPyV) is common in the human population, with age-specific seroprevalence ranging from 40-90 %. Genome epidemiological analyses demonstrated that KIPyV DNA is predominantly found in respiratory tract samples of immunocompromised individuals and children suffering from respiratory diseases, but viral sequences have also been detected in brain, tonsil, lymphoid tissue studies, plasma, blood and faeces. Little is known about the sequence variation in the non-coding control region of KIPyV variants residing in different sites of the human body and whether specific strains dominate in certain parts of the world. In this study, we sequenced the non-coding control region (NCCR) of naturally occurring KIPyV variants in nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and in blood from healthy donors in Norway. In total 86 sequences were obtained, 44 of which were identical to the original isolated Stockholm 60 variant. The remaining NCCRs contained one or several mutations, none of them previously reported. The same mutations were detected in NCCRs amplified from blood and nasopharyngeal samples. Some patients had different variants in their specimens. Transient transfection studies in HEK293 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated that some single mutations had a significant effect on the relative early and late promoter strength compared with the Stockholm 60 promoter. The effect of the NCCR mutations on viral replication and possible virulence properties remains to be established. PMID:27031170

  16. Human brain mapping under increasing cognitive complexity using regional cerebral blood flow measurements and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Law, Ian

    2007-11-01

    Measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is an important parameter in the evaluation of cerebral function. With positron emission tomography (PET) rCBF has predominantly been quantified using the short-lived radiotracer oxygen-15 labelled water (H 2 15 O) and an adaptation of the Kety one-tissue compartment autoradiographic model. The values attained in putative grey matter, however, are systematically underestimated because of the limited scanner resolution. For this reason we applied a dynamic kinetic two-tissue compartment model including a fast and a slow flow component each with a perfusable tissue fraction. In the fast component rCBF was 2-2.5 times greater than grey matter values using traditional autoradiography in both human and monkey. Visual stimulation in human gave a corrected rCBF increase of approximately 40%. Visual stimulation was also used to indirectly validate carbon-10 labelled carbondioxide ( 10 CO 2 ), a new very short-lived rCBF PET tracer with a half-life of only 19.3 seconds. This allowed an increase in the number of independent PET scans per subject from 12-14 using H 2 15 O to 64 using 10 CO 2 . The experiment demonstrated a maximal activation response in the visual cortex at a 10-15 Hz stimulation frequency. The use of the rCBF PET mapping technique is illustrated by studies of the organization of language and the oculomotor system. With respect to the former, we found confirmation of neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of the left supramarginal/angular gyrus in reading in Japanese of a phonologically based script system, Kana, and of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus in reading of a morphogram based script system, Kanji. Concerning the organization of the oculomotor system we found overlapping areas in fronto-parietal cortex involved in maintaining visual fixation, and performing visually guided and imagined eye movements. These data show that overt eye movements are not a prerequisite of the

  17. Dissociable effects of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and placebo on regional cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers at rest: A multi-class pattern recognition approach

    PubMed Central

    Marquand, Andre F.; O'Daly, Owen G.; De Simoni, Sara; Alsop, David C.; Maguire, R. Paul; Williams, Steven C.R.; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Mehta, Mitul A.

    2012-01-01

    The stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) and the non-stimulant drug atomoxetine (ATX) are both widely used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their differential effects on human brain function are poorly understood. PET and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI have been used to study the effects of MPH and BOLD fMRI is beginning to be used to delineate the effects of MPH and ATX in the context of cognitive tasks. The BOLD signal is a proxy for neuronal activity and is dependent on three physiological parameters: regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cerebral blood volume. To identify areas sensitive to MPH and ATX and assist interpretation of BOLD studies in healthy volunteers and ADHD patients, it is therefore of interest to characterize the effects of these drugs on rCBF. In this study, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure rCBF non-invasively in healthy volunteers after administration of MPH, ATX or placebo. We employed multi-class pattern recognition (PR) to discriminate the neuronal effects of the drugs, which accurately discriminated all drug conditions from one another and provided activity patterns that precisely localized discriminating brain regions. We showed common and differential effects in cortical and subcortical brain regions. The clearest differential effects were observed in four regions: (i) in the caudate body where MPH but not ATX increased rCBF, (ii) in the midbrain/substantia nigra and (iii) thalamus where MPH increased and ATX decreased rCBF plus (iv) a large region of cerebellar cortex where ATX increased rCBF relative to MPH. Our results demonstrate that combining ASL and PR yields a sensitive method for detecting the effects of these drugs and provides insights into the regional distribution of brain networks potentially modulated by these compounds. PMID:22266414

  18. Non-Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-Seropositive Blood Donors from Three Brazilian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S.; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140). PMID:21858163

  19. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  20. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region.

  1. [Topographo-anatomic interrelationships between the branches of the lumbar arteries and the spinal ganglia, nerves and roots].

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, V N

    1975-01-01

    By using a complex of investigation methods variants of branchingout of the spinal cord and spinal ganglia blood supply sources and their anatomo-topographic interrelations were discerned in 140 preparations of lumbar spinal ganglia obtained from human cadavers of both sexes and different age. With the help of anastomoses these sources form a specific arterial circle around the ganglion. The radicular arteries are noted to be non-equivalent. The annular architectonics of the blood vessels is considered as a morphological manifestation of a functionally reliable blood supply to the border area between the central and peripheral divisions of the nervous system.

  2. The immediate effects of spinal thoracic manipulation on respiratory functions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Doo Chul; Lee, Yong Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thoracic spinal manipulation therapy on respiratory function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second in young healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young healthy subjects recruited from a local university participated in this study. Subjects were randomly allocated into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group received thoracic spinal manipulation and the control group received placebo thoracic spinal manipulation. Respiratory function tests, including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, were measured before and after intervention. [Results] The values for both tests were significantly higher in the experimental group. The control group showed no changes after the intervention. Differences in pre- and post-intervention values for both tests were significantly different between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Spinal manipulation therapy applied to the thoracic region improved respiratory function test results of participants in this study. PMID:27799691

  3. Imaging studies in patients with spinal pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Design Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Setting Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. Participants A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Main outcome measures Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). Results There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient’s spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her

  4. Identification and characterization of a genome-wide significant region associated with red blood cell phenotypes in domestic sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome wide association study (GWAS) investigating red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes was performed with over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three economically important breeds in the US (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, hereafter the discovery SNP) sh...

  5. Effects of sounds generated by a dental turbine and a stream on regional cerebral blood flow and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Riho; Kudo, Takumu; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yamamura, Chie; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-01

    Effects of sound generated by a dental turbine and a small stream (murmur) and the effects of no sound (null, control) on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemodynamic changes (oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations) in the frontal cortex were measured in 18 young volunteers. Questionnaires completed by the volunteers were also evaluated. Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Finapres technique were employed to measure hemodynamic and vascular responses, respectively. The subjects assessed the murmur, null, and turbine sounds as "pleasant," "natural," and "unpleasant," respectively. Blood pressures changed in response to the murmur, null, and turbine sound stimuli as expected: lower than the control level, unchanged, and higher than the control level, respectively. Mean blood pressure values tended to increase gradually over the recording time even during the null sound stimulation, possibly because of the recording environment. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations decreased drastically in response to the dental turbine sound, while deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations remained unchanged and thus total hemoglobin concentrations decreased (due to the decreased oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations). Hemodynamic responses to the murmuring sound and the null sound were slight or unchanged, respectively. Surprisingly, heart rate measurements remained fairly stable in response to the stimulatory noises. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that sound generated by a dental turbine may affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism as well as autonomic responses.

  6. Selective α1-adrenergic blockade disturbs the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Igor A; Mattos, João D; Campos, Monique O; Machado, Alessandro C; Rocha, Marcos P; Rocha, Natalia G; Vianna, Lauro C; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2016-06-01

    Handgrip-induced increases in blood flow through the contralateral artery that supplies the cortical representation of the arm have been hypothesized as a consequence of neurovascular coupling and a resultant metabolic attenuation of sympathetic cerebral vasoconstriction. In contrast, sympathetic restraint, in theory, inhibits changes in perfusion of the cerebral ipsilateral blood vessels. To confirm whether sympathetic nerve activity modulates cerebral blood flow distribution during static handgrip (SHG) exercise, beat-to-beat contra- and ipsilateral internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA; Doppler) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer) were simultaneously assessed in nine healthy men (27 ± 5 yr), both at rest and during a 2-min SHG bout (30% maximal voluntary contraction), under two experimental conditions: 1) control and 2) α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. End-tidal carbon dioxide (rebreathing system) was clamped throughout the study. SHG induced increases in MAP (+31.4 ± 10.7 mmHg, P < 0.05) and contralateral ICA blood flow (+80.9 ± 62.5 ml/min, P < 0.05), while no changes were observed in the ipsilateral vessel (-9.8 ± 39.3 ml/min, P > 0.05). The reduction in ipsilateral ICA vascular conductance (VC) was greater compared with contralateral ICA (contralateral: -0.8 ± 0.8 vs. ipsilateral: -2.6 ± 1.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05). Prazosin was effective to induce α1-blockade since phenylephrine-induced increases in MAP were greatly reduced (P < 0.05). Under α1-adrenergic receptor blockade, SHG evoked smaller MAP responses (+19.4 ± 9.2, P < 0.05) but similar increases in ICAs blood flow (contralateral: +58.4 ± 21.5 vs. ipsilateral: +54.3 ± 46.2 ml/min, P > 0.05) and decreases in VC (contralateral: -0.4 ± 0.7 vs. ipsilateral: -0.4 ± 1.0 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P > 0.05). These findings indicate a role of sympathetic nerve activity in the regulation of cerebral blood flow distribution during SHG.

