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Sample records for regional co2 fluxes

  1. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  2. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; ...

    2016-06-27

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrainmore » annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. In conclusion, although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.« less

  3. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  4. Regional CO2 flux estimates for 2009-2010 based on GOSAT and ground-based CO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Takagi, H.; Valsala, V. K.; Saito, M.; Oda, T.; Saeki, T.; Belikov, D. A.; Saito, R.; Ito, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Andres, R. J.; Yokota, T.

    2013-09-01

    We present the application of a global carbon cycle modeling system to the estimation of monthly regional CO2 fluxes from the column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) retrieved from spectral observations made by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The regional flux estimates are to be publicly disseminated as the GOSAT Level 4 data product. The forward modeling components of the system include an atmospheric tracer transport model, an anthropogenic emissions inventory, a terrestrial biosphere exchange model, and an oceanic flux model. The atmospheric tracer transport was simulated using isentropic coordinates in the stratosphere and was tuned to reproduce the age of air. We used a fossil fuel emission inventory based on large point source data and observations of nighttime lights. The terrestrial biospheric model was optimized by fitting model parameters to observed atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle, net primary production data, and a biomass distribution map. The oceanic surface pCO2 distribution was estimated with a 4-D variational data assimilation system based on reanalyzed ocean currents. Monthly CO2 fluxes of 64 sub-continental regions, between June 2009 and May 2010, were estimated from GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals (ver. 02.00) gridded to 5° × 5° cells and averaged on a monthly basis and monthly-mean GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data. Our result indicated that adding the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals to the GLOBALVIEW data in the flux estimation brings changes to fluxes of tropics and other remote regions where the surface-based data are sparse. The uncertainties of these remote fluxes were reduced by as much as 60% through such addition. Optimized fluxes estimated for many of these regions, were brought closer to the prior fluxes by the addition of the GOSAT retrievals. In most of the regions and seasons considered here, the estimated fluxes fell within the range of natural flux variabilities estimated with the component models.

  5. Regional CO2 flux estimates for 2009-2010 based on GOSAT and ground-based CO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Takagi, H.; Valsala, V. K.; Saito, M.; Oda, T.; Saeki, T.; Belikov, D. A.; Saito, R.; Ito, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Andres, R. J.; Yokota, T.

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of an integrated global carbon cycle modeling system to the estimation of monthly regional CO2 fluxes from the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) retrieved from the spectral observations made by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The regional flux estimates are to be publicly disseminated as the GOSAT Level 4 data product. The forward modeling components of the system include an atmospheric tracer transport model, an anthropogenic emissions inventory, a terrestrial biosphere exchange model, and an oceanic flux model. The atmospheric tracer transport was simulated using isentropic coordinates in the stratosphere and was tuned to reproduce the age of air. We used a fossil fuel emission inventory based on large point source data and observations of nighttime lights. The terrestrial biospheric model was optimized by fitting model parameters to match observed atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle, net primary production data, and a biomass distribution map. The oceanic surface pCO2 distribution was estimated with a 4-D variational data assimilation system based on reanalyzed ocean currents. Monthly CO2 fluxes of 64 sub-continental regions, between June 2009 and May 2010, were estimated from the GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals (ver. 02.00) gridded to 5° × 5° cells and averaged on a monthly basis and monthly-mean GLOBALVIEW-CO2 surface-based observations. Our result indicated that adding the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals to the GLOBALVIEW observations in the flux estimation would bring changes to fluxes of tropics and other remote regions where the surface-based observations are sparse. The uncertainty of these remote fluxes was reduced by as much as 60% through such addition. For many of these regions, optimized fluxes are brought closer to the prior fluxes by the addition of GOSAT data. For the most of the regions and seasons considered here, the estimated fluxes fell within the range of natural flux variability

  6. Year-round Regional CO2 Fluxes from Boreal and Tundra Ecosystems in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; Benmergui, J. S.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Daube, B. C.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Henderson, J.; Karion, A.; Miller, J. B.; Miller, S. M.; Parazoo, N.; Randerson, J. T.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Thoning, K. W.; Veraverbeke, S.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    High-latitude ecosystems could release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in a warmer climate. We derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO2 fluxes in Alaska from a synthesis of airborne and tower CO2 observations in 2012-2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were net sources of atmospheric CO2. We discuss these flux estimates in the context of long-term CO2 measurements at Barrow, AK, to asses the long term trend in carbon fluxes in the Arctic. Many Earth System Models incorrectly simulate net carbon uptake in Alaska presently. Our results imply that annual net emission of CO2 to the atmosphere may have increased markedly in this region of the Arctic in response to warming climate, supporting the view that climate-carbon feedback is strongly positive in the high Arctic.

  7. Estimation of regional CO2 fluxes in northern Wisconsin using the ring of towers concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-12-01

    The WLEF TV tower in northern Wisconsin is instrumented to take continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio at 6 levels from 11 to 396m. During the spring and summer of 2004 additional CO2 measurements were deployed on five 76 m communication towers forming a ring around the WLEF tower with a 100-150 km radius. The data from the ring of towers are being used to estimate regional fluxes of CO2. The modeling framework developed for this purpose is based on SiB-RAMS: Regional Atmospheric Modeling System linked to Simple Biosphere model. The RAMS domain extends over the entire continental US with nested grids centered in northern Wisconsin. The CO2 lateral boundary conditions are provided by a global transport model PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model). This model system is capable to realistically reproduce diurnal cycle of CO2 fluxes as well as their spatial patterns in regional scale related to different vegetation types. However, there is still significant uncertainty in simulating atmospheric transport of CO2 due to synoptic and mesoscale circulations. We are attempting to assimilate available CO2 tower data into our modeling system in order to provide corrections for the fluxes simulated by the SiB-RAMS. These corrections applied separately to respiration and assimilation fluxes have spatial patterns but are assumed constant in time during a period of 10 days. Another correction is estimated for the CO2 inflow concentration entering the regional domain. The CO2 data assimilation is based the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) model and the Bayessian inversion technique. The LPD model is driven by meteorological fields from the SiB-RAMS and is used for a regional domain in its adjoint mode to trace particles backward in time to derive influence functions for each concentration sample. The influence functions provide information on potential contributions both from surface sources and inflow fluxes that make their way through the modeling domain

  8. What Drives Regional Variation in Global Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderdale, J. M.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Williams, R. G.; Follows, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic and atmospheric carbon reservoirs are tightly linked by air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. Regional and seasonal variations in the CO2 flux reflect the balance of drivers such as surface heat (solubility) forcing, freshwater fluxes, biological sources and sinks associated with photosynthesis and respiration, and upwelling of biologically regenerated dissolved inorganic carbon. Here, we present a comprehensive, mechanistic diagnostic framework that quantifies the relative contributions of these processes to the total air-sea CO2 flux. We test the framework using simulations with a global circulation-biogeochemistry model (MITgcm) where the "true" CO2 fluxes are known. Generally, the leading order balance is between the CO2 fluxes driven by regional surface heat fluxes and opposed by a combination of biologically-driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing, with the disequilibrium dominating at mid- to high latitudes and biological uptake dominating at low latitudes. Only minor modifications are due to the net effect of freshwater fluxes on surface salinity, alkalinity and carbon concentrations. We then apply the diagnostic suite to climatological observations and map the relative contributions of the physical and biological drivers in setting the regional patterns of air-sea CO2 fluxes.

  9. Developing a high-resolution CO2 flux inversion model for global and regional scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Janardanan Achari, R.; Oda, T.; Ito, A.; Saito, M.; W Kaiser, J.; Belikov, D.; Ganshin, A.; Valsala, V.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and test an iterative inversion framework that is designed for estimating surface CO2 fluxes at a high spatial resolution using a Lagrangian-Eulerian coupled tracer transport model and atmospheric CO2 data collected by the global in-situ network and satellite observations. In our inverse modeling system, we employ the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART that was coupled to the Eulerian atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM). We also derived an adjoint of the coupled model. Weekly corrections to prior fluxes are calculated at a spatial resolution of the FLEXPART-simulated surface flux responses (0.1 degree). Fossil fuel (ODIAC) and biomass burning (GFAS) emissions are given at original model spatial resolutions (0.1 degree), while other fluxes are interpolated from a coarser resolution. The terrestrial biosphere fluxes are simulated with the VISIT model at 0.5 degree resolution. Ocean fluxes are calculated using a 4D-Var assimilation system (OTTM) of the surface pCO2 observations. The flux response functions simulated with FLEXPART are used in forward and adjoint runs of the coupled transport model. To obtain a best fit to the observations we tested a set of optimization algorithms, including quasi-Newtonian algorithms and implicitly restarted Lanczos method. The square root of covariance matrix for surface fluxes is implemented as implicit diffusion operator, while the adjoint of it is derived using automatic code differentiation tool. The prior and posterior flux uncertainties are evaluated using singular vectors of scaled tracer transport operator. The weekly flux uncertainties and flux uncertainty reduction due to assimilating GOSAT XCO2 data were estimated for a period of one year. The model was applied to assimilating one year of Obspack data, and produced satisfactory flux correction results. Regional version of the model was applied to inverse model analysis of the CO2 flux distrubution in West Siberia using continuous observation

  10. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  11. How can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, John C.; Mallia, Derek V.; Wu, Dien; ...

    2017-05-03

    Despite the need for researchers to understand terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of these fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where complex meteorology and lack of observations lead to large uncertainties in carbon fluxes. Yet mountainous regions are often where significant forest cover and biomass are found – i.e., areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. As CO2 observations are carried out in mountainous areas, it is imperative that they are properly interpreted to yield information about carbonmore » fluxes. In this paper, we present CO2 observations at three sites in the mountains of the western US, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes from the CO2 observations, with emphasis on the observed and simulated diurnal cycles of CO2. We show that atmospheric models can systematically simulate the wrong diurnal cycle and significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, due to erroneous atmospheric flows as a result of terrain that is misrepresented in the model. This problem depends on the selected vertical level in the model and is exacerbated as the spatial resolution is degraded, and our results indicate that a fine grid spacing of ~4 km or less may be needed to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of CO2 for sites on top of the steep mountains examined here in the American Rockies. In conclusion, in the absence of higher resolution models, we recommend coarse-scale models to focus on assimilating afternoon CO2 observations on mountaintop sites over the continent to avoid misrepresentations of nocturnal transport and influence.« less

  12. How can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John C.; Mallia, Derek V.; Wu, Dien; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the need for researchers to understand terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of these fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where complex meteorology and lack of observations lead to large uncertainties in carbon fluxes. Yet mountainous regions are often where significant forest cover and biomass are found - i.e., areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. As CO2 observations are carried out in mountainous areas, it is imperative that they are properly interpreted to yield information about carbon fluxes. In this paper, we present CO2 observations at three sites in the mountains of the western US, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes from the CO2 observations, with emphasis on the observed and simulated diurnal cycles of CO2. We show that atmospheric models can systematically simulate the wrong diurnal cycle and significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, due to erroneous atmospheric flows as a result of terrain that is misrepresented in the model. This problem depends on the selected vertical level in the model and is exacerbated as the spatial resolution is degraded, and our results indicate that a fine grid spacing of ˜ 4 km or less may be needed to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of CO2 for sites on top of the steep mountains examined here in the American Rockies. In the absence of higher resolution models, we recommend coarse-scale models to focus on assimilating afternoon CO2 observations on mountaintop sites over the continent to avoid misrepresentations of nocturnal transport and influence.

  13. Inverse modeling of the regional CO2 fluxes in 2009-2010 with GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Takagi, H.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Saeki, T.; Belikov, D.; Saito, R.; Andres, R. J.; Oshchepkov, S.; Bril, A.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present a system for inverse estimation of surface CO2 fluxes using atmospheric transport model and GOSAT observations together with the results of processing the observational GOSAT data. The CO2 column mixing ratio observed by GOSAT satellite is used together with ground-based observations present in Globalview CO2 database. The NIES-retrieved TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 product data are combined with Globalview (GV) observations. Monthly mean CO2 fluxes for 64 regions are estimated together with a global mean offset between GOSAT data and Globalview. We used the fixed-lag Kalman Smoother (Bruhwiler et al., 2005), to infer monthly fluxes for 42 sub-continental terrestrial regions and 22 oceanic basins. The surface fluxes are estimated by making corrections to the a priori fluxes such that the mismatches between the model predictions and observations are minimized. As the input we prepared monthly-mean GV observations and bias-corrected GOSAT XCO2 retrievals aggregated to monthly mean values for each 5x5 degree grids. The column averaged CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) and column averaging kernel are provided by GOSAT Level 2 product and PPDF-DOAS method. For forward simulations, we used NIES atmospheric transport model specifically designed to reproduce the stratospheric air age using isentropic vertical coordinates and validated against observations of CO2 and CH4. The a priori flux dataset was comprised of four components. Daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is predicted by the Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT), a terrestrial biosphere process model with the model parameters adjusted to match seasonal cycle of the atmospheric CO2. Monthly ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes are generated with an ocean pCO2 data assimilation system driven by reanalyzed GODAS currents, which used the LDEO surface pCO2 database as constraint. Monthly CO2 emissions due to biomass burning were provided by the Global Fire Emissions Database; and monthly fossil fuel CO2 emissions are

  14. Regional CO2 fluxes for eastern Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; D'Amelio, M. T.; Wofsy, S.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    We have determined regional scale (~105 - 106 km2) CO2 fluxes using atmospheric measurements from aircraft vertical profiles over eastern Amazonia (site SAN: 02°51'S; 54°57'W). Profiles started December 2000 and have continued through 2008. 17 air samples per profile were collected aboard light aircraft between the surface and 4-5 km using the NOAA/ESRL semi- automatic portable flask package. We use a column integration technique to determine the CO2 flux for each vertical profile, where the measured CO2 profile is differenced from a CO2 background, which was determined using co-measured SF6 as a transport tracer. Two NOAA/ESRL background sites, Ascension Island (ASC) located in the Atlantic Ocean (8°S, 14°W) and Barbados (RPB) located in the Atlantic Ocean (12°N, 59°W) were used to calculate the fractions of air arriving at the sites studied. Back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model were calculated for every profile every 500m of altitude to determine the time the air mass took to travel between the coast and SAN. The observed flux, which is representative of that between the coast and measurement sites, averaged -0.03 ± 1.5 g C m-2day-1 for the wet season and 0.3 ± 0.9 g C m-2day-1 for the dry season. The flux variability is high, probably reflecting the dynamic nature of the response of the terrestrial biosphere to environmental conditions. We have attempted to remove the influence of biomass burning from the fluxes using measurements of co-measured CO. This reduces the dry season flux to -0.04 ± 1.2 g C m- 2day-1. We will compare these results to the seasonality found in eddy covariance measurements and to that estimated from models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  15. Differences in satellite CO2 data coverage and their influence on regional flux constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, H.; Andres, R. J.; Belikov, D. A.; Boesch, H.; Bril, A.; Butz, A.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Oda, T.; O'Dell, C.; Oshchepkov, S.; Parker, R.; Saito, M.; Uchino, O.; Valsala, V.; Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Inverse modeling of atmospheric transport is a technique that systematically searches for space-time distributions of trace gas fluxes that yield modeled atmospheric concentrations close to observations. This technique has been employed for the estimation of surface CO2 flux distributions in better understanding the mechanisms of the global carbon cycle. As this inference relies on observations, several studies were conducted in the past to see the sensitivity of flux estimates to the expansion of surface monitoring networks over time and the choice of data-providing sites in the estimation. These studies showed that changes in the geographical distribution of the surface data have a large impact on regional-scale flux estimates. With the advent of the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) in early 2009, the spatial coverage by the surface monitoring networks can now be widely expanded with the spaceborne soundings, from which column-averaged CO2 concentrations (XCO2) are retrieved. These GOSAT-based XCO2 retrievals are made available by five research groups, and their precisions have been reported to be below 2 ppm level. Where they coincide, the five XCO2 retrievals (all biases corrected) agree within one standard deviation of less than 1 ppm. On one hand, the extent that each of the XCO2 retrieval data product covers the surface differs from one to another, owing to differences in the retrieval algorithms and data screening criteria, and the coverage differences were found to be dependent on geographical locations. We investigated the extent to which these data-coverage differences alter constraints on individual regional CO2 flux estimates. For this, we used a diagnostic known as the resolution kernel, which quantifies how well the regional flux estimates can be resolved by the observations. The inversion system used here is the same as what is used to generate the GOSAT Level 4 regional flux data product, and consists of NIES 08.1i transport model and

  16. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  17. [Effects of biological soil crust at different succession stages in hilly region of Loess Plateau on soil CO2 flux].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Ming, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a compact complex layer of soil, which has photosynthetic activity and is one of the factors affecting the CO2flux of soil-atmosphere interface. In this paper, the soil CO, flux under the effects of biocrust at different succession stages on the re-vegetated grassland in the hilly region of Loess Plateau was measured by a modified LI-8100 automated CO, flux system. Under light condition, the soil CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust was significantly decreased by 92% and 305%, respectively, as compared with the flux without the effects of the biocrusts. The decrement of the soil CO, flux by the biocrusts was related to the biocrusts components and their biomass. Under the effects of dark colored cyanobacteria crust and moss crust, the soil CO2 flux was decreased by 141% and 484%, respectively, as compared with that in bare land. The diurnal curve of soil CO2 flux under effects of biocrusts presented a trend of 'drop-rise-drop' , with the maximum carbon uptake under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust being 0.13 and -1.02 micromol CO2.m-2.s-1 and occurred at about 8:00 and 9:00 am, respectively, while that in bare land was unimodal. In a day (24 h) , the total CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust was increased by 7.7% , while that under effects of moss crust was decreased by 29.6%, as compared with the total CO2 flux in bare land. This study suggested that in the hilly region of Loess Plateau, biocrust had significant effects on soil CO2 flux, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the carbon budget of the 'Grain for Green' eco-project.

  18. Aircraft observations of the urban CO2 dome in London and calculated daytime CO2 fluxes at the urban-regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Anna; Morgui, Josep Anton; Grimmond, Sue; Barratt, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    dispersed downwind, with peak concentrations displaced from the urban centre along the main wind direction. The urban-regional surface CO2 flux was calculated for four days in October 2011 by either the Integrative Mass Boundary Layer (IMBL) or the Column Integration method (CIM), dependent on meteorological conditions. The diurnal CO2 flux in London obtained from the aircraft observations ranged from 36 to 71 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 during the day time. This compared well with continuous measurements of CO2 exchange by an eddy-covariance system located in central London. The day-to-day variability observed in the calculated CO2 fluxes responded to the spatial variability of the influence area and emissions that observations were sensitive to. This study provides an example how aircraft surveys in urban areas can be used to estimate CO2 surface fluxes at the urban-regional scale. It also presents an important cross-validation of two independent measurement-based methods to infer the contribution of urban areas to climate change in terms of CO2 emissions that complement bottom-up emissions inventories. References Committee on Methods for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2010), The National Academia Press. DECC (2012), http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/indicators/ni186/ni186.aspx

  19. The potential for regional-scale bias in top-down CO2 flux estimates due to atmospheric transport errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Fung, I.; Liu, J.; Hayek, M. N.; Andrews, A. E.

    2014-09-01

    manifest as persistent atmospheric transport biases appears to depend, at least in part, on the energy and stability of the boundary layer. Existing CO2 flux studies may be more likely to estimate inaccurate regional fluxes under those conditions.

  20. Effects of biomass burning aerosols on CO2 fluxes on Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Moreira, Demerval; Freitas, Saulo; Longo, Karla; Rosario, Nilton

    2015-04-01

    During the dry season in Central Brazil and Southern Amazon, there is an usually high concentration of aerosol particles associated with intense human activities, with extensive biomass burning. It has been observed through remote sensing that the smoke clouds in these areas often cover an area of about 4 to 5 million km2. Thus, the average aerosol optical depth of these regions at 500 ηm, is usually below 0.1 during the rainy season and can exceed 0.9 in the fire season. Aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei and also increase scattering and absorption of the incident radiation. Therefore, the layer of the aerosol alters the precipitation rate; reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches the surface, producing a cooling; and causes an increase of diffuse radiation. These factors directly and indirectly affect the CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, the chemical-atmospheric model CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) coupled to the surface model JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) was used to simulate the effects of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region. Both the total effect of the aerosols and the contribution related only to the increase of the diffuse fraction caused by the their presence were analyzed. The results show that the effect of the scattered fraction is dominant over all other effects. It was also noted that the presence of aerosols from fires can substantially change biophysiological processes of the carbon cycle. In some situations, it can lead to a sign change in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), turning it from a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, when the aerosol is not considered in the simulations, to a sink, when it is considered. Thus, this work demonstrates the importance of considering the presence of aerosols in numerical simulations of weather and climate, since carbon dioxide is a major

  1. Effects of Biomass Burning Aerosols on CO2 Fluxes in the Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, D. S.; Freitas, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    During the dry season in Central Brazil and Southern Amazon, there is an usually high concentration of aerosol particles associated with intense human activities, with extensive biomass burning. It has been observed through remote sensing that the smoke clouds in these areas often cover an area of about 4 to 5 million km2. Thus, the average aerosol optical depth of these regions at 500 ηm, is usually below 0.1 during the rainy season and can exceed 0.9 in the fire season. Aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei and also increase scattering and absorption of the incident radiation. Therefore, the layer of the aerosol alters the precipitation rate; reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches the surface, producing a cooling; and causes an increase of diffuse radiation. These factors directly and indirectly affect the CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, the chemical-atmospheric model CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) coupled to the surface model JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) was used to simulate the effects of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region. Both the total effect of the aerosols and the contribution related only to the increase of the diffuse fraction caused by the their presence were analyzed. The results show that the effect of the scattered fraction is dominant over all other effects. It was also noted that the presence of aerosols from fires can substantially change biophysiological processes of the carbon cycle. In some situations, it can lead to a sign change in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), turning it from a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, when the aerosol is not considered in the simulations, to a sink, when it is considered. Thus, this work demonstrates the importance of considering the presence of aerosols in numerical simulations of weather and climate, since carbon dioxide is a major

  2. Are changes in the phytoplankton community structure altering the flux of CO2 in regions of the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostle, C.; Landschutzer, P.; Johnson, M.; Schuster, U.; Watson, A. J.; Edwards, M.; Robinson, C.

    2016-02-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a globally important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the strength of the sink varies temporally and regionally. This study uses a neural network method to map the surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) and flux of CO2from the atmosphere to the ocean alongside measurements of plankton abundance collected from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey to determine the relationship between regional changes in phytoplankton community structure and regional differences in carbon flux. Despite increasing sea surface temperatures, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland show a decrease in sea surface pCO2 of -2 µatm yr-1 from 1993 to 2011. The carbon flux in the North Sea is variable over the same period. This is in contrast to most of the open ocean within the North Atlantic, where increases in sea surface pCO2 follow the trend of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, i.e. the flux or sink remains constant. The increasing CO2 sink in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the variable sink in the North Sea correlate with changes in phytoplankton community composition. This study investigates the biogeochemical and oceanographic mechanisms potentially linking increasing sea surface temperature, changes in phytoplankton community structure and the changing carbon sink in these two important regions of the Atlantic Ocean. The use of volunteer ships to concurrently collect these datasets demonstrates the potential to investigate relationships between plankton community structure and carbon flux in a cost-effective way. These results not only have implications for plankton-dynamic biogeochemical models, but also likely influence carbon export, as different phytoplankton communities have different carbon export efficiencies. Extending and maintaining such datasets is critical to improving our understanding of and monitoring carbon cycling in the surface ocean and improving climate model accuracy.

  3. Heterogeneity of CH4 and net CO2 Fluxes Using Nested Chamber, Tower, Aircraft, Remote Sensing, and Modeling Approaches in Arctic Alaska for Regional Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Moreaux, V.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Murphy, P.; Wilkman, E.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Zhuang, Q.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Gioli, B.; Zona, D.

    2014-12-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. Here we evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on CH4 and CO2 fluxes over varying spatial scales. Data from the north slope of Alaska from chambers, up to a 16 year CO2 flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, eddy covariance CH4 fluxes over several years and sites, new year-around CO2 and CH4 flux installations, hundreds of hours of aircraft concentration and fluxes, and terrestrial biosphere and flux inverse modeling, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of eddy covariance tower flux, aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  4. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  5. Decadal trends in regional CO2 fluxes estimated from atmospheric inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Top-down approach (or atmospheric inversion) using atmospheric transport models and CO2 observations are an effective way to optimize surface fluxes at subcontinental scales and monthly time intervals. We used the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC AGCM-based Chemistry Transport Model (JAMSTEC's ACTM) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations at NOAA, CSIRO, JMA, NIES, NIES-MRI sites from Obspack GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product (2013) for estimating CO2 fluxes for the period of 1990-2011. Carbon fluxes were estimated for 84 partitions (54 lands + 30 oceans) of the globe by using a Bayesian synthesis inversion framework. A priori fluxes are (1) atmosphere-ocean exchange from Takahashi et al. (2009), (2) 3-hourly terrestrial biosphere fluxes (annually balanced) from CASA model, and (3) fossil fuel fluxes from CDIAC global totals and EDGAR4.2 spatial distributions. Four inversion cases have been tested with 1) 21 sites (sites which have real data fraction of 90 % or more for 1989-2012), 2) 21 sites + CONTRAIL data, 3) 66 sites (over 70 % coverage), and 4) 157 sites. As a result of time-dependent inversions, mean total flux (excluding fossil fuel) for the period 1990-2011 is estimated to be -3.09 ±0.16 PgC/yr (mean and standard deviation of the four cases), where land (incl. biomass burning and land use change) and ocean absorb an average rate of -1.80 ±0.18 and -1.29 ±0.08 PgC/yr, respectively. The average global total sink from 1991-2000 to 2001-2010 increases by about 0.5 PgC/yr, mainly due to the increase in northern and tropical land sinks (Africa, Boreal Eurasia, East Asia and Europe), while ocean sinks show no clear trend. Inversion with CONTRAIL data estimates large positive flux anomalies in late 1997 associated with the 1997/98 El-Nino, while inversion without CONTARIL data between Japan and Australia fails to estimate such large anomalies. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1401) of the Ministry of the Environment

  6. Regional modelling of water and CO2-fluxes with a one-dimensional SVAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, M.; Köstner, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change affects site conditions for vegetation and may affect changes in the distribution of plant species. Investigations of these effects are difficult, because other influences on plant performance like land use and management also need to be considered. Carbon gain can be used as a sensitive indicator for changes in the vitality of the considered vegetation types that are affected by different climate and weather patterns. The objective of the presented study is the quantification of net photosynthesis rate, respiration and transpiration of different vegetation types on the regional scale. The study regions are the Weißeritz catchment in the Ore Mountains and the region Torgau-Oschatz in the Elbe basin both located in Saxony (East Germany) but significantly differing in elevation and site conditions. The carbon and water fluxes are simulated by an ecophysiological based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model for three periods (1996-2006, 2015-2025 and 2035-2045). The considered vegetation types are forest and grassland. The used model SVAT-CN is a multi-layer model, which enables the calculation of hourly carbon gain by coupling micrometerological data with ecophysiological processes. The calculations are based on the equations of Farquhar and Ball for net photosynthesis rate and stomata conductivity, respectively. It is a one-dimensional model which also considers soil water processes. The soil is coupled with the vegetation by one factor that depends on the matric potential and steers the calculation of the stomata conductivity. The equations of the soil water processes are based on a combination of bucket model and Richard's equation. Simulations are based on measured weather data (Dept. of Meteorology at Technische Universität Dresden and LfL Sachsen) with varying levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations up to 580 ppm. Further, climate projections (ECHAM5-OM, IPCC emission scenario A1B), with downscaling to a 18x18km grid by the regional climate

  7. Estimation of regional CO2 fluxes using concentration measurements from the ring of towers in northern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Denning, A.; Schuh, A.; Richardson, S. J.; Miles, N.; Davis, K. J.; Zupanski, D.

    2005-12-01

    The WLEF TV tower in northern Wisconsin is instrumented to take continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio at 6 levels from 11 to 396m. During the spring and summer of 2004 additional CO2 measurements were deployed on five 76 m communication towers forming a ring around the WLEF tower with a 100-150 km radius. The data from the ring of towers are being used to estimate regional fluxes of CO2. The modeling framework developed for this purpose is based on SiB-RAMS: Regional Atmospheric Modeling System linked to Simple Biosphere model. This model system is capable to realistically reproduce diurnal cycle of CO2 fluxes as well as their spatial patterns in regional scale related to different vegetation types. However, there is still significant uncertainty in simulating atmospheric transport of CO2 due to synoptic and mesoscale circulations. We are attempting to assimilate available CO2 tower data into our modeling system in order to provide corrections for fluxes simulated by the SiB-RAMS. These corrections applied separately to respiration and assimilation fluxes have spatial patterns but are assumed constant in time during a period of 5 to 10 days. The CO2 data assimilation is based the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) model and two different inversion techniques. The LPD model is driven by meteorological fields from the SiB-RAMS and is used for a regional domain in its adjoint mode to trace particles backward in time to derive influence functions for each concentration sample. The influence functions provide information on potential contributions both from surface sources and inflow fluxes that make their way through the modeling domain boundaries into the CO2 concentration sample. Then the Bayesian inversion technique is applied to estimate unknown corrections for the CO2 fluxes. Several tests of the modeling framework were performed with the aid of model generated concentration pseudo-data. Different configurations of source areas within 500 km radius from

  8. Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    The FLUXNET project [1] aims at quantifying the magnitude and controls on the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of terrestrial ecosystems. Ideally, the various biomes of the Earth would be sampled in proportion to their spatial extent - in reality, however, study site selection is usually based on other (more practical) criteria so that a bias exists towards certain biomes and ecosystem types. This may be problematic because FLUXNET data are used to calibrate/parameterize models at various scales - if certain ecosystems are poorly replicated this may bias model predictions. Here we present data from a project in Tyrol/Austria where we have been investigating the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of five grassland sites during 2005-2007. The five permanent grassland sites were exposed to similar climate, but differed slightly in management. In a FLUXNET style approach, any of these sites might have been selected for making long-term flux measurements - the aim of this project was to examine the representativeness of these sites and, if evident, elucidate the causes for and controls on differences between sites. To this end we conducted continuous eddy covariance flux measurements at one (anchor) site [2, 3], and episodic, month long flux measurements at the four additional sites using a roving eddy covariance tower. These data were complemented by measurements of environmental drivers, the amount of above ground phytomass and basic data on vegetation and soil type, as well as management. Data are subject to a rigorous statistical analysis in order to quantify significant differences in the CO2, H2O and energy exchange between the sites and to identify the factors which are responsible for these differences. In the present contribution we report results on CO2 fluxes. Our major findings are that (i) site-identity of the surveyed grassland ecosystems was a significant factor for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), somewhat less for gross primary production (GPP) and not for

  9. Investigating drought impacts on Amazon Basin carbon fluxes through regional inverse modeling of CO2 from aircraft vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, C. B.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.; Gloor, M.; Guan, K.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Thoning, K. W.; Shiga, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The large amount of carbon stored as biomass in the Amazon Basin makes this area a critically important component of the global carbon cycle. Its importance is compounded by the vulnerability of these carbon stocks to drought, fire and other disturbances. It is not well known how current and future climate changes will impact Amazon carbon stores and fluxes, however, and field-level observations are difficult to scale up due to forest heterogeneity and the immense size of the Basin. Recent efforts to systematically and regularly sample atmospheric CO2 profiles by light aircraft have resulted in an unprecedented view of the integrated signal of net CO2 fluxes in the Amazon. In particular, measurements made over the period of 2010-2013 offer insights into Amazon forest carbon cycling in both dry and wet years. These observations have shown, for example, that during the 2010 drought, the Amazon was less of a sink for atmospheric CO2 than during 2011 (a wetter year). In order to investigate the geographic and temporal patterns of changing sink strengths in response to drought stress, we have developed a regional inversion for fluxes of CO2 in the Amazon Basin for 2010-2013 using these same data. Measurements of CO in the same air samples allow us to perform a second inversion to optimize estimates of biomass burning fluxes. As part of the inversion framework, we have developed novel approaches for prior estimation of and optimization of boundary or background conditions. We use two Lagrangian Transport Models (FLEXPART/GFS and HYSPLIT/GDAS) to estimate the potential influence of convection parameterization on the inversion results. We will show the results of these inversions as well as comparison of our results with satellite observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (a proxy for gross primary productivity and water stress) to investigate hot-spots of drought impact on Amazon net CO2 fluxes for 2010-2013.

  10. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  11. Air-sea CO2 fluxes for the Brazilian northeast continental shelf in a climatic transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. C. O.; Marins, R. V.; Dias, F. J. S.; Rezende, C. E.; Lefèvre, N.; Cavalcante, M. S.; Eschrique, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Oceanographic cruises were carried out in October 2012 (3°S-5°S and 38,5°W-35,5°W) and in September 2014 (1°S-4°S and 43°W-37°W), measuring atmospheric and sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2) underway in the northeast coast of Brazil. Sea surface water samples were also collected for chlorophyll a, nutrients and DOC analysis. During the second cruise, the sampling area covered a transition between semi-arid to more humid areas of the coast, with different hydrologic and rainfall regimes. The seawater fCO2sw, in October 2012, was in average 400.9 ± 7.3μatm and 391.1 ± 6.3 μatm in September 2014. For the atmosphere, the fCO2air in October 2012 was 375.8 ± 2.0 μatm and in September 2014, 368.9 ± 2.2 μatm. The super-saturation of the seawater in relation to the atmosphere indicates a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. The entire study area presents oligotrophic conditions. Despite the low concentrations, Chl a and nutrients presented significant influence on fCO2sw, particularly in the westernmost and more humid part of the northeast coast, where river fluxes are three orders of magnitude larger than eastern rivers and rainfall events are more intense and constant. fCO2sw spatial distribution presented homogeneity along the same transect and longitudinal heterogeneity, between east and west, reinforcing the hypothesis of transition between two regions of different behaviour. The fCO2sw at the eastern portion was controlled by parameters such as temperature and salinity. At the western portion, fCO2sw was influenced by nutrient and Chl a. Calculated instantaneous CO2 flux ranged from + 1.66 to + 7.24 mmol m- 2 d- 1 in the first cruise and + 0.89 to + 14.62 mmol m- 2 d- 1 in the second cruise.

  12. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Impact of Rain on Regional and Global Sea-Air Fluxes of CO2

    PubMed Central

    Shutler, J. D.; Land, P. E.; Woolf, D. K.; Quartly, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The global oceans are considered a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Rain is known to alter the physical and chemical conditions at the sea surface, and thus influence the transfer of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It can influence gas exchange through enhanced gas transfer velocity, the direct export of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean, by altering the sea skin temperature, and through surface layer dilution. However, to date, very few studies quantifying these effects on global net sea-air fluxes exist. Here, we include terms for the enhanced gas transfer velocity and the direct export of carbon in calculations of the global net sea-air fluxes, using a 7-year time series of monthly global climate quality satellite remote sensing observations, model and in-situ data. The use of a non-linear relationship between the effects of rain and wind significantly reduces the estimated impact of rain-induced surface turbulence on the rate of sea-air gas transfer, when compared to a linear relationship. Nevertheless, globally, the rain enhanced gas transfer and rain induced direct export increase the estimated annual oceanic integrated net sink of CO2 by up to 6%. Regionally, the variations can be larger, with rain increasing the estimated annual net sink in the Pacific Ocean by up to 15% and altering monthly net flux by > ± 50%. Based on these analyses, the impacts of rain should be included in the uncertainty analysis of studies that estimate net sea-air fluxes of CO2 as the rain can have a considerable impact, dependent upon the region and timescale. PMID:27673683

  13. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Impact of Rain on Regional and Global Sea-Air Fluxes of CO2.

    PubMed

    Ashton, I G; Shutler, J D; Land, P E; Woolf, D K; Quartly, G D

    The global oceans are considered a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Rain is known to alter the physical and chemical conditions at the sea surface, and thus influence the transfer of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It can influence gas exchange through enhanced gas transfer velocity, the direct export of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean, by altering the sea skin temperature, and through surface layer dilution. However, to date, very few studies quantifying these effects on global net sea-air fluxes exist. Here, we include terms for the enhanced gas transfer velocity and the direct export of carbon in calculations of the global net sea-air fluxes, using a 7-year time series of monthly global climate quality satellite remote sensing observations, model and in-situ data. The use of a non-linear relationship between the effects of rain and wind significantly reduces the estimated impact of rain-induced surface turbulence on the rate of sea-air gas transfer, when compared to a linear relationship. Nevertheless, globally, the rain enhanced gas transfer and rain induced direct export increase the estimated annual oceanic integrated net sink of CO2 by up to 6%. Regionally, the variations can be larger, with rain increasing the estimated annual net sink in the Pacific Ocean by up to 15% and altering monthly net flux by > ± 50%. Based on these analyses, the impacts of rain should be included in the uncertainty analysis of studies that estimate net sea-air fluxes of CO2 as the rain can have a considerable impact, dependent upon the region and timescale.

  14. Large scale, regional, CH4 and net CO2 fluxes using nested chamber, tower, aircraft flux, remote sensing, and modeling approaches in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Moreaux, Virginie; Kalhori, Aram; Losacco, Salvatore; Murphy, Patrick; Wilkman, Eric; Zona, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. We evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on GHG fluxes over varying spatial scales and compare to standard estimates of NEE and other greenhouse gas fluxes. Data from the north slope of Alaska from up to a 16 year flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, and hundreds of hours of aircraft fluxes, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of tower, flux aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4and CO2 fluxes or large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  15. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S. C.; Torn, M. S.; Fischer, M. L.; Billesbach, D. P.; Berry, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO2 and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km "macrocells" to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO2 exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m-2 yr-1 (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within cover types. Biases in

  16. Uptake of CO2 in the Pelagic Ocean by the Biological Pump; the Global Flux and the Regional Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honjo, S.; Francois, R. H.; Manganini, S. J.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    POC (particulate organic carbon) is vertically transported to the oceanic interior by ballasted aggregates, CaCO3 and biogenic opal, with a minor role for lithogenic aerosols through the mesopelagic zone. The diel-migrating zooplankton community is intimately involved with the vertical transport and re-mineralization of POC. Below 1.5-km, the zooplankton ecosystem is minimal, thus the aggregates travel mainly by gravity with little zooplankton influence. We examined the mole fluxes of POC, CaCO3, and biogenic opal Si fluxes retrieved from time-series, bottom tethered sediment traps (TS-trap) at 134 globally distributed pelagic stations at 2 km (m/b) as Fm/bCorg, Fm/bCinorg, and Fm/bSibio. The POC fluxes were normalized to the value at 2 km (m/b). We investigated (1) the geographic contrasts of POC export at m/b and (2) the supply rate of ∑CO2 to the world mesopelagic water column. Fm/bCorg varies from 25 (Pacific Warm Pool) to 605 (divergent Arabian Sea) mmolC m -2 yr-1; Fm/bCinorg varies from >8 (high latitude Polar Oceans) or 15 (Pacific Warm Pool) to 459 (divergent Arabian Sea) mmolC m-2yr-1; and Fm/bSibio, the most spatially/temporally variable flux, ranges from 6 (North Atlantic Drift) to 1118 (Pacific Subarctic Gyre) mmolSi m-2yr-1. The oceanic region exhibiting the highest POC flux over a significantly large region is the area of the North Pacific Boreal Gyres where the average Fm/bCorg = 213, Fm/bCinorg = 126, and Fm/bSibio = 578 mmol m-2yr-1. Fm/bCorg and Fm/bCinorg are particularly high in large upwelling margins, including the divergent Arabian Sea and off Cape Verde. The data set shows the lowest flux over a significant region/basin is Fm/bCorg = 39, whereas the Fm/bCinorg = 69, and Fm/bSibio-2yr-1 in the North Pacific subtropical/tropical gyres; Pan-Atlantic average fluxes are similar except Fm/bSibio fluxes are even lower. Where Corg/Cinorg and Sibio/Cinorg are <1 defines the “Carbonate Ocean,” and where these ratios are ≥1 defines the

  17. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism.