  7. In Vivo Measurement of Cervical Spinal Cord Deformation During Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Liu, Jie; Yung, Andrew; Cripton, Peter A; Kozlowski, Piotr; Oxland, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The spinal cord undergoes physical deformation during traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), which results in biological damage. This study demonstrates a novel approach, using magnetic resonance imaging and image registration techniques, to quantify the three-dimensional deformation of the cervical spinal cord in an in vivo rat model. Twenty-four male rats were subjected to one of two clinically relevant mechanisms of TSCI (i.e. contusion and dislocation) inside of a MR scanner using a novel apparatus, enabling imaging of the deformed spinal cords. The displacement fields demonstrated qualitative differences between injury mechanisms. Three-dimensional Lagrangian strain fields were calculated, and the results from the contusion injury mechanism were deemed most reliable. Strain field error was assessed using a Monte Carlo approach, which showed that simulated normal strain error experienced a bias, whereas shear strain error did not. In contusion injury, a large region of dorso-ventral compressive strain was observed under the impactor which extended into the ventral region of the spinal cord. High tensile lateral strains under the impactor and compressive lateral strains in the lateral white matter were also observed in contusion. The ability to directly observe and quantify in vivo spinal cord deformation informs our knowledge of the mechanics of TSCI.

  8. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  9. Monoaminergic modulation of spinal viscero-sympathetic function in the neonatal mouse thoracic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda L; Sawchuk, Michael; Hochman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Descending serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems project diffusely to sensory, motor and autonomic spinal cord regions. Using neonatal mice, this study examined monoaminergic modulation of visceral sensory input and sympathetic preganglionic output. Whole-cell recordings from sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in spinal cord slice demonstrated that serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine modulated SPN excitability. Serotonin depolarized all, while noradrenaline and dopamine depolarized most SPNs. Serotonin and noradrenaline also increased SPN current-evoked firing frequency, while both increases and decreases were seen with dopamine. In an in vitro thoracolumbar spinal cord/sympathetic chain preparation, stimulation of splanchnic nerve visceral afferents evoked reflexes and subthreshold population synaptic potentials in thoracic ventral roots that were dose-dependently depressed by the monoamines. Visceral afferent stimulation also evoked bicuculline-sensitive dorsal root potentials thought to reflect presynaptic inhibition via primary afferent depolarization. These dorsal root potentials were likewise dose-dependently depressed by the monoamines. Concomitant monoaminergic depression of population afferent synaptic transmission recorded as dorsal horn field potentials was also seen. Collectively, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine were shown to exert broad and comparable modulatory regulation of viscero-sympathetic function. The general facilitation of SPN efferent excitability with simultaneous depression of visceral afferent-evoked motor output suggests that descending monoaminergic systems reconfigure spinal cord autonomic function away from visceral sensory influence. Coincident monoaminergic reductions in dorsal horn responses support a multifaceted modulatory shift in the encoding of spinal visceral afferent activity. Similar monoamine-induced changes have been observed for somatic sensorimotor function, suggesting an integrative

  10. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting to ... a “complete” and “incomplete” spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is ...

  11. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  12. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  13. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  14. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal tap; Ventricular puncture; Lumbar puncture; Cisternal puncture; Cerebrospinal fluid culture ... brain stem. It is always done with fluoroscopy. Ventricular puncture may be recommended in people with possible ...

  15. Spinal angiolipoma--case report.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Hur, Jun Seok; Moon, Hong Joo; Kwon, Taek-Hyun; Park, Youn Kwan; Kim, Joo Han

    2011-01-01

    A 69-year-old male presented with a rare spinal angiolipoma manifesting as history of back pain, and numbness in both lower limbs, which progressed over a period of 5 years. Total T10-T12 laminectomy was performed and the tumor was removed en bloc. The symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Spinal angiolipoma is an uncommon benign extradural tumor of spine, which accounts for 0.14-1.2% of all spinal tumors and is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. Recognition of this entity is crucial as a benign and curable cause of paraplegia and back pain.

  16. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Pandey, P. N.; Ghani, A.; Jaiswal, G.

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society's recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI) have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case. PMID:23125489

  17. Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.

    PubMed

    Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H

    1995-01-21

    The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen.

  18. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and age-related brain atrophy: a quantitative study with computed tomography and the xenon-133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatazawa, J.; Kubota, K.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1983-07-01

    One hundred and two subjects (40 men and 62 women) neither having a history of neurologic deficits nor showing organic lesions on computed tomographic examination of the brain were studied. Ages of the subjects ranged from 26 to 81 years. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method, and the volume percentage of brain with respect to the cranial cavity (craniocerebral index) was calculated by means of computer programs. Regional cerebral blood flow was computed as the fast component of two-compartmental analysis and as the initial slope index value. The percentage of each subject's craniocerebral index in relation to the standard for subjects with non-atrophied brains (brain volume index) was calculated as the indicator of brain atrophy. Both the mean brain fast component values and the mean brain initial slope index values correlated closely with the brain volume index in the elderly. Low cerebral blood flow values coincided with loss of brain substance in the final stage of age-related brain atrophy, but not in the intermediate stage.

  19. Simultaneous Brain–Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6–C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain–spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations. PMID:26125597

  20. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning.

    PubMed

    Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Lungu, Ovidiu; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2015-06-01

    The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6-C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain-spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.

  1. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.; Manohar, M.; Lundeen, G.

    1983-08-01

    To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value) and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.

  2. The effect of saline and hyperoncotic dextran infusion on canine ileal salt and water absorption and regional blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mailman, D; Jordan, K

    1975-10-01

    1. The unidirectional Na and H2O fluxes, vascular pressures and total and absorptive site blood flows in the canine ileum were determined before and during I.V. saline infusion and subsequent I.V. infusion of hyperoncotic dextran. The intestinal perfusion solutions were isotonic saline or isotonic saline and mannitol, but the effects of I.V. saline or I.V. hyperoncotic dextran infusion were generally the same for both luminal solutions. 2. Continuous I.V. infusion of saline caused a continuous increase in the unidirectional flux of Na and H2O into the ileal lumen, an increase in total blood flow, and an increase in venous pressure. 3. The net absorption of Na and H2O was decreased by I.V. saline infusion. 4. The unidirectional fluxes of Na and H2O out of the lumen, arterial pressure, and absorptive site blood flow were not affected by I.V. saline infusion. 5. I.V. hyperoncotic dextran infusion reversed most of the effects of saline infusion. 6. The unidirectional fluxes of Na and H2O into the lumen were significantly correlated with Starling forces during I.V. saline infusion. 7. It was concluded that intestinal transport of salt and water was subject to regulation by physical forces at the capillary level.

  3. Data bank of optical properties of biological tissue and blood in the visible and near infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Bui, Lilia; Oleinik, Tatiana V.; Artishevsky, Nelli; Prigoun, Natalia; Sevkovsky, Jakov; Mokhort, Tatiana

    1996-12-01

    The data bank contains optical, ordinary biochemical and biophysical information on 120 venous blood samples of donors, healthy persons, patients with high pathology, 60 tissue samples. The optical parameters include diffuse reflection R((lambda) ) and transmission T((lambda) ) coefficients for optically thick layers, the absorption K((lambda) ) and extinction (epsilon) ((lambda) ) spectra, oxygenation degree CO2, parameter p determined by sizes and shapes of cells and their aggregates, refractive index of a disperse phase relative to surrounding media, and cooperative effects at high relative concentration. The peculiarities in absorption K((lambda) spectra are connected with different pathologies. It is shown from K((lambda) ) that the grade of pathology connected with the concentration of hemoglobin and mithohondrion together with oxygenation degree of blood and tissues, with the pathological hemoglobin's forms and its decomposition products of different levels. Parameter p is an important diagnostic parameter. We consider that it is necessary to include the oxygenation degree and erythrocyte's aggregation parameter to extend the range of common diagnostic parameters of blood by the first rota.

  4. Spinal bone density following spinal fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, H.J.; Grubb, S.A.; Talmage, R.V.