    PubMed

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s(-1) (117 t d(-1)) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d(-1), comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  18. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queißer, M.; Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  19. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    PubMed Central

    Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back‐arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid‐dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s−1 (117 t d−1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d−1, comparable with the expected back‐arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man‐portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom‐up quantification of CO2 fluxes. PMID:28944134

  20. Global CO2 simulation using GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, H.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Belikov, D.; Saeki, T.; Saito, R.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Bril, A.; Oshchepkov, S.; Andres, R. J.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Investigating the distribution and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes is an active research topic in the field of contemporary carbon cycle dynamics. The technique central to this effort is atmospheric inverse modeling with which surface CO2 fluxes are estimated by making corrections to a priori flux estimates such that mismatches between model-predicted and observed CO2 concentrations are minimized. Past investigations were carried out by utilizing CO2 measurements collected in global networks of surface-based monitoring sites. Now, datasets of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) retrieved from spectral soundings collected by GOSAT are available for complementing the surface-based CO2 observations. These space-based XCO2 data are expected to enhance the spatiotemporal coverage of the existing surface observation network and thus reduce uncertainty associated with the surface flux estimates. We estimated monthly CO2 fluxes in 64 sub-continental regions from a subset of the surface-based GLOBALVIEW CO2 data and the GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals. We further simulated CO2 concentrations in 3-D model space using the surface flux estimates obtained. In this presentation, we report the result of a comparison between the simulated CO2 concentrations and independent surface observations. As part of an effort in inter-comparing GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates, we also look at results yielded with XCO2 data retrieved with the PPDF-DOAS algorithm and those made available by the NASA Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space team. For this study, we used version 08.1 of the National Institute for Environmental Studies atmospheric transport model, which was driven by the Japan Meteorological Agency's JCDAS wind analysis data. The CO2 forward simulations were performed on 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal grids at 32 vertical levels between the surface and the top of the atmosphere. The a priori flux dataset used was comprised of the sum of four

  1. Daytime CO2 Urban-Regional Scale Surface Fluxes from Airborne Measurements, Eddy-Covariance Observations and Emissions Inventories in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, A. M.; Grimmond, S. B.; Morgui, J. A.; Kotthaus, S.; Priestman, M.; Barratt, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population becomes increasingly urbanized, spatially concentrated centres of anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) arise. While mitigation measures exist at national and international scales, their implementation will be more effective if linked to the urban-scale of the sources. Routine top-down approaches that quantify emissions of GHG from cities and megacities are needed to understand the dynamics of the urban carbon cycle to eventually define relevant policy decisions. London is the biggest urban conurbation in Western Europe with more than 8 million inhabitants. It emitted roughly 45000 ktn CO2 in 20101. To understand the carbon dynamics and quantify anthropogenic emissions from London, airborne surveys of atmospheric CO2, O3, particles and meteorological variables were carried out over the city, onboard the NERC-ARSF Dornier-228 UK research aircraft. We applied an Integrative Mass Boundary Layer method (IMBL) using airborne CO2 observations obtained in horizontal transects crossing London at 360 m at different times of the day and by sampling upwind-downwind profiles. IMBL CO2 fluxes were compared to an emissions inventory and neighbourhood-scale eddy-covariance fluxes in central London. Daytime fluxes in October 2011 from the IMBL calculations ranged from 46 to 104 μmolCO2 m-2 s-1 and covered 30-70% of the urban region. The IMBL CO2 fluxes were the same order of magnitude as observed eddy-covariance fluxes and were statistically comparable to the emission inventory for the same footprint area. A sensitivity analysis suggested that horizontal variability of the CO2 field in the urban mixing layer is the most critical factor affecting IMBL fluxes. The determination of the boundary height and vertical wind speed had more impact on fluxes calculated from upwind-downwind profiles. Furthermore, low-altitude airborne measurements of CO2 provide the advantage of direct observation of the CO2 urban dome of a megacity and relate the

  2. Consistent regional fluxes of CH4 and CO2 inferred from GOSAT proxy XCH4 : XCO2 retrievals, 2010-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Bösch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert J.; Webb, Alex J.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Emanuel; Hase, Frank; Kivi, Rigel; Liu, Yi; Miller, John B.; Morino, Isamu; Sussmann, Ralf; Strong, Kimberly; Uchino, Osamu; Wang, Jing; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4 : XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. This work builds on the previously reported theory that takes into account that (1) these ratios are less prone to systematic error than either the full-physics data products or the proxy CH4 data products; and (2) the resulting CH4 and CO2 fluxes are self-consistent. We show that a posteriori fluxes inferred from the GOSAT data generally outperform the fluxes inferred only from in situ data, as expected. GOSAT CH4 and CO2 fluxes are consistent with global growth rates for CO2 and CH4 reported by NOAA and have a range of independent data including new profile measurements (0-7 km) over the Amazon Basin that were collected specifically to help validate GOSAT over this geographical region. We find that large-scale multi-year annual a posteriori CO2 fluxes inferred from GOSAT data are similar to those inferred from the in situ surface data but with smaller uncertainties, particularly over the tropics. GOSAT data are consistent with smaller peak-to-peak seasonal amplitudes of CO2 than either the a priori or in situ inversion, particularly over the tropics and the southern extratropics. Over the northern extratropics, GOSAT data show larger uptake than the a priori but less than the in situ inversion, resulting in small net emissions over the year. We also find evidence that the carbon balance of tropical South America was perturbed following the droughts of 2010 and 2012 with net annual fluxes not returning to an approximate annual balance until 2013. In contrast, GOSAT data significantly changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emission with a 40 % increase over tropical South America and tropical Asia and a smaller decrease over Eurasia and temperate

  3. CO2 flux geothermometer for geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Oladottir, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A new geothermometer (TCO2 Flux) is proposed based on soil diffuse CO2 flux and shallow temperature measurements made on areas of steam heated, thermally altered ground above active geothermal systems. This CO2 flux geothermometer is based on a previously reported CO2 geothermometer that was designed for use with fumarole analysis. The new geothermometer provides a valuable additional exploration tool for estimating subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. Mean TCO2 Flux estimates fall within the range of deep drill hole temperatures at Wairakei (New Zealand), Tauhara (New Zealand), Rotokawa (New Zealand), Ohaaki (New Zealand), Reykjanes (Iceland) and Copahue (Argentina). The spatial distribution of geothermometry estimates is consistent with the location of major upflow zones previously reported at the Wairakei and Rotokawa geothermal systems. TCO2 Flux was also evaluated at White Island (New Zealand) and Reporoa (New Zealand), where limited sub-surface data exists. Mode TCO2 Flux at White Island is high (320 °C), the highest of the systems considered in this study. However, the geothermometer relies on mineral-water equilibrium in neutral pH reservoir fluids, and would not be reliable in such an active and acidic environment. Mean TCO2 Flux at Reporoa (310 °C) is high, which indicates Reporoa has a separate upflow from the nearby Waiotapu geothermal system; an outflow from Waiotapu would not be expected to have such high temperature.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  5. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek

    2015-04-01

    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  6. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within

  7. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  8. Variation in agricultural CO2 fluxes during the growing season, collected from more than ten eddy covariance towers in the Mississippi Delta Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.; Novick, K. A.; White, P.; Anapalli, S.; Locke, M. A.; Rigby, J.; Bhattacharjee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is unique as an anthropogenic activity that plays both a large role in carbon and water cycling and whose management activities provide a key opportunity for responses to climate change. It is therefore especially crucial to bring field observations into the modeling community, test remote sensing products, encourage policy debate, and enable carbon offsets markets that generate revenue and fund climate-smart activities. The accurate measurement of agricultural CO2 exchange - both primary productivity and ecosystem respiration - in concert with evapotranspiration provides crucial information on agro-ecosystem functioning and improves our predictive capacity for estimating the impacts of climate change. In this study we report field measurements from more than 10 eddy covariance towers in the Lower Mississippi River Basin taken during the summer months of 2016. Many towers, some recently deployed, are being aggregated into a regional network known as Delta-Flux, which will ultimately include 15-20 towers by 2017. Set in and around the Mississippi Delta Region within Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, the network will collect flux, micrometeorological, and crop yield data in order to construct estimates of regional CO2 exchange. These time-series data are gap-filled using statistical and process-based models to generate estimates of summer CO2 flux. The tower network is comprised of sites representing widespread agriculture production, including rice, cotton, corn, soybean, and sugarcane; intensively managed pine forest; and bottomland hardwood forest. Unique experimental production practices are represented in the network and include restricted water use, bioenergy, and by-product utilization. Several towers compose multi-field sites testing innovative irrigation or management practices. Current mapping of agricultural carbon exchange - based on land cover layers and fixed crop emission factors - suggests an unconstrained carbon flux estimate in this

  9. Air-sea CO2 and CH4 gas transfer velocity in Arctic sea-ice regions from eddy covariance flux measurements onboard Icebreaker Oden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian; Crill, Patrick; Thornton, Brett; Salisbury, Dominic; Tjernström, Michael; Anderson, Leif; Geibel, Marc; Humborg, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is an important sink for atmospheric CO2, and there is ongoing debate on whether seafloor seeps in the Arctic are a large source of CH4 to the atmosphere. The impact of warming waters, decreasing sea-ice extent and expanding marginal ice zones on Arctic air-sea gas exchange depends on the rate of gas transfer in the presence of sea ice. Sea ice acts as a near-impermeable lid to air-sea gas exchange, but is also hypothesised to enhance gas transfer rates through physical processes such as increased surface-ocean turbulence from ice-water shear and ice-edge form drag. The dependence of the gas transfer rate on sea-ice concentration remains uncertain due to a lack of in situ measurements. Here we present the first direct estimates of gas transfer rate in a wide range of Arctic sea-ice conditions. The estimates were derived from eddy covariance CO2 and CH4 fluxes, measured from the Swedish Icebreaker Oden during two expeditions: the 3-month duration Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) in 2014, a component of the Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation on Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions (SWERUS-C3) in the eastern Arctic Ocean shelf region; and the Arctic Ocean 2016 expedition to the high latitude Arctic Ocean. Initial CO2 results from ACSE showed that the gas transfer rate has a near-linear dependence on sea-ice concentration, and that some previous indirect measurements and modelling estimates overestimate gas transfer rates in sea-ice regions. This supports a linear sea-ice scaling approach for assessments of polar ocean carbon fluxes. Air-sea gas transfer model assumptions (e.g. Schmidt number dependence) will be examined using simultaneous CO2 and CH4 measurements, and observations in different ice conditions (e.g. summer melt, autumn freeze up, central Arctic and marginal ice zones) will be compared.

  10. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43 ± 0.35 PgC yr-1). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  11. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  12. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  13. Examining the Influence of Teleconnection Patterns on CO2 Fluxes at an Old-Growth Forest Scaling from Stand to Region Using MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, S.; Chasmer, L.; Falk, M.; Paw U, K.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, year-to-year variability in three of the major Pacific teleconnection patterns were examined to determine if CO2 and H2O fluxes at an old-growth forest in the Pacific Northwest were affected by climatic changes associated with these patterns. The three cycles examined are the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Pacific/North American Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We centered our study on the Wind River Canopy Crane, an AmeriFlux tower located in a 500 year old conifer forest in southern Washington State. CO2 and H2O fluxes have been measured continuously for six years using the eddy covariance method. The objectives of this study are to: 1. determine to what extent teleconnection patterns influence measured CO2 and H2O fluxes through mechanistic anomalies; 2. ascertain if climatic shifts affect annual vegetation canopy characteristics; and 3. make comparisons at the local and regional scales using MODIS. The ecosystem was a significant sink of carbon (-207 gC m-2 year-1) in 1999 but turned into a large carbon source (+ 100 gC m-2 year-1) in 2003. NEE significantly (above the 95th CI) lags the PNA, ENSO and PDO indicating that these patterns affect the forest carbon budget across overlapping time scales. To ascertain the influence of atmospheric patterns on fluxes, we categorized the flux measurement years based on in-phase climate events (1999 = La Niña/cool PDO, 2003 = El Niño/warm PDO, 2000-2002, 2004 = neutral ENSO years). The results of this analysis indicate that the Pacific Ocean/atmospheric oscillation anomalies explain much of variance in annual NEE (R2 = 0.78 between NEE and the PDO, R2 = 0.87 for the PNA, and R2 = 0.56 for ENSO). Teleconnection patterns are found to be associated mostly with air temperature, precipitation, and incoming light radiation (cloudy vs. sunny conditions). Important meteorological driving mechanisms of fluxes include: water- use efficiency (WUE), light-use efficiency (LUE) and canopy structure

  14. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  15. CO2 fluxes at wetland ecosystems in European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, J.; Astafeva, E.; Ivanov, D.; Avilov, V.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands are one of the main element of natural landscapes of Russia (about 10% of territory). Chamber measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil with vegetation were conducted during green seasons 2011, 2012 years in European part of Russia (Central Forest Reserve, Tver region). Two main subjects were selected for field researches: ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. Our previous eddy covariance investigations in the ecosystems have allowed to determine that in common wet forest is source of CO2 for atmosphere but ombrotrophic bog is sink for CO2. Chamber measurements have evaluated net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. Photosynthesis of vegetation cover on the bog is significantly more than at the forest. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance as at the bog as at the wet forest mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile.

  16. Spatiotemporal variability of lake pCO2 and CO2 fluxes in a hemiboreal catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Sundgren, Ingrid; Gâlfalk, Magnus; Klemedtsson, Leif; Bastviken, David

    2017-01-01

    Globally, lakes are frequently supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2) and are major emitters of carbon to the atmosphere. Recent studies have generated awareness of the high variability in pCO2aq (the partial pressure corresponding to the concentration in water) and CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere and the need for better accounting for this variability. However, studies simultaneously accounting for both spatial and temporal variability of pCO2aq and CO2 fluxes in lakes are rare. We measured pCO2aq (by both manual sampling and mini loggers) and CO2 fluxes, covering spatial variability in open water areas of three lakes of different character in a Swedish catchment for 2 years. Spatial pCO2aq variability within lakes was linked to distance from shore, proximity to stream inlets, and deepwater upwelling events. Temporally, pCO2aq variability was linked with variability in dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen. While previous studies over short time periods (1 to 6 h) observed gas transfer velocity (k) to be more variable than pCO2aq, our work shows that over longer time (days to weeks) pCO2aq variability was greater and affected CO2 fluxes much more than k. We demonstrate that ≥8 measurement days distributed over multiple seasons in combination with sufficient spatial coverage (≥8 locations during stratification periods and 5 or less in spring and autumn) are a key for representative yearly whole lake flux estimates. This study illustrates the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in pCO2aq and CO2 fluxes to generate representative whole lake estimates.

  17. Variability of 14C reservoir age and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Peru-Chile upwelling region during the past 12,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile ( 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.

  18. Comparison of CO2 fluxes estimated using atmospheric and oceanic inversions, and role of fluxes and their interannual variability in simulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Ishijima, K.; Maksyutov, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2006-07-01

    We use a time-dependent inverse (TDI) model to estimate regional sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 from 64 and then 22 regions based on atmospheric CO2 observations at 87 stations. The air-sea fluxes from the 64-region atmospheric-CO2 inversion are compared with fluxes from an analogous ocean inversion that uses ocean interior observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other tracers and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). We find that, unlike previous atmospheric inversions, our flux estimates in the southern hemisphere are generally in good agreement with the results from the ocean inversion, which gives us added confidence in our flux estimates. In addition, a forward tracer transport model (TTM) is used to simulate the observed CO2 concentrations using (1) estimates of fossil fuel emissions and a priori estimates of the terrestrial and oceanic fluxes of CO2, and (2) two sets of TDI model corrected fluxes. The TTM simulations of TDI model corrected fluxes show improvements in fitting the observed interannual variability in growth rates and seasonal cycles in atmospheric CO2. Our analysis suggests that the use of interannually varying (IAV) meteorology and a larger observational network have helped to capture the regional representation and interannual variabilities in CO2 fluxes realistically.

  19. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth surface at its maximum seasonal extent. For decades sea ice was assumed to be an impermeable and inert barrier for air - sea exchange of CO2 so that global climate models do not include CO2 exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere in the polar regions. However, uptake of atmospheric CO2 by sea ice cover was recently reported raising the need to further investigate pCO2 dynamics in the marine cryosphere realm and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. In addition, budget of CO2 fluxes are poorly constrained in high latitudes continental shelves [Borges et al., 2006]. We report measurements of air-ice CO2 fluxes above the Canadian continental shelf and compare them to previous measurements carried out in Antarctica. We carried out measurements of pCO2 within brines and bulk ice, and related air-ice CO2 fluxes (chamber method) in Antarctic first year pack ice ("Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica -SIMBA" drifting station experiment September - October 2007) and in Arctic first year land fast ice ("Circumpolar Flaw Lead" - CFL, April - June 2008). These 2 experiments were carried out in contrasted sites. SIMBA was carried out on sea ice in early spring while CFL was carried out in from the middle of the winter to the late spring while sea ice was melting. Both in Arctic and Antarctic, no air-ice CO2 fluxes were detected when sea ice interface was below -10°C. Slightly above -10°C, fluxes toward the atmosphere were observed. In contrast, at -7°C fluxes from the atmosphere to the ice were significant. The pCO2 of the brine exhibits a same trend in both hemispheres with a strong decrease of the pCO2 anti-correlated with the increase of sea ice temperature. The pCO2 shifted from a large over-saturation at low temperature to a marked under-saturation at high temperature. These air-ice CO2 fluxes are partly controlled by the permeability of the air-ice interface, which depends of the temperature of this one. Moreover, air-ice CO2 fluxes are

  20. Surface CO2 fluxes implied by a full year of OCO-2 column CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Over one year of full-column CO2 concentration data is now available from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite, with retrieval biases corrected using upward-looking solar spectrometer data from the TCCON network as well with internal consistency checks. We use this OCO-2 data to estimate weekly surface CO2 flux corrections at 6.7ºx6.7º resolution with a variational data assimilation technique built around the off-line PCTM atmospheric transport model driven with MERRA 1ºx1.25° winds and mixing parameters. Since such flux estimates can depend strongly on the prior fluxes assumed (which may remain unchanged in regions of sparse sampling), the initial 3-D concentrations assumed (especially in the upper part of the atmosphere), vertical transport/mixing errors in the model, and un-corrected biases in the satellite data, we invert the OCO-2 data in multiple inversions in which different prior fluxes are used (e.g. SiB4 vs. CASA land bio, Takahashi vs. Doney ocean, FFDAS vs. CDIAC fossil fuel), in which ACOS GOSAT data and NOAA surface in situ and aircraft profile data are used (or not) to correct the prior fluxes and concentration fields, and in which the vertical mixing in the transport model is artificially increased/decreased by a factor of 3, to assess the sensitivity of the OCO-2 flux corrections. These inversions are done in the context of a longer span (2009-2015) to allow the impact of the fluxes and other data sources to fully impact the upper layers of the model. The bias between the OCO-2 data and the prior forward CO2 fields is also calculated before doing the inversions, and compared to similar retrieval biases solved for the ACOS GOSAT data (B3.5). The impact of these bias corrections, as well as the standard ones provided by the OCO-2 team, is assessed by comparing the fit of the a posteriori CO2 fields to independent data (including surface in situ and NOAA aircraft).

  1. Variability and trends in surface seawater pCO2 and CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Wanninkhof, R.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Cronin, M. F.; Weller, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Variability and change in the ocean sink of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) have implications for future climate and ocean acidification. Measurements of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and wind speed from moored platforms are used to calculate high-resolution CO2 flux time series. Here we use the moored CO2 fluxes to examine variability and its drivers over a range of time scales at four locations in the Pacific Ocean. There are significant surface seawater pCO2, salinity, and wind speed trends in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, especially during winter and spring, which reduce CO2 uptake over the 10 year record of this study. Starting in late 2013, elevated seawater pCO2 values driven by warm anomalies cause this region to be a net annual CO2 source for the first time in the observational record, demonstrating how climate forcing can influence the timing of an ocean region shift from CO2 sink to source.

  2. Annual and seasonal fCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, S. K.; Chierici, M.; Counillon, F.; Omar, A.; Nondal, G.; Johannessen, T.; Olsen, A.

    2013-03-01

    The Barents Sea is the strongest CO2 sink in the Arctic region, yet estimates of the air-sea CO2 flux in this area show a large span reflecting uncertainty as well as significant variability both seasonally and regionally. Here we use a previously unpublished data set of seawater CO2 fugacity (fCO2), and map these data over the western Barents Sea through multivariable linear regressions with SeaWiFS/MODIS remote sensing and TOPAZ model data fields. We find that two algorithms are necessary in order to cover the full seasonal cycle, mainly because not all proxy variables are available for the entire year, and because variability in fCO2 is driven by different mechanisms in summer and winter. A comprehensive skill assessment indicates that there is a good overall correspondence between observations and predictions. The algorithms are also validated using two independent data sets, with good results. The gridded fCO2 fields reveal tight links between water mass distribution and fCO2 in all months, and particularly in winter. The seasonal cycle show peaks in the total air-sea CO2 influx in May and September, caused by respectively biological drawdown of CO2 and low sea ice concentration leaving a large open water area. For 2007 the annual average air-sea CO2 flux is - 48 ± 5 gC m- 2, which is comparable to previous estimates.

  3. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  4. CO2 fluxes in wetlands of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Avilov, V.; Varlagin, A.; Olchev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The question on an arrangement, scales and the factors determining ground sink of CO2 in a forest zone of Russia is opened and discussed. Peatlands located in forest zone and wetland forest are main elements of natural landscapes of Russia. During the last years through fires in forest zone and modern climate changes, connected with growth of extreme weather events, such as drought, wetlands are in the focus of scientific investigations. Two subjects for long investigations of CO2 fluxes have selected in southern taiga in European Russia (Central Forest reserve, Tver region): ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. To estimate of seasonal and interannual variations of CO2 fluxes different methods such as eddy covariance, chamber methods and modeling calculations were used. Our researches have allowed to evaluate net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. The results of researches have confirmed strong dependence of CO2 fluxes from changes in precipitations and/or temperatures and level of ground water. Bog and wetland forests can be as sink as source of CO2 for atmosphere. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance in wetland ecosystems mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile. The modeled results supported the hypothesis that the soil processes, especially the decomposition process, in wetlands could play an important role in altering the C dynamics in the ecosystems. The studies were supported by grand RFBR No. 11-05-00854 and RF Government No. 11.G34.31.0079.

  5. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  6. Assessment of CO2 flux measurements in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Szlavecz, K.; Musaloiu, R.; Cupchup, J.; Pitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil CO2 efflux are extraordinarily challenging due to the very properties of CO2 transport in a porous medium of soil. The most commonly used method today is the chamber method, which provides direct measurements of CO2 efflux at the soil surface, but it can not measure the soil CO2 flux continuously. In order to develop new measurement methods in soil CO2 efflux, small solid-state CO2 sensors have been used to continuously to monitor soil CO2 profiles by burying these sensors at different soil depths. Using this method we compared soil CO2 efflux of four different soil types: forests soil, grassland soil (collected in Maryland) commercial potting soil and pure sand as control. CO2 concentration varied between 500 ppm in sand and 8000 ppm in forest soil at depth 12 cm. CO2 flux had the following order: Forest (0.3~0.4 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), potting soil (0.1~0.14 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ), grassland (0.03~0.05 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), sand ( 0 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ). Exponential relationship between temperature and CO2 flux was established for forest soil and potting soil only. Leaf litter, often thick layer in many terrestrial ecosystems and a significant source of CO2 production, is not part of the of the diffusivity models. We are currently conducting experiments which include the effect of leaf litter and soil invertebrates into soil respiration.

  7. [CO2 flux characteristics and their influence on the carbon budget of a larch plantation in Maoershan region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Sun, Wei; Su, Dong-Xue; Zheng, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    From January to December 2008, the CO2 flux in a larch plantation (Larix gmeilinii) in Maoershan region of Shangzhi County, Heilongliang Province was measured by eddy covanance method, and the diurnal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate were measured in growth season (from May to October). There existed differences in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the plantation in different time periods under the effects of environmental factors. In the afternoon (12:00-24:00), the NEE changed more slowly with the variation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in the morning (0:00-12:00); and in the morning, tbe light use efficiency was 0.6284 mol x mol(-1), 14% more than that in afternoon. The NEE increased with increasing temperature, and the increment in the morning was 50% higher than that in the afternoon (air temperature > 15 degrees C). These differences in responding to environmental changes led to 88% NEE implemented in the morning, and only 12% NEE implemented in the afternoon. The annual gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in the morning took a percentage of 60%, and that in afternoon took 40%. These findings were supported by the observation at leaf level, i.e., on average of whole growth season, the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the morning was over 2-fold higher than that in afternoon. Generally, the annual NEE, ecosystem respiration (Re), and GEP of the plantation in 2008 were 263-264 g C x m(-2), 718-725 g C x m(-2), and 981-989 g C x m(-2), respectively.

  8. Assessing the impact of urban land cover composition on CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Hinkle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is an ever increasing trend in global land use change, and has been identified as a key driver of CO2 emissions. Therefore, understanding how urbanization affects CO2 flux across a range of climatic zones and development patterns is critical to projecting the impact of future land use on CO2 flux dynamics. A growing number of studies are applying the eddy covariance method to urban areas to quantify the CO2 flux dynamics of these systems. However, interpretation of eddy covariance data in these urban systems presents a challenge, particularly in areas with high heterogeneity due to a mixing of built and green space. Here we present a study aimed at establishing a relationship between land cover composition and CO2 flux for a heterogeneous urban area of Orlando, FL. CO2 flux has been measured at this site for > 4 years using an open path eddy covariance system. Land cover at this site was classified into built and green space, and relative weight of both land covers were calculated for each 30 min CO2 flux measurement using the Schuepp model and a source area based on +/- one standard deviation of wind direction. The results of this analysis established a relationship between built land cover and CO2 flux within the measured footprint of this urban area. These results, in combination with future projected land use data, will be a valuable resource for providing insight into the impact of future urbanization on CO2 flux dynamics in this region.

  9. Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

  10. A practical CO2 flux remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An accurate quantification of CO2 flux from both natural and anthropogenic sources is of great interest in various areas of the Earth, environmental and atmospheric sciences. As emitted excess CO2 quickly dilutes into the 400 ppm ambient CO2 concentration and degassing often occurs diffusively, measuring CO2 fluxes is challenging. Therefore, fluxes are usually derived from grids of in-situ measurements, which are labour intensive measurements. Other than a safe measurement distance, remote sensing offers quick, spatially integrated and thus a more thorough measurement of gas fluxes. Active remote sensing combines these merits with operation independent of sunlight or clear sky conditions. Due to their weight and size, active remote sensing platforms for CO2, such as LIDAR, cannot easily be applied in the field or transported overseas. Moreover, their complexity requires a rather lengthy setup procedure to be undertaken by skilled personal. To meet the need for a rugged, practical CO2 remote sensing technique to scan volcanic plumes, we have developed the CO2 LIDAR. It measures 1-D column densities of CO2 with sufficient sensitivity to reveal the contribution of magmatic CO2. The CO2 LIDAR has been mounted inside a small aircraft and used to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations between the aircraft and the ground. It was further employed on the ground, measuring CO2 emissions from mud volcanism. During the measurement campaign the CO2 LIDAR demonstrated reliability, portability, quick set-up time (10 to 15 min) and platform independence. This new technique opens the possibility of rapid, comprehensive surveys of point source, open-vent CO2 emissions, as well as emissions from more diffuse sources such as lakes and fumarole fields. Currently, within the proof-of-concept ERC project CarbSens, a further reduction in size, weight and operational complexity is underway with the goal to commercialize the platform. Areas of potential applications include fugitive

  11. [CO2 fluxes in mire and grassland on Ruoergai plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Xuan; Song, Chang-Chun; Wang, Yi-Yong; Zhao, Zhi-Chun

    2008-02-01

    With closed chamber and GC technique, a comparative study was conducted on the CO2 fluxes in mire and grassland on Ruoergai plateau during the plant growth period in 2003-2005. The results showed that the mean value of the CO2 fluxes in the three years was 203.22 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in mire and 323.03 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in grassland, with the former being only about 60% of the latter. The perennially water-logging of mire limited the decomposition of plant residues, roots and organic substances, resulting in a lower CO2 flux in mire than in grassland. The seasonal changes of CO2 fluxes in mire and grassland were positively correlated with air temperature, the peak value being usually appeared in July or August, and the diurnal changes of the CO2 fluxes were also positively correlated with air temperature, the peak value being usually appeared between 11:00 and 17:00. The CO2 fluxes had a higher correlation with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm than at the depths of 10 cm and 15 cm.

  12. Critical Considerations for Accurate Soil CO2 Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Furtaw, M.; Madsen, R.; Welles, J.; Demetriades-Shah, T.; Anderson, D.; Garcia, R.; McDermitt, D.

    2005-12-01

    Soil respiration is a significant component of the carbon balance for an ecosystem, but the environmental (soil moisture, rain event, temperature etc.) and biological (photosynthesis, LAI etc.) factors that contribute to soil respiration remain poorly understood. This limits our ability to understand the carbon budget at the ecosystem level making it difficult to predict the impacts of climate change. Two important reasons for this poor understanding have been the difficulty in making accurate soil respiration measurements and the lack of continuous and long-term soil respiration data at sufficiently fine temporal and spatial scales. To meet these needs, we have developed a new automated multiplexing system, the LI-8100M, for obtaining reliable soil CO2 flux data at high spatial and temporal resolution. The system has the capability to continuously measure the soil CO2 flux at up to 16 locations. Soil CO2 flux is driven primarily by the CO2 diffusion gradient across the soil surface. Ideally, the flux measurement should be made without affecting the diffusion gradient and without having any chamber-induced pressure perturbation. In a closed-chamber system the slope of dCO2/dt is required to compute the flux. To obtain the slope of dCO2/dt, the chamber CO2 concentration must be allowed to rise. Consequently, soil CO2 flux will be affected because of the decreased CO2 diffusion gradient. To minimize the impact of decreased CO2 diffusion gradient on CO2 flux measurement in LI-8100M, the chamber CO2 concentration versus time is fitted with an exponential function. Soil CO2 flux is then estimated by calculating the initial slope from the exponential function at time zero when the chamber touches the soil, and that is when the chamber CO2 concentration is equal to the ambient. Our results show that the flux estimated from a linear function, the widely used method, could underestimate CO2 flux by more than 10% as compared with that from the exponential function. An

  13. A Synthesized Model-Observation Approach to Constraining Gross Urban CO2 Fluxes Using 14CO2 and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFranchi, B. W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bambha, R.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanized regions are responsible for a disproportionately large percentage (30-40%) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, despite covering only 2% of the Earth's surface area [Satterthwaite, 2008]. As a result, policies enacted at the local level in these urban areas can, in aggregate, have a large global impact, both positive and negative. In order to address the scientific questions that are required to drive these policy decisions, methods are needed that resolve gross CO2 flux components from the net flux. Recent work suggests that the critical knowledge gaps in CO2 surface fluxes could be addressed through the combined analysis of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) and radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 (14CO2) [e.g. Campbell et al., 2008; Graven et al., 2009]. The 14CO2 approach relies on mass balance assumptions about atmospheric CO2 and the large differences in 14CO2 abundance between fossil and natural sources of CO2 [Levin et al., 2003]. COS, meanwhile, is a potentially transformative tracer of photosynthesis because its variability in the atmosphere has been found to be influenced primarily by vegetative uptake, scaling linearly will gross primary production (GPP) [Kettle et al., 20027]. Taken together, these two observations provide constraints on two of the three main components of the CO2 budget at the urban scale: photosynthesis and fossil fuel emissions. The third component, respiration, can then be determined by difference if the net flux is known. Here we present a general overview of our synthesized model-observation approach for improving surface flux estimates of CO2 for the upwind fetch of a ~30m tower located in Livermore, CA, USA, a suburb (pop. ~80,000) at the eastern edge of the San Francisco Bay Area. Additionally, we will present initial results from a one week observational intensive, which includes continuous CO2, CH4, CO, SO2, NOx, and O3 observations in addition to measurements of 14CO2 and COS from air samples

  14. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  15. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  16. High temporal resolution dynamics of wintertime soil CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, D. A.; McArthur, G. S.; Nickerson, N. R.; Beltrami, H.

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have undertaken soil CO2 flux measurements during winter, despite the fact that even in temperate zones, winter-like conditions may persist for one-third of the year or more. When growing season monitoring equipment is stowed for the winter, we potentially miss a large portion of the carbon budget, and may also fail to develop an adequate appreciation of winter c production dynamics. These are critical gaps, especially with respect to soil carbon stability and CO2 emissions in northern and permafrost areas, which are expected to accelerate as a consequence of climate change and which may create a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study undertakes a thorough examination of overwinter soil CO2 dynamics at two contrasting sites; one with deeply frozen soils where snow cover is absent as a result of sustained high winds; and another site with heavy snow load (>150 cm typical) where soils underneath remain frost-free because of snowpack insulation. Our overwinter soil-surface CO2 flux measurements were facilitated by use of a new instrumental technique called Continuous Timeseries - Forced Diffusion (CT-FD) to record soil CO2 fluxes continuously at a temporal resolution of 60 seconds. The high frequency monitoring allows us to look not only at magnitudes of change and carbon budgets, but also in detail at the temporal characteristics of response to environmental forcings. Here, we concentrate our analysis on rates of change near critical thresholds such as freeze-thaw. At the deep snowpack site where soil frost was absent, we observed pronounced diurnal cyclicity in CO2 flux even under a >150 cm snowpack, marked moisture response after midwinter rain events, and a springtime respiratory burst that began slightly before full snowpack melt. The CO2 emission dynamics from the frozen soils of the snow-free site were dominated by respiratory bursts at freeze-thaw thresholds when solar heating and warm air temperatures created a thin active

  17. Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott

    2016-05-01

    National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in

  18. Simulating dynamics of δ13C of CO2 in the planetary boundary layer over a boreal forest region: covariation between surface fluxes and atmospheric mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Tans, Pieter P.; Huang, Lin

    2006-11-01

    Stable isotopes of CO2 contain unique information on the biological and physical processes that exchange CO2 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes with the atmosphere is correlated diurnally and seasonally with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. The strength of this kind of covariation affects the vertical gradient of δ13C and thus the global δ13C distribution pattern. We need to understand the various processes involved in transport/diffusion of carbon isotope ratio in the PBL and between the PBL and the biosphere and the troposphere. In this study, we employ a one-dimensional vertical diffusion/transport atmospheric model (VDS), coupled to an ecosystem isotope model (BEPS-EASS) to simulate dynamics of 13CO2 in the PBL over a boreal forest region in the vicinity of the Fraserdale (FRD) tower (49°52'29.9''N, 81°34'12.3''W) in northern Ontario, Canada. The data from intensive campaigns during the growing season in 1999 at this site are used for model validation in the surface layer. The model performance, overall, is satisfactory in simulating the measured data over the whole course of the growing season. We examine the interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere through the PBL with respect to δ13C on diurnal and seasonal scales. The simulated annual mean vertical gradient of δ13C in the PBL in the vicinity of the FRD tower was about 0.25‰ in 1999. The δ13C vertical gradient exhibited strong diurnal (29%) and seasonal (71%) variations that do not exactly mimic those of CO2. Most of the vertical gradient (96.5% +/-) resulted from covariation between ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes and the PBL dynamics, while the rest (3.5%+/-) was contributed by isotopic disequilibrium between respiration and photosynthesis. This disequilibrium effect on δ13C of CO2 dynamics in PBL, moreover, was confined to the near surface layers (less than 350 m).

  19. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non-steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) δ13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. Based on simple simulation of C aging in

  20. Carbon Flux Estimated from CO2 Concentration using Half Order Derivative Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnaz, S.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The object of this study is to test the half-order derivative method for estimating carbon flux from CO2 concentration time series data at single level near the surface. When the transport process is described by a diffusion equation, carbon flux may be expressed as a weighted average of CO2 concentration time-series known as half-order time derivative. CO2 concentration and flux data collected from Ameriflux network at 10 sites in USA, Canada, Mexico and Brazil were used in this study. The preliminary results show good agreement between the modeled and observed CO2 flux during growing seasons. The study suggests that the half order derivative method is a useful tool in monitoring global carbon budget as direct measurements of carbon flux over extensive regions are limited.

  1. Change in CO2 Flux in Coral Reefs by Bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, H.; Kayanne, H.; Watanabe, A.; Hata, H.; Kudo, S.; Nozaki, K.; Kato, K.; Negishi, A.; Saito, H.

    2001-05-01

    Coral reefs are related with carbon cycles through photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Photosynthesis acts as sink of CO2, though respiration and calcification act as source of CO2. The role of coral reef ecosystem to atmospheric CO2 changes with balance among these community-level metabolisms. The world-wide coral reef bleaching in 1997-1998 provided us with a chance to evaluate the role of the metabolic processes of coral reefs to carbon cycles. In Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwest Japan and Palau Islands, west of Caroline Islands, we measured CO2 in reef water and community metabolisms by change in seawater alkalinity and total inorganic carbon. The observtion were conducted during and after bleaching in Ishigaki Island, and before and after bleaching in Palau Islands. Higher rates of community gross primary production (Pg) and respiration (R), and lower rate of net community production (Pn) were observed for the community with extensive bleaching. Calcification rate (G) was almost the same. The resultant increase in magnitude of diurnal change in CO2 were observed, and the community acted as net source of CO2. Lower rates of Pg, R, Pn, G and resultant smaller variation in diurnal CO2 change were observed for the community of dead corals and filamentous brown algae. This also resulted in shift of the community CO2 flux to net source of CO2. Bleaching shifted the function of coral reef ecosystem from sink or small source to large source of CO2. More severe and extensive bleaching is predicted to be occurred during the global warming, which acted as positive feedback to CO2 increase, and thus, global warming.

  2. Controls on air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean east of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J.; Strutton, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The temperate latitudes of the world oceans (~30-50° north and south) are strong sinks for atmospheric CO2 on a mean annual basis. Due to sparse data, the Southern Ocean is the least understood of these CO2 sink regions, with estimates of the annual air-sea CO2 flux varying by as much as 100%, depending upon the calculation method. This work investigates processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean, with a focus on the Pacific sector east of Australia. We quantify the effects of temperature, biological drawdown, and the large-scale general circulation on seawater pCO2 on seasonal and annual timescales, and discuss the balance of these forcings. We expressly consider the impact of the general circulation on the air-sea CO2 flux, which we showed in a previous study to determine the location of the North Pacific carbon sink region. Worldwide, the regions of strong atmospheric CO2 uptake are all located in deep western boundary currents and their extensions, suggesting a larger role for the general circulation in forcing these sinks than is currently acknowledged or understood. Understanding the processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean is critical for predicting how this gas exchange will change in the future.

  3. CO2 fluxes from a tropical neighborhood: sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.

    2011-12-01

    Cities are the main contributors to the CO2 rise in the atmosphere. The CO2 released from the various emission sources is typically quantified by a bottom-up aggregation process that accounts for emission factors and fossil fuel consumption data. This approach does not consider the heterogeneity and variability of the urban emission sources, and error propagation can result in large uncertainties. In this context, direct measurements of CO2 fluxes that include all major and minor anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks from a specific district can be used to evaluate emission inventories. This study reports and compares CO2 fluxes measured directly using the eddy covariance method with emissions estimated by emissions factors and activity data for a residential neighborhood of Singapore, a highly populated and urbanized tropical city. The flux measurements were conducted during one year. No seasonal variability was found as a consequence of the constant climate conditions of tropical places; but a clear diurnal pattern with morning and late afternoon peaks in phase with the rush-hour traffic was observed. The magnitude of the fluxes throughout daylight hours is modulated by the urban vegetation, which is abundant in terms of biomass but not of land-cover (15%). Even though the carbon uptake by vegetation is significant, it does not exceed the anthropogenic emissions and the monitored district is a net CO2 source of 20.3 ton km-2 day-1 on average. The carbon uptake by vegetation is investigated as the difference between the estimated emissions and the measured fluxes during daytime.

  4. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This mini-review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or a few years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes and are based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) &delta13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a~prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. The future challenges

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in forest soil CO2 flux among stands and under elevated [CO2] and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, A. C.; Palmroth, S.; Johnsen, K.; Butnor, J. R.; McCarthy, H. R.; Oren, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude of CO2 flux from soil (Fsoil) varies with primary productivity and environmental drivers of respiration, soil temperature (Tsoil) and moisture, all of which vary temporally and spatially. To quantify the sources of Fsoil variability, we compared Fsoil of three proximate forests in the Southeastern U.S. ranging in age, composition, soil, and environment and, thus, productivity. We collected data during a 10-year period with automated soil respiration chambers in a mid-rotation (PP) and mature (OP) Pinus taeda stands and a mature, mixed-species hardwood (HW) stand; PP and HW were on clay-loam soil and OP on a sandy soil. Productivity in PP was further altered as part of the Duke Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, combining the effects of elevated [CO2] and nitrogen (N) fertilization. Temporally, diurnal to seasonal variation of Fsoil followed Tsoil whereas inter-annual variability was driven by soil moisture. Spatially, among stands Fsoil increased with leaf production such that sensitivity to Tsoil was lowest in OP and highest in PP, resulting in mean annual Fsoil of 1033 (OP), 1206 (HW), and 1383 (PP) g C m-2. Among four ambient [CO2]-unfertilized plots within PP, sensitivity of Fsoil to Tsoil was similar, yet higher leaf area lowered soil temperature, belowground carbon flux, and Fsoil, a pattern contrasting that observed among stands. Among the FACE treatments, soil moisture and temperature were similar, whereas temperature- and moisture-sensitivities of Fsoil were affected by some of the treatments, but only at the height of the summer when temperatures were high and moisture low. The effects of elevated [CO2] and fertilization on annual Fsoil interacted such that Fsoil was similar among unfertilized plots of both [CO2] treatments. N fertilization under ambient [CO2] led to a 20% reduction in Fsoil, while Fsoil of elevated [CO2] plots did not differ from that of unfertilized plots. Among fertilized and unfertilized plots, increasing N

  6. Complex night-time CO2 fluxes at Norunda site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, Meelis; Lindroth, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Flux measurement at Norunda, Sweden have been carried out since the summer of 1994. In 2007, the old Gill R2 and LI-6262 were replaced by a Metek USA-1 sonic and a LI-7000 gas analyser. This system is in operation even today. The Norunda site is characterized by a flat landscape and a 26 m tall, more than 100-years-old pine-spruce forest nearest the tower. On annual bases the site has shown to be a source of CO2, mainly because of high night-time fluxes. Night-time CO2 fluxes are not only high, they also very variable. Night-time fluxes are usually claimed to be underestimated because of decoupling between the under-story and the above-canopy air. Besides this underestimation many night-time flux values in Norunda seem to be overestimated. Those values could go up to 50 µmol m-1 s-1. The standard ustar-filtering might not be a proper method for the analysis. We will look for alternative filtering methods and show the sensitivity of annual CO2 budgets on the used methods.

  7. Assessing the Impacts of Land-Use Change and Ecological Restoration on CH4 and CO2 Fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Findings from a Regional Network of Eddy Covariance Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Koteen, L. E.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The new generation of open-path, low power, laser spectrometers has allowed us to measure methane (CH4) fluxes continuously in remote regions and answer new and exciting questions on the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using networks of eddy covariance (EC) towers. Our research is focused in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta where we have installed a regional network of flux towers to assess the impacts of land-use change and ecological restoration on CH4 and CO2 fluxes. The Delta was drained for agriculture over a century ago and has since has experienced high rates of subsidence. It is recognized that agriculture on drained peat soils in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding increases CH4 emissions. We conducted multiple years of simultaneous EC measurements at drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture, a corn field and an alfalfa field) and flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and 3 restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Since these sites are all within 20 km of each other, they share the same basic meteorology, enabling a direct comparison of differences in the C and GHG budgets between sites. Using a multi-tower approach we found that converting drained agricultural peatlands to flooded land-use types can help reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions from the Delta. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in wetland restoration in California to generate C credits for both the voluntary C market and the state's cap-and-trade program. However, information on GHG fluxes from restored wetlands is lacking. Using multi-year measurements of GHG fluxes from restored wetlands of varying ages, our research also aims to understand how CO2 and CH4 fluxes from restored wetlands vary during ecosystem development

  8. Impact of Siberian observations on the optimization of surface CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Hyun Mee; Cho, Chun-Ho; Boo, Kyung-On; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Sasakawa, Motoki; Machida, Toshinobu; Arshinov, Mikhail; Fedoseev, Nikolay

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of additional CO2 observations in the Siberia region on the Asian and global surface CO2 flux analyses, two experiments using different observation data sets were performed for 2000-2009. One experiment was conducted using a data set that includes additional observations of Siberian tower measurements (Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network: JR-STATION), and the other experiment was conducted using a data set without the above additional observations. The results show that the global balance of the sources and sinks of surface CO2 fluxes was maintained for both experiments with and without the additional observations. While the magnitude of the optimized surface CO2 flux uptake and flux uncertainty in Siberia decreased from -1.17 ± 0.93 to -0.77 ± 0.70 Pg C yr-1, the magnitude of the optimized surface CO2 flux uptake in the other regions (e.g., Europe) of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) land increased for the experiment with the additional observations, which affect the longitudinal distribution of the total NH sinks. This change was mostly caused by changes in the magnitudes of surface CO2 flux in June and July. The observation impact measured by uncertainty reduction and self-sensitivity tests shows that additional observations provide useful information on the estimated surface CO2 flux. The average uncertainty reduction of the conifer forest of Eurasian boreal (EB) is 29.1 % and the average self-sensitivities at the JR-STATION sites are approximately 60 % larger than those at the towers in North America. It is expected that the Siberian observations play an important role in estimating surface CO2 flux in the NH land (e.g., Siberia and Europe) in the future.

  9. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes in the Caribbean Sea from 2002-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Olsen, Are; Triñanes, Joaquin

    2007-06-01

    Air-sea fluxes in the Caribbean Sea are presented based on measurements of partial pressure of CO 2 in surface seawater, pCO 2sw, from an automated system onboard the cruise ship Explorer of the Seas for 2002 through 2004. The pCO 2sw values are used to develop algorithms of pCO 2sw based on sea surface temperature (SST) and position. The algorithms are applied to assimilated SST data and remotely sensed winds on a 1° by 1° grid to estimate the fluxes on weekly timescales in the region. The positive relationship between pCO 2sw and SST is lower than the isochemical trend suggesting counteracting effects from biological processes. The relationship varies systematically with location with a stronger dependence further south. Furthermore, the southern area shows significantly lower pCO 2sw in the fall compared to the spring at the same SST, which is attributed to differences in salinity. The annual algorithms for the entire region show a slight trend between 2002 and 2004 suggesting an increase of pCO 2sw over time. This is in accord with the increasing pCO 2sw due the invasion of anthropogenic CO 2. The annual fluxes of CO 2 yield a net invasion of CO 2 to the ocean that ranges from - 0.04 to - 1.2 mol m - 2 year - 1 over the 3 years. There is a seasonal reversal in the direction of the flux with CO 2 entering into the ocean during the winter and an evasion during the summer. Year-to-year differences in flux are primarily caused by temperature anomalies in the late winter and spring period resulting in changes in invasion during these seasons. An analysis of pCO 2sw before and after hurricane Frances (September 4-6, 2004), and wind records during the storm suggest a large local enhancement of the flux but minimal influence on annual fluxes in the region.

  10. A biogenic CO2 flux adjustment scheme for the mitigation of large-scale biases in global atmospheric CO2 analyses and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí-Panareda, Anna; Massart, Sébastien; Chevallier, Frédéric; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boussetta, Souhail; Dutra, Emanuel; Beljaars, Anton

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting atmospheric CO2 daily at the global scale with a good accuracy like it is done for the weather is a challenging task. However, it is also one of the key areas of development to bridge the gaps between weather, air quality and climate models. The challenge stems from the fact that atmospheric CO2 is largely controlled by the CO2 fluxes at the surface, which are difficult to constrain with observations. In particular, the biogenic fluxes simulated by land surface models show skill in detecting synoptic and regional-scale disturbances up to sub-seasonal time-scales, but they are subject to large seasonal and annual budget errors at global scale, usually requiring a posteriori adjustment. This paper presents a scheme to diagnose and mitigate model errors associated with biogenic fluxes within an atmospheric CO2 forecasting system. The scheme is an adaptive scaling procedure referred to as a biogenic flux adjustment scheme (BFAS), and it can be applied automatically in real time throughout the forecast. The BFAS method generally improves the continental budget of CO2 fluxes in the model by combining information from three sources: (1) retrospective fluxes estimated by a global flux inversion system, (2) land-use information, (3) simulated fluxes from the model. The method is shown to produce enhanced skill in the daily CO2 10-day forecasts without requiring continuous manual intervention. Therefore, it is particularly suitable for near-real-time CO2 analysis and forecasting systems.

  11. Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lenton, A.; Law, R.; Metzl, N.; Patra, P. K.; Doney, S.; Lima, I. D.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ramonet, M.; Valsala, V.

    2013-07-01

    The Indian Ocean (44° S-30° N) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet remains one of the most poorly sampled ocean regions. Several approaches have been used to estimate net sea-air CO2 fluxes in this region: interpolated observations, ocean biogeochemical models, atmospheric and ocean inversions. As part of the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, we combine these different approaches to quantify and assess the magnitude and variability in Indian Ocean sea-air CO2 fluxes between 1990 and 2009. Using all of the models and inversions, the median annual mean sea-air CO2 uptake of -0.37 ± 0.06 Pg C yr-1, is consistent with the -0.24 ± 0.12 Pg C yr-1 calculated from observations. The fluxes from the Southern Indian Ocean (18° S-44° S; -0.43 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1) are similar in magnitude to the annual uptake for the entire Indian Ocean. All models capture the observed pattern of fluxes in the Indian Ocean with the following exceptions: underestimation of upwelling fluxes in the northwestern region (off Oman and Somalia), over estimation in the northeastern region (Bay of Bengal) and underestimation of the CO2 sink in the subtropical convergence zone. These differences were mainly driven by a lack of atmospheric CO2 data in atmospheric inversions, and poor simulation of monsoonal currents and freshwater discharge in ocean biogeochemical models. Overall, the models and inversions do capture the phase of the observed seasonality for the entire Indian Ocean but over estimate the magnitude. The predicted sea-air CO2 fluxes by Ocean BioGeochemical Models (OBGM) respond to seasonal variability with strong phase lags with reference to climatological CO2 flux, whereas the atmospheric inversions predict an order of magnitude higher seasonal flux than OBGMs. The simulated interannual variability by the OBGMs is weaker than atmospheric inversions. Prediction of such weak interannual variability in CO2 fluxes by atmospheric inversions

  12. Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lenton, A.; Law, R. M.; Metzl, N.; Patra, P. K.; Doney, S.; Lima, I. D.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ramonet, M.; Valsala, V.

    2013-11-01

    The Indian Ocean (44° S-30° N) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet it remains one of the most poorly sampled ocean regions. Several approaches have been used to estimate net sea-air CO2 fluxes in this region: interpolated observations, ocean biogeochemical models, atmospheric and ocean inversions. As part of the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, we combine these different approaches to quantify and assess the magnitude and variability in Indian Ocean sea-air CO2 fluxes between 1990 and 2009. Using all of the models and inversions, the median annual mean sea-air CO2 uptake of -0.37 ± 0.06 PgC yr-1 is consistent with the -0.24 ± 0.12 PgC yr-1 calculated from observations. The fluxes from the southern Indian Ocean (18-44° S; -0.43 ± 0.07 PgC yr-1 are similar in magnitude to the annual uptake for the entire Indian Ocean. All models capture the observed pattern of fluxes in the Indian Ocean with the following exceptions: underestimation of upwelling fluxes in the northwestern region (off Oman and Somalia), overestimation in the northeastern region (Bay of Bengal) and underestimation of the CO2 sink in the subtropical convergence zone. These differences were mainly driven by lack of atmospheric CO2 data in atmospheric inversions, and poor simulation of monsoonal currents and freshwater discharge in ocean biogeochemical models. Overall, the models and inversions do capture the phase of the observed seasonality for the entire Indian Ocean but overestimate the magnitude. The predicted sea-air CO2 fluxes by ocean biogeochemical models (OBGMs) respond to seasonal variability with strong phase lags with reference to climatological CO2 flux, whereas the atmospheric inversions predicted an order of magnitude higher seasonal flux than OBGMs. The simulated interannual variability by the OBGMs is weaker than that found by atmospheric inversions. Prediction of such weak interannual variability in CO2 fluxes by atmospheric

  13. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri

    2007-05-01

    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  15. CO2-fluxing collapses metal mobility in magmatic vapour

    DOE PAGES

    van Hinsberg, V. J.; Berlo, K.; Migdisov, A. A.; ...

    2016-05-18

    Magmatic systems host many types of ore deposits, including world-class deposits of copper and gold. Magmas are commonly an important source of metals and ore-forming fluids in these systems. In many magmatic-hydrothermal systems, low-density aqueous fluids, or vapours, are significant metal carriers. Such vapours are water-dominated shallowly, but fluxing of CO2-rich vapour exsolved from deeper magma is now recognised as ubiquitous during open-system magma degassing. Furthermore, we show that such CO2-fluxing leads to a sharp drop in element solubility, up to a factor of 10,000 for Cu, and thereby provides a highly efficient, but as yet unrecognised mechanism for metalmore » deposition.« less

  16. Net ecosystem production, calcification and CO2 fluxes on a reef flat in Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Cybelle M.; Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Silva, Ananda M.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon cycle in coral reefs is usually dominated by the organic carbon metabolism and precipitation-dissolution of CaCO3, processes that control the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in seawater and the CO2 fluxes through the air-sea interface. In order to characterize these processes and the carbonate system, four sampling surveys were conducted at the reef flat of Coroa Vermelha during low tide (exposed flat). Net ecosystem production (NEP), net precipitation-dissolution of CaCO3 (G) and CO2 fluxes across the air-water interface were calculated. The reef presented net autotrophy and calcification at daytime low tide. The NEP ranged from -8.7 to 31.6 mmol C m-2 h-1 and calcification from -13.1 to 26.0 mmol C m-2 h-1. The highest calcification rates occurred in August 2007, coinciding with the greater NEP rates. The daytime CO2 fluxes varied from -9.7 to 22.6 μmol CO2 m-2 h-1, but reached up to 13,900 μmol CO2 m-2 h-1 during nighttime. Carbon dioxide influx to seawater was predominant in the reef flat during low tide. The regions adjacent to the reef showed a supersaturation of CO2, acting as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere (from -22.8 to -2.6 mol CO2 m-2 h-1) in the reef flat during ebbing tide. Nighttime gas release to the atmosphere indicates a net CO2 release from the Coroa Vermelha reef flat within 24 h, and that these fluxes can be important to carbon budget in coral reefs.

  17. Influence of Land Cover and Climate on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from Urban Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. M.; Groffman, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Gold, A.; Cole, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Soils are important sinks for greenhouse gases globally. Urbanization influences biogeochemical processes and gas fluxes through increased nitrogen deposition, heat island effects, and vegetation management. Previous work at the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER site has reported elevated CO2 fluxes and reduced CH4 consumption in urban soils. Differences among soils (urban forest, rural forest, lawns) have been linked to nitrogen cycling and may also be driven by temperature differences between land cover types. A combination of site-specific changes (land cover, nitrogen availability) and climatological (temperature, soil moisture) factors are likely to influence long-term patterns in gas fluxes and therefore carbon storage in growing urban regions. We utilized 15 years of measured gas fluxes and continuous temperature and soil moisture data to model CO2 emissions and CH4 consumption under different vegetation classes. We scaled these fluxes to the metropolitan region using high-resolution spatial, and found that regional CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes are sensitive to changes in temperature and land cover. For instance, in 2007 land cover in Baltimore City had 21% lawn and 22% forest cover. If all of the lawn area in the city were converted to urban forest, CH4 consumption by urban soils would increase by 70% and CO2 emissions would decrease by 20%. In suburban Baltimore County, lawns and urban forests comprised 35 and 50% of land cover respectively. If all lawns in the county were converted to urban forest, soil CH4 consumption would increase by 55% and soil CO2 flux would decrease by 20%. Soil CO2 fluxes also increase by approximately 0.1g C m-2 d-1 for every 1° C increase across all land cover classes. CH4 consumption increases with temperature in urban and rural forest soils. Our results highlight the interacting effects of land cover change and climate on carbon fluxes from urban soils.

  18. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An 'anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems.

  19. Quantifying the magnitude, spatiotemporal variation and age of aquatic CO2 fluxes in western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude regions are experiencing accelerated atmospheric warming, and understanding the terrestrial response to this is of crucial importance as: a) there is a large store of carbon (C) in permafrost soils which may be released and feedback to climate change; and, b) ice sheet melt in this region is accelerating, and whilst this will cause albedo and heat flux changes, the role of this in atmospheric gas release is poorly known. To understand how sensitive arctic environments may respond to future warming, we need measurements that document current C flux rates and help to understand C cycling pathways. Although it has been widely hypothesised that arctic regions may become increasingly significant C sources, the contribution of aquatic C fluxes which integrate catchment-wide sources has been little studied. Using a floating chamber method we directly measured CO2 fluxes from spatially distributed freshwaters (ice sheet melt, permafrost melt, and lakes/ponds) in the Kangerlussuaq region of western Greenland during the early part of the summer 2014 melt season. Fluxes from freshwaters with permafrost sources were in the range -3.15 to +1.28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Fluxes from a river draining the ice sheet and the Russell Glacier were between -2.19 and +4.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. These ranges show the systems can be both sources (efflux) and sinks (influx) of CO2. Most freshwater data worldwide shows CO2 efflux and so recording aquatic systems being a CO2­ ­sink is unusual. Our data show spatial and temporal variations that are related to hydraulic as well as biogeochemical processes. Additionally, where we recorded CO2 efflux we collected effluxed CO2 for radiocarbon analysis. The measured age of the released gas will help to identify the sources and dominant transport processes of CO­2 (e.g. entrained modern atmospheric CO2, or old CO2 trapped during ice formation released through ice melt, or CO2 derived from respiration of soil and sediment organic matter

  20. Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Imasu, R.; Satoh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Better understanding of the global and regional carbon budget is needed to perform a reliable prediction of future climate with an earth system model. However, the reliability of CO2 source/sink estimation by inverse modeling, which is one of the promising methods to estimate regional carbon budget, is limited because of sparse observational data coverage. Very few observational data are available in tropics. Therefore, especially the reconstruction of tropical terrestrial fluxes has considerable uncertainties. In this study, regional CO2 fluxes for 2006-2008 are estimated by inverse modeling using the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) in addition to the surface measurement dataset of GLOBALVIEW-CO2. CONTRAIL is a recently established CO2 measurement network using in-situ measurement instruments on board commercial aircraft. Five CONTRAIL aircraft travel back and forth between Japan and many areas: Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Australia. The Bayesian synthesis approach is used to estimate monthly fluxes for 42 regions using NICAM-TM simulations with existing CO2 flux datasets and monthly mean observational data. It is demonstrated that the aircraft data have great impact on estimated tropical terrestrial fluxes. By adding the aircraft data to the surface data, the analyzed uncertainty of tropical fluxes has been reduced by 15 % and more than 30 % uncertainty reduction rate is found in Southeast and South Asia. Specifically, for annual net CO2 fluxes, nearly neutral fluxes of Indonesia, which is estimated using the surface dataset alone, turn to positive fluxes, i.e. carbon sources. In Indonesia, a remarkable carbon release during the severe drought period of October-December in 2006 is estimated, which suggests that biosphere respiration or biomass burning was larger than the prior fluxes. Comparison of the optimized atmospheric CO2 with independent aircraft measurements of CARIBIC tends to validate

  1. Influence of Fossil Fuel Emissions on CO2 Flux Estimation by Atmospheric Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Peters, W.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches (or atmospheric inversions) using atmospheric transport models with CO2 observations are an effective way to estimate carbon fluxes at global and regional scales. CO2 flux estimation by Bayesian inversions require a priori knowledge of terrestrial biosphere and oceanic fluxes and fossil fuel (FF) CO2 emissions. In most inversion frameworks, FF CO2 is assumed to be a known quantity because FF CO2 based on world statistics are thought to be more reliable than natural CO2 fluxes. However different databases of FF CO2 emissions may have different temporal and spatial variations especially at locations where statistics are not so accurate. In this study, we use 3 datasets of fossil fuel emissions in inversion estimations and evaluate the sensitivity of the optimized CO2 fluxes to FF emissions with two different inverse models, JAMSTEC's ACTM and CarbonTracker Europe (CTE). Interannually varying a priori FF CO2 emissions were based on 1) CDIAC database, 2) EDGARv4.2 database, and 3) IEA database, with some modifications. Biosphere and oceanic fluxes were optimized. Except for FF emissions, other conditions were kept the same in our inverse experiments. The three a priori FF emissions showed ~5% (~0.3GtC/yr) differences in their global total emissions in the early 2000's and the differences reached ~9% (~0.9 GtC/yr) in 2010. This resulted in 0.5-1 GtC/yr (2001-2011) and 0.3-0.6 GtC/yr (2007-2011) differences in the estimated global total emissions for the ACTM and CTE inversions, respectively. Regional differences in the FF emissions were relatively large in East Asia (~0.5 GtC/yr for ACTM and ~0.3 GtC/yr for CTE) and Europe (~0.3 GtC/yr for ACTM). These a priori flux differences caused differences in the estimated biosphere fluxes for ACTM in East Asia and Europe and also their neighboring regions such as West Asia, Boreal Eurasia, and North Africa. The main differences in the biosphere fluxes for CTE were found in Asia and the Americas.

  2. Air-water CO2 Fluxes and Inorganic Carbon Dynamics in a Microtidal, Eutrophic Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswell, J.; Hales, B. R.; Paerl, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Though the role of coastal margins in the global carbon cycle is on a slow rise up the scientific agenda, carbon dynamics in microtidal estuaries have been largely ignored. High spatial and temporal variability of wind and water conditions in these systems make integration of air-water CO2 fluxes particularly difficult. Given the high degree of monitoring effort required to accurately determine air-water CO2 fluxes, does the short term variability and significance in the coastal carbon cycle justifies the means? In an effort to address this question we examined air-water CO2 fluxes in the microtidal, eutrophic Neuse River Estuary, NC (NRE) from June 2009 to July 2010. High-resolution, continuous-flow surveys of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2, were conducted biweekly spanning the longitudinal axis of the estuary from the tidal freshwater region to the polyhaline border with the Pamlico Sound. Lateral transects were conducted in each of three hydrologically distinct sections. Discrete surface and bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) samples were input into a conservative tracer box model to determine estuarine carbon cycle parameters and exchange coefficients. High temporal variability of air-water CO2 fluxes was closely associated with climatological events affecting estuarine stratification and riverine discharge. The greatest flux rate increase over a 10 day period (-3.01 to 54.76 t-C d-1) was observed during the steepest rise (>500%) in river discharge. Smoother trends were observed on seasonal scales with maximum and minimum whole estuary air-water CO2 flux rates of 54.76 and -20.84 t-C d-1 in mid-fall and late-spring respectively. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the NRE were found to account for up to 5% of total estuarine C import during undersaturated conditions and 14% of C export during oversaturated conditions. Though accurate characterization of air-water CO2 fluxes requires intensive monitoring resources, the magnitude and variability of these exchanges

  3. Simultaneous in situ CO2 soil flux and isotopic analysis in a high CO2 flux environment at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, R. R.; Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Defliese, W.

    2016-12-01

    Areas proximal to Mammoth Mountain, CA, have been emitting anomalously high CO2 for nearly three decades. High CO2 flux rates in these areas have resulted in tree kills and are potentially attributed to a large shallow CO2 reservoir fed by the breakdown of metasedimentary rocks and/or degassing from a mid-crustal magma body. Previous studies have focused largely on providing estimates of total CO2 efflux and the origin of CO2 release in the area. However, the nature and complexity of the interface between high CO2 flux and adjacent ecosystem have not been explored. Here we assess the spatial and temporal transition of the high CO2 flux zone and tree kill area into the adjacent forest ecosystem. In June and July 2016 extensive in situ diffuse soil CO2 flux and 13CO2 isotope measurements were conducted with a coupled West Systems/LICOR and Picarro. Additionally, gas samples were collected for Δ47 clumped isotope analyses. Compared to previous studies, areas of high CO2 flux have progressed northeast into a forest ecosystem, with some of the highest flux areas less than 20 meters from live trees. 13CO2 values primarily mirror areas of high CO2 flux with 13CO2 magmatic signatures; however, magmatic 13CO2 values are present in low CO2 flux and heavily forested areas. Δ47 values are depleted relative to equilibrium at ambient air and soil temperatures, indicating a high-temperature source. Young trees were also observed growing in areas that were part of the initial tree kill, providing tangible evidence of the impact of the movement of the high CO2 flux areas.

  4. Environmental factors regulating winter CO2 flux in snow-covered boreal forest soil, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kodama, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Winter CO2 flux is an important element to assess when estimating the annual carbon budget on regional and global scales. However, winter observation frequency is limited due to the extreme cold weather in sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems. In this study, the continuous monitoring of winter CO2 flux in black spruce forest soil of interior Alaska was performed using NDIR CO2 sensors at 10, 20, and 30 cm above the soil surface during the snow-covered period (DOY 357 to 466) of 2006/2007. The atmospheric pressure was divided into four phases: >1000 hPa (HP: high pressure); 985CO2 flux. The winter CO2 fluxes were 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.23 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.02 gCO2-C/m2 d-1 for the HP, IP, LP, and MP phases, respectively. Wintertime CO2 emission represents 20 % of the annual CO2 emissions in this boreal black spruce forest soil. Atmospheric temperature, pressure, and soil temperature correlate at levels of 56, 25, and 31 % to winter CO2 flux, respectively, during the snow-covered period of 2006/2007, when snow depth experienced one of its lowest totals of the past 80 years. Atmospheric temperature and soil temperature at 5 cm depth, modulated by atmospheric pressure, were found to be significant factors in determining winter CO2 emission and fluctuation in snowpack. Regional/global process-based carbon cycle models should be reassessed to account for the effect of winter CO2 emissions, regulated by temperature and soil latent-heat flux, in the snow-covered soils of Arctic and sub-Arctic terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Soil CO2 Flux Monitoring for Geologic Carbon Storage: Assessing the Background CO2 Levels Prior to Artificial CO2 Release Experiment in Eumsung, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, H. M.; Kim, S.; Park, M. J.; Han, S. H.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With potential risks of CO2 leakage and subsequent impacts on surrounding abiotic and biotic environments, development of adequate monitoring strategies is essential for successful geologic carbon storage (GCS). To accomplish such goal, a controlled artificial CO2 release experiment site has been established in Eumsung, Korea. Prior to the scheduled release in fall 2015 at the depth of 2.5 m, grid measurements of soil CO2 fluxes at the surface and shallow subsoil CO2 concentrations at various depths were conducted periodically in order to assess the background soil respiration fluxes. Following the installation of automated soil flux chambers, the mean flux was found to be 2.1 μmol m-2 s-1 over the period of June to August 2015. However, as expected, spatial and temporal variations of the CO2 flux among the chambers were observed, ranging from about 0.5 to 4.0 μmol m-2 s-1. In addition, it was found that rainfalls, including few incidents of heavy monsoonal rain, have hindered the collection of reliable data. Spatiotemporal variability of soil CO2 flux is due to its strong dependence on surrounding soil conditions (i.e. temperature and soil moisture content) and meteorological conditions. Hence by integrating the results obtained by portable accumulation flux chamber method and subsoil CO2 concentration measurements along with environmental data, we expect to produce a more reliable background value. In addition to expanding the sampling area, subsoil CO2 concentration measurements at various depths is also expected to provide valuable observations on the evolution and vertical movement of CO2 through the soil profile to the surface. Carefully assessed background CO2 flux level, from monitoring over a sufficiently long-term site characterization period and when its spatiotemporal variability is well understood, will be the key to successful leakage detection in GCS facilities. ※ This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "K

  6. Joint CO2 state and flux estimation with the 4D-Var system EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpt, Johannes; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversion studies seek to improve CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes with the usage of adjoint transport models and CO2 concentration measurements. Terrestrial CO2 fluxes -anthropogenic emissions, photosynthesis, and respiration- bear large spatial and temporal variability and are highly uncertain. Additionally to the high uncertainty of the three CO2 fluxes itself, regional inversion studies suffer from uncertainty of the boundary layer height and atmospheric transport especially during night, leading to uncertainty of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios during sunrise. This study assesses the potential of the 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method to estimate CO2 fluxes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations jointly at each grid cell on a regional scale. Identical twin experiments are executed with the nested EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model (EURAD-IM) with 5 km resolution in Central Europe with synthetic half hourly measurements from eleven concentration towers. The assimilation window is chosen to start from sunrise for 12 hours. We find that joint estimation of CO2 fluxes and initial states requires a more careful balance of the background error covariance matrices but enables a more detailed analysis of atmospheric CO2 and the surface-atmosphere fluxes.

  7. Surface Ocean pCO2 Seasonality and Sea-Air CO2 Flux Estimates for the North American East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G., Jr.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Salisbury, Joe; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Underway and in situ observations of surface ocean pCO2, combined with satellite data, were used to develop pCO2 regional algorithms to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of surface ocean pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux for five physically and biologically distinct regions of the eastern North American continental shelf: the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), the Gulf of Maine (GoM), Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank (NS+GB), and the Scotian Shelf (SS). Temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon variability are the most influential factors driving the seasonality of pCO2. Estimates of the sea-air CO2 flux were derived from the available pCO2 data, as well as from the pCO2 reconstructed by the algorithm. Two different gas exchange parameterizations were used. The SS, GB+NS, MAB, and SAB regions are net sinks of atmospheric CO2 while the GoM is a weak source. The estimates vary depending on the use of surface ocean pCO2 from the data or algorithm, as well as with the use of the two different gas exchange parameterizations. Most of the regional estimates are in general agreement with previous studies when the range of uncertainty and interannual variability are taken into account. According to the algorithm, the average annual uptake of atmospheric CO2 by eastern North American continental shelf waters is found to be between 3.4 and 5.4 Tg C/yr (areal average of 0.7 to 1.0 mol CO2 /sq m/yr) over the period 2003-2010.

  8. Soil CO2, N2O and Nox Flux Responses to Biofuel Crop Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L.; Eberwein, J.; Allsman, L.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel crops in high temperature environments, e.g, sorghum in southern California, USA, have a high capacity to assimilate atmospheric CO2. Photosynthates from the canopy may provide extra labile carbon source to feed soil microorganisms and influence trace gas fluxes, including CO2, N2O and NOx. Understanding how soil microorganisms balance the carbon (energy) and nitrogen (nutrients) allocation between growing microbial biomass and respiration is critical for evaluating the GHG emissions and emissions of regional air quality pollutants. We conducted experiments in a high temperature agroecosystem both in fallow and sorghum production fields with an experimental nitrogen gradient (0,50 and 100 kg/ha, marked as control, low and high with triplicate repeat) to investigate the CO2, N2O and NOx flux responses. All gas fluxes were measured simultaneously from three replicate locations for each treatment in the field biweekly. Measurements were performed 2-5 days after irrigation. We found that planting sorghum has significant effects on soil CO2 (p<0.0001), N2O (p<0.0001) and NOx (p=0.04) fluxes, but nitrogen amendments only have marginally significant effects on CO2 flux (p=0.07). Surprisingly, no significant response of N2O (p=0.27) and NOx (p=0.61) were observed in responses to N amendments. Compared to the fallow field, the CO2 flux in sorghum field increased 77%, 134% and 202% in control, low and high N level amendments, respectively. N2O flux from the sorghum field are consistently higher than from fallow field, with 207%, 174% and 1064% increase in control, low and high N level amendments, respectively. For the NOx flux, no significant difference was found between fallow and sorghum field. Although nitrogen amendments did not show significant effects on CO2, N2O and NOx flux, the high N treatment in sorghum field continuously gains the highest flux rates. Our results suggested additional C inputs may be an important factor regulating CO2, N2O and NOx fluxes in

  9. Measurement of Urban fluxes of CO2 and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmond, S.; Crawford, B.; Offerle, B.; Hom, J.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of surface-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and latent heat in urban environments are rare even though cities are a major source of atmospheric CO2 and users of water. In this paper, an overview of urban FCO2 measurements will be presented to illustrate how and where such measurements are being conducted and emerging results to date. Most of these studies have been conducted over short periods of time; few studies have considered annual sources/sinks. More investigations have been conducted, and are planned, in European cities than elsewhere, most commonly in areas of medium density urban development. The most dense urban sites are significant net sources of carbon. However, in areas where there is large amounts of vegetation present, there is a net sink of carbon during the summertime. In the second part of the presentation, more detailed attention will be directed to an ongoing measurement program in Baltimore, MD (part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study). Eddy covariance instrumentation mounted on a tall-tower at 41.2 m has continuously measured local-scale fluxes of carbon dioxide from a suburban environment since 2001. Several features make this particular study unique: 1) for an urban area, the study site is extensively vegetated, 2) the period of record (2001-2005) is among the longest available for urban FCO2 measurements, 3) both closed-path and open-path infrared gas analyzers are used for observations, and 4) several unique data quality control and gap-filling methods have been developed for use in an urban environment. Additionally, detailed surface datasets and GIS software are used to perform flux source area analysis. Results from Baltimore indicate that FCO2 is very dependent on source area land-cover characteristics, particularly the proportion of vegetated and built surfaces. Over the course of a year, the urban surface is a strong net source of CO2, though there is considerable inter-annual variability depending on

  10. CO2 flux spatial variability in a tropical reservoir in the Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, R. A. S. D.; do Vale, R. S.; Tota, J.; Miller, S. D.; Ferreira, R. B., Jr.; Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon budget over water surfaces in the Amazon has an important role in the total budget of this greenhouse gas a regional and global scale. However, more accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of the CO2 flux over those water surfaces are still required. In this context, this study aims to understand the spatial distribution of CO2 flux in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, located at Presidente Figueiredo city, Amazonas, Brazil. The floating chamber method was used to measure and calculate the CO2 flux. This method coup a chamber of known volume with an infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, LI-840A). Measurements were performed at 1 Hz during 20-30 minutes at 5 different points of the reservoir, four upstream (two near the edge and two in the middle) and one downstream of the dam. At all locations the surface water was supersaturated in pCO2 and fluxes were from the water to the atmosphere. The maximum CO2 flux observed was 1.2 μmol m-2 s-1 at the center point of the reservoir upstream the dam. The minimum CO2 flux was 0.05 μmol m-2 s-1, observed near the edge on the upstream side of the dam. On average, CO2 fluxes were larger downstream of the dam, 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to upstream, 0.45 μmol m-2 s-1. This pattern is consistent with that found in previous studies at this site using other flux estimation methods, and is consistent with turbulent mixing promoted by the water turbine. However, the mean CO2 flux for all measured points using the chambers, 0.47 μmol m-2 s-1, was much lower than those previously found using other methods. The reason for the difference between methods is unclear. In situ deployment of multiple flux estimation methods would be valuable, as would longer periods of measurements.

  11. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the microtidal Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswell, Joseph R.; Wetz, Michael S.; Hales, Burke; Paerl, Hans W.