    1989-04-01

    Spinal bone densities were assessed in 25 patients following lumbar fusion and bracing, in an attempt to study bone remodeling by noninvasive methods. Dual-photon densitometry was used to study specific areas of autologous bone grafts and adjacent vertebrae above the fusion mass. Measurements were made preoperatively and at 6-week intervals postoperatively. The data for the first 12 months postoperatively are reported here. In all patients there was at first a consistent loss in density in the vertebrae above the fusion mass, averaging 15.7%. This was followed by a gradual density increase such that by 1 year postoperatively, in 60% of the subjects, the density of these vertebrae was higher than the preoperative level. In the grafted areas, bone changes were cyclical, demonstrating a remodeling pattern consistent with that described in animal literature for graft healing and also consistent with modern bone remodeling theory. There was a general tendency toward a gradual increase in the density of the fusion mass.

  5. A novel PET imaging protocol identifies seizure-induced regional overactivity of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Kuntner, Claudia; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiao-Qi; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    About one third of epilepsy patients are pharmacoresistant. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein and other multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier is thought to play an important role in drug-refractory epilepsy. Thus, quantification of regionally different P-glycoprotein activity in the brain in vivo is essential to identify P-glycoprotein overactivity as the relevant mechanism for drug-resistance in an individual patient. Using the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil and different doses of co-administered tariquidar, which is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, we evaluated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) can quantify regional changes in transporter function in the rat brain at baseline and 48 h after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. P-glycoprotein expression was additionally quantified by immunohistochemistry. To reveal putative seizure-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity, we performed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance scans on a 7.0 Tesla small-animal scanner. Before P-glycoprotein modulation, brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in all regions investigated in control and post-status epilepticus rats. After administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar, which inhibits P-glycoprotein only partially, we observed increased regional differentiation in brain activity uptake in post-status epilepticus versus control rats, which diminished after maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition. Regional increases in the efflux rate constant k2, but not in distribution volume VT or influx rate constant K1, correlated significantly with increases in P-glycoprotein expression measured by immunohistochemistry. This imaging protocol proves to be suitable to detect seizure-induced regional changes in P-glycoprotein activity and is readily applicable to humans, with the aim to detect relevant mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy in vivo. PMID:21677164

  6. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. Methods A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. Conclusion The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás. PMID:23284242

  7. Effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage: statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, no effective treatment of vasospasm exists to date. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. In vitro models have shown a relaxing effect of prostacyclin after induced contraction in cerebral arteries, and a recent pilot trial showed a positive effect on cerebral vasospasm in a clinical setting. No randomized clinical trials have investigated the possible pharmacodynamic effects of prostacyclin on the human brain following SAH. Methods/Design This trial is a single centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double blinded, clinical pilot trial. A total of 90 patients with SAH will be randomized to one of three intervention arms: epoprostenol at 1 ng/kg/min, epoprostenol at 2 ng/kg/min, or placebo in addition to the standard treatment. Trial medication will start on Day 5 after SAH and continue to Day 10. The primary outcome measure is changes in cerebral blood flow measured by a computed tomography (CT) perfusion scan. The secondary outcomes are vasospasm measured by a CT angiography, regional blood flow, clinical symptoms of cerebral ischemia, and outcome at three months (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Discussion The primary outcome has been altered slightly since the publication of our study protocol. Global cerebral blood flow is now primary outcome, whereas regional blood flow is a secondary outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01447095. Registration date: 11 October 2011. PMID:24929796

  8. The Relief of Unilateral Painful Thoracic Radiculopathy without Headache from Remote Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    PubMed Central

    Son, Byung-chul; Ha, Sang-woo; Lee, Si-hoon; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) caused by spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks produces orthostatic headaches. Although upper arm pain or paresthesia is reportedly associated with SIH from spontaneous spinal CSF leak in the presence of orthostatic headache, low thoracic radicular pain due to spontaneous spinal CSF leak unassociated with postural headache is extremely rare. We report a 67-year-old female who presented with chronic, positional radicular right T11 pain. Computed tomography myelography showed a spontaneous lumbar spinal CSF leak at L2-3 and repeated lumbar epidural blood patches significantly alleviated chronic, positional, and lower thoracic radiculopathic pain. The authors speculate that a chronic spontaneous spinal CSF leak not severe enough to cause typical orthostatic headache or epidural CSF collection may cause local symptoms such as irritation of a remote nerve root. There might be considerable variabilities in the clinical features of SIH which can present a diagnostic challenge. PMID:27445613

  9. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    PubMed

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  10. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    PubMed

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs. PMID:23082524

  11. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-06-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  12. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  13. Dynamics of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute depletion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Echeverry, Stefania; Shi, Xiang Qun; Yang, Mu; Yang, Qiu Zi; Wang, Guan Yun Frances; Chambon, Julien; Wu, Yi Chen; Fu, Kai Yuan; De Koninck, Yves; Zhang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on the function of microglia has been revolutionized in the recent 20 years. However, the process of maintaining microglia homeostasis has not been fully understood. In this study, we dissected the features of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute partial depletion. By injecting intrathecally Mac-1-saporin, a microglia selective immunotoxin, we ablated 50% microglia in the spinal cord of naive mice. Spinal microglia repopulated rapidly and local homeostasis was re-established within 14 days post-depletion. Mac-1-saporin treatment resulted in microglia cell proliferation and circulating monocyte infiltration. The latter is indeed part of an acute, transient inflammatory reaction that follows cell depletion, and was characterized by an increase in the expression of inflammatory molecules and by the breakdown of the blood spinal cord barrier. During this period, microglia formed cell clusters and exhibited a M1-like phenotype. MCP-1/CCR2 signaling was essential in promoting this depletion associated spinal inflammatory reaction. Interestingly, ruling out MCP-1-mediated secondary inflammation, including blocking recruitment of monocyte-derived microglia, did not affect depletion-triggered microglia repopulation. Our results also demonstrated that newly generated microglia kept their responsiveness to peripheral nerve injury and their contribution to injury-associated neuropathic pain was not significantly altered. PMID:26961247

  14. Dynamics of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute depletion

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Echeverry, Stefania; Shi, Xiang Qun; Yang, Mu; Yang, Qiu Zi; Wang, Guan Yun Frances; Chambon, Julien; Wu, Yi Chen; Fu, Kai Yuan; De Koninck, Yves; Zhang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on the function of microglia has been revolutionized in the recent 20 years. However, the process of maintaining microglia homeostasis has not been fully understood. In this study, we dissected the features of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute partial depletion. By injecting intrathecally Mac-1-saporin, a microglia selective immunotoxin, we ablated 50% microglia in the spinal cord of naive mice. Spinal microglia repopulated rapidly and local homeostasis was re-established within 14 days post-depletion. Mac-1-saporin treatment resulted in microglia cell proliferation and circulating monocyte infiltration. The latter is indeed part of an acute, transient inflammatory reaction that follows cell depletion, and was characterized by an increase in the expression of inflammatory molecules and by the breakdown of the blood spinal cord barrier. During this period, microglia formed cell clusters and exhibited a M1-like phenotype. MCP-1/CCR2 signaling was essential in promoting this depletion associated spinal inflammatory reaction. Interestingly, ruling out MCP-1-mediated secondary inflammation, including blocking recruitment of monocyte-derived microglia, did not affect depletion-triggered microglia repopulation. Our results also demonstrated that newly generated microglia kept their responsiveness to peripheral nerve injury and their contribution to injury-associated neuropathic pain was not significantly altered. PMID:26961247

  15. Spinal Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…

  16. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of injury are alive and easily get educational information on the Internet. Web happy. sites such as the National Spinal Cord Injury Association (www.spinalcord.org) and SPINAL CORD Injury ♦ “Because of my injury, it is now impossible for me Information Network (www.spinalcord.uab.edu) have to ever ...

  17. Hemorrhagic onset of spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Paz, Daniel de Araujo; Rodrigues, Thiago Pereira; Gandolfi, Ana Camila de Castro; Lamis, Fabricio Correa; Stavale, João Norberto; Suriano, Italo Capraro; Cetl, Luiz Daniel Marques Neves; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumors that generally induce slow progressive cord compression. Here, the authors describe a case of sudden-onset palsy of the lower extremities caused by hemorrhagic spinal angiolipoma. An emergent laminectomy was performed to achieve total lesion removal. Follow-up examinations indicated neurological improvement and the absence of recurrence.

  18. Imaging modalities in spinal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kricun, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an approach to the various imaging modalities used to view the spine. It discusses the indications, limitations and practical use of each in the diagnosis, work-up and staging of various spinal disorders, and compares each of them in various clinical settings. Topics covered include low back pain syndrome, disk disease, spinal cord lesions, congenital abnormalities, and trauma.

  19. Regional pulmonary distribution of iodine-125-labeled oleic acid. Its relationship to the pattern of oleic acid edema and pulmonary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Tsai, J.; Hedlund, L.W.; Sullivan, D.C.; Lischko, M.M.; Harris, C.C.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Oleic acid infusion in dogs produces a patchy, predominantly peripheral lesion on CT scans. This study correlates the pattern of oleic acid injury with the distribution of infused oleic acid and pulmonary blood flow. Radiolabeled oleic acid (I-125, 0.05 ml/kg) and radiolabeled 15-micron microspheres (Co-57) were infused into the right atria of 11 dogs. Oleic acid was given after the microspheres in six dogs and before microspheres in five dogs. Ten minutes after infusion, the lungs were removed. Four transverse slices (0.5 cm thick) of the lower lobes were taken from each dog and cubed. Samples were grouped into three regions of the transverse slice: outer, middle, and inner concentric rings. In both groups, I-125 (oleic acid) activity was greater in the outer than the middle and inner concentric layers (P less than 0.001). When Cobalt-57 microspheres were given before oleic acid, Cobalt-57 activity was marginally lower in the outer layer compared with the middle and inner layers. However, when oleic acid was given first, microsphere activity in the outer layer was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than the middle layer. Thus, oleic acid was preferentially distributed to the peripheral regions of the lung, similar to the regions of injury on CT. This distribution did not correspond to the pattern of pulmonary blood flow as indicated by the microspheres. Immediately after oleic acid infusion, pulmonary blood flow to the periphery was reduced, reflecting a response to the predominantly peripheral injury by oleic acid.

  20. Low-dose 2D X-ray angiography enhancement using 2-axis PCA for the preservation of blood-vessel region and noise minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Geun; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kang, Ho Chul

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing 2D angiography while maintaining a low radiation dose has become an important research topic. However, it is difficult to enhance images while preserving vessel-structure details because X-ray noise and contrast blood vessels in 2D angiography have similar intensity distributions, which can lead to ambiguous images of vessel structures. In this paper, we propose a novel and fast vessel-enhancement method for 2D angiography. We apply filtering in the principal component analysis domain for vessel regions and background regions separately, using assumptions based on energy compaction. First, we identify an approximate vessel region using a Hessian-based method. Vessel and non-vessel regions are then represented sparsely by calculating their optimal bases separately. This is achieved by identifying periodic motion in the vessel region caused by the flow of the contrast medium through the blood vessels when viewed on the time axis. Finally, we obtain noise-free images by removing noise in the new coordinate domain for the optimal bases. Our method was validated for an X-ray system, using 10 low-dose sets for training and 20 low-dose sets for testing. The results were compared with those for a high-dose dataset with respect to noise-free images. The average enhancement rate was 93.11±0.71%. The average processing time for enhancing video comprising 50-70 frames was 0.80±0.35s, which is much faster than the previously proposed technique. Our method is applicable to 2D angiography procedures such as catheterization, which requires rapid and natural vessel enhancement. PMID:26483302

  1. Low-dose 2D X-ray angiography enhancement using 2-axis PCA for the preservation of blood-vessel region and noise minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Geun; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kang, Ho Chul

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing 2D angiography while maintaining a low radiation dose has become an important research topic. However, it is difficult to enhance images while preserving vessel-structure details because X-ray noise and contrast blood vessels in 2D angiography have similar intensity distributions, which can lead to ambiguous images of vessel structures. In this paper, we propose a novel and fast vessel-enhancement method for 2D angiography. We apply filtering in the principal component analysis domain for vessel regions and background regions separately, using assumptions based on energy compaction. First, we identify an approximate vessel region using a Hessian-based method. Vessel and non-vessel regions are then represented sparsely by calculating their optimal bases separately. This is achieved by identifying periodic motion in the vessel region caused by the flow of the contrast medium through the blood vessels when viewed on the time axis. Finally, we obtain noise-free images by removing noise in the new coordinate domain for the optimal bases. Our method was validated for an X-ray system, using 10 low-dose sets for training and 20 low-dose sets for testing. The results were compared with those for a high-dose dataset with respect to noise-free images. The average enhancement rate was 93.11±0.71%. The average processing time for enhancing video comprising 50-70 frames was 0.80±0.35s, which is much faster than the previously proposed technique. Our method is applicable to 2D angiography procedures such as catheterization, which requires rapid and natural vessel enhancement.

  2. Assessment of spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Baraliakos, X; Regel, A; Kiltz, U

    2014-12-01

    Spinal pain or back pain is a very common symptom that can have many reasons. The most studied location is low back pain, and it is considered to be nonspecific in the majority of cases. Only a small proportion of patients have axial inflammation as the major cause of their back complaints with chronic inflammatory back pain (IBP) as the most prominent clinical feature of spondyloarthritis (SpA). The recognition of IBP and patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is challenging in primary care, and it is important to further facilitate the early diagnosis of SpA. Proposals for improving the referral of patients with a possible diagnosis of axSpA include clinical parameters, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27, and imaging parameters. Imaging is crucial for the visualization, objective validation, and understanding of back pain. Numerous diseases such as degenerative disk disease, degenerative changes in the intervertebral (facet) joints and the associated ligaments, spinal instability, herniation of the intervertebral disk, and spinal stenosis have to be differentiated in interpreting imaging of the spine. The sacroiliac joints and the spine are of major importance for the diagnosis and classification of axSpA. Conventional radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most important imaging technologies for visualization of structural changes such as syndesmophytes and axial inflammation such as sacroiliitis and spondylitis. The pathogenesis of axSpA is largely genetically determined. HLA B27 has the strongest contribution to the total genetic burden, but other major contributors such as endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-23R have also been identified. PMID:26096091

  3. Adiposity and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wells, Kathryn M; Austin, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The drastic changes in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to play a significant role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. The pattern of storage and distribution of different types of adipose tissue may impact metabolic health variables similar to carbohydrate, lipid and bone metabolism. The use of magnetic resonance imaging provides insights on the interplay among different regional adipose tissue compartments and their role in developing chronic diseases. Regional adipose tissue can be either distributed centrally or peripherally into subcutaneous and ectopic sites. The primary ectopic adipose tissue sites are visceral, intramuscular and bone marrow. Dysfunction in the central nervous system following SCI impacts the pattern of distribution of adiposity especially between tetraplegia and paraplegia. The current editorial is focused primarily on introducing different types of adipose tissue and establishing scientific basis to develop appropriate dietary, rehabilitation or pharmaceutical interventions to manage the negative consequences of increasing adiposity after SCI. We have also summarized the clinical implications and future recommendations relevant to study adiposity after SCI. PMID:26396933

  4. Infiltrating spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Yen, Han-Lin; Tsai, Shih-Chung; Liu, Shian-Min

    2008-10-01

    Infiltrating angiolipomas are rarely encountered in the spine. We present a case involving a 71-year-old man with a dorsal epidural angiolipoma at the T5-T7 level. The tumor involved the T5-T6 vertebral bodies and left pedicle. The patient presented with acute paraparesis and MRI showed a homogeneously hyphointense lesion on T1-weighted images. The epidural component of the tumor was removed via laminectomy to achieve adequate cord decompression. The patient was symptom-free at a 2-year follow-up. This report emphasizes the unusual clinical presentation and MRI features of an infiltrating spinal angiolipoma and discusses therapeutic management options.

  5. Lumbar spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nanassis, Kimon; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion; Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Mintelis, Apostolos; Tsitsopoulos, Philippos

    2008-04-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumours most commonly found in the thoracic spine. A case of an extradural lumbar angiolipoma in a 47-year-old female is described. She had a recent history of lower back pain accompanied by sciatica. Lumbar MRI revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the L2-L3 level. The patient underwent a bilateral laminectomy, in which the tumour was totally excised. The pathological examination indicated haemangiolipoma. Post-operatively, the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved remarkably quickly. MRI at 6 and 18 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence.

  6. Neuroimaging tools to rate regional atrophy, subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism: consensus paper of the EADC.

    PubMed

    Frisoni, G B; Scheltens, P h; Galluzzi, S; Nobili, F M; Fox, N C; Robert, P H; Soininen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Waldemar, G; Salmon, E

    2003-10-01

    Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software.

  7. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  8. Regulation of AMPA receptors in spinal nociception

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cerebellum, have been well studied in vitro and in vivo. The AMPA receptors present a unique characteristic in the mechanisms of subunit regulation during LTP (long-term potentiation) and LTD (long-term depression), which are involved in the trafficking, altered composition and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits. Accumulated data have demonstrated that spinal AMPA receptors play a critical role in the mechanism of both acute and persistent pain. However, less is known about the biochemical regulation of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord in response to painful stimuli. Recent studies have shown that some important regulatory processes, such as the trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit, subunit compositional changes, phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits, and their interaction with partner proteins may contribute to spinal nociceptive transmission. Of all these regulation processes, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits is the most important since it may trigger or affect other cellular processes. Therefore, these study results may suggest an effective strategy in developing novel analgesics targeting AMPA receptor subunit regulation that may be useful in treating persistent and chronic pain without unacceptable side effects in the clinics. PMID:20092646

  9. Unusual blood pressure response during standing therapy in tetraplegic man.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Ogata, Toru; Hoshikawa, Shinya; Uematsu, Azusa; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Saitou, Sakiko; Kitamura, Taku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of an individual with cervical spinal cord injury who showed a unique blood pressure response during passive standing and passive walking-like leg movement, i.e., hypertension with standing and hypotension with leg movement.