    2012-08-01

    From June 2009 to July 2010, we conducted 27 continuous-flow surveys of surface water CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) along the longitudinal axis of the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina ranging from the tidal freshwater region to the polyhaline border with the Pamlico Sound. Lateral transects were also conducted at the borders of each of three hydrologically distinct sections. The pCO2 displayed considerable spatial-temporal variability. Likewise, net air-water CO2 fluxes showed high spatial and temporal variability, with a maximum [release] of 271 mmol C m-2 d-1 during high river flow conditions in fall and minimum [uptake] of -38 mmol C m-2 d-1 during wind-driven, high primary productivity conditions in late spring. During high-flow conditions, pCO2 generally decreased from the river mouth to the Pamlico Sound, similar to patterns seen in well-mixed systems. During warm, low-flow conditions, surface water pCO2 distributions were spatially variable and dissimilar to those patterns seen in most macrotidal, well-mixed estuaries. The annual air-water CO2 efflux from the study area was 4.7 mol C m-2 yr-1, an order of magnitude less than previously estimated for temperate estuaries. The CO2 fluxes observed in the NRE highlight the contrasts between macrotidal and microtidal systems and suggest that global estuarine CO2 emissions are likely overestimated by the current classification approaches. Scaling this lower efflux by the relative surface area of macrotidal and microtidal systems would reduce the global estuarine flux by 42%.

  12. pCO2 distributions and air-water CO2 fluxes in the Columbia River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Wiley; Hales, Burke; Strutton, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Sources of time and space variability in the distributions of surface water carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux were quantified in the Columbia River estuary (CRE) during five cruises in spring, summer and autumn 2007/08. The CRE is an upwelling margin river-dominated mesotidal system that is an estuary class not represented in global flux compilations. Data from the CRE show instances of pCO2 under and oversaturation with respect to the atmosphere during every season in association with tidal, wind, biological and storm-driven sources of variability. On average the CRE is a sink for atmospheric CO2 during spring and a source during summer and autumn, with large positive air-water CO2 fluxes during the snowmelt freshet coinciding with the functional transition in the estuary. It is hypothesized here that interannual variability in size of the snowmelt freshet largely influences the extent of springtime CO2 uptake in the CRE, and subsequently the magnitude of net annual CO2 emission from the estuary. Data collected during an autumn storm show that large fluxes can drop quickly, even in the presence of high gas transfer velocities, because of rapid CO2 exchange with the atmosphere in this weakly buffered system. Combining seasonal observations of CO2 exchange with an assumption of winter conditions, we estimate that the net annual emission from the CRE is approximately 1 mol C m-2 yr-1. The air-water CO2 fluxes reported here are the first from an upwelling margin river-dominated mesotidal estuary, and the estimate of net annual exchange is substantially lower than those from other tidal and/or large river systems represented in global flux compilations.

  13. CO2 Fluxes: The Upwelling Systems of South America & South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Badger, Merete; Soresen, Lise Lotte

    2010-12-01

    In order to estimate the atmospheric concentration of car- bon dioxide knowledge of the fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere are important. Different ocean regions can act as sinks or sources of CO2 depending on temperature, salinity and biological activity. The flux of CO2 depends on the partial pressures of atmospheric and oceanic CO2 and the exchange velocity which is commonly parametrized by the wind speed. Direct in-situ measurements are expensive, operationally demanding and of low spatial resolution. It has been shown that in- direct estimation of oceanic pCO2 is possible due to its strong dependence on temperature, however primary production also influences the concentration of CO2 in the water. The present study aims at estimating the oceanic pCO2 with the use of satellite measurements for water temperature and chlorophyll-a (chl-A). Envisat MERIS Level 2 Reduced Resolution products were used for the chl-A concentration. Sea Surface Temperature data were taken from a composite optimally interpolated SST product of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). In-situ measurements were retrieved during the Danish Galathea III expedition, from August 2006 until April 2007. Based on [4] and [5], empirical algorithms for the estimation of pCO2,w were created using regression analyses. The final result was an estimate of the pCO2,w along the known upwelling systems of North Chile-Peru and Namibia. Estimates of pCO2,w produced by different combinations of physical parameters are compared with measurements. Correlation coefficients show that there was a dependency of pCO2,w with SST, Salinity and chl-A.

  14. Narrowing the spread in CMIP5 model projections of air-sea CO2 fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci

    2016-01-01

    Large spread appears in the projection of air-sea CO2 fluxes using the latest simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Here, two methods are applied to narrow this spread in 13 CMIP5 models. One method involves model selection based on the ability of models to reproduce the observed air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1980 to 2005. The other method involves constrained estimation based on the strong relationship between the historical and future air-sea CO2 fluxes. The estimated spread of the projected air-sea CO2 fluxes is effectively reduced by using these two approaches. These two approaches also show great agreement in the global ocean and three regional oceans of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, including the average state and evolution characteristics. Based on the projections of the two approaches, the global ocean carbon uptake will increase in the first half of the 21st century then remain relatively stable and is projected to be 3.68–4.57 PgC/yr at the end of 21st century. The projections indicate that the increase in the CO2 uptake by the oceans will cease at the year of approximately 2070. PMID:27892473

  15. Increasing Seasonal CO2 Fluxes and the Potential Role of Changing Plant Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Graven, H. D.; Keeling, R. F.; Piper, S. C.; Patra, P. K.; Roedenbeck, C.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work by Graven et al. (Science, 2013) has shown that the seasonal cycle of CO2 has increased throughout the troposphere by 50% north of 45°N since the 1950s. This suggests large-scale ecological changes centered on the boreal and temperate forests, and a contribution from the Arctic. Graven et al. indicated a comparable 30-50% increase in seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes is required to explain the observed change in CO2 amplitude. We examine changes in NEE fluxes in boreal and Arctic regions for the period 1986-2012 using two time-varying atmospheric inversions, RIGC and Jena. The inversions show that, over the last few decades, the largest percent increases in seasonal NEE occur between 50-70°N. They also provide evidence that larger summertime uptake is the main driver of CO2 amplitude increases. One way that summer uptake may have increased is by changes in plant functional type (PFT), away from evergreen toward more deciduous forest coverage. Eddy covariance NEE measurements are helpful in determining the seasonality of net CO2 exchange for different PFTs. The seasonal amplitude in net CO2 uptake by deciduous boreal forests can easily be twice as large as for evergreen forests. In this presentation we will explore the relative influence of deciduous and evergreen plant functional types on the seasonal cycle of CO2 using FluxNet data and atmospheric transport modeling, and the potential effect of changing forest composition on CO2 amplitude trends. Understanding the processes affecting the seasonal cycle of NEE fluxes will allow better predictions of the net carbon-uptake or release in this climatically sensitive region.

  16. Impact of CO2 measurement bias on CarbonTracker surface flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarie, K. A.; PéTron, G.; Andrews, A.; Bruhwiler, L.; Conway, T. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Tans, P. P.; Worthy, D. E.; Peters, W.

    2011-09-01

    For over 20 years, atmospheric measurements of CO2 dry air mole fractions have been used to derive estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Historically, only a few research laboratories made these measurements. Today, many laboratories are making CO2 observations using a variety of analysis techniques and, in some instances, using different calibration scales. As a result, the risk of biases in individual CO2 mole fraction records, or even in complete monitoring networks, has increased over the last decades. Ongoing experiments comparing independent, well-calibrated measurements of atmospheric CO2 show that biases can and do exist between measurement records. Biases in measurements create artificial spatial and temporal CO2 gradients, which are then interpreted by an inversion system, leading to erroneous flux estimates. Here we evaluate the impact of a constant bias introduced into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) quasi-continuous measurement record at the Park Falls, Wisconsin (LEF), tall tower site on CarbonTracker flux estimates. We derive a linear relationship between the magnitude of the introduced bias at LEF and the CarbonTracker surface flux responses. Temperate North American net flux estimates are most sensitive to a bias at LEF in our CarbonTracker inversion, and its linear response rate is 68 Tg C yr-1 (˜10% of the estimated North American annual terrestrial uptake) for every 1 ppm of bias in the LEF record. This sensitivity increases when (1) measurement biases approached assumed model errors and (2) fewer other measurement records are available to anchor the flux estimates despite the presence of bias in one record. Flux estimate errors are also calculated beyond North America. For example, biospheric uptake in Europe and boreal Eurasia combined increases by 25 Tg C yr-1 per ppm CO2 to partially compensate for changes in the North American flux totals. These results illustrate the importance of well-calibrated, high-precision CO2

  17. Diffuse degassing at Longonot volcano, Kenya: Implications for CO2 flux in continental rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Elspeth; Biggs, Juliet; Edmonds, Marie; Clor, Laura; Fischer, Tobias P.; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Kianji, Gladys; Koros, Wesley; Kandie, Risper

    2016-11-01

    Magma movement, fault structures and hydrothermal systems influence volatile emissions at rift volcanoes. Longonot is a Quaternary caldera volcano located in the southern Kenyan Rift, where regional extension controls recent shallow magma ascent. Here we report the results of a soil carbon dioxide (CO2) survey in the vicinity of Longonot volcano, as well as fumarolic gas compositions and carbon isotope data. The total non-biogenic CO2 degassing is estimated at < 300 kg d- 1, and is largely controlled by crater faults and fractures close to the summit. Thus, recent volcanic structures, rather than regional tectonics, control fluid pathways and degassing. Fumarolic gases are characterised by a narrow range in carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), from - 4.7‰ to - 6.4‰ (vs. PDB) suggesting a magmatic origin with minor contributions from biogenic CO2. Comparison with other degassing measurements in the East African Rift shows that records of historical eruptions or unrest do not correspond directly to the magnitude of CO2 flux from volcanic centres, which may instead reflect the current size and characteristics of the subsurface magma reservoir. Interestingly, the integrated CO2 flux from faulted rift basins is reported to be an order of magnitude higher than that from any of the volcanic centres for which CO2 surveys have so far been reported.

  18. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  19. Improving North American terrestrial CO2 flux diagnosis using spatial structure in land surface model residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Urban, N. M.

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate spatial structure in North American CO2 flux observations using a simple diagnostic land surface model. The vegetation photosynthesis respiration model (VPRM) calculates net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using locally observed temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with satellite-derived phenology and moisture. We use observed NEE from a group of 65 North American eddy covariance tower sites spanning North America to estimate VPRM parameters for these sites. We investigate spatial coherence in regional CO2 fluxes at several different time scales by using geostatistical methods to examine the spatial structure of model-data residuals. We find that persistent spatial structure does exist in the model-data residuals at a length scale of approximately 400 km (median 402 km, mean 712 km, standard deviation 931 km). This spatial structure defines a flux-tower-based VPRM residual covariance matrix. The residual covariance matrix is useful in constructing prior fluxes for atmospheric CO2 concentration inversion calculations, as well as for constructing a VPRM North American CO2 flux map optimized to eddy covariance observations. Finally (and secondarily), the estimated VPRM parameter values do not separate clearly by plant functional type (PFT). This calls into question whether PFTs can successfully partition ecosystems' fundamental ecological drivers when the viewing lens is a simple model.

  20. CO2 flux studies of different hemiboreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Noe, Steffen M.; Uri, Veiko; Mander, Ülo; Niinemets, Ülo; Soosaar, Kaido

    2017-04-01

    Hemiboreal zone is a transition between boreal and temperate zones characterized by the combination of climatic and edaphic conditions inherent in both zones. Hemiboreal forests are typically presented by mixed forests types with different ratios of deciduous and conifer tree species. Dominating tree species composition affects the functioning of forest ecosystem and its influence on biogeochemical cycles. We present the result of ecosystem scale CO2 eddy-covariance fluxes research conducted in 4 ecosystems (3 forests sites and 1 clear-cut area) of hemiboreal zone in Estonia. All 4 sites were developing under similar climatic conditions, but different forest management practices resulted in different composition of dominating tree species: pine forest with spruce trees as a second layer (Soontaga site); spruce/birch forest with single alder trees (Liispõllu site); forest presented by sectors of pine, spruce, birch and clearcut areas (SMEAR Estonia site); 5-years old clearcut area (Kõnnu site).

  1. [Modeling of CO2 fluxes at cropland by using SiB3 model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Jun; Lu, Li-Xin; Jiang, Ling-Mei; Jiang, Lei; Ian, Baker

    2013-10-01

    The aim is to study the influence of different vegetation types on CO2 fluxes at the same site, taking farmland as the object by using the simple biosphere model (SiB3) , select different vegetation types in Suzhou Dongshan site as input parameters of model to simulate CO2 fluxes, and compare with the observational data in Suzhou Dongshan site during 2011-04-16 to 2011-06-30. Results show that using corn as the site vegetation type input model to simulate CO2 fluxes showed a very good diurnal variation agreement compared to the measured data, but selecting the ordinary crop type input model to simulate CO2 fluxes, CO2 fluxes during the daytime in April and May were undervalued, and CO2 fluxes in June were overvalued; when we select the tea type to input the model, the simulated results significantly overestimated CO2 fluxes during the daytime in May and June. In addition, when using SiB3 model to simulate the daily CO2 fluxes, all three vegetation types input model can effectively simulate daily CO2 fluxes, but not significantly. It shows that choosing the right type vegetation input SiB3 model can effectively simulate the diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes, but can not effectively improve the daily CO2 fluxes simulation.

  2. CO2 concentration characteristics and possible influence of waves on the rate of CO2 transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere in a coastal region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Vazquez, Carlos F.; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to understand the physical processes involved in the air-sea transfer velocity of CO2 in a coastal region. The possible influence of the waves as an external agent is studied in order to characterize the CO2 transfer. The air-sea transfer velocity of CO2 was calculated from direct measurements of CO2 flux and CO2 partial pressure difference at the area of Punta Morro in Ensenada, B. C., Mexico during the period from 13 April to 3 May of 2016. CO2 fluxes were measured at the coastline at a height of 10m by a flux measurement tower using eddy covariance method; in the sea, at a distance of approximately 1000m from the measuring tower, a CO2 sensor (Pro-Oceanus) was used to measure the CO2 partial pressures in air and sea water at a distance of approximately 2m of the surface. On the sea bottom at a depth of 10m and 400m from the coastline, a CO2 sensor (SAMI-CO2) and acoustic profiler (Aquadopp, Nortek AS) were installed measuring CO2 partial pressure in the sea water and waves, respectively. The results show that CO2 concentration is not homogeneous in the study area, we were able to identify both horizontal and vertical gradients of pCO2 in the air and in sea water. Close to the sea surface, values of pCO2 in sea water were always smaller than there in air. The measured CO2 flux was in average negative during our field experiment. The air-sea transfer velocity of CO2 was obtained, resulting in a subtle relation with the significant wave height incident to the coast.This work is a RugDiSMar project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. Partial support from CB-2015-01-255377 is appreciated.

  3. On-board Direct Eddy Flux Measurements of Heat, Water Vapor and Co2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Takahashi, S.; Kono, T.; Yamashita, E.; Ishida, H.

    Direct eddy fluxes of heat(sensible and latent), water vapor and CO2 were measuted with on-board eddy flux system over the Pacific. Present authors are continueing direct eddy flux measurement on R/V MIRAI(JAMSTEC) cruising the Pacific. I addition to these routine heat flux evaluation, direct CO2 flux measurements were applied with LI- 7500 (Licor) and Kaijo sonic anemometer. The eddy flux system including CO2 sensor worked very well even in the moving ship. Small amplitude of turbulent fluctuations of CO2 were measured and it is found that CO2 was transported downward to sea surface during a month(Nov-Dec 2001) around 2N,138E. CO2 concentrations in the air and sea water were also measured and they also confirmed the CO2 sink. The automated real-time eddy flux system including ship motion correction has started and this can be applied to other cruising ships.

  4. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  5. CO2 flux in the oxygen minimum zone of the Mexican Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Novela, A. C.; Hernandez-Ayon, M.; Beier, E.; Sosa-Ávalos, R.; Castro, R.; Farber-Lorda, J.; Siqueiros-Valencia, A.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of the coastal ocean to the global carbon budget is still in debate, as these regions may work either as a source or sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). Particularly, there is a lack of studies in the coastal zone off the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP), which is characterized by a prominent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). In this region, very low oxygen concentrations (< 20 μmol/kg) and high values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) are present below the thermocline/oxycline, generally very strong and shallow (~ 70 m). The main purpose of this work is to calculate the sea - air CO2 flux in the OMZ of the MTP. High positive fluxes (from sea to air) are expected due to the influence of the high carbon concentration of the subsurface waters. In order to assess this, two cruises were conducted in the MTP, and samples of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) were measured. From this measurements the pCO2 and the sea - air CO2 flux were calculated. The results showed that the high carbon content of the subsurface water does not have any influence on the surface carbon exchange. However, it was found that the main factor controlling these variables is the horizontal advection of the surface water masses, and that the presence of Surface Tropical Water favored that the region acted as a sink of CO2, while in the presence of Subtropical Surface Water the zone was in equilibrium with the atmosphere.

  6. Quantifying the magnitude, spatiotemporal variation and age of aquatic CO2 fluxes in western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan; Hoey, Trevor; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2015-04-01

    High latitude regions are experiencing accelerated atmospheric warming, and understanding the terrestrial response to this is of crucial importance as: a) permafrost soils hold vast amounts (1672 Pg; Tarnocai et al., 2009) of carbon (C) which may be released and feedback to climate change; and, b) ice sheet melt in this region is accelerating, and whilst this will cause albedo and heat flux changes, the role of this in atmospheric gas release is poorly known. To understand how sensitive arctic environments may respond to future warming, we need measurements that document current C flux rates and help to understand C cycling pathways. Although it has been widely hypothesised that Arctic regions may become increasingly significant C sources, the contribution of aquatic C fluxes which integrate catchment-wide sources has been little studied. Using a floating chamber method we directly measured CO2 fluxes from spatially distributed freshwaters (ice sheet melt, permafrost melt, and lakes/ponds) in the Kangerlussuaq region of western Greenland during the early part of the summer 2014 melt season. Fluxes from freshwaters with permafrost sources were in the range -3.15 to +1.28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Fluxes from a river draining the ice sheet and the Russell Glacier were between -2.19 and +4.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. These ranges show the systems can be both sources (efflux) and sinks (influx) of CO2. Much freshwater data worldwide shows CO2 efflux, and recording river/stream systems being a CO2 sink is unusual. Analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations of the water sources revealed higher concentrations of DIC in the meltwater of permafrost systems (0.66-1.92 mmol) than the ice melt system (0.07 to 0.17 mmol), as well as differences in the carbon stable isotope ratio ranges (δ13C permafrost-melt, -9.5 to -1.2 permil; δ13C ice-melt, -11.7 to 7.3 permil). Where we recorded CO2 efflux we collected effluxed CO2 for radiocarbon analysis, and here we will present

  7. Comparing Amazon Basin CO2 fluxes from an atmospheric inversion with TRENDY biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Alden, C. B.; Harper, A. B.; Ahlström, A.; Touma, D. E.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.

    2015-12-01

    Net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is sensitive to environmental conditions, including extreme heat and drought. Of particular importance for local and global carbon balance and climate are the expansive tracts of tropical rainforest located in the Amazon Basin. Because of the Basin's size and ecological heterogeneity, net biosphere CO2 exchange with the atmosphere remains largely un-constrained. In particular, the response of net CO2 exchange to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation are not yet well known. However, proper representation of these relationships in biosphere models is a necessary constraint for accurately modeling future climate and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. In an effort to compare biosphere response to climate across different biosphere models, the TRENDY model intercomparison project coordinated the simulation of CO2 fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in response to historical climate forcing, by 9 different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. We examine the TRENDY model results in the Amazon Basin, and compare this "bottom-up" method with fluxes derived from a "top-down" approach to estimating net CO2 fluxes, obtained through atmospheric inverse modeling using CO2 measurements sampled by aircraft above the basin. We compare the "bottom-up" and "top-down" fluxes in 5 sub-regions of the Amazon basin on a monthly basis for 2010-2012. Our results show important periods of agreement between some models in the TRENDY suite and atmospheric inverse model results, notably the simulation of increased biosphere CO2 loss during wet season heat in the Central Amazon. During the dry season, however, model ability to simulate observed response of net CO2 exchange to drought was varied, with few models able to reproduce the "top-down" inversion flux signals. Our results highlight the value of atmospheric trace gas observations for helping to narrow the

  8. Grassland Soil and Fossil CO2 Fluxes Monitored Using Continuous CELS Measurements of [CO2] and δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; McAlexander, W. I.; Burton, E. A.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Over an 8 day period, the concentration and δ13C of above-ground CO2 at an experimental C3 grassland site (near Bozeman, MT) were continuously measured in situ using a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer (LGR, model 908-0003). Air was constantly drawn from 13 inlets and sequentially diverted into the analyzer at 150 sec intervals using an automated inlet switching system. These data were used to monitor and quantify the relative abundances of background air, soil, and experimentally introduced, fossil fuel derived CO2. The latter source was continuously vented from the soil subsurface as part of a larger project (ZERT) to simulate and detect a leak from underground CO2 storage. Keeling plots showed that the variations in [CO2] were dominated by the mixing of CO2 from the three sources: background air (δ13C = -8.2o/oo), soil (-27o/oo), and fossil (-56o/oo), forming a wedge of data points characteristic of three-end-member mixing (Fig.). Prior to fossil CO2 injection, a linear Keeling relationship was evident (Fig.). Photosynthetic uptake and fractionation of CO2 contributed only a small amount to the total variations seen, as evident in day-night data comparisons. Soil respiration was more dominant at night, and there were significant, periodic venting events of both soil and fossil CO2. Horizontal and vertical profiles of [CO2] and δ13C allowed estimates of CO2 fluxes from both soil respiration and fossil CO2. This study demonstrates that CELS can be useful in field studies of multiple CO2 sources requiring relatively high temporal and spatial measurement resolution.

  9. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.

  10. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system.

    PubMed

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-09-22

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.

  11. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    PubMed Central

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  12. Summer CO2 fluxes from streams in the Ob River catchment, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikova, Svetlana; Karlsson, Jan; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Manasypov, Rinat; Krickov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Siberia contains vast C stocks potentially vulnerable to mobilization following permafrost thawing. Yet, there is a paucity of studies on the inland waters draining these regions, despite their potential importance in regional and global C cycles. Here we present spring- and summer-time CO2 fluxes from 58 streams and rivers within Ob, Pur and Taz river drainage basins sampled in 2015. The sampled sites cover a large range of climate and permafrost conditions (permafrost free to continuous) and span over 3000 km2. We measured partial pressure of CO2, gas exchange velocities (k) and net fluxes of CO2 between water and atmosphere during 2 consequent surveys of each river network at high and low-flow hydrological regimes. Our results show that streams are net sources of atmospheric CO2 with average annual contribution of nearly ˜2.7 kg C m-2 yr-1 in permafrost-free watersheds, ˜5 kg C m-2 yr-1 in isolated permafrost, ˜2.2 kg C m-2 yr-1 in rivers draining discontinuous permafrost zone and about ˜1 kg C m-2 yr-1 in continuous permafrost zone. These differences across zones are likely due to variation in permafrost extent, vegetation and hydrological dynamics. With climate warming the region may further increase C emissions from surface waters leading to important implications for the global C cycle.

  13. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Collatz, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks and their location and year-to-year variability are not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3° x 3.75° weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM transport model with MERRA meteorology. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble each other and those from other studies. For example, a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in the global sink from the tropics/south to the north relative to the prior and to an in-situ-only inversion. The posterior fluxes of the GOSAT inversion are better

  14. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  15. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  16. Diffusional flux of CO2 through snow: Spatial and temporal variability among alpine-subalpine sites

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sommerfeld; William J. Massman; Robert C. Musselman

    1996-01-01

    Three alpine and three subalpine sites were monitored for up to 4 years to acquire data on the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 flux through snowpacks. We conclude that the snow formed a passive cap which controlled the concentration of CO2 at the snow-soil interface, while the flux of CO2 into the atmosphere was controlled by CO2 production in the soil....

  17. Controls on the fore-arc CO2 flux along the Central America margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, D. R.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Patel, B. S.; Virrueta, C.; Blackmon, K.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of carbon to the deep mantle via subduction zones is interrupted by outputs via the fore-arc, volcanic front, and back-arc regions. Whereas output fluxes for arc and back-arc locales are well constrained for the Central America Volcanic Arc (CAVA) [1-2], the fore-arc flux via cold seeps and ground waters is poorly known. We present new He and CO2 data (isotopes and relative abundances) for the volcanic front and inner fore-arc of western Panama to complement on-going studies of fore-arc C-fluxes in Costa Rica [3-4] and to determine tectonic controls on the fore-arc C-outgassing fluxes. Helium isotope (3He/4He) values at Baru, La Yeguada, and El Valle volcanoes are high (5-8RA), consistent with results for other Central America volcanoes. However, CO2/3He values are variable (from > 1012 to < 108). Baru has an arc-like δ13C of - 4‰, whereas the other volcanoes have δ13C < -10 ‰. Cold seeps collected in the coastal fore-arc of Panama show a trend of decreasing He-isotopes from west (~6RA) to east (~1RA). This trend is mirrored by δ13C (-5‰ to <-20‰) values. CO2/3He values of the seeps are also variable and fall between 106 and 1012. Using CO2/3He-δ13C mixing plots with conventional endmember values for Limestone, Organic Sediment and Mantle CO2, we show that several Panama samples have been extensively modified by crustal processes. Nevertheless, there are clear west-to east trends (both volcanoes and coastal seeps), whereby L dominates the CO2 inventory in the west, similar to Costa Rica, and S-derived CO2 increases eastward towards central Panama. Previously [4], we limited the Costa Rica subaerial fore-arc flux to ~ 6 × 107 gCkm-1yr-1, or ~ 4% of the total incoming sedimentary C-load. This flux diminishes to zero within ~400 km to the east of Baru volcano. The transition from orthogonal subduction of the Cocos Plate to oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate, relative to the common over-riding Caribbean Plate, is the major impediment to

  18. A top-down estimate of global CO2 flux patterns using solar induced fluorescence and the OCO-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Berry, J. A.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.

    2016-12-01

    Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) is a measure of the radiation fluoresced by chloroplasts during photosyntheses. It may be proportional to gross primary production and can be measured remotely from space. We explore the extent to which SIF and other remote sensing vegetation indices can reproduce CO2 column observations from the OCO-2 satellite. We use these indices as inputs into a global atmospheric transport model and implement a model selection framework to understand which indices are most consistent with CO2 patterns from OCO-2. Using this framework, we investigate how patterns in estimated surface CO2 fluxes differ when we use SIF versus other vegetation indices, and we examine how SIF alters the estimated contribution of different eco-regions to total, global terrestrial carbon fluxes. We further identify the eco-regions in which SIF has the greatest skill at reproducing the surface fluxes (as seen through OCO-2), and we analyze how the relationship between SIF and CO2 fluxes changes by season and region of the globe. We then compare these CO2 flux patterns, derived from SIF and OCO-2, to the spatial and temporal patterns in bottom-up CO2 flux models from the MsTMIP synthesis project.

  19. Long-term measurements of CO2 flux and evapotranspiration in a Chihuahuan desert grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We measured CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes above a Chihuahuan desert grassland from 1996 through 2001. Averaged across six years, this ecosystem was a source (positive flux)of CO2 in every month. Over that period, sustained periods of carbon uptake (negative flux)were rare. Averaged across a...

  20. Comparing inversion techniques for constraining CO2 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin with aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, V. Y.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, M.; Koch, F.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ceballos, J. C.; Longo, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) aircraft program spanned the dry to wet and wet to dry transition seasons in November 2008 & May 2009 respectively. It resulted in ~150 vertical profiles covering the Brazilian Amazon Basin (BAB). With the data we attempt to estimate a carbon budget for the BAB, to determine if regional aircraft experiments can provide strong constraints for a budget, and to compare inversion frameworks when optimizing flux estimates. We use a LPDM to integrate satellite-, aircraft-, & surface-data with mesoscale meteorological fields to link bottom-up and top-down models to provide constraints and error bounds for regional fluxes. The Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by meteorological fields from BRAMS, ECMWF, and WRF are coupled to a biosphere model, the Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (VPRM), to determine regional CO2 fluxes for the BAB. The VPRM is a prognostic biosphere model driven by MODIS 8-day EVI and LSWI indices along with shortwave radiation and temperature from tower measurements and mesoscale meteorological data. VPRM parameters are tuned using eddy flux tower data from the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment. VPRM computes hourly CO2 fluxes by calculating Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) and Respiration (R) for 8 different vegetation types. The VPRM fluxes are scaled up to the BAB by using time-averaged drivers (shortwave radiation & temperature) from high-temporal resolution runs of BRAMS, ECMWF, and WRF and vegetation maps from SYNMAP and IGBP2007. Shortwave radiation from each mesoscale model is validated using surface data and output from GL 1.2, a global radiation model based on GOES 8 visible imagery. The vegetation maps are updated to 2008 and 2009 using landuse scenarios modeled by Sim Amazonia 2 and Sim Brazil. A priori fluxes modeled by STILT-VPRM are optimized using data from BARCA, eddy covariance sites, and flask measurements. The

  1. The Martian hydrologic cycle - Effects of CO2 mass flux on global water distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian CO2 cycle, which includes the seasonal condensation and subsequent sublimation of up to 30 percent of the planet's atmosphere, produces meridional winds due to the consequent mass flux of CO2. These winds currently display strong seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries due to the large asymmetries in the distribution of insolation on Mars. It is proposed that asymmetric meridional advection of water vapor on the planet due to these CO2 condensation winds is capable of explaining the observed dessication of Mars' south polar region at the current time. A simple model for water vapor transport is used to verify this hypothesis and to speculate on the effects of changes in orbital parameters on the seasonal water cycle.

  2. Air-sea co2 fluxes determined from satellite and in situ data in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangama, Y.; Boutin, J.; Etcheto, J.; Merlivat, L.; Takahashi, T.; Frankignoulle, M.; Delille, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is expected to play an important role in the air-sea exchange of CO_2. But, this role is not known precisely. In this region, the air-sea CO_2 fluxes estimated using atmospheric inversions, ocean biogeochemical models or in situ measurements are still in large disagreement. In this presentation, we combine ship measurements and satellite parameters (ERS2 wind speed, SEAWIFS chlorophyll, AVHRR SST) to determine the flux of CO_2 and analyse its space and time variability in the region south of Tasmania and east of New Zealand. We estimate the flux at local scale as the product of the CO_2 exchange coefficient (K) and of the air-sea CO_2 partial pressure gradient (ΔP) and then, integrate the flux over the region (125^oE-205^oE; 60^oS-45^oS). This region represent about one fifth of the area of the Antarctic Ocean between 45^oS and 60^oS. We use wind speed satellite data (U) to estimate K and its variability, according to the Wanninkhof (1992) K-U relationship. We use in situ measurements conducted during JGOFS campaigns. We found correlations between sea surface partial pressure (pCO_2) and SST in regions where chlorophyll is low. In high chlorophyll region, we establish pCO_2 - chlorophyll correlations from pCO_2 collocated with weekly 9km SEAWIFS chlorophyll data. Theses fits were determined season by season. A chlorophyll threshold defined from monthly SEAWIFS chlorophyll maps were applied to separate rich and low chlorophyll regions. Then, space and time distribution of pCO_2 was deduced from satellite measurements for one year. Distribution of atmospheric CO_2 partial pressure (pCO{_2a}) was deduced from atmospheric CO_2 concentration given by Global View, from temperature used to compute saturated water pressure and from atmospheric pressure inferred from ECMWF atmospheric model. Then, we analyse air-sea CO_2 fluxes south of Australia and their variability. Thus, we estimate a flux of -0.08 GtC.yr-1 in this region. This absorbing flux is less

  3. Application of the flux noise reducing filter for CO2 inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Yaremchuk, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    Recent atmospheric remote sensing products from AIRS and GOSAT provide large volume of the observations but with larger errors and variance as compared to in-situ measurements, so efficient noise reduction techniques are required for inverse modeling of the surface fluxes. Inverse models of the atmospheric transport optimize regional or grid resolving surface CO2 fluxes to fit transport model simulation optimally to the observations. The optimization problem appears to be ill-posed so it is usually solved by applying regularization techniques. Most widely used regularization methods apply constraints on flux deviation from prior and/or from adjacent regions of same surface type (land-ocean, vegetation type), and from adjacent time periods. Convenient method for solving the problem of limited dimension is based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the transport matrix, because it can decompose the solution space into a combination of the independent singular vectors. Introducing a simple constraint on fluxes limits amplitude of the corresponding singular vectors with larger reduction for smaller singular values. However this amplitude reduction is not sufficient in practice for inverse modeling of the regional CO2 fluxes, when we have large underconstrained regions in tropics. Alternatively other means of the amplitude reduction are also used, such as truncation, when all amplitudes below threshold singular value are set to zero. We apply a filter which is less abrupt is less abrupt compared to truncation but still suppressing strongly small singular value related vectors. Setting strength of a constraint is often done empirically. To decide a proper value of the cut-off singular value we suggest analyzing a dependence of the singular vector amplitude vs the singular value and set the cut-off value aiming at retaining most of useful information from observation. A graphical tool based on a plot of amplitude spectra is proposed. Advantage of the technique is

  4. Evaluation of Diagnostic CO2 Flux and Transport Modeling in NU-WRF and GEOS-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Tao, Z.; Wang, J. S.; Ott, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.

    2015-12-01

    We report on recent diagnostic (constrained by observations) model simulations of atmospheric CO2 flux and transport using a newly developed facility in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF) model. The results are compared to CO2 data (ground-based, airborne, and GOSAT) and to corresponding simulations from a global model that uses meteorology from the NASA GEOS-5 Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The objective of these intercomparisons is to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the respective models in pursuit of an overall carbon process improvement at both regional and global scales. Our guiding hypothesis is that the finer resolution and improved land surface representation in NU-WRF will lead to better comparisons with CO2 data than those using global MERRA, which will, in turn, inform process model development in global prognostic models. Initial intercomparison results, however, have generally been mixed: NU-WRF is better at some sites and times but not uniformly. We are examining the model transport processes in detail to diagnose differences in the CO2 behavior. These comparisons are done in the context of a long history of simulations from the Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model, based on GEOS-5 meteorology and Carnegie Ames-Stanford Approach-Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA-GFED) fluxes, that capture much of the CO2 variation from synoptic to seasonal to global scales. We have run the NU-WRF model using unconstrained, internally generated meteorology within the North American domain, and with meteorological 'nudging' from Global Forecast System and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) in an effort to optimize the CO2 simulations. Output results constrained by NARR show the best comparisons to data. Discrepancies, of course, may arise either from flux or transport errors and compensating errors are possible. Resolving their interplay is also important to using the data in

  5. Seasonal variation in measured H2O and CO2 flux of irrigated rice in the Mid-South

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice production in the Lower Mississippi River Basin constitutes over half of US rice production, but little research has been done on water and carbon flux in this region at the field scale. Eddy covariance measurements of water and CO2 flux allow for an integrated field measurement of the interac...

  6. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-04-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between moist transport, satellite CO2 retrievals, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. Here we examine the effect of moist processes on (1) synoptic CO2 transport by Version-4 and Version-5 NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (NASA-DAS) meteorological analyses, and (2) source/sink inversion. We find that synoptic transport processes, such as fronts and dry/moist conveyors, feed off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to continental scale source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.25 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. Second, moist processes are represented differently in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5, leading to differences in vertical CO2 gradients, moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport, and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified, causing source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.55 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  7. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  8. Numerical modeling of cold magmatic CO2 flux measurements for the exploration of hidden geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Loïc.; Wanner, Christoph; Pan, Lehua

    2015-10-01

    The most accepted conceptual model to explain surface degassing of cold magmatic CO2 in volcanic-geothermal systems involves the presence of a gas reservoir. In this study, numerical simulations using the TOUGH2-ECO2N V2.0 package are performed to get quantitative insights into how cold CO2 soil flux measurements are related to reservoir and fluid properties. Although the modeling is based on flux data measured at a specific geothermal site, the Acoculco caldera (Mexico), some general insights have been gained. Both the CO2 fluxes at the surface and the depth at which CO2 exsolves are highly sensitive to the dissolved CO2 content of the deep fluid. If CO2 mainly exsolves above the reservoir within a fracture zone, the surface CO2 fluxes are not sensitive to the reservoir size but depend on the CO2 dissolved content and the rock permeability. For gas exsolution below the top of the reservoir, surface CO2 fluxes also depend on the gas saturation of the deep fluid as well as the reservoir size. The absence of thermal anomalies at the surface is mainly a consequence of the low enthalpy of CO2. The heat carried by CO2 is efficiently cooled down by heat conduction and to a certain extent by isoenthalpic volume expansion depending on the temperature gradient. Thermal anomalies occur at higher CO2 fluxes (>37,000 g m-2 d-1) when the heat flux of the rising CO2 is not balanced anymore. Finally, specific results are obtained for the Acoculco area (reservoir depth, CO2 dissolved content, and gas saturation state).

  9. Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Lucía C.; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Osiroff, Ana Paula; Pino, Diana Ruiz; Piola, Alberto R.

    2017-07-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the Patagonian Sea (PS) were studied using observations collected in 2000-2006. Based on the PS frontal structures and the thermal and biological contributions to FCO2 we present a regional subdivision between distinct regimes that provide new insights on the processes that control these fluxes. The coastal regime (CR) is a net source of atmospheric CO2 (4.9 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1) while the open shelf regime (SHR) is a net CO2 sink (-6.0 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1). The interface between these two regions closely follows the location of along-shore fronts. In addition, based on the nature of the processes that drive the FCO2, the PS is subdivided between northern (NR) and southern (SR) regions. Both, NR and SR are CO2 sinks, but the CO2 uptake is significantly higher in NR (-6.4 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1) than in SR (-0.5 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1). The data reveal a strong seasonality in FCO2. The mean CO2 capture throughout the PS in austral spring is -5.8 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1, reaching values lower than -50 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1 in NR, while in winter FCO2 is close to equilibrium in SR. The analysis of the biological and thermal effects (BE and TE, respectively) on seasonal pCO2 variability indicates that regions of CO2 emission are dominated by the TE while regions of CO2 uptake are dominated by the BE. Our results indicate that the biological pump is the dominant process determining the sea-air CO2 flux in the PS.