  10. Infiltrating spinal angiolipoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Doron; Hon, B A; Pelz, David M; Ang, Lee Cyn; Lee, Donald H; Duggal, Neil

    2004-10-01

    Angiolipomas are rarely encountered in the spine. We report the case of a 47-year-old man with a thoracic angiolipoma involving the T9 vertebral body. A preoperative spinal angiogram confirmed a highly vascular neoplasm. The lesion was treated with endovascular embolization prior to a T9 corpectomy and resection of the epidural component of the tumor. At time of surgery, minimal blood loss occurred during resection of the vertebral body and the epidural mass. Pathologic examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of infiltrating spinal angiolipoma and discusses therapeutic management options.

  11. The Effect of Chronic Hypoxemia on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in the Conscious Dog After Acute Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Sanford P.; White, Francis C.; Bloor, Colin M.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia was produced in 16 dogs by surgical transposition of the caudal vena cava to the left atrium to determine if chronic hypoxemia would alter the response of the myocardium to acute ischemia. An electromagnetic aortic flow probe, left atrial tube, and occlusive cuff on the left circumflex coronary artery were permanently implanted in 11 hypoxemic and 26 normal control dogs. The animals were studied in the conscious state after recovery from the surgery. Dogs with hypoxemia had a blood hematocrit value of 54.3 ± 1.0% (SE), arterial PO2 of 43.2 ± 1.4 mm Hg, and 80.2 ± 1.6% oxygen saturation. There was no difference from control animals in the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight, but the right ventricular weight was significantly decreased in the hypoxemic dogs. Cardiac output from the left ventricle was twice that of the right ventricle. Aortic blood flow was 3.68 ± 0.22 liters/min in hypoxemic animals and 2.64 ± 0.19 liters/min in normal dogs. Myocardial blood flow measured with 15-μ diameter tracer microspheres was increased from 79 ± 10 and 59 ± 8 ml/100 g/min in left ventricular endocardial and epicardial halves, respectively, in normal dogs to 212 ± 48 and 172 ± 39 in dogs with chronic hypoxemia. There were no deaths in 10 hypoxemic dogs within 24 hours after complete circumflex coronary artery occlusion; 7 of 26 (27%) normal dogs died after circumflex coronary artery occlusion during the conscious state. Gross infarct size was extremely variable in both groups. Median infarct size was smaller in dogs with hypoxemia and was directly correlated with arterial PO2 in hypoxemic dogs. There was a mild, but statistically not significant, increase in the anastomotic index of hypoxemic dogs compared with that of normal animals, suggesting that a metabolic adaptive change rather than increased collateral circulation may have been responsible for the decreased mortality and smaller infarct size in hypoxemic dogs. PMID:596417

  12. Is neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord different than in the brain? Examining intrinsic differences between the brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Gensel, J C

    2014-08-01

    The field of neuroimmunology is rapidly advancing. There is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity, both in inflammatory composition and region-specific inflammatory responses. This understanding underscores the importance of developing targeted immunomodulatory therapies for treating neurological disorders. Concerning neurotrauma, there is a dearth of publications directly comparing inflammatory responses in the brain and spinal cord after injury. The question therefore remains as to whether inflammatory cells responding to spinal cord vs. brain injury adopt similar functions and are therefore amenable to common therapies. In this review, we address this question while revisiting and modernizing the conclusions from publications that have directly compared inflammation across brain and spinal cord injuries. By examining molecular differences, anatomical variations, and inflammatory cell phenotypes between the injured brain and spinal cord, we provide insight into how neuroinflammation relates to neurotrauma and into fundamental differences between the brain and spinal cord.

  13. Comparative evaluation of general, epidural and spinal anaesthesia for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Rickford, J K; Speedy, H M; Tytler, J A; Lim, M

    1988-03-01

    The results of a prospective randomised evaluation of general anaesthesia (GA), epidural anaesthesia (EA) and spinal anaesthesia (SA) for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are presented. GA provided speed and reliability but resulted in a high incidence of postoperative nausea, vomiting and sore throat. Both regional techniques conferred the advantages of an awake, cooperative patient, but EA required a longer preparation time than SA and more supplementary treatment with fentanyl or midazolam. A major drawback associated with the use of SA was a 42% incidence of postspinal headache. All three techniques were associated with hypotension on placement in the hoisl; bath immersion resulted in significant rises in blood pressure in the EA and SA groups and a more variable (overall non-significant) response in the GA group.

  14. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  15. Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

    2010-01-01

    This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

  16. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  17. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  18. Revisiting the segmental organization of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N; D'Herde, K

    2016-09-01

    In classic anatomic atlases, the spinal cord is standardly represented in its anatomical form with symmetrically emerging anterior and posterior roots, which at the level of the intervertebral foramen combine into the spinal nerves. The parts of the cord delimited by the boundaries of the roots are called segments or myelomeres. Associated with their regular repetitive appearance is the notion that the cord is segmentally organized. This segmental view is reinforced by clinical practice. Spinal cord roots innervate specific body parts. The level of cord trauma is diagnosed by the de-innervation symptoms of these parts. However, systemically, the case for a segmentally organized cord is not so clear. To date, developmental and genetic research points to a regionally rather than a segmentally organized cord. In the present study, to what degree the fila radicularia are segmentally implanted along the cord was investigated. The research hypothesis was that if the fila radicularia were non-segmentally implanted at the cord surface, it would be unlikely that the internal neuron stratum would be segmented. The visual segmented aspect of the myelomeres would then be the consequence of the necessary bundling of axons towards the vertebral foramen as the only exits of the vertebral canal, rather than of an underlying segment organization of the cord itself. To investigate the research hypothesis, the fila radicularia in the cervical-upper thoracic part of five spinal cords were detached from their spinal nerves and dissected in detail. The principal research question was if the fila radicularia are separated from their spinal nerves and dissected from their connective tissues up to the cord, would it be possible to reconstruct the original spinal segments from the morphology and interspaces of the fila? The dissections revealed that the anterior fila radicularia emerge from the cord at regular regionally modulated interspaces without systematic segmental delineations. The

  19. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  20. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  1. Cerebral blood flow in posterior cortical nodes of the default mode network decreases with task engagement but remains higher than in most brain regions.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic "default mode network" and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) measurements by SPECT analysis of Xenon-133 transit: Validation of technique and clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, K.; Kirchner, P.; Armstrong, C.; Ehrhardt, J.; Damasio, H.; Adams, H.; Damasio, A.

    1984-01-01

    The SPECT system (Tomomatic-64) developed by a previous study for rCBF measurements with Xe-133 was validated with phantom simulations and clinical studies. A bi-compartmental flow phantom was developed consisting of a Xenon-133 pump connected in series to head and lung compartments. Flow rates between 0.2 and 1.4 brain volumes/min (20-140 cc/100ml/min) were tested against Tomomatic measurements by linear regression. Correlation was excellent (r=1.0) in the range of 0.2-1.2 (20-120 cc/100ml/min), representing flow rates which are most likely to be encountered in clinical studies. Flow rates above 1.2 (120 cc/100 ml/min) were significantly underestimated. 32 studies on 20 volunteers gave a mean normal flow of 72 (SD=12) cc/ 100g/min. Mean regional flow ranged from 62 in frontal lobes to 75 in central gray matter. Right-to-left variation was less than 5%. The lowest regional flow in a normal subject was 45 cc/100g/min. 68 studies were performed on 30 stroke patients. In 27 rCBF was less than 45 in affected brain areas for a sensitivity of 90% which improved to 97% when comparisons with contralateral brain were included. Initial CT scans were normal or non-diagnostic in 10, but showed CVA's in regions of reduced rCBF in 17 patients. rCBF abnormalities involved greater portions of brain than CT changes, often (8/17) including distant regions, unpredicted by CT or clinical studies but known to be strongly interconnected to the area of structural damage. SPECT estimates of rCBF appear to be a sensitive research and diagnostic tool and complement the structural information provided by CT.