  10. A downward CO2 flux seems to have nowhere to go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Liu, R.; Tang, L.-S.; Lan, Z.-D.; Li, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that deserts, which are a long-neglected region in global carbon budgeting, have strong downward CO2 fluxes and might be a significant carbon sink. This finding, however, has been strongly challenged because neither the reliability of the flux measurements nor the exact location of the fixed carbon has been determined. This paper shows, with a full chain of evidence, that there is indeed strong carbon flux into saline/alkaline land in arid regions. Based on continuous measurement of CO2 exchange from 2002 to 2012 (except for 2003), the saline desert in western China was a carbon sink for 9 out of the 10 years, and average yearly net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) for the 10 years was -25.00 ± 12.70 g C m-2yr-1. Supporting evidence for the validity of these NEE estimates comes from the close agreement of NEE values obtained from the chamber and eddy-covariance methods. After ruling out the possibility of changes in C stored in plant biomass or soils, the C uptake was found to be leached downwards into the groundwater body in the process of groundwater fluctuation: rising groundwater absorbs soil dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and falling groundwater transports the DIC downward. Horizontal groundwater flow may send this DIC farther away and prevent it from being observed locally. This process has been called "passive leaching" of DIC, in comparison with the active DIC leaching that occurs during groundwater recharge. This passive leaching significantly expands the area where DIC leaching occurs and creates a literally "hidden" carbon sink process under the desert. This study tells us that when a downward CO2 flux is observed, but seems to have nowhere to go, it should not be concluded that the flux measurement is unreliable. By looking deeper and farther away, a place and a process may be found that are "hidden" underground.

  11. A downward CO2 flux seems to have nowhere to go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Liu, R.; Tang, L.-S.; Lan, Z.-D.; Li, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that deserts, which are a long-neglected region in global carbon budgeting, have strong downward CO2 fluxes and might be a significant carbon sink. This finding, however, has been strongly challenged because neither the reliability of the flux measurements nor the exact location of the fixed carbon has been determined. This paper shows, with a full chain of evidence, that there is indeed strong carbon flux into saline/alkaline land in arid regions. Based on continuous measurement of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) from 2002 to 2012 (except for 2003), the saline desert in western China was a carbon sink for 9 out of 10 years, and the average yearly NEE for the 10 years was -25.00 ± 12.70 g C m-2 year-1. Supporting evidence for the validity of these NEE estimates comes from the close agreement of NEE values obtained from the chamber and eddy-covariance methods. After ruling out the possibility of changes in C stored in plant biomass or soils, the C uptake was found to be leached downwards into the groundwater body in the process of groundwater fluctuation: rising groundwater absorbs soil dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and falling groundwater transports the DIC downward. Horizontal groundwater flow may send this DIC farther away and prevent it from being observed locally. This process has been called "passive leaching" of DIC, in comparison with the active DIC leaching that occurs during groundwater recharge. This passive leaching significantly expands the area where DIC leaching occurs and creates a literally "hidden" carbon sink process under the desert. This study tells us that when a downward CO2 flux is observed, but seems to have nowhere to go, it does not necessarily mean that the flux measurement is unreliable. By looking deeper and farther away, a place and a process may be found "hidden" underground.

  12. How General is the Current Photosynthate Controls on the soil CO2 Flux Paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, B.; O'Brien, J.; Mitchell, R.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of methods including girdling experiments and isotope labeling approaches have provided some evidence for a tight link between current C assimilation and soil CO2 flux. The results of these investigations have lead to the conclusion that autotrophs control soil CO2 flux. If the results from these investigations are general then our understanding of patterns and regulation of below ground C dynamics and the means by which ecosystem controls are studied and modeled must be reconsidered. While evidence for a coupling between current photosynthate and soil carbon dynamics has been conspicuous, data that may challenge this relationship have not been thoroughly considered. Results from foliar scorching treatments in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem that removed 95% of the foliage demonstrate that (i) mycorrhizal fungi production was not significantly reduced as a result of scorching, (ii) root mortality was not significantly affected because of disturbance of the carbon source, and (iii) total root non-structural carbohydrates were not significantly reduced after scorching. These results together with findings from other regions suggest that in some systems soil CO2 fluxes are less tightly linked to variations in C assimilation because stored C acts as a buffer. This stored C is a critical resource for rebuilding damaged foliage in many frequently burned ecosystems. We propose that plant adaptations to disturbance and recovery from disturbance may explain why some systems may be buffered from variation in C source strength and the link between above and belowground carbon dynamics is more diffuse.

  13. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and drought on nocturnal water fluxes in Eucalyptus saligna.

    PubMed

    Zeppel, Melanie J B; Lewis, James D; Medlyn, Belinda; Barton, Craig V M; Duursma, Remko A; Eamus, Derek; Adams, Mark A; Phillips, Nathan; Ellsworth, David S; Forster, Michael A; Tissue, David T

    2011-09-01

    Nocturnal water flux has been observed in trees under a variety of environmental conditions and can be a significant contributor to diel canopy water flux. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) (elevated [CO(2)]) can have an important effect on day-time plant water fluxes, but it is not known whether it also affects nocturnal water fluxes. We examined the effects of elevated [CO(2)] on nocturnal water flux of field-grown Eucalyptus saligna trees using sap flux through the tree stem expressed on a sapwood area (J(s)) and leaf area (E(t)) basis. After 19 months growth under well-watered conditions, drought was imposed by withholding water for 5 months in the summer, ending with a rain event that restored soil moisture. Reductions in J(s) and E(t) were observed during the severe drought period in the dry treatment under elevated [CO(2)], but not during moderate- and post-drought periods. Elevated [CO(2)] affected night-time sap flux density which included the stem recharge period, called 'total night flux' (19:00 to 05:00, J(s,r)), but not during the post-recharge period, which primarily consisted of canopy transpiration (23:00 to 05:00, J(s,c)). Elevated [CO(2)] wet (EW) trees exhibited higher J(s,r) than ambient [CO(2)] wet trees (AW) indicating greater water flux in elevated [CO(2)] under well-watered conditions. However, under drought conditions, elevated [CO(2)] dry (ED) trees exhibited significantly lower J(s,r) than ambient [CO(2)] dry trees (AD), indicating less water flux during stem recharge under elevated [CO(2)]. J(s,c) did not differ between ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. Vapour pressure deficit (D) was clearly the major influence on night-time sap flux. D was positively correlated with J(s,r) and had its greatest impact on J(s,r) at high D in ambient [CO(2)]. Our results suggest that elevated [CO(2)] may reduce night-time water flux in E. saligna when soil water content is low and D is high. While elevated [CO(2)] affected J(s,r), it did not affect day-time water

  14. Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

  15. Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

  16. [Effects of straw mulching on CO2 flux in wintry fallow paddy field].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-mei; Xie, Xiao-li; Wang, Kai-rong

    2008-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of straw mulching on the CO2 flux in a wintry fallow paddy field at Taoyuan Agro-ecological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the effects of straw mulching mainly exerted in two ways. First, it positively affected soil temperature, making the CO2 flux increased obviously. Straw mulching gave a net emission of 2.68 g CO2 x m(-2) x d(-1), while no mulching gave a net fixation of 1.99 g CO2 x m(-2) x d(-1), the difference between them being very significant (P < 0.01). Second, straw mulching decreased the biomass of weeds and the photosynthetically active radiation they absorbed, which in turn resulted in an increase of CO2 flux. Under straw mulching, the water content in surface soil layer (0-15 cm) increased by 9% or more, but no significant change was observed in CO2 flux.

  17. Comparing carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between no-till and conventional tillage agriculture in Lesotho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil management practices can either sequester or emit carbon (C). Feeding seven billion people mandates that soils be used intensively for food production, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the lack of CO2 flux measurements on African subs...

  18. Forest Floor CO2 Flux From Two Contrasting Ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Verl Emrick

    1995-01-01

    We measured forest floor CO2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO2 fluxes. An automated IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers...

  19. Soil CO2 flux in response to wheel traffic in a no-till system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measurements of soil CO2 flux in the absence of living plants can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of soil management practices for C sequestration, but field CO2 flux is spatially variable and may be affected by soil compaction and percentage of total pore space filled with water (%WFPS). The ...

  20. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Treesearch

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  1. Constraining CO2 GPP with carbonyl sulfide: regional-scale evaluation of land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Whelan, M.; Zumkehr, A. L.; Kulkarni, S.; Berry, J. A.; Baker, I. T.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Campbell, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first application of airborne carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS) observations to constrain regional terrestrial carbon dioxide fluxes, introducing a new method to evaluate land surface models. Land surface model diagnoses of regional photosynthetic CO2 surface flux (gross primary production, GPP) report strong disagreement in spatial placement of North American GPP in spite of decades of development. COS may offer a novel and orthogonal information source because, like CO2, it is removed from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, but COS has no widespread co-located source to the atmosphere analogous to ecosystem respiration. We quantitatively consider uncertainties in secondary COS fluxes (soils, anthropogenic, transport model boundaries). Our results show that these observations, coupled with a regional chemical transport model, demonstrate that the North American terrestrial biological CO2 sink is strongest in the Upper Midwestern USA.

  2. Seasonal soil CO2 flux under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Cheryl L. Mackowiak

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah,...

  3. Diurnal variation in respiratory CO2 flux in an arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Asperen, Hella; Warneke, Thorsten; Sabbatini, Simone; Höpker, Martin; Chiti, Tommaso; Nicolini, Giacomo; Papale, Dario; Böhm, Michael; Notholt, Justus

    2016-04-01

    The application of stable isotopes to study ecosystem processes is increasingly used. However, continuous in-situ observation of CO2 concentrations, CO2 fluxes, and their isotopic components are still sparse. In this study, we present results from an arid grassland in Italy, in which continuous measurements of δ13CO2 and CO2 were performed by means of an in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer connected to a concentration-tower set up and to soil flux chambers. By use of Keeling plots, daily nighttime Keeling plot-intercepts and hourly flux chamber Keeling plot-intercepts could be derived. The flux chambers solely showed CO2 emission, with respiration peaks during the day. Keeling plot intercepts from the tower, overlooking the arid grassland, showed more enriched δ13CO2 values than Keeling plot intercepts derived from chamber measurements, indicating different dominating respiratory sources in their footprint. Flux chamber respiratory δ13CO2 values showed a daily pattern with on average 3.5‰ more depleted δ13CO2 fluxes during the night. It is hypothesized that the observed diurnal variation in respiratory δ13CO2 is a consequence of the physical process of diffusive fractionation taking place during the nocturnal boundary layer build up.

  4. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  5. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  6. A Global Synthesis Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using Gosat and in Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    About one-half of the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two, and the location and year-to-year variability of the CO2 sinks are, however, not well understood. We use a batch Bayesian inversion approach to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates, and fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, we present results from our inversions that incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived using the PCTM atmospheric transport model run at 2° x 2.5° (latitude/longitude) resolution driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We evaluate the posterior CO2 concentrations using independent aircraft and other data sets. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other inversion systems using different techniques, for example indicating a net terrestrial biospheric CO2 sink, and a shift in the sink from tropics to northern high latitudes when going from an in-situ-only inversion to a GOSAT inversion. We show that in this inversion framework, GOSAT provides better flux estimates in most regions with its greater spatial coverage, but we also discuss impacts of possible remaining biases in the data.

  7. Characteristics influencing the variability of urban CO 2 fluxes in Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; Beringer, Jason; Tapper, Nigel J.

    Urban areas are significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions. Vehicle emissions and other anthropogenic related activities are a frequent source of CO 2 to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Micrometeorological techniques used for observations in Northern Hemisphere cities have found that urban CO 2 fluxes are consistently a source. This study investigates CO 2 fluxes in an Australian city, adding to the global database of CO 2 fluxes in a bid to aid in future development of planning policies concerning reductions in CO 2 emissions. Using the eddy covariance approach, fluxes of CO 2 were measured at a suburban site (Preston) in Melbourne, Australia from February 2004 to June 2005 to investigate temporal variability. A second site (Surrey Hills) with differing surface characteristics (in particular, greater vegetation cover) was also established in Melbourne and ran simultaneously for 6 months (February 2004-July 2004). Results showed that both sites were a net source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Diurnal patterns of fluxes were largely influenced by traffic volumes, with two distinct peaks occurring at the morning and evening traffic peak hours, with the winter morning peak averaging 10.9 μmol m -2 s -1 at Preston. Summer time fluxes were lower than during winter due to greater vegetative influence and reduced natural gas combustion. Vegetation limited the source of CO 2 in the afternoon, yet was not enough to combat the strong local anthropogenic emissions. Surrey Hills showed higher fluxes of CO 2 despite greater vegetation cover because of higher local traffic volumes. Annual emissions from Preston were estimated at 84.9 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1. Magnitudes and patterns of suburban CO 2 fluxes in Melbourne were similar to those observed in Northern Hemisphere suburban areas.

  8. [Effects of CO2 storage flux on carbon budget of forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Wen, Xue-fa; Yu, Gui-rui; Zhang, Lei-ming; Fu, Yu-ling; Sun, Xiao-min; Han, Shi-jie

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage flux in the air space below measurement height of eddy covariance is very important to correctly evaluate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between forest ecosystem and atmosphere. This study analyzed the dynamic variation of CO2 storage flux and its effects on the carbon budget of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountains, based on the eddy covariance flux data and the vertical profile of CO2 concentration data. The CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem had typical diurnal variation, with the maximum variation appeared during the transition from stable atmospheric layer to unstable atmospheric layer. The CO2 storage flux calculated by the change in CO2 concentration throughout a vertical profile was not significantly different from that calculated by the change in CO2 concentration at the measurement height of eddy covariance. The NEE of this forest ecosystem was underestimated by 25% and 19% at night and at daytime, respectively, without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour scale, and was underestimated by 10% and 25% at daily scale and annual scale, respectively. Without calculating the CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem, the parameters of Michaelis-Menten equation and Lloyd-Taylor equation were underestimated, and the ecosystem apparent quantum yield (alpha) and the ecosystem respiration rate (Rref) at the reference temperature were mostly affected. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) of this forest ecosystem were underestimated about 20% without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour, daily scale, and annual scale.

  9. Annual patterns and budget of CO2 flux in an Alaskan arctic tussock tundra ecosystem at Atqasuk, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Kalhori, A. A.; Burba, G. G.; Gioli, B.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystem functioning is not only critically affected by climate change, but also has the potential for major positive feedbacks on climate. There is however relatively little information available on the role, patterns, and vulnerabilities of CO2 fluxes during the non-summer seasons. Presented here is a year-around study of CO2 fluxes in an Alaskan Arctic tussock tundra ecosystem. Also presented are key environmental controls on CO2 fluxes as well as possible impacts of likely changes in season timing. This is aided by a new empirical quantification of seasons in the Arctic based on net radiation, which can help describe seasonal responses to greenhouse gas fluxes under climate change. The fluxes were computed using standard FluxNet methodology and corrected using standard WPL density terms, adjusted for influences of instrument surface heating. The results showed that the non-summer season comprises a significant source of carbon to the atmosphere. The summer period was a net sink of 10.83 g C m-2 yr-1, while the non-summer seasons released more than four times the CO2 uptake observed in the summer, resulting in a net annual source of 37.6 g C m-2 yr-1 to the atmosphere. This shows a change in this region of the Arctic from a long-term annual sink of CO2 from the atmosphere to an annual source of CO2 from the terrestrial ecosystem and soils to the atmosphere. The results presented here demonstrate that nearly continuous observations may be required in order to accurately calculate the annual NEE of Arctic ecosystems, and to build predictive understanding that can be used to estimate, with confidence, Arctic fluxes under future conditions. Daily CO2 fluxes over the year, average daily net radiation, average daily PAR, average daily air temperature and average daily soil respiration (at -5 cm).

  10. Development of a laser remote sensing instrument to measure sub-aerial volcanic CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike

    2016-04-01

    A thorough quantification of volcanic CO2 fluxes would lead to an enhanced understanding of the role of volcanoes in the geological carbon cycle. This would enable a more subtle understanding of human impact on that cycle. Furthermore, variations in volcanic CO2 emissions are a key to understanding volcanic processes such as eruption phenomenology. However, measuring fluxes of volcanic CO2 is challenging as volcanic CO2 concentrations are modest compared with the ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) . Volcanic CO2 quickly dilutes with the background air. For Mt. Etna (Italy), for instance, 1000 m downwind from the crater, dispersion modelling yields a signal of ~4 ppm only. It is for this reason that many magmatic CO2 concentration measurements focus on in situ techniques, such as direct sampling Giggenbach bottles, chemical sensors, IR absorption spectrometers or mass spectrometers. However, emission rates are highly variable in time and space. Point measurements fail to account for this variability. Inferring 1-D or 2-D gas concentration profiles, necessary to estimate gas fluxes, from point measurements may thus lead to erroneous flux estimations. Moreover, in situ probing is time consuming and, since many volcanoes emit toxic gases and are dangerous as mountains, may raise safety concerns. In addition, degassing is often diffuse and spatially extended, which makes a measurement approach with spatial coverage desirable. There are techniques that allow to indirectly retrieve CO2 fluxes from correlated SO2 concentrations and fluxes. However, they still rely on point measurements of CO2 and are prone to errors of SO2 fluxes due to light dilution and depend on blue sky conditions. Here, we present a new remote sensing instrument, developed with the ERC project CO2Volc, which measures 1-D column amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere with sufficient sensitivity to reveal the contribution of magmatic CO2. Based on differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) the instrument measures

  11. Surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes simultaneously inferred from proxy GOSAT XCH4:XCO2 retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Parker, Robert; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has collected atmospheric column measurements of CO2 and CH4 since it was launched in 2009. Observed atmospheric column variations of CO2 and CH4 can in principle be used to infer the responsible surface fluxes. A major advantage of space-based observations over conventional in-situ measurement networks is their better global coverage. However, to improve our current quantitative understanding of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from in-situ data, space-borne column measurements have to exceed strict precision requirements. Uncharacterized systematic errors at regional or sub-regional spatial scales can compromise the ability of these data to infer surface fluxes. Previous work has demonstrated how to infer simultaneously regional CO2 and CH4 flux estimates directly from the XCH4:XCO2 ratio retrieved using the proxy approach. The proxy retrieval method fits CO2 and CH4 gases in nearby spectral windows (at 1.65 μm and 1.61 μm) under the assumption that the ratio between XCH4 and XCO2 reduces the sensitivity to fitting artefacts common to both gases (e.g. aerosol and clouds). The proxy method is also simpler than the full physics approach, and more robust against scattering, resulting in more useful retrievals over regions, such as the Tropical South America, which currently represent the largest uncertainties in our current understanding of the global carbon cycle. We present monthly regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes from 2009 to 2014 inferred from GOSAT XCH4:XCO2 proxy retrievals and NOAA in-situ atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fraction measurements. To improve the spatial resolution as well as the numerical efficiency we use an ensemble Kalman Filter to assimilate each single GOSAT and NOAA observation. We show that the CO2 and CH4 fluxes inferred from the proxy retrieval have generally much lower posterior uncertainties than using the full physics GOSAT retrievals of XCO2 and XCH4 or using the NOAA in-situ data. We find

  12. BOREAS TF-4 CO2 and CH4 Chamber Flux Data from the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Dean; Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-4 team measured fluxes of CO2 and CH4 across the soil-air interface in four ages of jack pine forest at the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 to March 1995. Gross and net flux of CO2 and flux of CH4 between soil and air are presented for 24 chamber sites in mature jack pine forest, 20-year-old, 4-year-old, and clear cut areas. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  13. Detectability of CO2 Flux Signals by a Space-Based Lidar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for improving our quantitative understanding of the carbon cycle. Prospective observations include those from space-based lidar such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Here we explore the ability of such a mission to detect regional changes in CO2 fluxes. We investigate these using three prototypical case studies, namely the thawing of permafrost in the Northern High Latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China, and changes in the source-sink characteristics of the Southern Ocean. These three scenarios were used to design signal detection studies to investigate the ability to detect the unfolding of these scenarios compared to a baseline scenario. Results indicate that the ASCENDS mission could detect the types of signals investigated in this study, with the caveat that the study is based on some simplifying assumptions. The permafrost thawing flux perturbation is readily detectable at a high level of significance. The fossil fuel emission detectability is directly related to the strength of the signal and the level of measurement noise. For a nominal (lower) fossil fuel emission signal, only the idealized noise-free instrument test case produces a clearly detectable signal, while experiments with more realistic noise levels capture the signal only in the higher (exaggerated) signal case. For the Southern Ocean scenario, differences due to the natural variability in the ENSO climatic mode are primarily detectable as a zonal increase.

  14. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  15. Does Terrestrial Drought Explain Global CO2 Flux Anomalies Induced by El Nino?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwalm. C. R.; Williams, C. A.; Schaefer, K.; Baker, I.; Collatz, G. J.; Roedenbeck, C.

    2011-01-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation is the dominant year-to-year mode of global climate variability. El Nino effects on terrestrial carbon cycling are mediated by associated climate anomalies, primarily drought, influencing fire emissions and biotic net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Here we evaluate whether El Nino produces a consistent response from the global carbon cycle. We apply a novel bottom-up approach to estimating global NEE anomalies based on FLUXNET data using land cover maps and weather reanalysis. We analyze 13 years (1997-2009) of globally gridded observational NEE anomalies derived from eddy covariance flux data, remotely-sensed fire emissions at the monthly time step, and NEE estimated from an atmospheric transport inversion. We evaluate the overall consistency of biospheric response to El Nino and, more generally, the link between global CO2 flux anomalies and El Nino-induced drought. Our findings, which are robust relative to uncertainty in both methods and time-lags in response, indicate that each event has a different spatial signature with only limited spatial coherence in Amazonia, Australia and southern Africa. For most regions, the sign of response changed across El Nino events. Biotic NEE anomalies, across 5 El Nino events, ranged from -1.34 to +0.98 Pg Cyr(exp -1, whereas fire emissions anomalies were generally smaller in magnitude (ranging from -0.49 to +0.53 Pg C yr(exp -1). Overall drought does not appear to impose consistent terrestrial CO2 flux anomalies during El Ninos, finding large variation in globally integrated responses from 11.15 to +0.49 Pg Cyr(exp -1). Despite the significant correlation between the CO2 flux and El Nino indices, we find that El Nino events have, when globally integrated, both enhanced and weakened terrestrial sink strength, with no consistent response across events

  16. BOREAS TF-3 Automated Chamber CO2 Flux Data from the NSA-OBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goulden, Michael L.; Crill, Patrick M.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-3) and Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (TGB-1) teams collected automated CO2 chamber flux data in their efforts to fully describe the CO2 flux at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) site. This data set contains fluxes of CO2 at the NSA-OBS site measured using automated chambers. In addition to reporting the CO2 flux, it reports chamber air temperature, moss temperature, and light levels during each measurement. The data set covers the period from 23-Sep-1995 through 26-Oct-1995 and from 28-May-1996 through 21-Oct-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  17. Atmospheric observations inform CO2 flux responses to enviroclimatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the response of the terrestrial biospheric carbon cycle to variability in enviroclimatic drivers is critical for predicting climate-carbon interactions. Here we apply an atmospheric-inversion-based framework to assess the relationships between the spatiotemporal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and those of enviroclimatic drivers. We show that those relationships can be directly observed at 1° × 1° 3-hourly resolution from atmospheric CO2 measurements for four of seven large biomes in North America, namely, (i) boreal forests and taiga; (ii) temperate coniferous forests; (iii) temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands; and (iv) temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. We find that shortwave radiation plays a dominant role during the growing season over all four biomes. Specific humidity and precipitation also play key roles and are associated with decreased CO2 uptake (or increased release). The explanatory power of specific humidity is especially strong during transition seasons, while that of precipitation appears during both the growing and dormant seasons. We further find that the ability of four prototypical terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) to represent the spatiotemporal variability of NEE improves as the influence of radiation becomes more dominant, implying that TBMs have a better skill in representing the impact of radiation relative to other drivers. Even so, we show that TBMs underestimate the strength of the relationship to radiation and do not fully capture its seasonality. Furthermore, the TBMs appear to misrepresent the relationship to precipitation and specific humidity at the examined scales, with relationships that are not consistent in terms of sign, seasonality, or significance relative to observations. More broadly, we demonstrate the feasibility of directly probing relationships between NEE and enviroclimatic drivers at scales with no direct measurements of NEE, opening the door to the study of emergent

  18. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results.

  19. The role of metabolism in modulating CO2 fluxes in boreal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Matthew J.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Lake CO2 emissions are increasingly recognized as an important component of the global CO2 cycle, yet the origin of these emissions is not clear, as specific contributions from metabolism and in-lake cycling, versus external inputs, are not well defined. To assess the coupling of lake metabolism with CO2 concentrations and fluxes, we estimated steady state ratios of gross primary production to respiration (GPP:R) and rates of net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP-R) from surface water O2 dynamics (concentration and stable isotopes) in 187 boreal lakes spanning long environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that internal metabolism plays a dominant role in regulating CO2 fluxes in most lakes, but this pattern only emerges when examined at a resolution that accounts for the vastly differing relationships between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes. Fluxes of CO2 exceeded those from NEP in over half the lakes, but unexpectedly, these effects were most common and typically largest in a subset ( 30% of total) of net autotrophic lakes that nevertheless emitted CO2. Equally surprising, we found no environmental characteristics that distinguished this category from the more common net heterotrophic, CO2 outgassing lakes. Excess CO2 fluxes relative to NEP were best predicted by catchment structure and hydrologic properties, and we infer from a combination of methods that both catchment inputs and internal anaerobic processes may have contributed this excess CO2. Together, our findings show that the link between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes is often strong but can vary widely across the boreal biome, having important implications for catchment-wide C budgets.

  20. Temporal CO2 flux variations of Lake Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Zhou, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lakes are important CO2 sources or sinks in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of a lake acting as a source or a sink of CO2 in different environments still remains uncertain due to data paucity and differing methods adopted. The lake-atmosphere CO2 fluxes have not been observed within the expanse of central Tibetan Plateau (TP) due to the harsh climate and inaccessibility. In this study, eddy covariance (EC) method was used to obtain CO2 fluxes over Lake Nam Co, the highest and second largest lake on the TP. This is the first long-term observation of CO2 fluxes over a lake in the central TP. The observations were conducted from 2012 to 2014. Daily-averaged CO2 flux over the lake ranged from -292 mmol m-2d-1 to 81 mmol m-2d-1 and displayed a decreasing trend during the observation period from July to October. Average daily CO2 flux was -48 mmol m-2d-1 in the observation period, indicating a CO2 sink.

  1. Importance of non CO2 fluxes for agricultural ecosystems - understanding the mechanisms and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, a large proportion (about 89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Not surprising that exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been a main research objective during last decades. In spite of this, in agricultural ecosytems (i.e. grassland and croplands) a large proportion of total emissions (about 18% in CO2e worldwide) are linked to non CO2 fluxes (about 50% N2O, 40% CH4 in contraste to 10%CO2). Those emissions are however, diffuse, for example N2O, is emitted on almost all cultivated land, and all humid grasslands emit CH4 related to watertable. However, those emissions can vary largely from one site to another or from one farming system to another, while some studies even report a fixation of CH4 and N2O by grass- and croplands, not to mention the impacts of climate change on fluxes. Finally, given the large number of findings, along with their significant diversity, complicates both estimation of these emissions and the mechanism that the public authorities could implement to encourage their reduction. To determine effective mitigation options, a better knowledge on the drivers of CH4/N2O as well as their temporal and spatial variability are of particular interest. At present, more information is needed on i) the impact of agricultural practices and the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting systems, ii) differences among climate regions and climate impacts, and iii) impact of managing soil microbial functioning (through plant diverstiy, litter inputs, etc). This presentation will review recent studies to highlight some new findings on the mentioned topics.

  2. CO2 Flux From Antarctic Dry Valley Soils: Determining the Source and Environmental Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, D. A.; Macintyre, C. M.; Shanhun, F.; Almond, P. C.; Lee, C.; Cary, C.

    2014-12-01

    Soils within the McMurdo Dry Valleys are known to respire carbon dioxide (CO2), but considerable debate surrounds the contributing sources and mechanisms that drive temporal variability. While some of the CO2 is of biological origin, other known contributors to variability include geochemical sources within, or beneath, the soil column. The relative contribution from each of these sources will depend on seasonal and environmental drivers such as temperature and wind that exert influence on temporal dynamics. To supplement a long term CO2­ surface flux monitoring station that has now recorded fluxes over three full annual cycles, in January 2014 an automated flux and depth concentration monitoring system was installed in the Spaulding Pond area of Taylor Valley, along with standard meteorological sensors, to assist in defining source contributions through time. During two weeks of data we observed marked diel variability in CO2 concentrations within the profile (~100 ppm CO2 above or below atmospheric), and of CO2 moving across the soil surface. The pattern at many depths suggested an alternating diel-scale transition from source to sink that seemed clearly correlated with temperature-driven changes in the solubility of CO2 in water films. This CO2 solution storage flux was very highly coupled to soil temperature. A small depth source of unknown origin also appeared to be present. A controlled laboratory soil experiment was conducted to confirm the magnitude of fluxes into and out of soil water films, and confirmed the field results and temperature dependence. Ultimately, this solution storage flux needs to be well understood if the small biological fluxes from these soils are to be properly quantified and monitored for change. Here, we present results from the 2013/2014 field season and these supplementary experiments, placed in the context of 3 year long term continuous measurement of soil CO2 flux within the Dry Valleys.

  3. BOREAS TGB-5 CO2, CH4 and CO Chamber Flux Data Over the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Roger; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Zepp, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-5) team collected a variety of trace gas concentration and flux measurements at several NSA sites. This data set contains carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) chamber flux measurements conducted in 1994 at upland forest sites that experienced stand-replacement fires. These measurements were acquired to understand the impact of fires on soil biogeochemistry and related changes in trace gas exchange in boreal forest soils. Relevant ancillary data, including data concerning the soil temperature, solar irradiance, and information from nearby un-burned control sites, are included to provide a basis for modeling the regional impacts of fire and climate changes on trace gas biogeochemistry. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  4. Modelling the CO2 atmosphere-ocean flux in the upwelling zones using radiative transfer tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivin, Vladimir F.; Varotsos, Costas A.

    2016-12-01

    An advanced mathematical model of the radiation forcing on the ocean surface is proposed for the assessment of the CO2 fluxes between atmosphere and ocean boundary in the upwelling zones. Two types of the upwelling are considered: coastal and local in the open ocean that are closely associated with changes in solar irradiance. The proposed model takes into account the maximal number of the carbon fluxes in the upwelling ecosystem considering that in the latter the only original source of energy and matter for all forms of life is the energy of the solar radiation. The vertical structure of the upwelling zone is represented by four levels: the upper mixed layer above the thermocline, the intermediate photic layer below the thermocline, the deep ocean and the near-bottom layer. Peruvian upwelling and typical local upwelling of tropical pelagic region are considered as examples for the model calculations.

  5. Ecosystem gross CO2 fluxes in a tropical rainforest estimated from carbonyl sulfide (COS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Juarez, S.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a promising new tracer to constrain the gross CO2 fluxes of land ecosystems, particularly in tropical forests where CO2 flux partitioning is often problematic due to the absence of turbulent flow at night. Since vegetation COS and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis is closely coupled, the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. We measured ecosystem COS and CO2 exchange over four months in a tropical rainforest at La Selva, Costa Rica. We observed a strong ecosystem uptake of COS with a diel signal that was similar but not identical to net CO2 fluxes. Soils at the site mostly acted as COS sinks, correlated with soil moisture. The COS and CO2 data were used to calculate canopy photosynthesis (approx. GPP) from net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) based on the empirical relationship of leaf relative uptake of COS and CO2. Mid-day COS-based GPP estimates ranged from -10 to -15 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to NEE of -5 to -10 μmol m-2 s-1. Ecosystem respiration, calculated as the difference of NEE and GPP, ranged from 5 to 10 μmol m-2 s-1, similar to previous estimates of 5 to 9 μmol m-2 s-1 from CO2 flux partitioning and respiration component measurements at the site. Our results support the application of COS as a new tool in ecosystem flux partitioning that may be particularly useful in tropical forests.

  6. Quantifying the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of aquatic CO2 fluxes in a sub-tropical karst catchment, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Waldron, Susan; Newton, Jason; Garnett, Mark H.

    2017-04-01

    The role played by rivers in regional and global C budgets is receiving increasing attention. A large portion of the carbon transported via inland waters is returned to the atmosphere by carbon dioxide evasion from rivers and lakes. Karst landscapes represent an important C store on land, and are also considered to play an important role in climate regulation by consuming atmospheric CO2 during chemical weathering. However, we cannot be certain how effective this sink is if we do not know how efficiently the rivers draining karst landscapes remobilise weathered C to the atmosphere as CO2. pCO2 in karst waters is generally greater than atmospheric equilibrium, indicating that there can be a net CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. However, measurement confirming this and quantifying flux rates has been rarely conducted. Using a floating chamber method, in 2016 we directly measured CO2 fluxes from spatially distributed freshwaters (springs, sinkholes, streams and reservoirs/ponds) in the Houzhai Catchment, a karst region in SW China. Fluxes ranged from -0.5 to +267.4 μmol CO2 m-2s-1, and most sites showed seasonal variations with higher CO2 efflux rates in the wet (April - September) than dry season (October - March). There was a significant positive relationship between CO2 efflux and flow velocity, indicating that hydraulic controls on CO2 efflux from flowing water are important, while for water with little movement (sinkholes and reservoirs/ponds), pCO2 appears a more important control on efflux rates. Conditions similar to this study area may exist in many sub-tropical rivers that drain karst landscapes in South China. These waters are rich in DIC which can be an order of magnitude greater than some non-karst catchments. The large DIC pool has the potential to be a considerable source of free CO2 to the atmosphere. Considering that carbonate lithology covers a significant part of the Earth's surface, CO2 evasion in fluvial water from these regions is expected to

  7. Development of Regional CO2 Inversion for Terrestrial Sources/Sinks Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Machimura, T.

    2007-12-01

    Global CO2 inversion is a well-developed technique for deducing a reasonable surface CO2 flux combination that is consistent with atmospheric CO2 observation. It provides a global wide distribution of CO2 sources/sinks, however, the obtained CO2 source/sink information is coarse for the use of local level policy making against global warming. Thus, finer spatial resolution information of source/sink is preferable. When CO2 inversion technique is applied to regional study, it is more difficult to relate surface flux to concentration properly because of difficulty in modeling of regional transport. And, especially in regional study, the concentration variation occurs in shorter time scale, which is usually removed as "noise" should be utilized because it may contain spatiotemporal information of regionally distributed sources/sinks. In this study, a regional CO2 inversion that employs Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the inverse method is proposed. It enables us to utilize the concentration variations as signals to detect regionally distributed CO2 sources and sinks. Our framework consists of atmospheric CO2 observation, modeling of atmospheric transport and an optimization technique. In practical, unknown parameters corresponding to fluxes are optimized by matching the modeled concentration with the observed concentration. The flux estimates are calculated using the optimized parameters. The hourly atmospheric CO2 concentration was measured using an infra-red gas analyzer at an observation point located in the target domain and the modeled concentration at the observation point was calculated using our regional transport model driven by hourly meteorological fields from MM5. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a universal optimization technique that searches within the solution space globally while avoiding local optima. It generates candidate solutions (i.e. combinations of parameters) that result in smaller misfit between the observed and modeled concentration. A surface flux

  8. Drivers of column CO2 (XCO2) variability and implications for flux estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Bowman, K.; Henze, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Column CO2 (XCO2) observations have become a dominant observation constraint on surface carbon budget since the launch of the Greenhouse Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Understanding the drivers of XCO2 variability will help interpret the atmospheric inversion results, and better design atmospheric inversion and future observation networks. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of XCO2 over nine sub land regions and XCO2 over ocean to the surface fluxes using GEOS-Chem adjoint model. Through a suite of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we characterize the impact of these nine subsets of simulated GOSAT XCO2 observations on surface flux estimation, and discuss the connection between observation impact and observation sensitivity. Through analyzing the sensitivity of XCO2, we find that XCO2 observations have strong sensitivity to the surface fluxes over the similar latitudinal bands. This is true for XCO2 over both mid latitudes and tropics. In turn, XCO2 observations show strong impact not only on the local flux estimation, but also on the flux estimation of the similar latitude bands. Especially, we find that the XCO2 observations over Europe have strong impact on the flux estimation over North America, and the XCO2 observations over North Africa show strong impact on the flux estimation over South America. Because of the movement of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), we also find that the XCO2 observations over North America have strong impact on the flux estimation over South America. The sensitivity of XCO2 to the latitudinal and large-scale fluxes can compensate the limitation of the sparse observation coverage over some region, such as Amazonia. However, it puts high requirement on the prior flux error specification, the accuracy of the assumed fossil fuel emissions, and the long-range atmospheric transport. Through a set of experiments, we will show the implications of XCO2 sensitivity on flux estimation when there are errors in the prior

  9. CO2 and H2O fluxes in different ecosystems altered uniquely by similar climatic extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H.; Chen, J.; Ouyang, Z.; Deal, M.; John, R.; Gottgens, J.

    2012-12-01

    Using flux measurements at three contrasting ecosystems under similar climatic conditions, we examined the responses of an oak savanna (OO), freshwater marsh (ML), and cropland (CL) in the Maumee watershed in Northwest Ohio to an extremely warm winter and spring. The 2012 winter (Dec 1st to Feb 28th) was recorded as one of the warmest (averaged ~0.3 °C) and snowless (16 days with ground snow cover) winters in the past 50 years (-3.1 °C and 34 days) in the region. This was followed by a warmer spring (11.1 °C, compared to 50-yr average of 8.9 °C) that triggered early leaf emergence. The ecosystem CO2 and H2O water fluxes measured with eddy covariance towers from July 2010 to July 2012 were used to quantify responses to these extremes. The start of growing season (SGS) was ~7 and ~10 days earlier in OO and CL in 2012 than in 2011, respectively, but ~5 days later in ML. All three sites showed extreme CO2 emission and evapotranspiration (ET) with ML displaying the most dramatic responses (increased 43g C m-2 emission and 88 mm ET from Dec 1st to SGS). The cumulative CO2 emission through the winter to SGS in 2012 were 117, 64, and 119 g C m-2 at OO, ML and CL, respectively, and were higher than those of 2011 (110, 21, and 111 g C m-2). These higher CO2 emissions were compensated by earlier onset of growing season at OO and CL, leading to a CO2 budget of -406 and 61 g C m-2 at the peak of growing season in late July. The CO2 budgets at OO and CL were both elevated in 2012 over the -331 and 87 g C m-2 in 2011. The CO2 budget at ML was 26 g C m-2 starting from Dec 1st, 2011 to late July, 2012, contrasting with -32 g C m-2 in previous year. The cumulative ET through the winter to SGS in 2012 was 74, 218, and 238 mm at OO, ML and CL, respectively, with a cumulative precipitation of 289, 279 and 425 mm. While cumulative precipitation through the winter to SGS was higher in 2011 (344, 296, and 427 mm at OO, ML and CL), the cumulative ET was, in contrast, lower in 2011 (56

  10. Field evaluation of open and closed-path CO2 flux systems over asphalt surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.; Santos, E.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is a widely used method for quantifying surface fluxes of heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere. A typical EC system consists of an ultrasonic anemometer measuring the 3D wind vector and a fast-response infrared gas analyzer for sensing the water vapor and CO2 density in the air. When using an open-path analyzer that detects the constituent's density in situ a correction for concurrent air temperature and humidity fluctuations must be applied, Webb et al. (1980). In environments with small magnitudes of CO2 flux (<5µmol m-2 s-1) and in the presence of high sensible heat flux, like wintertime over boreal forest, open-path flux measurements have been challenging since the magnitude of the density corrections are as large as the uncorrected CO2 flux itself. A new technology merging the sensing paths of the gas analyzer and the sonic anemometer has been recently developed. This new integrated instrument allows a direct measurement of CO2 mixing ratio in the open air and has the potential to improve the quality of the temperature related density corrections by synchronously measuring the sensible heat flux in the optical path of the gas analyzer. We evaluate the performance and the accuracy of this new sensor over a large parking lot with an asphalt surface where the CO2 fluxes are considered low and the interfering sensible heat fluxes are above 200 Wm-2. A co-located closed-path EC system is used as a reference measurement to examine any systematic biases and apparent CO2 uptake observed with open-path sensors under high sensible heat flux regimes. Half-hour mean and variance of CO2 and water vapor concentrations are evaluated. The relative spectral responses, covariances and corrected turbulent fluxes using a common sonic anemometer are analyzed. The influence of sensor separation and frequency response attenuation on the density corrections is discussed.

  11. Modelling the Response of Energy, Water and CO2 Fluxes Over Forests to Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, W.; Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.

    2004-05-01

    Understanding the response of energy, water and CO2 fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability at various temporal scales is of interest to climate change research. To simulate carbon (C) and water dynamics and their interactions at the continental scale with high temporal and spatial resolutions, the remote sensing driven BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model was updated to couple with the soil model of CENTURY and a newly developed biophysical model. This coupled model separates the whole canopy into two layers. For the top layer, the leaf-level conductance is scaled up to canopy level using a sunlit and shaded leaf separation approach. Fluxes of water, and CO{2} are simulated as the sums of those from sunlit and shaded leaves separately. This new approach allows for close coupling in modeling these fluxes. The whole profile of soil under a seasonal snowpack is split into four layers for estimating soil moisture and temperature. Long-term means of the vegetation productivity and climate are employed to initialize the carbon pools for the computation of heterotrophic respiration. Validated against tower data at four forested sites, this model is able to describe these fluxes and their response to climate variability. The model captures over 55% of year-round half/one hourly variances of these fluxes. The highest agreement of model results with tower data was achieved for CO2 flux at Southern Old Aspen (SOA) (R2>0.85 and RMSE<2.37 μ mol C m-2 s-1, N=17520). However, the model slightly overestimates the diurnal amplitude of sensible heat flux in winter and sometimes underestimates that of CO2 flux in the growing season. Model simulations suggest that C uptakes of forests are controlled by climate variability and the response of C cycle to climate depends on forest type. For SOA, the annual NPP (Net Primary Productivity) is more sensitive to temperature than to precipitation. This forest usually has higher NPP in warm years than in cool

  12. Variability of CO2 concentrations and fluxes in and above an urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietzke, Björn; Vogt, Roland

    2013-08-01

    The variability of CO2 concentrations and fluxes in dense urban environments is high due to the inherent heterogeneity of these complex areas and their spatio-temporally variable anthropogenic sources. With a focus on micro- to local-scale CO2-exchange processes, measurements were conducted in a street canyon in the city of Basel, Switzerland in 2010. CO2 fluxes were sampled at the top of the canyon (19 m) and at 39 m while vertical CO2 concentration profiles were measured in the center and at a wall of the canyon. CO2 concentration distributions in the street canyon and exchange processes with the layers above show, apart from expected general diurnal patterns due mixing layer heights, a strong dependence on wind direction relative to the canyon. As a consequence of the resulting corkscrew-like canyon vortex, accumulation of CO2 inside the canyon is modulated with distinct distribution patterns. The evaluation of diurnal traffic data provides good explanations for the vertical and horizontal differences in CO2-distribution inside the canyon. Diurnal flux characteristics at the top of the canyon can almost solely be explained with traffic density expressed by the strong linear dependence. Even the diurnal course of the flux at 39 m shows a remarkable relationship to traffic density for east wind conditions while, for west wind situations, a change toward source areas with lower emissions leads to a reduced flux.

  13. Regional 14CO2 offsets in the troposphere: magnitude, mechanisms, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Kromer, B; Manning, S W; Kuniholm, P I; Newton, M W; Spurk, M; Levin, I

    2001-12-21

    Radiocarbon dating methods typically assume that there are no significant tropospheric (14)CO(2) gradients within the low- to mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Comparison of tree ring (14)C data from southern Germany and Anatolia supports this assumption in general but also documents episodes of significant short-term regional (14)CO(2) offsets. We suggest that the offset is caused by an enhanced seasonal (14)CO(2) cycle, with seasonally peaked flux of stratospheric (14)C into the troposphere during periods of low solar magnetic activity, coinciding with substantial atmospheric cooling. Short-term episodes of regional (14)CO(2) offsets are important to palaeoclimate studies and to high-resolution archaeological dating.

  14. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth’s surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies. PMID:27363345

  15. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth’s surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies.

  16. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth's surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies.

  17. Air-sea CO2 exchange from kelp forests (Macrocystis) in San Diego, Southern California - CO2 flux measurements by the boat based eddy covariance technique -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Bight near San Diego in Southern California is characterized by extensive kelp forests (Macrocystis). To quantify air-sea CO2 exchange (CO2 flux) on the kelp forest, we set up an eddy covariance system on a boat together with a gyro sensor for the motion correction. We also measured pCO2 and estimated CO2 flux by using the bulk method. The measurements were taken on May 19th (15-17 PST), December 9th (12-16 PST) and December 23rd (13-16 PST) in 2009 over the kelp forest (N32.6°, W 117.2°) near Point Loma, San Diego. Both CO2 flux measured by the eddy covariance system and estimated by the bulk method showed a consistent sink of CO2. However, there were some discrepancies between the two methods in the flux estimation. The lowest dpCO2 (pCO2 - atmospheric CO2) of -152 ppm with the highest wind speed was observed on May 19th resulting in the highest CO2 sink of -0.26 gCm-2day-1 estimated by the bulk method. On the other hand, the eddy covariance technique recorded the highest CO2 sink of -1.34 gCm-2day-1 on December 9th, although dpCO2 of -50.6 ppm recorded on December 9th was higher than that on May 19th. CO2 flux calculated by the bulk method was overall smaller than CO2 flux measured by the eddy covariance technique. The discrepancy in between the two methods was relatively less on May 19th when higher wind speeds were observed compared to the other two cruises.

  18. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  19. Global climate impacts of bioenergy from forests: implications from biogenic CO2 fluxes and surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan; Strømman, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Production of biomass for bioenergy can alter biogeochemical and biogeophysical mechanisms, thus affecting local and global climate. Recent scientific developments mainly embraced impacts from land use changes resulting from area-expanded biomass production, with several extensive insights available. Comparably less attention, however, is given to the assessment of direct land surface-atmosphere climate impacts of bioenergy systems under rotation such as in plantations and forested ecosystems, whereby land use disturbances are only temporary. In this work, we assess bioenergy systems representative of various biomass species (spruce, pine, aspen, etc.) and climatic regions (US, Canada, Norway, etc.), for both stationary and vehicle applications. In addition to conventional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through life cycle activities (harvest, transport, processing, etc.), we evaluate the contributions to global warming of temporary effects resulting from the perturbation in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration caused by the timing of biogenic CO2 fluxes and in surface reflectivity (albedo). Biogenic CO2 fluxes on site after harvest are directly measured through Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) chronosequences from flux towers established at the interface between the forest canopy and the atmosphere and are inclusive of all CO2 exchanges occurring in the forest (e.g., sequestration of CO2 in growing trees, emissions from soil respiration and decomposition of dead organic materials). These primary data based on empirical measurements provide an accurate representation of the forest carbon sink behavior over time, and they are used in the elaboration of high-resolution IRFs for biogenic CO2 emissions. Chronosequence of albedo values from clear-cut to pre-harvest levels are gathered from satellite data (MODIS black-sky shortwave broadband, Collection 5, MCD43A). Following the cause-effect chain from emissions to damages, through radiative forcing and changes

  20. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-10-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the flux associated with the aboveground vegetation. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1) was estimated as the difference between assimilation by photosynthesis minus the aboveground biomass respiration during daytime (4.0 ton km-2 day-1) and release by plant respiration at night (2.6 ton km-2 day-1). However, when soil respiration is added to the daily aboveground flux, the biogenic component becomes a net source amounting to 4% of the total CO2 flux and represents the total contribution of urban vegetation to the carbon flux to the atmosphere.

  1. New advances in Dial-Lidar-based remote sensing of the volcanic CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; D'Aleo, Roberto; Liuzzo, Marco; Maio, Giovanni; Nuvoli, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the results of a proof-of-concept study aimed at remotely sensing the volcanic CO2 flux using a Differential Adsorption lidar (DIAL-lidar). The observations we report on were conducted on June 2014 on Stromboli volcano, where our lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) was used to scan the volcanic plume from 3 km distance from the summit vents. The obtained results prove that a remotely operating lidar can resolve a volcanic CO2 signal of a few tens of ppm (in excess to background air) over km-long optical paths. We combine these results with independent estimates of plume transport speed (from processing of UV Camera images) to derive volcanic CO2 flux time-series of ≈16-33 minutes temporal resolution. Our lidar-based CO2 fluxes range from 1.8±0.5 to 32.1±8.0 kg/s, and constrain the daily averaged CO2 emissions from Stromboli at 8.3±2.1 to 18.1±4.5 kg/s (or 718-1565 tons/day). These inferred fluxes fall within the range of earlier observations at Stromboli. They also agree well with contemporaneous CO2 flux determinations (8.4-20.1 kg/s) obtained using a standard approach that combines Multi-GAS-based in-plume readings of the CO2/SO2 ratio (≈ 8) with UV-camera sensed SO2 fluxes (1.5-3.4 kg/s). We conclude that DIAL-lidars offer new prospects for safer (remote) instrumental observations of the volcanic CO2 flux.

  2. Global sea-air CO 2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO 2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sweeney, Colm; Poisson, Alain; Metzl, Nicolas; Tilbrook, Bronte; Bates, Nicolas; Wanninkhof, Rik; Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher; Olafsson, Jon; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    subpolar waters. High wind speeds over these low pCO 2 waters increase the CO 2 uptake rate by the ocean waters. The pCO 2 in surface waters of the global oceans varies seasonally over a wide range of about 60% above and below the current atmospheric pCO 2 level of about 360 μatm. A global map showing the seasonal amplitude of surface-water pCO 2 is presented. The effect of biological utilization of CO 2 is differentiated from that of seasonal temperature changes using seasonal temperature data. The seasonal amplitude of surface-water pCO 2 in high-latitude waters located poleward of about 40° latitude and in the equatorial zone is dominated by the biology effect, whereas that in the temperate gyre regions is dominated by the temperature effect. These effects are about 6 months out of phase. Accordingly, along the boundaries between these two regimes, they tend to cancel each other, forming a zone of small pCO 2 amplitude. In the oligotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate gyres, the biology effect is about 35 μatm on average. This is consistent with the biological export flux estimated by Laws et al. (Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 14 (2000) 1231). Small areas such as the northwestern Arabian Sea and the eastern equatorial Pacific, where seasonal upwelling occurs, exhibit intense seasonal changes in pCO 2 due to the biological drawdown of CO 2.

  3. Heat Fluxes and CO2 Variations Measured over a Tidal Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Parksa; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Minseong; Seo, Seongwoon; Kang, Donghwan; Kwon, Byunghyuk

    2014-05-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of momentum, heat fluxes and carbon dioxide variations in a tidal flat, observations were performed in Suncheon bay, Korea. Measured heat data was classified by surface condition for daytime inundation and daytime exposure. Since the sediment temperature extremely increased when the surface is exposed, the difference of temperature between the air and the surface was larger. Thus, it is clear that sensible heat flux and latent heat flux increase when the surface is exposed. CO2 was intensively measured around the sunset when the variation of temperature is large. CO2 flux was less absorbed during daytime when the surface was immersed, while it was more absorbed during daytime when the surface was exposed. When the soil temperature increases during daytime exposure, micro phytobenthos make a great photosynthesis. It causes a large absorption of CO2 and it can explain the reason that a large absorption of CO2 during daytime exposure. This shows that tidal flat actively operate as a sink of CO2. Also, it support that the surface change in tidal flat make an influence on CO2 exchange process. Understanding CO2 exchange variations in tidal flat will be useful in climate change problems. Research on heat balance and carbon dioxide variations will help to understand not only the variations of local weather process but also the variations of global climate process.

  4. Small-Scale Temporal and Spatial Variability in Regional-Scale CO2 Mixing Ratio Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, E.; Corbin, K. D.; Davis, K. J.; Denning, S.; Lokupitiya, E. Y.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.

    2009-05-01

    The study of regional-scale CO2 concentrations and fluxes lies between the detailed understanding of ecological processes that can be gathered via intensive local field study, and the overarching but mechanistically poor understanding of the global carbon cycle that is gained by analyzing the atmospheric CO2 budget. In addition to the importance of regional studies toward the fundamental goal of understanding the carbon balance of the continent, regional-scale studies are becoming increasingly important as the necessity of tracking progress in CO2 emissions reduction arises. This work is part of the NACP's Midcontinental Intensive (MCI) study. Specifically it adds a regional network of five communications-tower based atmospheric CO2 observations ("Ring 2") from April 2007 through October 2008 to the long-term atmospheric CO2 observing network (tall towers, aircraft profiles, and well- calibrated CO2 measurements on Ameriflux towers) in the mid-continent intensive region. The Ring 2 measurements are based on relatively new technology for CO2 measurement, wavelength-scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (Picarro, Inc.), and the locations are regional in scale (roughly a 500-km diameter ring). We present results concerning data quality of the new instruments, including water vapor correction and uncertainties, as well as small-scale temporal and spatial variations that can be seen with this unique network. For example, the daily daytime average throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons indicated a 50-ppm seasonal drawdown, with significant synoptic variability. The drawdown in this largely agricultural region (heavily influenced by corn) is significantly larger than the 20-30 ppm typically seen in forested regions. Also during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons, the CO2 mixing ratio at the sites nearly always differs by more than 5 ppm, while at times the inter-site difference is as large as 30-50 ppm. While variability in the regional spatial gradients is expected

  5. Experimental evidence that terrestrial carbon subsidies increase CO2 flux from lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Jay T

    2004-03-01

    Subsidies are donor-controlled inputs of nutrients and energy that can affect ecosystem-level processes in a recipient environment. Lake ecosystems receive large inputs of terrestrial carbon (C) in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM inputs may energetically subsidize heterotrophic bacteria and determine whether lakes function as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2). I experimentally tested this hypothesis using a series of mesocosm experiments in New England lakes. In the first experiment, I observed that CO(2) flux increased by 160% 4 days following a 1,000 microM C addition in the form of DOM. However, this response was relatively short lived, as there was no effect of DOM enrichment on CO(2) flux beyond 8 days. In a second experiment, I demonstrated that peak CO(2) flux from mesocosms in two lakes increased linearly over a broad DOM gradient (slope for both lakes=0.02+/-0.001 mM CO(2).m(-2) day(-1) per microM DOC, mean+/-SE). Concomitant changes in bacterial productivity and dissolved oxygen strengthen the inference that increasing CO(2) flux resulted from the metabolism of DOM. I conducted two additional studies to test whether DOM-correlated attributes were responsible for the observed change in plankton metabolism along the subsidy gradient. First, terrestrial DOM reduced light transmittance, but experimental shading revealed that this was not responsible for the observed patterns of CO(2) flux. Second, organically bound nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) accompanied DOM inputs, but experimental nutrient additions (without organic C) caused mesocosms to be saturated with CO(2). Together, these results suggest that C content of terrestrial DOM may be an important subsidy for freshwater bacteria that can influence whether recipient aquatic ecosystems are sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2).

  6. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-03-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. Negative daytime CO2 fluxes, for example have been observed during the growing season at suburban sites characterized by abundant vegetation and low population density. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the biogenic flux. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation captures 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. A net uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1 ) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 ton km-2 ) and release by respiration (2.55 ton km-2). The study shows the importance of urban vegetation at the local scale for climate change mitigation in the tropics.

  7. Carbon flux estimation for Siberia by inverse modeling constrained by aircraft and tower CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Arshinov, M.; Tans, P. P.; Conway, T. J.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Oda, T.; Andres, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Despite Siberian ecosystems being one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the world, the Siberian carbon sink remains poorly understood due to the limited numbers of observations. We present the first results of atmospheric CO2 inversions utilizing measurements from a Siberian tower network (Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network; JR-STATION) and four aircraft sites, in addition to surface background flask measurements by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The inverse model estimates monthly fluxes for 68 regions globally. Our inversion with only the NOAA data yielded a boreal Eurasian CO2 flux of -0.56 ± 0.79 GtC yr-1, whereas we obtained a weaker uptake of -0.35 ± 0.61 GtC yr-1 when the Siberian data were also included. This difference is mainly explained by a weakened summer uptake, especially in East Siberia. We also found the inclusion of the Siberian data had significant impacts on inversion results over northeastern Europe as well as boreal Eurasia. The inversion with the Siberian data reduced the regional uncertainty by 22 % on average in boreal Eurasia, and further uncertainty reductions up to 80 % were found in eastern and western Siberia. Larger interannual variability was clearly seen in the inversion including the Siberia data than the inversion without the Siberia data. In the inversion with NOAA plus Siberia data, East Siberia showed larger interannual variability than that in West and Central Siberia. Finally, we conducted forward simulations using estimated fluxes and confirmed that the fit to independent measurements over Central Siberia, which were not included in the inversions, was visibly improved.

  8. Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu

    2015-05-01

    Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations with soil CO2 flux measurements. Deeply sourced CO2 migrates through steeply dipping fault zones to the shallow aquifers predominantly as an aqueous phase. Dense CO2-rich brine mixes with regional groundwater, enhancing CO2 dissolution. Linear stability analysis reveals that CO2 could be dissolved completely within only ~500 years. Assigning lower permeability to the fault zones induces fault-parallel movement, feeds up-gradient aquifers with more CO2, and impedes down-gradient fluid flow, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The regional fault permeability that best reproduces field spatial CO2 flux variation is estimated 1 × 10-17 ≤ kh < 1 × 10-16 m2 and 5 × 10-16 ≤ kv < 1 × 10-15 m2. The anticlinal trap serves as an essential fluid source for eruption at Crystal Geyser. Geyser-like discharge sensitively responds to varying well permeability, radius, and CO2 recharge rate. The cyclic behavior of wellbore CO2 leakage decreases with time.

  9. Spatial variation in landscape-level CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic coastal tundra: influence from vegetation, wetness, and the thaw lake cycle.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Cove S; Oechel, Walter C

    2013-09-01

    Regional quantification of arctic CO2 and CH4 fluxes remains difficult due to high landscape heterogeneity coupled with a sparse measurement network. Most of the arctic coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska is part of the thaw lake cycle, which includes current thaw lakes and a 5500-year chronosequence of vegetated thaw lake basins. However, spatial variability in carbon fluxes from these features remains grossly understudied. Here, we present an analysis of whole-ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes from 20 thaw lake cycle features during the 2011 growing season. We found that the thaw lake cycle was largely responsible for spatial variation in CO2 flux, mostly due to its control on gross primary productivity (GPP). Current lakes were significant CO2 sources that varied little. Vegetated basins showed declining GPP and CO2 sink with age (R(2) = 67% and 57%, respectively). CH4 fluxes measured from a subset of 12 vegetated basins showed no relationship with age or CO2 flux components. Instead, higher CH4 fluxes were related to greater landscape wetness (R(2) = 57%) and thaw depth (additional R(2) = 28%). Spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes had good satellite remote sensing indicators, and we estimated the region to be a small CO2 sink of -4.9 ± 2.4 (SE) g C m(-2) between 11 June and 25 August, which was countered by a CH4 source of 2.1 ± 0.2 (SE) g C m(-2) . Results from our scaling exercise showed that developing or validating regional estimates based on single tower sites can result in significant bias, on average by a factor 4 for CO2 flux and 30% for CH4 flux. Although our results are specific to the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska, the degree of landscape-scale variability, large-scale controls on carbon exchange, and implications for regional estimation seen here likely have wide relevance to other arctic landscapes.

  10. Direct Measurement of CO2 Fluxes in Marine Whitings

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Robbins; Kimberly K. Yates

    2001-07-05

    Clean, affordable energy is a requisite for the United States in the 21st Century Scientists continue to debate over whether increases in CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources, including electricity generation, transportation and building systems may be altering the Earth's climate. While global climate change continues to be debated, it is likely that significant cuts in net CO{sub 2} emissions will be mandated over the next 50-100 years. To this end, a number of viable means of CO{sub 2} sequestration need to be identified and implemented. One potential mechanism for CO{sub 2} sequestration is the use of naturally-occurring biological processes. Biosequestration of CO{sub 2} remains one of the most poorly understood processes, yet environmentally safe means for trapping and storing CO{sub 2}. Our investigation focused on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in microbial precipitations of CaCO{sub 3}. Specifically, we investigated modern whitings (microbially-induced precipitates of the stable mineral calcium carbonate) as a potential, natural mechanism for CO{sub 2} abatement. This process is driven by photosynthetic metabolism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. We analyzed net air: sea CO{sub 2} fluxes, net calcification and photosynthetic rates in whitings. Both field and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that atmospheric CO{sub 2}decreases during the process of microbial calcification.

  11. Effects of a Regional Aquifer on the Evolution of a Dense CO2-Charged Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, A.; Daniels, K.; Bickle, M. J.; Pegler, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within geological reservoirs is recognised as an important solution to combat the observed changes in the Earth's climate attributed to the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Such storage must be long-term and secure thus the ability to model the fate of CO2 and CO2-charged brines as they migrate within through geological carbon storage reservoirs is critical to obtaining regulatory approval. However, the complexities of flow in natural heterogeneous reservoirs make it essential to test model results against observations of real systems; this can be difficult due to their inaccessibility and the expense of gathering adequate data. At Green River, CO2 and CO2-charged brines leak into overlying aquifers during migration to the surface through the Little Grand Fault. As the CO2-charged brine leaks it forms a series of gravity currents and mixes with the formation fluids. Downhole fluid samples from the upper aquifer of the Navajo Sandstone suggest that regional aquifer flow and sedimentological heterogeneities have a large impact on the evolution and mixing of the CO2-charged plume1. Theoretical studies show that by imposing a regional background flow we alter the dynamics and evolution of a dense plume. To test the theory, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted; a constant flux of a denser brine solution was released from a point source at the base of a porous medium filled with flowing fresh water. We present here the theory and laboratory experiments and compare these findings to the vertical variation of conservative tracers, i.e. Na and Cl, within the formation fluids of the Navajo Sandstone. 1) Kampman, N., Maskell, A. and others, 2014. Drilling and sampling a natural CO2 reservoir: Implications for fluid flow and CO2-fluid-rock reactions during CO2 migration through the overburden. Chemical Geology 369, 51-82.

  12. Benchmarking the seasonal cycle of CO2 fluxes simulated by terrestrial ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shushi; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Peylin, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Sitch, Stephen; Piao, Shilong; Ahlström, Anders; Huntingford, Chris; Levy, Peter; Li, Xiran; Liu, Yongwen; Lomas, Mark; Poulter, Benjamin; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuhui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Zhao, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the seasonality of CO2 fluxes simulated by nine terrestrial ecosystem models of the TRENDY project against (1) the seasonal cycle of gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measured at flux tower sites over different biomes, (2) gridded monthly Model Tree Ensembles-estimated GPP (MTE-GPP) and MTE-NEE obtained by interpolating many flux tower measurements with a machine-learning algorithm, (3) atmospheric CO2 mole fraction measurements at surface sites, and (4) CO2 total columns (XCO2) measurements from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). For comparison with atmospheric CO2 measurements, the LMDZ4 transport model was run with time-varying CO2 fluxes of each model as surface boundary conditions. Seven out of the nine models overestimate the seasonal amplitude of GPP and produce a too early start in spring at most flux sites. Despite their positive bias for GPP, the nine models underestimate NEE at most flux sites and in the Northern Hemisphere compared with MTE-NEE. Comparison with surface atmospheric CO2 measurements confirms that most models underestimate the seasonal amplitude of NEE in the Northern Hemisphere (except CLM4C and SDGVM). Comparison with TCCON data also shows that the seasonal amplitude of XCO2 is underestimated by more than 10% for seven out of the nine models (except for CLM4C and SDGVM) and that the MTE-NEE product is closer to the TCCON data using LMDZ4. From CO2 columns measured routinely at 10 TCCON sites, the constrained amplitude of NEE over the Northern Hemisphere is of 1.6 ± 0.4 gC m-2 d-1, which translates into a net CO2 uptake during the carbon uptake period in the Northern Hemisphere of 7.9 ± 2.0 PgC yr-1.

  13. CO2 dynamics in the Amargosa Desert: Fluxes and isotopic speciation in a deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, M.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Prudic, D.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Natural unsaturated-zone gas profiles at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site, near Beatty, Nevada, reveal the presence of two physically and isotopically distinct CO2 sources, one shallow and one deep. The shallow source derives from seasonally variable autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in the root zone. Scanning electron micrograph results indicate that at least part of the deep CO2 source is associated with calcite precipitation at the 110-m-deep water table. We use a geochemical gas-diffusion model to explore processes of CO2 production and behavior in the unsaturated zone. The individual isotopic species 12CO2, 13CO2, and 14CO2 are treated as separate chemical components that diffuse and react independently. Steady state model solutions, constrained by the measured PCO2 ??13C (in CO2), and ??14C (in CO2) profiles, indicate that the shallow CO2 source from root and microbial respiration composes ???97% of the annual average total CO2 production at this arid site. Despite the small contribution from deep CO2 production amounting to ???0.1 mol m-2 yr-1, upward diffusion from depth strongly influences the distribution of CO2 and carbon isotopes in the deep unsaturated zone. In addition to diffusion from deep CO2 production, 14C exchange with a sorbed CO2 phase is indicated by the modeled ??14C profiles, confirming previous work. The new model of carbon-isotopic profiles provides a quantitative approach for evaluating fluxes of carbon under natural conditions in deep unsaturated zones.

  14. Roles of biological and physical processes in driving seasonal air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean: New insights from CARIOCA pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; Antoine, D.

    2015-07-01

    On a mean annual basis, the Southern Ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2. However the seasonality of the air-sea CO2 flux in this region is poorly documented. We investigate processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in a large area of the Southern Ocean (38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E) that represents nearly one third of the subantarctic zone. A seasonal budget of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2 and of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC in the mixed layer is assessed by quantifying the impacts of biology, physics and thermodynamical effect on seawater pCO2. A focus is made on the quantification at a monthly scale of the biological consumption as it is the dominant process removing carbon from surface waters. In situ biological carbon production rates are estimated from high frequency estimates of DIC along the trajectories of CARIOCA drifters in the Atlantic and Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during four spring-summer seasons over the 2006-2009 period. Net community production (NCP) integrated over the mixed layer is derived from the daily change of DIC, and mixed layer depth estimated from Argo profiles. Eleven values of NCP are estimated and range from 30 to 130 mmol C m- 2 d- 1. They are used as a constraint for validating satellite net primary production (NPP). A satellite data-based global model is used to compute depth integrated net primary production, NPP, for the same periods along the trajectories of the buoys. Realistic NCP/NPP ratios are obtained under the condition that the SeaWiFS chlorophyll are corrected by a factor of ≈ 2-3, which is an underestimation previously reported for the Southern Ocean. Monthly satellite based NPP are computed over the 38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E area. pCO2 derived from these NPP combined with an export ratio, and taking into account the impact of physics and thermodynamics is in good agreement with the pCO2 seasonal climatology of Takahashi (2009). On an annual timescale, mean NCP values, 4.4 to 4.9 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 are ≈ 4-5 times

  15. Soil CO2 Fluxes Following Wetting Events: Field Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon exchange data from eddy flux towers in drylands suggest that the Birch Effect, a pulse of soil CO2 efflux triggered by the first rain following a dry period, may contribute significantly to the annual carbon budget of these ecosystems. Laboratory experiments on dryland soils have shown that microbes adapted to live in arid ecosystems may be able to remain dormant in dry soil for much longer than expected and an osmotic shock response to sudden increases in soil water potential may play a role in the Birch Effect. However, little has been done to understand how a dry soil profile responds to a rainfall event. We measured soil CO2 production during experimental wetting events in treatment plots at a site on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect (KT). We buried small, solid-state sensors that continuously measure CO2 concentration in the soil air space at four depths and the soil surface and applied wetting treatments intended to simulate typical rainfall for the region to the plots, including single 10 mm wettings (the mean storm depth for the KT), single 20 mm wettings, and repeated 10 mm wettings. We solved a finite difference approximation of the governing equation for CO2 in the soil airspace to determine the source rate of CO2 during and after the wetting treatments, using Richard’s equation to approximate the change in air-filled porosity due to infiltrating water. The wetting treatments induced a rapid spike in the source rate of CO2 in the soil, the timing and magnitude of which were consistent with laboratory experiments that observed a microbial osmotic shock response. The source rate averaged over the first three hours after wetting showed that a 20 mm wetting produced a larger response than the 10 mm wettings. It also showed that a second wetting event produced a smaller response than the first and though it was not significant, an upward trend in response was apparent through the two month period. These results suggest that there may be

  16. Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, CO2 caused by a large wind farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX) provides a platform to investigate the effect of wind turbines and large wind farms on surface fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2010 and 2011, eddy covariance flux stations were installed between two lines of turbines at the south...

  17. Applications of Lagrangian Particle Transport Modeling in the Top-Down Regional CO2 Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Denning, S.; Lu, L.; Corbin, K.; Zupanski, D.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric transport plays a critical role in top-down studies where observations from towers and/or aircraft are inverted to estimate net sources and sinks of CO2 for the study area over short periods of time. Lagrangian particle dispersion models are well suited for this modeling task since they 1) can be easily linked to any regional scale meteorological model, 2) can be run both forward or backward in time (in an adjoint mode), 3) can accurately resolve any CO2 observational system without limits of gridded transport models, and 4) can be applied to different spatial scales even across grids or domains of meteorological models. In the modeling framework developed at CSU, the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model is linked to SiB-RAMS: Regional Atmospheric Modeling System combined with Simple Biosphere model. For our North America studies the SiB-RAMS domain extends over the entire continental US with nested grids centered in the mesoscale area of interest. The CO2 lateral boundary conditions are provided by a global transport model - PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model). Influence functions derived from the LPDM output allow us to quantify each CO2 data point (e.g., concentration at a specific sampling time and tower) in terms of contributions from different sources: 1) surface fluxes, 2) inflow fluxes across domain boundaries and 2) initial CO2 concentration in the domain at the beginning of the analysis period. The surface contributions can be furher quantified by a physical process (respiration, assimilation or fossil fuel emission) and/or land cover type. Therefore, the influence function approach is very useful for interpretation of CO2 observations and source apportionment, designing tower network and, finally, deriving source-receptor information for the inverse studies. We are going to review our modeling efforts based on the SiB-RAMS/ LPDM and the influence function approach to the meso- regional scales from a few tens to several

  18. A Global Synthesis Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Around one-half of the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two, and the location and year-to-year variability of the CO2 sinks are not well understood though. We use a batch Bayesian inversion approach to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes from the CASA-GFED v.3 model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates from Takahashi et al. [2009], and fixed fossil CO2 emissions from the CDIAC dataset. Here, we present preliminary results from our inversions that incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite, ground-based observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations), and aircraft observations to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived using the PCTM atmospheric transport model run at 2° x 2.5° (latitude/longitude) resolution driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We obtain spatiotemporal distributions of fluxes resembling those from other inversions, including NOAA's CarbonTracker. We compare the a posteriori fluxes obtained with and without the addition of GOSAT observations to the in situ network, and discuss possible impacts of biases in the GOSAT data.

  19. Spatial variability of CO2 uptake in polygonal tundra: assessing low-frequency disturbances in eddy covariance flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, Norbert; Sievers, Jakob; Mertes, Jordan; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Christensen, Torben R.

    2017-06-01

    The large spatial variability in Arctic tundra complicates the representative assessment of CO2 budgets. Accurate measurements of these heterogeneous landscapes are, however, essential to understanding their vulnerability to climate change. We surveyed a polygonal tundra lowland on Svalbard with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that mapped ice-wedge morphology to complement eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of CO2. The analysis of spectral distributions showed that conventional EC methods do not accurately capture the turbulent CO2 exchange with a spatially heterogeneous surface that typically features small flux magnitudes. Nonlocal (low-frequency) flux contributions were especially pronounced during snowmelt and introduced a large bias of -46 gC m-2 to the annual CO2 budget in conventional methods (the minus sign indicates a higher uptake by the ecosystem). Our improved flux calculations with the ogive optimization method indicated that the site was a strong sink for CO2 in 2015 (-82 gC m-2). Due to differences in light-use efficiency, wetter areas with low-centered polygons sequestered 47 % more CO2 than drier areas with flat-centered polygons. While Svalbard has experienced a strong increase in mean annual air temperature of more than 2 K in the last few decades, historical aerial photographs from the site indicated stable ice-wedge morphology over the last 7 decades. Apparently, warming has thus far not been sufficient to initiate strong ice-wedge degradation, possibly due to the absence of extreme heat episodes in the maritime climate on Svalbard. However, in Arctic regions where ice-wedge degradation has already initiated the associated drying of landscapes, our results suggest a weakening of the CO2 sink in polygonal tundra.

  20. pCO2 and CO2 fluxes of the metropolitan river network in relation to the urbanization of Chongqing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Yixin; Yuan, Xingzhong; Chen, Huai; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; Yue, Junsheng; Ren, Haiqing; Deng, Wei; Liu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Most rivers of the world are supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in a large gas flux that has only recently been included in global carbon budgeting. However, little is known about CO2 emissions from urban river networks suffering anthropogenic disturbance in the context of global urbanization. We surveyed the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 flux from 84 locations in the Chongqing metropolitan river network, with an area of 5494 km2. The overall mean pCO2 and CO2 fluxes were 2152 µatm and 163.0 mol C m-2 yr-1, respectively, with 318.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 from rivers in the completely urban area and 49.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 from the least urbanized area. The riverine pCO2 level increased with the proportion of urban land, with 2-4 times higher CO2 flux in the urban areas than the remote rural ones. Sites with low flow velocity, narrow channel, and factitious bottom sediment appeared to be local hot spots of CO2 emission. The pCO2 and CO2 degassing was positively correlated with the nutrients content of surface water (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). Carbon was released to the atmosphere as CO2 from Chongqing metropolitan river network at a rate of 12.3 × 109 mol C yr-1. pCO2 exhibited a clear seasonality with lower values in March 2015 and June 2015 but a higher value in September 2014, which was coregulated by temperature, flood dilution, and in situ photosynthesis. The results highlight that rapid urbanization, with increasing nutrients loading and anthropogenic activities, will alter the carbon biogeochemical cycle in the terrestrial-aqueous-atmospheric ecosystem and then impact global CO2 budgets.

  1. Empirically constrained estimates of Alaskan regional Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; Benmergui, J. S.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, S. M.; Henderson, J.; Karion, A.; Miller, J. B.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, C. E.; Lin, J. C.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iwata, H.; Ueyama, M.; Harazono, Y.; Veraverbeke, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present data-driven estimates of the regional net ecosystem exchange of CO2 across Alaska for three years (2012-2014) derived from CARVE (Carbon in the Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) aircraft measurements. Integrating optimized estimates of annual NEE, we find that the Alaskan region was a small sink of CO2 during 2012 and 2014, but a significant source of CO2 in 2013, even before including emissions from the large forest fire season during 2013. We investigate the drivers of this interannual variability, and the larger spring and fall emissions of CO2 in 2013. To determine the optimized fluxes, we couple the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (PWRF) model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, to produce footprints of surface influence that we convolve with a remote-sensing driven model of NEE across Alaska, the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (Polar-VPRM). For each month we calculate a spatially explicit additive flux (∆F) by minimizing the difference between the measured profiles of the aircraft CO2 data and the modeled profiles, using a framework that combines a uniform correction at regional scales and a Bayesian inversion of residuals at smaller scales. A rigorous estimate of total uncertainty (including atmospheric transport, measurement error, etc.) was made with a combination of maximum likelihood estimation and Monte Carlo error propagation. Our optimized fluxes are consistent with other measurements on multiple spatial scales, including CO2 mixing ratios from the CARVE Tower near Fairbanks and eddy covariance flux towers in both boreal and tundra ecosystems across Alaska. For times outside the aircraft observations (Dec-April) we use the un-optimized polar-VPRM, which has shown good agreement with both tall towers and eddy flux data outside the growing season. This approach allows us to robustly estimate the annual CO2 budget for Alaska and investigate the drivers of both the

  2. Volcanic CO2 flux measurement at Campi Flegrei by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Valenza, M.

    2014-04-01

    Near-infrared room temperature tunable diode lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 mixing ratios, and ultimately for estimating the volcanic CO2 flux. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy, where the GasFinder was used during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013 to repeatedly measure the path-integrated mixing ratios of CO2 along cross sections of the atmospheric plumes of two major fumarolic fields (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the two fields, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the atmosphere, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained. We evaluate a total CO2 output from the Campi Flegrei fumaroles of ˜490 Mg/day, in line with independent estimates based on in situ (Multi-GAS) observations. We conclude that TDL technique may enable CO2 flux quantification at other volcanoes worldwide.