  3. Spinal Plasticity following Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Spinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Nagle, Erica A.; Hoffman, Michael S.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity is a fundamental property of the neural system controlling breathing. One frequently studied model of respiratory plasticity is long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). pLTF arises from spinal plasticity, increasing respiratory motor output through a mechanism that requires new synthesis of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and extracellular-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in or near phrenic motor neurons. Since intermittent hypoxia induces spinal plasticity, we are exploring the potential to harness repetitive AIH as a means of inducing functional recovery in conditions causing respiratory insufficiency, such as cervical spinal injury. Since repetitive AIH induces phenotypic plasticity in respiratory and motor neurons, it may restore respiratory motor function in patients with incomplete spinal injury. PMID:20536940

  4. Prevalence and differential host-specificity of two avian blood parasite genera in the Australo-Papuan region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Gering, E.; Austin, J.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Peirce, M.A.; Pratt, T.K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which widespread avian blood parasites in the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus pose a threat to novel hosts depends in part on the degree to which they are constrained to a particular host or host family. We examined the host distribution and host-specificity of these parasites in birds from two relatively understudied and isolated locations: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we detected infection in 69 of 105 species, representing 44% of individuals surveyed (n = 428). Across host families, prevalence of Haemoproteus ranged from 13% (Acanthizidae) to 56% (Petroicidae) while prevalence of Plasmodium ranged from 3% (Petroicidae) to 47% (Ptilonorhynchidae). We recovered 78 unique mitochondrial lineages from 155 sequences. Related lineages of Haemoproteus were more likely to derive from the same host family than predicted by chance at shallow (average LogDet genetic distance = 0, n = 12, P = 0.001) and greater depths (average distance = 0.014, n = 11, P < 0.001) within the parasite phylogeny. Within two major Haemoproteus subclades identified in a maximum likelihood phylogeny, host-specificity was evident up to parasite genetic distances of 0.029 and 0.007 based on logistic regression. We found no significant host relationship among lineages of Plasmodium by any method of analysis. These results support previous evidence of strong host-family specificity in Haemoproteus and suggest that lineages of Plasmodium are more likely to form evolutionarily-stable associations with novel hosts.

  5. FCGR3B gene frequencies among ethnic Thai blood donors from a regional hospital in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongmaroeng, C; Kumkaen, K

    2015-02-01

    The FCGR3B gene encodes three human neutrophil antigens which consist of HNA-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-1c. These antigens are encoded by three alleles in the FCGR3B locus: FCGR3B*01, FCGR3B*02, and FCGR3B*03 alleles, respectively. The frequencies of FCGR3B alleles have been reported in different ethnic populations. This study compared the FCGR3B gene frequencies among 230 unrelated healthy Eastern Thai blood donors in Rayong hospital with the previously published studies. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers method was performed to determine FCGR3B genotypes. The results showed that the allele frequencies of FCGR3B*01, FCGR3B*02, and FCGR3B*03 were 0.722, 0.274, and 0.009, respectively. The FCGR3B*01 and FCGR3B*02 frequencies found in the Eastern Thais were similar to the previous reports investigating in Northern Thais, Chinese Han, Taiwanese, and Japanese populations. Interestingly, our data showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) to Central Thais, Korean, Indian, Turkish, Australian, Tunisian, American, German, and Italian populations. In addition, one FCGR3Bnull , which represents a gene deletion, was also found in this study. This information is important not only for the assessment of neutrophil antibody-mediated clinical conditions and for disease association studies but also for anthropological studies.

  6. Effects of dipyridamole and aminophylline on hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 washout in the setting of a critical coronary stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Belardinelli, L.; Cannon, J.M.; Beller, G.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the interaction of intravenous dipyridamole and aminophylline on thallium-201 transport kinetics, regional myocardial blood flow and systemic hemodynamics in the presence of a critical coronary artery stenosis. In 12 dogs with a critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, arterial pressure decreased from a mean value (+/- SEM) of 107 +/- 6 to 94 +/- 3 mm Hg and distal left anterior descending artery pressure decreased from 70 +/- 7 to 55 +/- 4 mm Hg after intravenous administration of dipyridamole. In the left anterior descending perfusion zone, the endocardial/epicardial flow ratio decreased from 0.70 to 0.36 and the intrinsic thallium washout rate was significantly prolonged. Intravenous aminophylline reversed the dipyridamole-induced systemic hypotension and transmural coronary steal and restored the thallium washout rate to baseline values. In six other dogs, aminophylline alone resulted in no alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics or regional myocardial blood flow. As expected, dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and coronary steal were prevented by aminophylline pretreatment. These data show that in a canine model of partial coronary stenosis, systemic hypotension, adverse regional flow effects and prolonged thallium-201 washout consequent to intravenously administered dipyridamole are promptly reversed by intravenous aminophylline administration. Aminophylline alone had no significant hemodynamic and coronary flow effects. This study provides further insight into the altered thallium kinetics occurring as a consequence of dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and suggests that the prompt reversal of symptoms and signs of ischemia with aminophylline in patients receiving intravenous dipyridamole for clinical imaging studies probably reflects the reversal of transmural coronary steal.

  7. Quantifying regional cerebral blood flow by N-isopropyl-P-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (IMP) using a ring type single-photon emission computed tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Odano, I.; Ohkubo, M.

    1994-05-01

    We developed a more accurate quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a ring type single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system. SPECT studies were performed in 17 patients with brain diseases. A dose of 222 MBq (6 mCi) of [I-123]IMP was injected i.v., at the same time a 5 min period of arterial blood withdrawal was begun. SPECT data were acquired from 25 min to 60 min after tracer injection. For obtaining the brain activity concentration at 5 min after IMP injection, total brain counts collections and one minute period short time SPECT studies were performed at 5, 20, and 60 min. Measurement of the values of rCBF was calculated using short time SPECT images at 5 min (rCBF), static SPECT images corrected with total cerebral counts (rCBF{sub Ct}.) and those corrected with reconstructed counts on short time SPECT images (rCBF{sub Cb}). There was a good relationship (r=0.69) between rCBF and rCBF{sub Ct}, however, rCBF{sub Ct} tends to be underestimated in high flow areas and overestimated in low flow areas. There was better relationship between rCBF and rCBF{sub Cb}(r=0.92). The overestimation and underestimation shown in rCBF{sub Ct} was considered to be due to the correction of reconstructed counts using a total cerebral time activity curve, because of the kinetic behavior of [I-123]IMP was different in each region. We concluded that more accurate rCBF values could be obtained using the regional time activity curves.

  8. Spinal Chondrosarcoma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Katonis, Pavlos; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Michail, Konstantinos; Lianoudakis, Stratos; Christoforakis, Zaharias; Tzanakakis, George; Karantanas, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the third most common primary malignant bone tumor. Yet the spine represents the primary location in only 2% to 12% of these tumors. Almost all patients present with pain and a palpable mass. About 50% of patients present with neurologic symptoms. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally unsuccessful while surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are important to achieve adequate management. This paper provides an overview of the histopathological classification, clinical presentation, and diagnostic procedures regarding spinal chondrosarcoma. We highlight specific treatment modalities and discuss which is truly the most suitable approach for these tumors. Abstracts and original articles in English investigating these tumors were searched and analyzed with the use of the PubMed and Scopus databases with “chondrosarcoma and spine” as keywords. PMID:21437176

  9. Simulation in spinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Aso Escario, José; Martínez Quiñones, José Vicente; Aso Vizán, Alberto; Arregui Calvo, Ricardo; Bernal Lafuente, Marta; Alcázar Crevillén, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is frequent in spinal disease, resulting in problems for specialists like Orthopedic Surgeons, Neurosurgeons, Reumathologists, etc. Simulation requires demonstration of the intentional production of false or exaggerated symptoms following an external incentive. The clinician has difficulties in demonstrating these criteria, resulting in misdiagnosis of simulation or misinterpretation of the normal patient as a simulator, with the possibility of iatrogenic distress and litigation. We review simulation-related problems in spine, proposing a terminological, as well as a diagnostic strategy including clinical and complementary diagnosis, as a way to avoid misinterpretation and minimize the iatrogenic distress and liability Based on the clinical-Forensic author's expertise, the literature is analyzed and the terminology readdressed to develop new terms (inconsistences, incongruences, discrepancies and contradictions). Clinical semiology and complementary test are adapted to the new scenario. Diagnostic strategy relies on anamnesis, clinical and complementary tests, adapting them to a uniform terminology with clear meaning of signs and symptoms.