  3. CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses: the impact of champagne ageing.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2010-02-15

    It was demonstrated that CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a young champagne (elaborated in 2007) are much higher than those outgassing from the same flute poured with an older champagne (elaborated in the early 1990s). The difference in dissolved-CO(2) concentrations between the two types of champagne samples was found to be a crucial parameter responsible for differences in CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from one champagne to another. Nevertheless, it was shown that, for a given identical dissolved-CO(2) concentration in both champagne types, the CO(2) volume flux outgassing from the flute poured with the old champagne is, in average, significantly lower than that outgassing from the flute poured with the young one. Therefore, CO(2) seems to "escape" more easily from the young champagne than from the older one. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in both champagne types was pointed as a key parameter to thoroughly determine in the future, in order to unravel our experimental observation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring Ocean CO2 Fluxes from Space: GOSAT and OCO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2012-01-01

    The ocean is a major component of the global carbon cycle, emitting over 330 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere each year, or about 10 times that emitted fossil fuel combustion and all other human activities [1, 2]. The ocean reabsorbs a comparable amount of CO2 each year, along with 25% of the CO2 emitted by these human activities. The nature and geographic distribution of the processes controlling these ocean CO2 fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations. A better understanding of these processes is essential to predict how this important CO2 sink may evolve as the climate changes.While in situ measurements of ocean CO2 fluxes can be very precise, the sampling density is far too sparse to quantify ocean CO2 sources and sinks over much of the globe. One way to improve the spatial resolution, coverage, and sampling frequency is to make observations of the column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, from space [4, 5, 6]. Such measurements could provide global coverage at high resolution (< 100 km) on monthly time scales. High precision (< 1 part per million, ppm) is essential to resolve the small, near-surface CO2 variations associated with ocean fluxes and to better constrain the CO2 transport over the ocean. The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) were first two space based sensors designed specifically for this task. GOSAT was successfully launched on January 23, 2009, and has been returning measurements of XCO2 since April 2009. The OCO mission was lost in February 2009, when its launch vehicle malfunctioned and failed to reach orbit. In early 2010, NASA authorized a re-flight of OCO, called OCO-2, which is currently under development.

  5. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; Butz, A.

    2015-03-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on assimilation of more than one year of atmospheric in-situ concentration measurements, we compare the performance of two established data assimilation models, CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar, for CO2 flux estimation. CarbonTracker uses an Ensemble Kalman Filter method to optimize fluxes on ecoregions. TM5-4DVar employs a 4-D variational method and optimizes fluxes on a 6° × 4° longitude/latitude grid. Harmonizing the input data allows analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches by direct comparison of the modelled concentrations and the estimated fluxes. We further assess the sensitivity of the two approaches to the density of observations and operational parameters such as temporal and spatial correlation lengths. Our results show that both models provide optimized CO2 concentration fields of similar quality. In Antarctica CarbonTracker underestimates the wintertime CO2 concentrations, since its 5-week assimilation window does not allow for adjusting the far-away surface fluxes in response to the detected concentration mismatch. Flux estimates by CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar are consistent and robust for regions with good observation coverage, regions with low observation coverage reveal significant differences. In South America, the fluxes estimated by TM5-4DVar suffer from limited representativeness of the few observations. For the North American continent, mimicking the historical increase of measurement network density shows improving agreement between CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar flux estimates for increasing observation density.

  6. Comparing the CarbonTracker and M5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; Butz, A.

    2015-09-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on the assimilation of more than 1 year of atmospheric in situ concentration measurements, we compare the performance of two established data assimilation models, CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar (Transport Model 5 - Four-Dimensional Variational model), for CO2 flux estimation. CarbonTracker uses an ensemble Kalman filter method to optimize fluxes on ecoregions. TM5-4DVar employs a 4-D variational method and optimizes fluxes on a 6° × 4° longitude-latitude grid. Harmonizing the input data allows for analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches by direct comparison of the modeled concentrations and the estimated fluxes. We further assess the sensitivity of the two approaches to the density of observations and operational parameters such as the length of the assimilation time window. Our results show that both models provide optimized CO2 concentration fields of similar quality. In Antarctica CarbonTracker underestimates the wintertime CO2 concentrations, since its 5-week assimilation window does not allow for adjusting the distant surface fluxes in response to the detected concentration mismatch. Flux estimates by CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar are consistent and robust for regions with good observation coverage, regions with low observation coverage reveal significant differences. In South America, the fluxes estimated by TM5-4DVar suffer from limited representativeness of the few observations. For the North American continent, mimicking the historical increase of the measurement network density shows improving agreement between CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar flux estimates for increasing observation density.

  7. Regulation of CO2 and N2O fluxes by coupled carbon and nitrogen availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L. L.; Eberwein, J. R.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) interactions contribute to uncertainty in current biogeochemical models that aim to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2 and N2O) emissions from soil to atmosphere. In this study, we quantified CO2 and N2O flux patterns and their relationship along with increasing C additions only, N additions only, a C gradient combined with excess N, and an N gradient with excess C via laboratory incubations. Conventional trends, where labile C or N addition results in higher CO2 or N2O fluxes, were observed. However, at low levels of C availability, saturating N amendments reduced soil CO2 flux while with high C availability N amendments enhanced it. At saturating C conditions increasing N amendments first reduced and then increased CO2 fluxes. Similarly, N2O fluxes were initially reduced by adding labile C under N limited conditions, but additional C enhanced N2O fluxes by more than two orders of magnitude in the saturating N environment. Changes in C or N use efficiency could explain the altered gas flux patterns and imply a critical level in the interactions between N and C availability that regulate soil trace gas emissions and biogeochemical cycling. Compared to either N or C amendment alone, the interaction of N and C caused ∼60 and ∼5 times the total GHG emission, respectively. Our findings suggested that the response of CO2 and N2O fluxes along stoichiometric gradients in C and N availability should be accounted for interpreting or modeling the biogeochemistry of GHG emissions.

  8. Global evaluation of particulate organic carbon flux parameterizations and implications for atmospheric pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloege, Lucas; McKinley, Galen A.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2017-07-01

    The shunt of photosynthetically derived particulate organic carbon (POC) from the euphotic zone and deep remineralization comprises the basic mechanism of the "biological carbon pump." POC raining through the "twilight zone" (euphotic depth to 1 km) and "midnight zone" (1 km to 4 km) is remineralized back to inorganic form through respiration. Accurately modeling POC flux is critical for understanding the "biological pump" and its impacts on air-sea CO2 exchange and, ultimately, long-term ocean carbon sequestration. Yet commonly used parameterizations have not been tested quantitatively against global data sets using identical modeling frameworks. Here we use a single one-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling framework to assess three common POC flux parameterizations in capturing POC flux observations from moored sediment traps and thorium-234 depletion. The exponential decay, Martin curve, and ballast model are compared to data from 11 biogeochemical provinces distributed across the globe. In each province, the model captures satellite-based estimates of surface primary production within uncertainties. Goodness of fit is measured by how well the simulation captures the observations, quantified by bias and the root-mean-square error and displayed using "target diagrams." Comparisons are presented separately for the twilight zone and midnight zone. We find that the ballast hypothesis shows no improvement over a globally or regionally parameterized Martin curve. For all provinces taken together, Martin's b that best fits the data is [0.70, 0.98]; this finding reduces by at least a factor of 3 previous estimates of potential impacts on atmospheric pCO2 of uncertainty in POC export to a more modest range [-16 ppm, +12 ppm].

  9. [Characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and variation of carbon source & sink at Lin'an regional background station].

    PubMed

    Pu, Jing-Jiao; Xu, Hong-Hui; Kang, Li-Li; Ma, Qian-Li

    2011-08-01

    Characteristics of Atmospheric CO2 concentration obtained by Flask measurements were analyzed at Lin'an regional background station from August 2006 to July 2009. According to the simulation results of carbon tracking model, the impact of carbon sources and sinks on CO2 concentration was evaluated in Yangtze River Delta. The results revealed that atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Lin'an regional background station were between 368.3 x 10(-6) and 414.8 x 10(-6). The CO2 concentration varied as seasons change, with maximum in winter and minimum in summer; the annual difference was about 20.5 x 10(-6). The long-term trend of CO2 concentration showed rapid growth year by year; the average growth rate was about 3.2 x 10(-6)/a. CO2 flux of Yangtze River Delta was mainly contributed by fossil fuel burning, terrestrial biosphere exchange and ocean exchange, while the contribution of fire emission was small. CO2 flux from fossil fuel burning played an important role in carbon source; terrestrial biosphere and ocean were important carbon sinks in this area. Seasonal variations of CO2 concentration at Lin'an regional background station were consistent with CO2 fluxes from fossil fuel burning and terrestrial biosphere exchange.

  10. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  11. Quantifying the Observability of CO2 Flux Uncertainty in Atmospheric CO2 Records Using Products from Nasa's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Collatz, Jim; Watson, Gregg; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Brix, Holger; Rousseaux, Cecile; Bowman, Kevin; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael; Kawa, Stephan R.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Pilot Project (FPP) was designed to better understand contemporary carbon fluxes by bringing together state-of-the art models with remote sensing datasets. Here we report on simulations using NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) which was used to evaluate the consistency of two different sets of observationally constrained land and ocean fluxes with atmospheric CO2 records. Despite the strong data constraint, the average difference in annual terrestrial biosphere flux between the two land (NASA Ames CASA and CASA-GFED) models is 1.7 Pg C for 2009-2010. Ocean models (NOBM and ECCO2-Darwin) differ by 35 in their global estimates of carbon flux with particularly strong disagreement in high latitudes. Based upon combinations of terrestrial and ocean fluxes, GEOS-5 reasonably simulated the seasonal cycle observed at northern hemisphere surface sites and by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) while the model struggled to simulate the seasonal cycle at southern hemisphere surface locations. Though GEOS-5 was able to reasonably reproduce the patterns of XCO2 observed by GOSAT, it struggled to reproduce these aspects of AIRS observations. Despite large differences between land and ocean flux estimates, resulting differences in atmospheric mixing ratio were small, typically less than 5 ppmv at the surface and 3 ppmv in the XCO2 column. A statistical analysis based on the variability of observations shows that flux differences of these magnitudes are difficult to distinguish from natural variability, regardless of measurement platform.

  12. Sensible heat and CO2 fluxes in the urban canyon of Taipei city, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.; Chang, T.; Huang, C.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to understand the characteristics of sensible heat and CO2 fluxes in an urban canyon of Taipei city, Taiwan. The urban canyon is located in the city center and has a height-to-width ratio of 0.57 (average building height = 25.6 m; street width = 45 m). The sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were measured by an eddy-covariance system installed on a flyover and in the middle of the urban canyon. The height of the instruments was 7.75 m above the street surface. Our results showed that the CO2 concentration varied with a diurnal cycle which reached its maximum around 435 ppm during night time and had the minimum value of 400 ppm around noon. The CO2 flux in this urban canyon could be as high as 100 micro mol/m-2/s-1 during rush hours at 0730 and 1730. Around midnight when there was no traffic, the CO2 flux was close to zero. As to the sensible heat flux, it varied along with the net radiation pattern. This implies that the heat emission from vehicles is minor when compared with the heat from radiation.

  13. Influence of precipitation on the CO2 air-sea flux, an eddy covariance field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarsky, Alexander; Steinhoff, Tobias; Marandino, Christa

    2016-04-01

    During the SPACES-OASIS cruise (July-August 2015) from Durban, SA to Male, MV direct fluxes of CO2 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The cruise covered areas of sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2, where the bulk concentration gradient measurements resembled the Takahashi (2009) climatology. Most of the time, bulk CO2 fluxes (F=k* [cwater-cair]), calculated with the parametrization (k) by Nightingale et al. 2000, were in general agreement with direct EC measurements. However, during heavy rain events, the directly measured CO2 fluxes were 4 times higher than predicted. It has been previously described that rain influences the k parametrization of air-sea gas exchange, but this alone cannot explain the measured discrepancy. There is evidence that freshwater input and a change in the carbonate chemistry causes the water side concentration of ?c=cwater-cair to decrease. Unfortunately this cannot be detected by most bulk measurement systems. Using the flux measurements of an additional gas like DMS, this rain influence can be evaluated as DMS does not react to changes in the carbonate system and has a different solubility. A pending question is if the enhanced flux of CO2 in the ocean is sequestered into the ocean mixed layer and below. This question will be tackled using the GOTM model to understand the implications for the global carbon cycle.

  14. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  15. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model’s ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  16. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  17. A global coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model and 1 1 km CO2 surface flux dataset for high-resolution atmospheric CO2 transport simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ganshin, A; Oda, T; Saito, M; Maksyutov, S; Valsala, V; Andres, Robert Joseph; Fischer, R; Lowry, D; Lukyanov, A; Matsueda, H; Nisbet, E; Rigby, M; Sawa, Y; Toumi, R; Tsuboi, K; Varlagin, A; Zhuravlev, R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We designed a method to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations at several continuous observation sites around the globe using surface fluxes at a very high spatial resolution. The simulations presented in this study were performed using the Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model (GELCA), comprising a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled to a global atmospheric tracer transport model with prescribed global surface CO2 flux maps at a 1 1 km resolution. The surface fluxes used in the simulations were prepared by assembling the individual components of terrestrial, oceanic and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes. This experimental setup (i.e. a transport model running at a medium resolution, coupled to a high-resolution Lagrangian particle dispersion model together with global surface fluxes at a very high resolution), which was designed to represent high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, has not been reported at a global scale previously. Two sensitivity experiments were performed: (a) using the global transport model without coupling to the Lagrangian dispersion model, and (b) using the coupled model with a reduced resolution of surface fluxes, in order to evaluate the performance of Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and the role of high-resolution fluxes in simulating high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A correlation analysis between observed and simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected locations revealed that the inclusion of both Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and highresolution fluxes improves the high-frequency simulations of the model. The results highlight the potential of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model in simulating high-frequency atmospheric CO2 concentrations at many locations worldwide. The model performs well in representing observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at high spatial and temporal resolutions, especially for coastal sites and sites located close to sources of

  18. Historical patterns of acidification and increasing CO2 flux associated with Florida springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrera, Kira E.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Florida has one of the highest concentrations of springs in the world, with many discharging into rivers and predominantly into eastern Gulf of Mexico coast, and they likely influence the hydrochemistry of these adjacent waters; however, temporal and spatial trends have not been well studied. We present over 20 yr of hydrochemical, seasonally sampled data to identify temporal and spatial trends of pH, alkalinity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and CO2flux from five first-order-magnitude (springs that discharge greater than 2.83 m3 s−1) coastal spring groups fed by the Floridan Aquifer System that ultimately discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. All spring groups had pCO2 levels (averages 3174.3–6773.2 μatm) that were much higher than atmospheric levels of CO2 and demonstrated statistically significant temporal decreases in pH and increases in CO2 flux, pCO2, and alkalinity. Total carbon flux emissions increased from each of the spring groups by between 3.48 × 107 and 2.856 × 108 kg C yr−1 over the time period. By 2013 the Springs Groups in total emitted more than 1.1739 × 109 kg C yr−1. Increases in alkalinity and pCO2 varied from 90.9 to 347.6 μmol kg−1 and 1262.3 to 2666.7 μatm, respectively. Coastal data show higher CO2 evasion than the open Gulf of Mexico, which suggests spring water influences nearshore waters. The results of this study have important implications for spring water quality, dissolution of the Florida carbonate platform, and identification of the effect and partitioning of carbon fluxes to and within coastal and marine ecosystems.

  19. CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: flute versus coupe.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-06-10

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from glasses containing a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11.5 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, during the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at room temperature, with a flute and a coupe, respectively. The progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time was found to be significantly higher in the coupe than in the flute, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that the flute prolongs the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence in contrast with the coupe. Moreover, CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the coupe were found to be much higher in the coupe than in the flute in the early moments following pouring, whereas this tendency reverses from about 3 min after pouring. Correlations were proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute and the coupe and their continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. The contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by use of results developed over recent years. Due to a much shallower liquid level in the coupe, bubbles collapsing at the free surface of the coupe were found to be significantly smaller than those collapsing at the free surface of the flute, and CO(2) volume fluxes released by collapsing bubbles only were found to be approximately 60% smaller in the coupe than in the flute. Finally, the contributions of gas discharge by invisible diffusion through the free surface areas of the flute and coupe were also approached and compared for each type of drinking vessel.

  20. Secondary production, calcification and CO2 fluxes in the cirripedes Chthamalus montagui and Elminius modestus.

    PubMed

    Golléty, Claire; Gentil, Franck; Davoult, Dominique

    2008-02-01

    Calcification, a process common to numerous marine taxa, has traditionally been considered to be a significant source of CO(2) in tropical waters only. A number of relatively recent studies, however, have shown that significant amounts of CO(2) are also produced in temperate waters, although none of these studies was carried out on rocky shores, which are considered to be very productive systems. We compared the CO(2) fluxes due to respiration and calcification in two temperate species, the cirripedes Chthamalus montagui and Elminius modestus. The population dynamics of both species were estimated at two sites during a 1-year experimental period in order to establish mean organic (ash-free dry weight) and CaCO(3) (dry shell weight) production. Based on these parameters, we estimated the CO(2) fluxes due to respiration and calcification. CaCO(3) production was estimated to be 481.0 and 1,803.9 g(CaCO3) m(-2) year(-1) at each site, representing 3.4 and 12.7 mol(CO2) m(-2) year(-1) respectively, of released CO(2). These fluxes represent each 47% of the CO(2) released as a result of respiration and calcification. The production of CaCO(3) at the high-density site was: (1) among the highest values obtained for temperate organisms, and (2) comparable to the estimated CO(2) fluxes for coral reefs. As calcifying organisms are well represented in temperate ecosystems in terms of both density and biomass, our results provide clear evidence that calcification of temperate organisms should not be underestimated. Additional studies on other rocky shore taxa are needed before the relative importance of calcification in rocky intertidal carbon budgets can be generalized.

  1. Current photosynthate fuels the nitrogen response of soil CO2 flux in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Peichl, Matthias; Tarvainen, Lasse; Näsholm, Torgny; Öquist, Mats; Linder, Sune

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen addition frequently reduces CO2 efflux from forest soils, but it has been unclear whether the effect is on fluxes of current photosynthate belowground or the oxidation of substrate to CO2. Pulse-chase and girdling experiments have shown that current photosynthate can be a major substrate for soil CO2 efflux, but these methods are unwieldy for describing seasonal patterns. In the current study, we placed transparent chambers on the soil surface beneath a forest canopy and measured the seasonal CO2 flux over three growing seasons (2012-2014) in a boreal Scots pine forest under repeated, heavy nitrogen (N) addition (50-100 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Net CO2 fluxes were measured every half hour using a unique system comprised of four large (each 20.3 m2 surface area) chambers, two each on the nitrogen treatment and the control. Base respiration rates (R0) and temperature sensitivity (Q10) were derived from nonlinear fits to the flux data. The Q10 was similar with or without N addition, but the nitrogen additions nearly halved the R0 values. Treatment differences in R0 appeared in May or June, peaked in July and August, and disappeared again in November. This pattern is consistent with the seasonality of photosynthesis at our boreal site. We estimated efflux in the absence of new photosynthate by extrapolating the May and November parameterization throughout the year. These extrapolations agreed with independent estimates through the winter snowpack and with the results of previous tracer and girdling experiments, supporting the contention that new photosynthate accounts for the nitrogen-induced reduction in CO2 efflux. Soil organic matter accumulated in the N addition treatment at a rate that quantitatively matched the reduction in CO2 efflux. We therefore conclude that the reduced CO2 efflux following N addition is due to a decrease in the oxidation of new photosynthate, whereas its delivery belowground remains unaltered.

  2. Air-sea CO2 flux pattern along the southern Bay of Bengal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, R.; Poornima, D.; Naveen, M.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhury, S. B.; Rao, K. H.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    Physico-chemical observations made from January 2013 to March 2015 in coastal waters of the southwest Bay of Bengal show pronounced seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters including total alkalinity (TA: 1927.390-4088.642 μmol kg-1), chlorophyll (0.13-19.41 μg l-1) and also calculated dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: 1574.219-3790.954 μmol kg-1), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2: 155.520-1488.607 μatm) and air-sea CO2 flux (FCO2: -4.808 to 11.255 mmol Cm-2 d-1). Most of the physical parameters are at their maximum during summer due to the increased solar radiation at cloud free conditions, less or no riverine inputs, and lack of vertical mixing of water column which leads to the lowest nutrients concentration, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological production, pCO2 and negative flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Chlorophyll and DO concentrations enhanced due to increased nutrients during premonsoon and monsoon season due to the vertical mixing of water column driven by the strong winds and external inputs at respective seasons. The constant positive loading of nutrients, TA, DIC, chlorophyll, pCO2 and FCO2 against atmospheric temperature (AT), lux, sea surface temperature (SST), pH and salinity observed in principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that physical and biological parameters play vital role in the seasonal distribution of pCO2 along the southwest Bay of Bengal. The annual variability of CO2 flux clearly depicted that the southwest Bay of Bengal switch from sink (2013) to source status in the recent years (2014 and 2015) and it act as significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere with a mean flux of 0.204 ± 1.449 mmol Cm-2 d-1.

  3. [Net CO2 exchange and carbon isotope flux in Acacia mangium plantation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lu-Liu; Sun, Gu-Chou; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Quan

    2009-11-01

    By using stable carbon isotope technique, the leaf-level 13C discrimination was integrated to canopy-scale photosynthetic discrimination (Deltacanopy) through weighted the net CO2 assimilation (Anet) of sunlit and shaded leaves and the stand leaf area index (L) in an A. mangium plantation, and the carbon isotope fluxes from photosynthesis and respiration as well as their net exchange flux were obtained. There was an obvious diurnal variation in Deltacanopy, being lower at dawn and at noon time (18.47 per thousand and 19.87 per thousand, respectively) and the highest (21.21 per thousand) at dusk. From the end of November to next May, the Deltacanopy had an increasing trend, with an annual average of (20.37 +/- 0.29) per thousand. The carbon isotope ratios of CO2 from autotrophic respiration (excluding daytime foliar respiration) and heterotrophic respiration were respectively (- 28.70 +/- 0.75) per thousand and (- 26.75 +/- 1.3) per thousand in average. The delta13 C of nighttime ecosystem-respired CO2 in May was the lowest (-30.14 per thousand), while that in November was the highest (-28.01 per thousand). The carbon isotope flux of CO2 between A. mangium forest and atmosphere showed a midday peak of 178.5 and 217 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand in May and July, with the daily average of 638.4 and 873.2 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand, respectively. The carbon isotope flux of CO2 absorbed by canopy leaves was 1.6-2.5 times higher than that of CO2 emitted from respiration, suggesting that a large sum of CO2 was absorbed by A. mangium, which decreased the atmospheric CO2 concentration and improved the environment.

  4. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.

  5. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

    PubMed

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M; Pegoraro, Elaine; Salmon, Verity G; Schädel, Christina; Webb, Elizabeth E; Schuur, Edward A G

    2017-02-16

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years Reco , GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambient plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, Reco , GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed Reco , GPP, and NEE. However Reco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher Reco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer Reco models estimated that the area was an annual CO2 source during all years of observation. Nonsummer CO2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO2 source.

  6. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw

    DOE PAGES

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; ...

    2017-02-16

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years Reco, GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambientmore » plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, Reco, GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed Reco, GPP, and NEE. However Reco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher Reco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer Reco models estimated that the area was an annual CO2 source during all years of observation. As a result, nonsummer CO2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO2 source.« less

  7. CO2 Flux from a Subtropical Mangrove Ecosystem in Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico Josediego Uribe, Walter C. Oechel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, J.; Oechel, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are among the most productive ecosystems within the tropical and subtropical coastlines of the world. There is currently limited research on mangrove carbon sequestration potentials but with ongoing climate change and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, an understanding of carbon exchange in mangroves forests and the environmental controls influencing fluxes is extremely important for understanding their role in the global carbon cycle and their potential as stores of CO2. In this study, CO2 flux was evaluated for a subtropical mangrove ecosystem in the arid region of Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico. Measurements were taken using an eddy covariance system above the canopy during January 8 to the 30, and currently from June 21 to August 28, in 2012. The mangrove forest is located (N25° 15'75", W112° 04'79") near the town of Puerto Lopez Mateos, Mexico. During this time period environmental variables such as Net Radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, humidity, ground heat flux, soil temperature and tidal height were measured together with the CO2 flux in order to determine the environmental influence on the fluxes. Preliminary results showed a clear diurnal pattern in CO2 flux that showed high sinks when light availability was high. During January, the winter dry season environmental conditions remained relatively cool with an average air temperature of 17 oC and consistently cloudless days. During this period CO2 flux was -1.3 μmol C m-2s-1, which means that for the month of January, there was a net uptake of carbon by the mangrove ecosystem. For the summer period the development of the data collection for a longer term as well as further correlation analysis with environmental data is currently underway, however expectations are that seasonal variations of CO2 flux can be seen due to longer and more intense periods of solar irradiance as well as the effect of high temperature (+30° C) days. Indirect effects

  8. COCA: deriving urban emissions and the carbon exchange of a forested region using airborne CO2 and CO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, H.; Schmitgen, S.; Ciais, P.; Neininger, B.; Baeumle, M.; Brunet, Y.; Kley, D.

    2002-05-01

    A crucial challenge in measuring the partitioning of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the separation of regional anthropogenic CO2 sources from biogenic activity. The aim of the COCA project is to quantify the fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 fractions using continuous airborne CO2 and CO measurements, where CO acts as a tracer for anthropogenic CO2. At first part of the project COCA an attempt was made to measure daytime biogenic CO2 fluxes over a forest area (about 15 by 30 km size). The campaign took place around the CARBOEUROFLUX site ``Le Bray'' (Pinus pinaster) close to Bordeaux in France end of June 2001 Based on continuous airborne CO2, H2O and CO flux and concentration measurements a Lagrangian budgeting approach was chosen to measure regional CO2 deposition fluxes. The objective is to determine the CO2 uptake of the extended forest area from the CO2/CO gradients up- and downwind of the ecosystem, using CO as air mass tracer and such estimating the influence of anthropogenic CO2 advected into the area First results of the summer flight on June 23rd will be shown, where fair wind speeds (~5 m/s) and a low CBL height led to the observation of a clear decrease in CO2 at the downwind flight stacks with basically constant CO concentrations. For other summer flights with very low wind speeds, local effects dominate the observations leading to a larger variability in the observations. Both, correlations and anti-correlations of CO2 with the anthropogenic tracer CO have been observed. Positive correlations indicate fresh plumes of anthropogenic CO2. Negative correlations are indicative of entrainment of free tropospheric air, that was marked by relatively higher CO2 and lower CO concentrations than the average CBL concentrations. During a second campaign the variance of anthropogenic CO and CO2 emissions of a large city unaffected by biogenic processes has been studied. This campaign was carried out on February 16 and 17, 2002 over the Paris metropolitan area

  9. Air-sea CO2, O2 and N2O fluxes in the Namibian Upwelling System: a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Elodie; Dadou, Isabelle; Cambon, Gildas; Sudre, Joel; Garcon, Veronique

    2010-05-01

    Uncertainties exist in our understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon, two key cycles for climate regulation via both greenhouse gases N2O and CO2. The role of the Benguela Upwelling System as a nitrogen source for the open ocean, via the turbulent instabilities and filament structures enriched in chlorophyll, is still to be investigated. The loss of nitrogen by denitrification and/or anammox with CO2, N2O and H2S gas emissions can also occur in this very productive zone in which dissolved oxygen concentrations may get very low. A 3D coupled hydrodynamical (ROMS) and biogeochemical (BioBUS) model which takes into account these important processes is used in the Namibian Upwelling System, forced by climatological forcing. Air-sea gas fluxes are estimated based on Wanninkhof (1992)'s relationship for air-sea gas transfer velocity and QuickSCAT wind field. A significant evasion flux of CO2 out of the ocean occurs all year round, in the upwelling region between 20°S and 26°S with a marked spatial heterogeneity. The period of strong upwelling can induce outgoing CO2 fluxes up to 8.7 molCO2 m-2 yr-1 along the coast, while during the weak upwelling period the CO2 flux to the atmosphere remains close to 4.4 molCO2 m-2 yr-1. The whole studied domain represents a net annual source of CO2 for the atmosphere (3.5 molCO2 m-2 yr-1). Modelled oxygen concentrations vary between 4.5 ml.l-1 and 6 ml.l-1 over a year in Walvis Bay (23°S - 14°E) at the surface, and between 1.5 ml.l-1 and 3 ml.l-1 at 100 m depth. These estimations are in agreement with observations at the Walvis Bay station (23°S - 14°E). An important air-sea O2 flux to the ocean (up to 80 molO2.m-2.yr-1) is observed close to the coast as compared to offshore values (~1 molO2.m-2.yr-1). Due to denitrification on the continental shelf, the Walvis Bay area can potentially be a net source of N2O for the atmosphere. N2O concentrations are estimated from oxygen using different parameterisations

  10. How do climate warming and species richness affect CO2 fluxes in experimental grasslands?

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Hans J; Lemmens, Catherine M H M; Vicca, Sara; Van den Berge, Joke; Van Dongen, Stefan; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Nijs, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 2 yr of CO(2) flux measurements on grassland communities of varying species richness, exposed to either the current or a warmer climate. We grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures, while the other half were warmed by 3 degrees C. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, implying drier soils if warming increased evapotranspiration. Three main CO(2) fluxes (gross photosynthesis, above-ground and below-ground respiration) were measured multiple times per year and reconstructed hourly or half-hourly by relating them to their most important environmental driver. While CO(2) outputs through respiration were largely unchanged under warming, CO(2) inputs through photosynthesis were lowered, especially in summer, when heat and drought stress were higher. Above-ground CO(2) fluxes were significantly increased in multispecies communities, as more complementary resource use stimulated productivity. Finally, effects of warming appeared to be smallest in monocultures. This study shows that in a future warmer climate the CO(2) sink capacity of temperate grasslands could decline, and that such adverse effects are not likely to be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.

  11. METEOPOLE-FLUX: an observatory of terrestrial water, energy, and CO2 fluxes in Toulouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sibo; Maurel, William; Piguet, Bruno; Barrié, Joël; Bouhours, Gilles; Couzinier, Jacques; Garrouste, Olivier; Girres, Sandrine; Suquia, David; Tzanos, Diane

    2016-04-01

    The METEOPOLE-FLUX project (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/spip.php?article874&lang=en) aims at monitoring a large suburban set-aside field in the city of Toulouse (43.572898 N, 1.374384 E). Since June 2012, these data contribute to the international effort to monitor terrestrial ecosystems (grasslands in particular), to the validation of land surface models, and to the near real time quality monitoring of operational weather forecast models. Various variables are monitored at a subhourly rate: wind speed, air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, turbulent fluxes (H, LE, CO2), downwelling and upwelling solar and infrared radiation, downwelling and upwelling PAR, fraction of diffuse incoming PAR, presence of water intercepted by vegetation (rain, dew), soil moisture profile, soil temperature profile, surface albedo, transmissivity of PAR in vegetation canopy. Moreover, local observations are performed using remote sensing techniques: infrared radiometry, GNSS reflectometry, and multi-band surface reflectometry using an aerosol photometer from the AERONET network. Destructive measurements of LAI, green/brown above-ground biomass, and necromass are performed twice a year. This site is characterized by a large fraction of gravels and stones in the soil, ranging from 17% to 35% in the top soil layer (down to 0.6 m), and peaking at 81% at 0.7 m. The impact of gravels and stones on thermal and moisture fluxes in the soil has not been much addressed in the past and is not represented in most land surface models. Their impact on the available water content for plant transpiration and plant growth is not much documented so far. The long term monitoring of this site will therefore improve the knowledge on land processes. The data will be used together with urban meteorological data to characterize the urban heat island. Finally, this site will be used for the CAL/VAL of various satellite products in conjunction with the SMOSMANIA soil moisture network

  12. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  13. The carbon dioxide system on the Mississippi River‐dominated continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico: 1. Distribution and air‐sea CO2 flux

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei‐Jen; Wang, Yongchen; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Murrell, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract River‐dominated continental shelf environments are active sites of air‐sea CO2 exchange. We conducted 13 cruises in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region strongly influenced by fresh water and nutrients delivered from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system. The sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was measured, and the air‐sea CO2 flux was calculated. Results show that CO2 exchange exhibited a distinct seasonality: the study area was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring and early summer, and it was neutral or a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during midsummer, fall, and winter. Along the salinity gradient, across the shelf, the sea surface shifted from a source of CO2 in low‐salinity zones (0≤S<17) to a strong CO2 sink in the middle‐to‐high‐salinity zones (17≤S<33), and finally was a near‐neutral state in the high‐salinity areas (33≤S<35) and in the open gulf (S≥35). High pCO2 values were only observed in narrow regions near freshwater sources, and the distribution of undersaturated pCO2 generally reflected the influence of freshwater inputs along the shelf. Systematic analyses of pCO2 variation demonstrated the importance of riverine nitrogen export; that is, riverine nitrogen‐enhanced biological removal, along with mixing processes, dominated pCO2 variation along the salinity gradient. In addition, extreme or unusual weather events were observed to alter the alongshore pCO2 distribution and to affect regional air‐sea CO2 flux estimates. Overall, the study region acted as a net CO2 sink of 0.96 ± 3.7 mol m−2 yr−1 (1.15 ± 4.4 Tg C yr−1). PMID:27656331

  14. The carbon dioxide system on the Mississippi River-dominated continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico: 1. Distribution and air-sea CO2 flux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Jen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Wang, Yongchen; Lohrenz, Steven E; Murrell, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    River-dominated continental shelf environments are active sites of air-sea CO2 exchange. We conducted 13 cruises in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region strongly influenced by fresh water and nutrients delivered from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system. The sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was measured, and the air-sea CO2 flux was calculated. Results show that CO2 exchange exhibited a distinct seasonality: the study area was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring and early summer, and it was neutral or a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during midsummer, fall, and winter. Along the salinity gradient, across the shelf, the sea surface shifted from a source of CO2 in low-salinity zones (0≤S<17) to a strong CO2 sink in the middle-to-high-salinity zones (17≤S<33), and finally was a near-neutral state in the high-salinity areas (33≤S<35) and in the open gulf (S≥35). High pCO2 values were only observed in narrow regions near freshwater sources, and the distribution of undersaturated pCO2 generally reflected the influence of freshwater inputs along the shelf. Systematic analyses of pCO2 variation demonstrated the importance of riverine nitrogen export; that is, riverine nitrogen-enhanced biological removal, along with mixing processes, dominated pCO2 variation along the salinity gradient. In addition, extreme or unusual weather events were observed to alter the alongshore pCO2 distribution and to affect regional air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Overall, the study region acted as a net CO2 sink of 0.96 ± 3.7 mol m(-2) yr(-1) (1.15 ± 4.4 Tg C yr(-1)).

  15. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  16. Detecting fossil fuel emissions patterns from subcontinental regions using North American in situ CO2 measurements.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yoichi P; Michalak, Anna M; Gourdji, Sharon M; Mueller, Kim L; Yadav, Vineet

    2014-06-28

    The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales. Poor detectability of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from subcontinental regionsDetectability assessed via attribution of emissions patterns in atmospheric dataLoss in detectability due to transport modeling errors and biospheric signal.

  17. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2—the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption—has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest. PMID:26324399

  18. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-09-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2-the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption-has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest.

  19. Comparing CO2 flux data from eddy covariance methods with bowen ratio energy balance methods from contrasting soil management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measuring CO2 fluxes from contrasting soil management practices is important for understanding the role of agriculture in source-sink relationship with CO2 flux. There are several micrometeorological methods for measuring CO2 emissions, however all are expensive and thus do not easily lend themselve...

  20. CH4 and CO2 flux observations in northeast Siberian tundra and its implications for modelling of CH4 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huissteden, K. J.; Parmentier, F.; Petrescu, R.; van Beek, L. P.; Karsanaev, S.; Maximov, T.; van der Molen, M.; Dolman, H.

    2009-12-01

    Six years of data on CO2 and CH4 fluxes are available from the tundra research site Kytalyk in the northeast Siberian tundra. The site covers a frequently flooded floodplain area dominated by grasses and Carex/Eriphorum vegetation, and a non-flooded tundra area with more oligotrophic Sphagnum-rich vegetation. CO2 fluxes are related to variations in gross primary productivity. The tundra part of the site is a small net sink for CO2 and total greenhouse gases in summer. The spatial variability of the CH4 fluxes is large. With similar water table, Sphagnum-rich tundra surfaces show low fluxes, while the river floodplain emits high amounts of CH4. The CH4 flux in the river floodplain is sensitive to river discharge, being highest in wet years with flooding. This has implications for large-scale modelling of CH4 fluxes. Sub-grid variation in vegetation variability and in the extent and duration of flooding have to be taken into account. We used a coupled hydrological/CH4 flux model (PCR-GLOBWB global hydrology and PEATLAND-VU CH4) dealing with some of these aspects. Our results show considerable year-to-year variation due to variation in floodplain hydrology and to a lesser degree in wetland extent. Also vegetation variability contributes to uncertainty in modelling fluxes, as shown by model sensitivity to parameters governing within-plant transport and oxidation of CH4.

  1. (Uncertain) Carbonyl Sulfide Plant Fluxes Spatially Constrain (Even More Uncertain) CO2 GPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Whelan, M.; Kulkarni, S.; Zumkehr, A. L.; Berry, J. A.; Campbell, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    With predictions of future terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2)gross primary productivity (GPP) remaining stubbornly uncertain,ecosystem carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes provide an independent source ofinformation that may be able to reduce that uncertainty. Several openquestions must be addressed before COS may be applied widely as a GPPtracer. Here we employ an atmospheric chemistry and transport model(STEM) and airborne atmospheric COS concentration observations todemonstrate that COS plant uptake spatially constrains CO2 GPP even whenaccounting for soil COS flux uncertainty and COS leaf-scale relativeuptake variability and uncertainty.

  2. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Flux among Arctic Plant Communities in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of accelerated warming trends and the potential impacts on net carbon exchange (NEE) from high-latitude systems, we investigated CO2 fluxes of distinct arctic plant communities at the Imnavait Creek watershed in northern Alaska. The goals of this study were to (a) characterize the plant communities found within the footprint of three eddy covariance towers located along a toposequence, (b) study the seasonal variations in plot-level CO2 flux among the vegetation types and (c) relate the plot-level flux measurements to the eddy covariance data. We mapped the vegetation within the footprint of three eddy covariance towers that were installed along a hill slope and selected the major plant communities to measure gross ecosystem productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and NEE during six measurement campaigns from June 2009 to April 2010. We measured midday CO2 concentrations in ecosystem light-response curves with a portable infrared gas analyzer connected to a small clear chamber during the summer and used CO2 concentrations measured at the base of the snow pack to estimate diffusional CO2 flux to the atmosphere during the winter. We scaled plot-level CO2-flux data to the eddy covariance measurements by simply weighting the contribution of the dominant vegetation types according to their mapped percentage cover. The three sites were dominated by frost-disturbed dry heath tundra and moist acidic tundra (MAT) on the hilltop, MAT at mid-slope and MAT and mossy wet sedge tundra in the valley bottom. During the height of the growing season, GEP at 600 μmol/m2/s of light was generally greater at the mid-slope and valley-bottom sites (8.0-9.6 μmol CO2/m2/s), while the dry heath community showed consistently the lowest GEP values (3.3 μmol CO2/m2/s). Similarly, ER was persistently highest in the wet sedge tundra and usually lowest in the dry heath tundra and ridge-top MAT. This resulted in relatively similar NEE values across vegetation types with the

  3. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land−atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land−atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt C⋅y−1 of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt C⋅y−1, equivalent to 8–37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the “hotspots,” largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g C⋅m−2⋅y−1), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty. PMID:27247397

  4. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land-atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-06-14

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt C⋅y(-1) of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt C⋅y(-1), equivalent to 8-37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the "hotspots," largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g C⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty.