  10. Simulation in spinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Aso Escario, José; Martínez Quiñones, José Vicente; Aso Vizán, Alberto; Arregui Calvo, Ricardo; Bernal Lafuente, Marta; Alcázar Crevillén, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is frequent in spinal disease, resulting in problems for specialists like Orthopedic Surgeons, Neurosurgeons, Reumathologists, etc. Simulation requires demonstration of the intentional production of false or exaggerated symptoms following an external incentive. The clinician has difficulties in demonstrating these criteria, resulting in misdiagnosis of simulation or misinterpretation of the normal patient as a simulator, with the possibility of iatrogenic distress and litigation. We review simulation-related problems in spine, proposing a terminological, as well as a diagnostic strategy including clinical and complementary diagnosis, as a way to avoid misinterpretation and minimize the iatrogenic distress and liability Based on the clinical-Forensic author's expertise, the literature is analyzed and the terminology readdressed to develop new terms (inconsistences, incongruences, discrepancies and contradictions). Clinical semiology and complementary test are adapted to the new scenario. Diagnostic strategy relies on anamnesis, clinical and complementary tests, adapting them to a uniform terminology with clear meaning of signs and symptoms. PMID:24913963

  11. Functional Connections of the Vestibulo-spino-adrenal Axis in the Control of Blood Pressure Via the Vestibulosympathetic Reflex in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huan-Jun; Li, Mei-Han; Li, Mei-Zhi; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Min Sun

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence supports the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of blood pressure during postural movements. In the present study, the role of the vestibulo-spino-adrenal (VSA) axis in the modulation of blood pressure via the vestibulosympathetic reflex was clarified by immunohistochemical and enzyme immunoassay methods in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation. Expression of c-Fos protein in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and blood epinephrine levels were investigated, following microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists or antagonists into the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and/or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension. Both microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA and AMPA) into the MVN or rostral ventrolateral medullary nucleus (RVLM) and SNP-induced hypotension led to increased number of c-Fos positive neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and increased blood epinephrine levels. Pretreatment with microinjection of glutamate receptor antagonists (MK-801 and CNQX) into the MVN or RVLM prevented the increased number of c-Fos positive neurons resulting from SNP-induced hypotension, and reversed the increased blood epinephrine levels. These results indicate that the VSA axis may be a key component of the pathway used by the vestibulosympathetic reflex to maintain blood pressure during postural movements. PMID:26330755

  12. Effects of traumatic brain injury on regional cerebral blood flow in rats as measured with radiolabeled microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakami, I.; McIntosh, T.K.

    1989-02-01

    To clarify the effect of experimental brain injury on regional CBF (rCBF), repeated rCBF measurements were performed using radiolabeled microspheres in rats subjected to fluid-percussion traumatic brain injury. Three consecutive microsphere injections in six uninjured control rats substantiated that the procedure induces no significant changes in hemodynamic variables or rCBF. Animals were subjected to left parietal fluid-percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.4 atm) and rCBF values were determined (a) prior to injury and 15 min and 1 h following injury (n = 7); and (b) prior to injury and 30 min and 2 h following injury (n = 7). At 15 min post injury, there was a profound reduction of rCBF in all brain regions studied (p less than 0.01). Although rCBF in the hindbrain had recovered to near-normal by 30 min post injury, rCBF in both injured and contralateral (uninjured) forebrain areas remained significantly suppressed up to 1 h post injury. At 2 h post injury, recovery of rCBF to near-normal values was observed in all brain regions except the focal area of injury (left parietal cortex) where rCBF remained significantly depressed (p less than 0.01). This prolonged focal oligemia at the injury site was associated with the development of reproducible cystic necrosis in the left parietotemporal cortex at 4 weeks post injury. Our results demonstrate that acute changes in rCBF occur following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats and that rCBF remains significantly depressed up to 2 h post injury in the area circumscribing the trauma site.

  13. [Intelligence and neurocognitive tests among students living in a industrialized region of Sardinia with relatively low blood levels of lead].

    PubMed

    Carta, Plinio; Aru, Gabriella; Carta, Laura; Carta, Roberta; Ibba, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In several recent epidemiological studies blood lead levels (BLLs) even below the current CDC intervention level of 10 microg/dl have been associated with reduced neurocognitive capacities of children, with no clear evidence of a "safe" threshold. We analyzed the relationship between the BLLs and the neurocognitive capacities of 205 Sardinian students aged 11 to 15 years, using 2 tests of the Swedish Performance Evaluating System (SPES) and the full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). The studied population included 104 children (61 males and 43 females) living in Portoscuso, a town 2 Km far from a lead smelter (mean BLLs: 5.98 +/- 2.2; max 11.5 microg/dl), and 101 age-matched students (55 males and 46 females) living in Sant'Antioco, a town about 20 Km far from the same smelter (mean BLLs: 2.08 +/- 0.8; max 4.5 microg/dl). Subjects with BLLs above 4 microg/dl performed worse in the SPES tests and scored about 5.0 points less on the full-scale IQ compared to the students with lower BLLs. The adjusted regression coefficients derived from the multivariate analysis showed that higher BLLs were significantly associated with worse performances in the SPES tests and with reduced IQ (0.94 points for each microg/dl of BLL). This study confirms the potential neurotoxicity of low-levels of lead suggesting the need of lowering the actual CDC "limit of concern" for children to values lower than 4 microg/dl, improving at the same time the environmental primary prevention for limiting the lead exposure of subjects living near the lead smelter.

  14. Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... temperature from the body to the spinal cord. Did You Know... Doctors can often tell where the ... on symptoms and results of a physical examination. Did You Know... Nerves from the lowest parts of ...

  15. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lowest point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement diminish or disappear. The ... injury is so severe that almost all feeling (sensory function) and all ability to control movement (motor ...

  16. The treatment for multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Xiao Feng; Hou, Tie Sheng; Yuan, Jian Dong; Jin, Gen Yang; Li, Zhong Hai

    2006-01-01

    We report the outcome of 30 patients with multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures treated between 2000 and 2005. Ten cases were treated conservatively (group A), eight cases were operated on at only one level (group B), and 12 cases were treated surgically at both levels (group C). All cases were followed up for 14–60 months (mean 32 months). Initial mobilisation with a wheelchair or crutches in group A was 9.2±1.1 weeks, which was significantly longer than groups B and C with 6.8±0.7 weeks and 3.1±0.4 weeks, respectively. Operative time and blood loss in group C were significantly more than group B. The neurological deficit improved in six cases in group A (60%), six in group B (75%) and eight in group C (80%). Correction of kyphotic deformity was significantly superior in groups C and B at the operated level, and increasing deformity occurred in groups A and B at the non-operated level. From the results we believe that three treatment strategies were suitable for multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures, and individualised treatment should be used in these patients. In the patients treated surgically, the clinical and radiographic outcomes are much better. PMID:17043863

  17. [Spinal stroke in the acute myeloblast leucosis].

    PubMed

    Kotova, N A; Klimovich, A V; Krasnoruzhskiĭ, A I; Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Volkova, S A; Lalaian, T V

    2013-01-01

    Data of literature on the frequency of the nervous system lesions in different variants of leucosis are analyzed. A case of a man with petechial skin rash and bruises on the body, gingival hemorrhage and general sickness is described in details. The hematologic tests revealed acute myeloblast leucosis. A lumbar puncture revealed blood in the cerebrospinal fluid and MRI showed an epidural hematoma in lumbar segments 3 and 4. At this level, the hematoma compressed the dural bag and roots of the horse tail with accompanying vessels (the radicular medullar artery and large radicular veins). A paracentetic removal of the hematoma with the decompression of spinal roots was carried out. The blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid and symptoms of the left facial nerve lesion allowed to diagnose neuroleucosis. This case presented the mixed pathogenesis of myeloischemia. The epidural hematoma compressed not only the roots of the horse tail but the accompanying vessels (arteries and veins). The venous outflow obstruction along radicular veins worsened the microcirculation in the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord. Complex polychemotherapy in the combination with neuroprotectors (cortexin, gliatiline), antiaggregants and vitamins is recommended. PMID:23612398

  18. High doses of methamphetamine that cause disruption of the blood-brain barrier in limbic regions produce extensive neuronal degeneration in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Ali, Syed

    2006-12-01

    Histological examination of brain after a single high (40 mg/kg) dose of D-methamphetamine (METH) was used to determine the relationships between blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, hyperthermia, intense seizure activity, and extensive degeneration that this exposure often produces. In very hyperthermic mice (body temperatures > 40.5 degrees C) exhibiting status epilepticus, increase in mouse IgG immunoreactivity (IgGIR) in the medial and ventral amygdala was observed within 90 min after METH exposure. In a few instances, where body temperature was in the 40.0 degrees C range, such IgGIR was also seen in animals that had exhibited status epilepticus. Variable increases in IgGIR, which correlated with neurodegeneration, also occurred within 12 h in the hippocampus, indicating BBB disruption in this region also. Degenerating neurons, Fluoro-Jade C (FJ-C) labeled, were first detected 4 h after METH in the amygdala and hippocampus. Extensive neurodegeneration occurred in the amygdaloid and hippocampal pyramidal cell regions in animals with marked IgGIR increase in these regions by 12 and 24 h after METH. A very rapid activation of brain microglia and/or infiltration of macrophages in regions of notable IgGIR increase with intense neurodegeneration were seen within 24 h. The phagocytosis rate of neurons in the hippocampus was so rapid that FJ-C labeling was virtually nonexistent 3 days after METH. METH did not produce IgGIR increase or neurodegeneration in the limbic regions in the absence of hyperthermia and seizures. Thus, high doses of METH can cause damage to the BBB when hyperthermia occurs, resulting in rapid and extensive hippocampal and amygdalar damage. The BBB disruption in the medial amygdala occurs first, and may well be contributing to the induction and severity of seizures, while BBB disruption in the hippocampus is likely a result of the seizures and hyperthermia. This hippocampal damage should be sufficient to compromise learning and memory.

  19. Integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome in human blood identifies extensive sex- and immune cell-specific differentially methylated regions

    PubMed Central

    Mamrut, Shimrat; Avidan, Nili; Staun-Ram, Elsebeth; Ginzburg, Elizabeta; Truffault, Frederique; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Miller, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression is complex and elusive. To further elucidate these relations, we performed an integrative analysis of the methylome and transcriptome of 4 circulating immune cell subsets (B cells, monocytes, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells) from healthy females. Additionally, in light of the known sex bias in the prevalence of several immune-mediated diseases, the female datasets were compared with similar public available male data sets. Immune cell-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found to be highly similar between sexes, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.82; however, numerous sex-specific DMRs, shared by the cell subsets, were identified, mainly on autosomal chromosomes. This provides a list of highly interesting candidate genes to be studied in disorders with sexual dimorphism, such as autoimmune diseases. Immune cell-specific DMRs were mainly located in the gene body and intergenic region, distant from CpG islands but overlapping with enhancer elements, indicating that distal regulatory elements are important in immune cell specificity. In contrast, sex-specific DMRs were overrepresented in CpG islands, suggesting that the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of sex and immune cell specificity may differ. Both positive and, more frequently, negative correlations between subset-specific expression and methylation were observed, and cell-specific DMRs of both interactions were associated with similar biological pathways, while sex-specific DMRs were linked to networks of early development or estrogen receptor and immune-related molecules. Our findings of immune cell- and sex-specific methylome and transcriptome profiles provide novel insight on their complex regulatory interactions and may particularly contribute to research of immune-mediated diseases. PMID:26291385

  20. Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Clickner, Robert P.; Jeffries, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The current, continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has included blood mercury (BHg) and fish/shellfish consumption since it began in 1999. NHANES 1999–2004 data form the basis for these analyses. Objectives This study was designed to determine BHg distributions within U.S. Census regions and within coastal and noncoastal areas among women of childbearing age, their association with patterns of fish consumption, and changes from 1999 through 2004. Methods We performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine the distribution of BHg and fish consumption in the population and to investigate differences by geography, race/ethnicity, and income. We used multivariate analysis (regression) to determine the strongest predictors of BHg among geography, demographic factors, and fish consumption. Results Elevated BHg occurred more commonly among women of childbearing age living in coastal areas of the United States (approximately one in six women). Regionally, exposures differ across the United States: Northeast > South and West > Midwest. Asian women and women with higher income ate more fish and had higher BHg. Time-trend analyses identified reduced BHg and reduced intake of Hg in the upper percentiles without an overall reduction of fish consumption. Conclusions BHg is associated with income, ethnicity, residence (census region and coastal proximity). From 1999 through 2004, BHg decreased without a concomitant decrease in fish consumption. Data are consistent with a shift over this time period in fish species in women’s diets. PMID:19165386

  1. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  2. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  3. [A case of conversion disorder (hysteria) after spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yumi; Makino, Shiho; Doi, Yumiko; Nishimura, Mitsuo; Baba, Miwa; Mizukawa, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Yoji

    2009-02-01

    We report a case of conversion disorder after spinal anesthesia. A 16-year-old healthy woman underwent arthroscopic surgery under spinal anesthesia. She showed tremor all over and it did not stop. We sedated her with propofol during the operation. After the operation, her involuntary tremble continued. We consulted with a pediatrician who diagnosed her as conversion disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were performed to rule out some pathological changes and abnormality in her head. As a result, Rathke cleft cyst was suspected but it could not explain this episode. We consider that her stress for the operation under spinal anesthesia caused this episode. In a case of a younger patient, it is necessary to consider mental support. And we need to suspect conversion disorder when we see tremor during operation under regional anesthesia.

  4. [Subarachnoid hematoma and spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Dupeyrat, A; Dequiré, P M; Mérouani, A; Moullier, P; Eid, G

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of spinal subarachnoid haematoma occurring after spinal anaesthesia are reported. In the first case, lumbar puncture was attempted three times in a 81-year-old man; spinal anaesthesia trial was than abandoned, and the patient given a general anaesthetic. He was given prophylactic calcium heparinate soon after surgery. On the fourth day, the patient became paraparetic. Radioculography revealed a blockage between T10 and L3. Laminectomy was performed to remove the haematoma, but the patient recovered motor activity only very partially. The second case was a 67-year-old man, in whom spinal anaesthesia was easily carried out. He was also given prophylactic calcium heparinate soon after surgery. On the fourth postoperative day, pulmonary embolism was suspected. Heparin treatment was then started. Twelve hours later, lumbar and bilateral buttock pain occurred, which later spread to the neck. On the eighth day, the patient had neck stiffness and two seizures. Emergency laminectomy was carried out, which revealed a subarachnoid haematoma spreading to a level higher than T6 and below L1, with no flow of cerebrospinal fluid, and a non pulsatile spinal cord. Surgery was stopped. The patient died on the following day. Both these cases are similar to those previously reported and point out the role played by anticoagulants. Because early diagnosis of spinal cord compression is difficult, the prognosis is poor, especially in case of paraplegia. PMID:2278424

  5. Neurotrophins and spinal circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Vanessa S.; Mendell, Lorne M.

    2014-01-01

    Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In this review we will focus on the effects of neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), on spinal circuits. We also discuss evidence that these molecules can modify functions including nociceptive behavior, motor reflexes and stepping behavior. Since these substances and their receptors are normally present in the spinal cord, they could potentially be useful in improving function in disease states and after injury. Here we review recent findings relevant to these translational issues. PMID:24926235

  6. SEROPREVALENCE OF T. cruzi INFECTION IN BLOOD DONORS AND CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY IN PATIENTS FROM THE COAL MINING REGION OF COAHUILA, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Tovar, José Gerardo; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Salas, Ildefonso Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Context and Objective: Chagas disease is considered a worldwide emerging disease; it is endemic in Mexico and the state of Coahuila and is considered of little relevance. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in blood donors and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from the coal mining region of Coahuila, Mexico. Design and Setting: Epidemiological, exploratory and prospective study in a general hospital during the period January to June 2011. Methods: We performed laboratory tests ELISA and indirect hemagglutination in three groups of individuals: 1) asymptomatic voluntary blood donors, 2) patients hospitalized in the cardiology department and 3) patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Results: There were three levels of seroprevalence: 0.31% in asymptomatic individuals, 1.25% in cardiac patients and in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in 21.14%. Conclusions: In spite of having detected autochthonous cases of Chagas disease, its importance to local public health remains to be established as well as the details of the dynamics of transmission so that the study is still in progress. PMID:24626421

  7. Intracranial hypotension secondary to spinal pathology: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sartip, Kamyar; McKenna, Gregory; Spina, Michael; Grahovac, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Spinal pathology resulting in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension is an infrequently reported and a potentially severe cause of headaches. We present a case of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak caused by a thoracic disk herniation successfully treated with two targeted epidural blood patches. Although patients typically present with orthostatic headaches, the imaging findings of intracranial hypotension should prompt investigation of the spine for site and cause of the CSF leakage. Treatment includes autologous blood patch and surgery in refractory cases. PMID:26914140

  8. Analysis of music-brain interaction with simultaneous measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram beta rhythm in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Sadato, N; Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Fuwamoto, Y; Yonekura, Y

    1999-11-19

    To elucidate the neural substrates of the receptive aspect of music, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in eight normal volunteers. Compared with the rest condition, listening to music caused a significant increase in EEG beta power spectrum (13-30 Hz) averaged over the posterior two third of the scalp. The averaged beta power spectrum was positively correlated with rCBF in the premotor cortex and adjacent prefrontal cortices bilaterally, the anterior portion of the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex in both the rest and the music conditions. Listening to music newly recruited the posterior portion of the precuneus bilaterally. This may reflect the interaction of the music with the cognitive processes, such as music-evoked memory recall or visual imagery.

  9. Systemic and Topical Use of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sebastian F; Santaguida, Carlo; Wong, Jean; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Combination of narrative and systematic literature reviews. Objectives Massive perioperative blood loss in complex spinal surgery often requires blood transfusions and can negatively affect patient outcome. Systemic use of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has become widely used in the management of surgical bleeding. We review the clinical evidence for the use of intravenous TXA as a hemostatic agent in spinal surgery and discuss the emerging role for its complementary use as a topical agent to reduce perioperative blood loss from the surgical site. Through a systematic review of published and ongoing investigations on topical TXA for spinal surgery, we wish to make spine practitioners aware of this option and to suggest opportunities for further investigation in the field. Methods A narrative review of systemic TXA in spinal surgery and topical TXA in surgery was conducted. Furthermore, a systematic search (using PRISMA guidelines) of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases as well as World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov (National Institutes of Health), and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number registries was conducted to identify both published literature and ongoing clinical trials on topical TXA in spinal surgery. Results Of 1,631 preliminary search results, 2 pub