  5. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land-atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt Cṡy-1 of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt Cṡy-1, equivalent to 8-37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the “hotspots,” largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g Cṡm-2ṡy-1), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty.

  6. Measurement of stem respiration of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) trees involves internal and external fluxes of CO2 and possible transport of CO2 from roots.

    PubMed

    Teskey, R O; McGuire, M A

    2007-05-01

    CO(2) released by respiring cells in tree stems can either diffuse to the atmosphere or dissolve in xylem sap. In this study, the internal and external fluxes of CO(2) released from respiring stems of five sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) trees were calculated. Mean rates of stem respiration were highest in mid-afternoon and lowest at night, and were positively correlated with air temperature. Over a 24 h period, on average 34% of the CO(2) released by respiring cells in the measured stem segment remained within the tree. CO(2) efflux to the atmosphere consisted of similar proportions of CO(2) derived from local respiring cells (55%) and CO(2) that had been transported in the xylem (45%), indicating that CO(2) efflux does not accurately estimate respiration. A portion of the efflux of transported CO(2) appeared to have originated in the root system. A modification of the method for calculating stem respiration based on internal and external fluxes of CO(2) was developed to separate efflux due to local respiration from efflux of transported CO(2).

  7. Temperature drives inter-annual variability of growing season CO2 and CH4 fluxes of Siberian lowland tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, Lars; Wille, Christian; Runkle, Benjamin; Schreiber, Peter; Sachs, Torsten; Langer, Moritz; Boike, Julia; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2015-04-01

    Due to the logistic and technical difficulties associated with experimental work in high latitudes, long-term measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic ecosystems are still rare, and published trace gas balances often rely on measurements from one or few growing seasons. The inter-annual variability of environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation, snow cover, and timing of snow melt can be high in the Arctic, especially for regions which are influenced by both continental and maritime climates, such as the Siberian arctic lowlands. For these ecosystems, we must also expect a great inter-annual variability in the balance of trace gases. Multi-annual data sets are needed to investigate this variability and its drivers. Here we present multi-annual late summer CO2 and CH4 flux data from the Lena River Delta in the Siberian Arctic (72° N, 126° E). The study site Samoylov Island is characterized by polygonal lowland tundra, a vegetation dominated by mosses and sedges, a soil complex of Glacic, Turbic and Histic Cryosols, and an active layer depth of on average 0.5 m. Seasonal flux measurements were carried out with the eddy covariance technique during the 13-year period 2002 - 2014. Within this period, CO2 flux data overlaps during 37 days (20 July - 25 August) for 12 years, and CH4 flux data overlaps during 25 days (28 July - 21 August) for 9 years. Cumulative net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during the late summer overlap period is fairly consistent for 9 out of 12 years with a CO2 uptake of 1.9 ± 0.1 mol m-2. Three years show a clearly smaller uptake of

  8. Carbon flux estimation for Siberia by inverse modeling constrained by aircraft and tower CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Arshinov, M.; Tans, P.; Conway, T. J.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Oda, T.; Andres, R. J.; Belikov, D.

    2013-01-01

    Being one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the world, the Siberian carbon sink however remains poorly understood due to the limited numbers of observation. We present the first results of atmospheric CO2 inversions utilizing measurements from a Siberian tower network (Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network; JR-STATION) and four aircraft sites, in addition to surface background flask measurements by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Our inversion with only the NOAA data yielded a boreal Eurasian CO2 flux of -0.56 ± 0.79 GtC yr-1, whereas we obtained a weaker uptake of -0.35 ± 0.61 GtC yr-1 when the Siberian data were also included. This difference is mainly explained by a weakened summer uptake, especially in East Siberia. We also found the inclusion of the Siberian data had significant impacts on inversion results over northeastern Europe as well as boreal Eurasia. The inversion with the Siberian data reduced the regional uncertainty by 22% on average in boreal Eurasia, and further uncertainty reductions up to 80% were found in eastern and western Siberia. Larger interannual variability was clearly seen in the inversion which includes the Siberia data than the inversion without the Siberia data. In the inversion with NOAA plus Siberia data, east Siberia showed a larger interannual variability than that in west and central Siberia. Finally, we conducted forward simulations using estimated fluxes and confirmed that the fit to independent measurements over central Siberia, which were not included in inversions, was greatly improved.

  9. Gas composition and soil CO2 flux at Changbaishan intra-plate volcano, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wen, H.; Yang, T. F.; Guo, Z.; Fu, C.; Zhang, M.

    2011-12-01

    Changbaishan, located on the border of China and North Korea, is one of the most active volcanoes in China. This volcano violently erupted 1000 years ago and produced massive magma and widespread volcanic ash, resulting in one of the largest explosive eruptions during the last 2000 years. Recent gas emissions and seismic events in the Tianchi area suggested potential increasing volcanic activities. If that is so, then 1 million residents living on the crater flank shall be endangered by enormous volcanic hazards, including the threat of 2 billion tons of water in the crater lake . In order to better understand current status of Changbaishan, we investigated gas geochemistry in samples from the Tianchi crater lake and surrounding areas. Bubbling gas from hot springs were collected and analyzed. The results show that CO2 is the major component gas for most samples. The maximum value of helium isotopic ratio 5.8 RA (where RA = 3He/4He in air) implies more than 60% of helium is contributed by mantle component, while carbon isotope values fall in the range of -5.8 to -2.0% (vs. PDB), indicating magmatic source signatures as well. Nitrogen dominated samples, 18Dawgo, have helium isotopic ratio 0.7 RA and carbon isotope value -11.4% implying the gas source might be associated with regional crustal components in 18Dawgo. The first-time systematic soil CO2 flux measurements indicate the flux is 22.8 g m-2 day-1 at the western flank of Changbaishan, which is at the same level as the background value in the Tatun Volcano Group (24.6 g m-2 day-1), implying that it may not be as active as TVG.

  10. Estimating CO(2) flux from snowpacks at three sites in the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Nate G.; Marshall, John D.; Hooker, Toby D.; Musselman, Robert

    2000-06-01

    Soil surface CO(2) flux (F(s)) is the dominant respiratory flux in many temperate forest ecosystems. Snowpacks increase this dominance by insulating the soil against the low temperature to which aboveground components are exposed. However, measurement of F(s) in winter may be impeded by snow cover. Likewise, developing annual F(s) models is complicated by seasonal variation in root and microbial metabolism. We compared three methods of measuring sub-snow F(s): (1) dynamic chamber measurements at the upper snowpack surface (F(snow)), (2) dynamic chamber measurements at the soil surface via snowpits (F(soil)), and (3) static estimates based on measured concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) and conductance properties of the snowpack (F(diffusional)). Methods were compared at a mid-elevation forest in northeastern Washington, a mid-elevation forest in northern Idaho, and a high-elevation forest and neighboring meadow in Wyoming. The methods that minimized snowpack disturbance, F(diffusional) and F(snow), yielded similar estimates of F(s). In contrast, F(soil) yielded rates two to three times higher than F(snow) at the forested sites, and seven times higher at the subalpine meadow. The ratio F(soil)/F(snow) increased with increasing snow depth when compared across all sites. Snow removal appears to induce elevated soil flux as a result of lateral CO(2) diffusion into the pit. We chose F(snow) as our preferred method and used it to estimate annual CO(2) fluxes. The snowpack was present for 36% of the year at this site, during which time 132 g C m(-2), or 17% of the annual flux, occurred. We conclude that snowpack CO(2) flux is quantitatively important in annual carbon budgets for these forests and that the static and dynamic methods yield similar and reasonable estimates of the flux, as long as snowpack disturbance is minimized.

  11. CO2, CH4, and DOC Flux During Long Term Thaw of High Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, B. T.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Layton, A.; Bennett, P.; Mykytczuk, N.; Lau, C. M.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic regions are expected to experience temperature increases of >4° C by the end of this century. This warming is projected to cause a drastic reduction in the extent of permafrost at high northern latitudes, affecting an estimated 1000 Pg of SOC in the top 3 m. Determining the effects of this temperature change on CO2 and CH4 emissions is critical for defining source constraints to global climate models. To investigate this problem, 18 cores of 1 m length were collected in late spring 2011 before the thawing of the seasonal active layer from an ice-wedge polygon near the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45). Cores were collected from acidic soil (pH 5.5) with low SOC (~1%), summertime active layer depth between 40-70 cm (2010-2013), and sparse vegetation consisting primarily of small shrubs and sedges. Cores were progressively thawed from the surface over the course of 14 weeks to a final temperature of 4.5° C and held at that temperature for 15 months under the following conditions: in situ water saturation conditions versus fully water saturated conditions using artificial rain fall, surface light versus no surface light, cores from the polygon edge, and control cores with a permafrost table maintained at 70 cm depth. Core headspaces were measured weekly for CO2, CH4, H2, CO, and O2 flux during the 18 month thaw experiment. After ~20 weeks of thawing maximum, CO2 flux for the polygon edge and dark treatment cores were 3.0×0.7 and 1.7×0.4 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. The CO2 flux for the control, saturated, and in situ saturation cores reached maximums of 0.6×0.2, 0.9×0.5, and 0.9×0.1 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. Field measurements of CO2 flux from an adjacent polygon during the mid-summer of 2011 to 2013 ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1. Cores from all treatments except water saturated were found to consistently oxidize CH4 at ~atmospheric concentrations (2 ppmv) with a maximum

  12. CO2 flux emissions from the Holuhraun eruption, Iceland (August 2014- present)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsson, Baldur; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pfeffer, Melissa; Donovan, Amy; Galle, Bo; Ingvarsson, Þorgils; Arngrímsson, Hermann; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Key words: Holuhraun, CO2, SO2, MultiGAS At the time of writing, the gas-rich fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland is still ongoing. This eruption provided a unique opportunity to characterise composition and fluxes of magmatic gases released by a long-lived Iceland eruption. Here, we report on a volcanic gas dataset gathered using a Multi-component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS); giving an evaluation of the CO2 flux from the eruption by combining the measured CO2/SO2 ratios with SO2 fluxes measured by near-source DOAS traverses. This demonstrates work within the FP7 EU-funded project FUTUREVOLC, aimed at making Iceland a supersite for volcanological research. Within this project we developed a field-ready MultiGAS that was deployed to the eruption site as soon as there were surface manifestations of the unrest. Due to difficulties in locating a suitable location at the eruption, a permanent site for the MultiGAS has not yet been found. Campaign measurements were made during the first 2 months of the eruption and will be made as conditions allow. Measurements of plume composition were made both of emissions from the main vent and at the edges of the degassing lava flows. Multi-GAS results show that, after a brief phase of CO2-rich gas being released at the eruption onset (CO2/SO2 up to 30), the ratio between CO2 and SO2 in the plume was around 1. Based on near-source DOAS traverses made in the middle of September, the CO2 flux has been between 20000-40000 tons/day, similar to values typically measured at Mount Etna during eruptive.

  13. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  14. Global air-sea flux of CO2: An estimate based on measurements of sea–air pCO2 difference

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Taro; Feely, Richard A.; Weiss, Ray F.; Wanninkhof, Rik H.; Chipman, David W.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Takahashi, Timothy T.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 measurements made for the pCO2 difference between surface water and the marine atmosphere, ΔpCO2, have been assembled for the global oceans. Observations made in the equatorial Pacific during El Nino events have been excluded from the data set. These observations are mapped on the global 4° × 5° grid for a single virtual calendar year (chosen arbitrarily to be 1990) representing a non-El Nino year. Monthly global distributions of ΔpCO2 have been constructed using an interpolation method based on a lateral advection–diffusion transport equation. The net flux of CO2 across the sea surface has been computed using ΔpCO2 distributions and CO2 gas transfer coefficients across sea surface. The annual net uptake flux of CO2 by the global oceans thus estimated ranges from 0.60 to 1.34 Gt-C⋅yr−1 depending on different formulations used for wind speed dependence on the gas transfer coefficient. These estimates are subject to an error of up to 75% resulting from the numerical interpolation method used to estimate the distribution of ΔpCO2 over the global oceans. Temperate and polar oceans of the both hemispheres are the major sinks for atmospheric CO2, whereas the equatorial oceans are the major sources for CO2. The Atlantic Ocean is the most important CO2 sink, providing about 60% of the global ocean uptake, while the Pacific Ocean is neutral because of its equatorial source flux being balanced by the sink flux of the temperate oceans. The Indian and Southern Oceans take up about 20% each. PMID:11607736

  15. Global air-sea flux of CO2: an estimate based on measurements of sea-air pCO2 difference.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Feely, R A; Weiss, R F; Wanninkhof, R H; Chipman, D W; Sutherland, S C; Takahashi, T T

    1997-08-05

    Approximately 250,000 measurements made for the pCO2 difference between surface water and the marine atmosphere, DeltapCO2, have been assembled for the global oceans. Observations made in the equatorial Pacific during El Nino events have been excluded from the data set. These observations are mapped on the global 4 degrees x 5 degrees grid for a single virtual calendar year (chosen arbitrarily to be 1990) representing a non-El Nino year. Monthly global distributions of DeltapCO2 have been constructed using an interpolation method based on a lateral advection-diffusion transport equation. The net flux of CO2 across the sea surface has been computed using DeltapCO2 distributions and CO2 gas transfer coefficients across sea surface. The annual net uptake flux of CO2 by the global oceans thus estimated ranges from 0.60 to 1.34 Gt-Cyr-1 depending on different formulations used for wind speed dependence on the gas transfer coefficient. These estimates are subject to an error of up to 75% resulting from the numerical interpolation method used to estimate the distribution of DeltapCO2 over the global oceans. Temperate and polar oceans of the both hemispheres are the major sinks for atmospheric CO2, whereas the equatorial oceans are the major sources for CO2. The Atlantic Ocean is the most important CO2 sink, providing about 60% of the global ocean uptake, while the Pacific Ocean is neutral because of its equatorial source flux being balanced by the sink flux of the temperate oceans. The Indian and Southern Oceans take up about 20% each.

  16. Concurrent CO2 and COS fluxes across major biomes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielmann, Felix M.; Kitz, Florian; Hammerle, Albin; Gerdel, Katharina; Ibrom, Andreas; Kolle, Olaf; Migliavacca, Mirco; Moreno, Gerardo; Noe, Steffen M.; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer for canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance of plant canopies in the last few years. COS enters the plant leaf through the stomata and diffuses through the intercellular space, the cell wall, the plasma membrane and the cytosol like carbon dioxide (CO2). It is then catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in a one-way reaction to hydrogen sulfide and CO2. This one-way flux into the leaf makes COS a promising tracer for the GPP. However, this approach assumes that the ratio of the deposition velocities between COS and CO2 is constant, which must be determined in field experiments covering a wide variety of ecosystems. The overarching objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between the ecosystem-scale exchange of COS and CO2 and thus, to test for the potential of COS to be used as a universal tracer for the plant canopy CO2 exchange. Between spring 2015 and summer 2016 we set up our quantum cascade laser at different field sites across Europe. These sites included a managed temperate mountain grassland (AUT), a savanna (ESP), a temperate beech forest (DEN) and a hemiboreal forest (EST). On each of these sites, we conducted ecosystem scale eddy covariance and soil chamber measurements. Since the soil COS flux contribution, especially in grass dominated ecosystems, could not be neglected, we had to derive the actual canopy COS fluxes for all the measurement sites. Using these fluxes we compared the ecosystem relative uptake (ERU) of the sites and searched for factors affecting its variability. We then used the influential factors to scale the ERU to be comparable under different field sites and conditions. Furthermore we also calculated the GPP using conventional CO2 flux partitioning and compared the results with the approach of using the leaf relative uptake.

  17. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, David F.; Ott, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3 x 3.75 weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in

  18. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Collatz, G. J.; Ott, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3° x 3.75° weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a

  19. Diurnal variations in CO2 flux from peatland floodplains: Implications for models of ecosystem respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulsbra, Claire; Rickards, Nathan; Brown, Sarah; Evans, Martin; Boult, Stephen; Alderson, Danielle

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and within these environments, floodplains have been identified as hotspots of carbon processing, potentially releasing substantial amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. Previous monitoring campaigns have shown that such CO2 release from ecosystem respiration is linked not only to soil temperature and water table depth, but also to CO2 sequestration via primary productivity, thought to be because the root exudates produced during photosynthesis stimulate microbial activity. This suggests that extrapolation models that are parameterised on data collected during day light hours, when vegetation is photosynthesising, may overestimate ecosystem respiration rates at night, which has important implications for estimates of annual CO2 flux and carbon budgeting. To investigate this hypothesis, monitoring data is collected on the CO2 flux from UK peatland floodplains over the full diurnal cycle. This is done via ex-situ manual data collection from mesocosms using an infra-red gas analyser, and the in-situ automated collection of CO2 concentration data from boreholes within the peat using GasClams®. Preliminary data collected during the summer months suggest that night time respiration is suppressed compared to that during the day, and that the significant predictors of respiration are different when examining day and night time data. This highlights the importance of incorporating diurnal variations into models of ecosystem respiration.

  20. Seasonal changes in soil water repellency and their effect on soil CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a seasonally variable phenomenon controlled by moisture content and at the same time a regulator of the distribution and conductivity of water in the soil. The distribution and availability of water in soil is also an important factor for microbial activity, decomposition of soil organic matter and exchange of gases like CO2 and CH4 between the soil and the atmosphere. It has been therefore hypothesised that SWR by restricting water availability in soil can affect the production and the transport of CO2 in the soil and between the soil and the atmosphere. This study investigates the effect of seasonal changes in soil moisture and water repellency on CO2 fluxes from soil. The study was conducted for 3 year at four grassland and pine forest sites in the UK with contrasting precipitation. The results show the temporal changes in soil moisture content and SWR are affected by rainfall intensity and the length of dry periods between the storms. Soils exposed to very high annual rainfall (>1200mm) can still exhibit high levels of SWR for relatively long periods of time. The spatial variation in soil moisture resulting from SWR affects soil CO2 fluxes, but the most profound effect is visible during and immediately after the rainfall events. Keywords: soil water repellency, CO2 flux, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, gas exchange, rainfall

  1. An Alternative Approach for CO2 Flux Correction Caused by Heat and Water Vapour Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heping

    2005-04-01

    Energy and CO2 fluxes are commonly measured above plant canopies using an eddy covariance system that consists of a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and an H2O/CO2 infrared gas analyzer. By assuming that the dry air is conserved and inducing mean vertical velocity, Webb et al. ( Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85-100, 1980) obtained two equations to account for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer on H2O/CO2 fluxes. In this paper, directly starting with physical consideration of air-parcel expansion/compression, we derive two alternative equations to correct for these effects that do not require the assumption that dry air is conserved and the use of the mean vertical velocity. We then applied these equations to eddy flux observations from a black spruce forest in interior Alaska during the summer of 2002. In this ecosystem, the equations developed here led to increased estimates of CO2 uptake by the vegetation during the day (up to about 20%), and decreased estimates of CO2 respiration by the ecosystem during the night (approximately 4%) as compared with estimates obtained using the Webb et al. approach.

  2. Gas exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from Rn-222 and pCO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D. W.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The piston velocity for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has been determined from 29 radon profiles measured during the TTO Tropical Atlantic Study. By combining these data with the pCO2 data measured in the surface water and air samples, the net flux of CO2 across the sea-air interface has been calculated for the tropical Atlantic. The dependence of the piston velocity on wind speed is discussed, and possible causes for the high sea-to-air CO2 flux observed in the equatorial zone are examined.

  3. Gas exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from Rn-222 and pCO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D. W.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The piston velocity for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has been determined from 29 radon profiles measured during the TTO Tropical Atlantic Study. By combining these data with the pCO2 data measured in the surface water and air samples, the net flux of CO2 across the sea-air interface has been calculated for the tropical Atlantic. The dependence of the piston velocity on wind speed is discussed, and possible causes for the high sea-to-air CO2 flux observed in the equatorial zone are examined.

  4. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen Soil Surface CO2 Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. These data are soil surface CO 2 flux data at the SSA-Fen site from 27- May-1994 to 23-Sep-1994 and from 13-May-1995 to 03-Oct-1995. A portable gas exchange system was used to make these measurements. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  5. Comparison of CO2 fluxes from eddy covariance and soil chambers measurements in a vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Meggio, Franco; Pitacco, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the processes involved in the carbon balance of a vineyard, we set up a long-term monitoring station of CO2, water vapour and energyfluxes. The experimental site is located in an extensive flat vineyard in the north-east of Italy. We measure the net ecosystem exchange with the eddy covariance (EC) technique using a Campbell Scientific closed-path IRGA and sonic anemometer, and the soil CO2 flux using a Li-Cor multiplexed system connected with six automatic dynamic chambers. Ancillary meteorological and soil variables are also measured. The vineyard is planted with north-south oriented rows spaced 2.2 m apart. Floor is grass covered, and a strip 0.6 m wide on the rows is chemically treated. To represent the different soil conditions existing in the EC footprint and to study the components of the CO2 soil flux, we placed dark soil chambers both on the vineyard rows and in the inter-row space. A well-known limit of the EC technique is the underestimation of fluxes during calm wind periods, mainly occurring at night. In the autumn/winter vine dormancy period, the EC and soil chambers CO2 fluxes should be similar. We compared the CO2 fluxes measured using the two methods to evaluate the reliability of EC measurements at different atmospheric turbulent mixing conditions and stability. The EC technique underestimates the ecosystem respiration during night time periods with friction velocity lower than 0.1 m/s. The present comparison could enable the assessment of a friction velocity threshold, representing the limit above which the EC fluxes can be considered representative of the vegetation-atmosphere exchanges at our specific site.

  6. Design and construction of Information Systems of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiankun; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Jianyu

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has become one of the hotspots of global attention in recent progress of globalization and industrialization. The mainstream opinion presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regards that the global warming was caused mainly by greenhouse gases generated by human activities, such as anthropogenic CO2, which also resulting in the high-frequent happening of abnormal climate events. Satellite remote sensing is an efficient and economic method for CO2 flux observation. In this paper, we describe an Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Ari-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) which developed by the Second Institute of Oceanography, China. The IssCO2can achieve the whole procedure automatically from the satellite remote data receiving to products distribution, including the data acquirement and satellite image process, products generation, etc. The IssCO2 can process various types of in situ data, satellite data and model data, and validate the final satellite-derived CO2 flux products by in situ data; it can provide a real-time browsing and download of remote sensing products on the web based on the Geo-information System (GIS) technologies. The IssCO2 can meet the concurrent queries of different levels of users, and the query results can be visual displayed and analyzed on the client.

  7. Phase I Final Report: New Technology Platform to Measure Atmospheric Fluxes and Concentrations of Carbon Isotopes in CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Miles J. Weida, Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Applications Development

    2009-03-24

    There were four goals of the Phase I research carried out to develop the basis for a new technology platform to measure atmospheric fluxes and concentrations of carbon isotopes in CO2. The first was to extend the Daylight Solutions external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECqcL) package to allow continuous, rapid (<10 msec) sweeping of the laser wavelength to acquire spectra. This involved developing a rapid tuning mechanism for our broadly tunable quantum cascade (QC) lasers that meets the requirements of a CO2 isotopologue sensing application. The second goal was to undertake QC device development to procure QC devices capable of lasing in the 4.3 to 4.5 μm spectral region necessary for CO2 isotopologue detection. Final devices procured from this process were to be mounted, coated, and tested to demonstrate their suitability for scanning from 4.3 to 4.5 μm. The third goal was to develop spectral acquisition and analysis algorithms to enable real-time data acquisition and spectral fitting to determine gas temperature and isotopologue concentrations. This involved determining the best spectral analysis algorithm for retrieving CO2 isotopologue temperature and concentration information based on a targeted (i.e. 5% to 10% of center wavelength) scan of CO2 isotopologue absorption features. The culminating goal of Phase I was integration of these three components into a bench-top prototype that can measure CO2 isotopologue ratios in the laboratory.

  8. Assessing the magnitude of CO2 flux uncertainty in atmospheric CO2 records using products from NASA's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Collatz, George J.; Gregg, Watson W.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Brix, Holger; Rousseaux, Cecile S.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Liu, Junjie; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Kawa, Stephan R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project (FPP) was designed to better understand contemporary carbon fluxes by bringing together state-of-the art models with remote sensing data sets. Here we report on simulations using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) which was used to evaluate the consistency of two different sets of observationally informed land and ocean fluxes with atmospheric CO2 records. Despite the observation inputs, the average difference in annual terrestrial biosphere flux between the two land (NASA Ames Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) and CASA-Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED)) models is 1.7 Pg C for 2009-2010. Ocean models (NASA's Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) and Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean Phase II (ECCO2)-Darwin) differ by 35% in their global estimates of carbon flux with particularly strong disagreement in high latitudes. Based upon combinations of terrestrial and ocean fluxes, GEOS-5 reasonably simulated the seasonal cycle observed at Northern Hemisphere surface sites and by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) while the model struggled to simulate the seasonal cycle at Southern Hemisphere surface locations. Though GEOS-5 was able to reasonably reproduce the patterns of XCO2 observed by GOSAT, it struggled to reproduce these aspects of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations. Despite large differences between land and ocean flux estimates, resulting differences in atmospheric mixing ratio were small, typically less than 5 ppm at the surface and 3 ppm in the XCO2 column. A statistical analysis based on the variability of observations shows that flux differences of these magnitudes are difficult to distinguish from inherent measurement variability, regardless of the measurement platform.

  9. Comparison of Sea-Air CO2 Flux Estimates Using Satellite-Based Versus Mooring Wind Speed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Wanninkhof, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    The global ocean is a major sink of anthropogenic CO2, absorbing approximately 27% of CO2 emissions since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Any variation or change in the ocean CO2 sink has implications for future climate. Observations of sea-air CO2 flux have relied primarily on ship-based underway measurements of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) combined with satellite, model, or multi-platform wind products. Direct measurements of ΔpCO2 (seawater - air pCO2) and wind speed from moored platforms now allow for high-resolution CO2 flux time series. Here we present a comparison of CO2 flux calculated from moored ∆pCO2 measured on four moorings in different biomes of the Pacific Ocean in combination with: 1) Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) winds or 2) wind speed measurements made on ocean reference moorings excluded from the CCMP dataset. Preliminary results show using CCMP winds overestimates CO2 flux on average by 5% at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory, Ocean Station Papa, WHOI Hawaii Ocean Timeseries Station, and Stratus. In general, CO2 flux seasonality follows patterns of seawater pCO2 and SST with periods of CO2 outgassing during summer and CO2 uptake during winter at these locations. Any offsets or seasonal biases in CCMP winds could impact global ocean sink estimates using this data product. Here we present patterns and trends between the two CO2 flux estimates and discuss the potential implications for tracking variability and change in global ocean CO2 uptake.

  10. Helium-3 and CO 2 fluxes from subaerial volcanoes estimated from polonium-210 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, Bernard; Le Cloarec, Marie-Françoise

    1992-11-01

    The volcanic flux of 210Po, a radiogenic and radioactive isotope belonging to the decay chain of 238U, has been quantified from its concentration in volcanic plumes and its mean residence time in the troposphere (Lambert et al., 1982). Measurements of 3He, CO 2 and 210Po in the high-temperature gases of a few volcanoes allow estimates of 3He and CO 2 subaerial fluxes to be made. Several factors affecting the 210Po/ 3He ratio in volcanic gases are discussed. The 3He flux from subaerial volcanoes, (1.0±0.5) × 10 2 mol/yr , is one order of magnitude lower than the MOR flux. The volcanic flux of CO 2 into the atmosphere, (2±0.5) × 10 2 mol/yr , is comparable to the carbon flux from the mantle at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that most of carbon involved in subaerial volcanism is derived from the mobilisation of carbon present at the surface of the Earth.

  11. Warming alters food web-driven changes in the CO2 flux of experimental pond ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, T. B.; Hammill, E.; Kratina, P.; Greig, H. S.; Shurin, J. B.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows the important role biota play in the carbon cycle, and strategic management of plant and animal populations could enhance CO2 uptake in aquatic ecosystems. However, it is currently unknown how management-driven changes to community structure may interact with climate warming and other anthropogenic perturbations to alter CO2 fluxes. Here we showed that under ambient water temperatures, predators (three-spined stickleback) and nutrient enrichment synergistically increased primary producer biomass, resulting in increased CO2 uptake by mesocosms in early dawn. However, a 3°C increase in water temperatures counteracted positive effects of predators and nutrients, leading to reduced primary producer biomass and a switch from CO2 influx to efflux. This confounding effect of temperature demonstrates that climate scenarios must be accounted for when undertaking ecosystem management actions to increase biosequestration. PMID:26631247

  12. Warming alters food web-driven changes in the CO2 flux of experimental pond ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Atwood, T B; Hammill, E; Kratina, P; Greig, H S; Shurin, J B; Richardson, J S

    2015-12-01

    Evidence shows the important role biota play in the carbon cycle, and strategic management of plant and animal populations could enhance CO2 uptake in aquatic ecosystems. However, it is currently unknown how management-driven changes to community structure may interact with climate warming and other anthropogenic perturbations to alter CO2 fluxes. Here we showed that under ambient water temperatures, predators (three-spined stickleback) and nutrient enrichment synergistically increased primary producer biomass, resulting in increased CO2 uptake by mesocosms in early dawn. However, a 3°C increase in water temperatures counteracted positive effects of predators and nutrients, leading to reduced primary producer biomass and a switch from CO2 influx to efflux. This confounding effect of temperature demonstrates that climate scenarios must be accounted for when undertaking ecosystem management actions to increase biosequestration. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering: What is the contribution of highly active weathering regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Dürr, Hans H.; Kempe, Stephan; Köhler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    CO2-consumption by chemical weathering of silicates and resulting silicate/carbonate weathering ratios influences the terrestrial lateral inorganic carbon flux to the ocean and long-term climate changes. However, little is known of the spatial extension of highly active weathering regions and their proportion of global CO2-consumption. As those regions may be of significant importance for global climate change, global CO2-consumption is calculated here at high resolution, to adequately represent them. In previous studies global CO2-consumption is estimated using two different approaches: i) a reverse approach based on hydrochemical fluxes from large rivers and ii) a forward approach applying spatially explicit a function for CO2-consumption. The first approach results in an estimate without providing a spatial resolution for highly active regions and the second approach applied six lithological classes while including three sediment classes (shale, sandstone and carbonate rock) based at a 1° or 2° grid resolution. It remained uncertain, if the applied lithological classification schemes represent adequately CO2-consumption from sediments on a global scale (as well as liberation of other elements like phosphorus or silicon by chemical weatheirng). This is due to the large variability of sediment properties, their diagenetic history and the contribution from carbonates apparent in silicate dominated lithological classes. To address these issues, a CO2-consumption model, trained at high-resolution data, is applied here to a global vector based lithological map with 15 lithological classes. The calibration data were obtained from areas representing a wide range of weathering rates. Resulting global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering is similar to earlier estimates (237 Mt C a-1) but the proportion of silicate weathering is 63%, and thus larger than previous estimates (49 to 60%). The application of the enhanced lithological classification scheme reveals that it

  14. Quantitative linking of dominant environmental drivers and fluxes with vertical CO2 fluxes of eight deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O.

    2013-12-01

    We used a simple, systematic approach to analyze observational data (level 2; 30 minutes interval) and quantitatively link the dominant ecosystem-scale environmental drivers/fluxes with the canopy level vertical CO2 exchanges in eight U.S. deciduous forests of AmeriFLUX Network. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) were applied to identify data groupings and determine comparative rankings of participatory variables. Explanatory, normalized multiple linear regression models were developed to extract the statistically significant, relatively uncorrelated predictors and their relative weights on CO2 flux dynamics. Radiation components (Net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation) along with the ecosystem heat fluxes (sensible and latent heat) were the most dominant predictors, whereas temperature related variables (air temperature, soil temperature and vapor pressure deficit) moderately effected carbon flux exchanges. Velocity constituents (wind speed and friction velocity) were less explanatory in capturing the variances of small (30 min) temporal scale carbon flux exchanges. Radiation and heat flux components were around 3 to 5 times stronger than temperature variables and 8 to16 times stronger than velocity components for all the study sites. Developed models exhibited acceptable performance in explaining vertical carbon flux exchanges (coefficient of determination, R2: 0.57-0.80; and ratio of root mean square error (RMSE) to observations' standard deviation, RSR: 0.43-0.66). Invariant patterns and groupings of different predictors and their relative weights highlight the prospect of developing spatio-temporally robust models for predicting terrestrial carbon fluxes under a changing climate and environment.

  15. Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hajoon; Marshall, John; Munro, David R.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Sweeney, Colm; McGillicuddy, D. J.; Hausmann, Ute

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the role of mesoscale eddies in modulating air-sea CO2 flux and associated biogeochemical fields in Drake Passage using in situ observations and an eddy-resolving numerical model. Both observations and model show a negative correlation between temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) anomalies at the sea surface in austral summer, indicating that warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies take up more/less CO2. In austral winter, in contrast, relationships are reversed: warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies are characterized by a positive/negative pCO2 anomaly and more/less CO2 outgassing. It is argued that DIC-driven effects on pCO2 are greater than temperature effects in austral summer, leading to a negative correlation. In austral winter, however, the reverse is true. An eddy-centric analysis of the model solution reveals that nitrate and iron respond differently to the same vertical mixing: vertical mixing has a greater impact on iron because its normalized vertical gradient at the base of the surface mixed layer is an order of magnitude greater than that of nitrate.

  16. A New Methodology For Estimating CO2 Advective Fluxes In Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Canepa, E.; Georgieva, E.; Kerschbaumer, G.; Minerbi, S.; Seufert, G.

    2007-12-01

    A key problem in using the eddy correlation (EC) technique for estimating the carbon dioxide Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems is the potential bias caused by advective fluxes of CO2. Advective fluxes are often not considered since they are difficult to identify and to quantify, especially in complex mountainous terrain with highly variable wind patterns and drainage flows. We propose a methodology to estimate these fluxes based on a full 3-Dimensional (3D) approach applied to the topographically complex alpine forest site of Renon (1736 m a.s.l.). This is an aerodynamic method based on the computation of advective fluxes across the aerial faces of a control volume including the plant ecosystem. Data used for the computation of CO2 advective fluxes were collected during an extensive field campaign performed in 2005 in the framework of CarboEurope-IP research project. Vertical profiles of wind, air temperature and CO2 concentration have been measured at five towers and a spatial interpolation was performed in order to get 3D fields of such variables. The frame of reference used was orthogonal and the vertical direction was parallel to the gravity. Each anemometer was aligned in this frame of reference and no rotations were applied to the wind velocity components. The analysis of the 3D fields of wind velocity, CO2 mixing ratio and air density highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of CO2 source/sink strength and the strong de-coupling between air flow below and above the canopy during stable nights. The total CO2 advection calculated using the proposed methodology exhibited prevailing positive values during the night-time period. Advective fluxes estimated during windy nights were of the same magnitude and sign of vertical turbulent flux measured above canopy by the EC technique. This observation suggests that the friction velocity correction routinely applied to night-time periods may not be efficient at the Renon site. During light windy nights

  17. Elevated CO2 reduces sap flux in mature deciduous forest trees.

    PubMed

    Cech, Patrick G; Pepin, Steeve; Körner, Christian

    2003-10-01

    We enriched in CO2 the canopy of 14 broad-leaved trees in a species-rich, ca. 30-m-tall forest in NW Switzerland to test whether elevated CO2 reduces water use in mature forest trees. Measurements of sap flux density (JS) were made prior to CO2 enrichment (summer 2000) and throughout the first whole growing season of CO2 exposure (2001) using the constant heat-flow technique. The short-term responses of sap flux to brief (1.5-3 h) interruptions of CO2 enrichment were also examined. There were no significant a priori differences in morphological and physiological traits between trees which were later exposed to elevated CO2 (n=14) and trees later used as controls (n=19). Over the entire growing season, CO2 enrichment resulted in an average 10.7% reduction in mean daily JS across all species compared to control trees. Responses were most pronounced in Carpinus, Acer, Prunus and Tilia, smaller in Quercus and close to zero in Fagus trees. The JS of treated trees significantly increased by 7% upon transient exposure to ambient CO2 concentrations at noon. Hence, responses of the different species were, in the short term, similar in magnitude to those observed over the whole season (though opposite because of the reversed treatment). The reductions in mean JS of CO2-enriched trees were high (22%) under conditions of low evaporative demand (vapour pressure deficit, VPD <5 hPa) and small (2%) when mean daily VPD was greater than 10 hPa. During a relatively dry period, the effect of elevated CO2 on JS even appeared to be reversed. These results suggest that daily water savings by CO2-enriched trees may have accumulated to a significantly improved water status by the time when control trees were short of soil moisture. Our data indicate that the magnitude of CO2 effects on stand transpiration will depend on rainfall regimes and the relative abundance of the different species, being more pronounced under humid conditions and in stands dominated by species such as Carpinus and

  18. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei

    2013-09-01

    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  19. Reconstruction of super-resolution fields of ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the Southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air-sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km) using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ocean Colour (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution of pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multiresolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHGs fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small scale variability. We examine different combinations of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in-situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We obtain that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in-situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  20. Human impact on the historical change of CO2 degassing flux in River Changjiang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, FuShun; Wang, Yuchun; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Hai; Wei, Xiuguo

    2007-01-01

    The impact of water quality changes in River Changjiang (formally known as the Yangtze River) on dissolved CO2 and silicate concentrations and seasonal carbon flux in the past several decades (1960s–2000) was evaluated, based on monitoring data from hydrographic gauge. It was found that dissolved CO2 and silicate in Changjiang decreased dramatically during this decades, as opposed to a marked increase in nutrient (e.g. NO3-) concentrations. Our analyses revealed that dissolved CO2 in Changjiang was over-saturated with the atmosphere CO2, and its concentration had showed a declining trend since the 1960s, despite that fluvial DIC flux had maintained stable. Analysis results also suggested that the decrease in dissolved CO2 concentration was attributed to changes on the riverine trophic level and river damming activities in the Changjiang drainage basin. Due to the economic innovation (e.g. agriculture and industry development) across the Changjiang watershed, fertilizers application and river regulations have significantly altered the original state of the river. Its ecosystem and hydrological condition have been evolving toward the "lacustrine/reservoir" autotrophic type prevailing with plankton. Accordingly, average CO2 diffusing flux to the atmosphere from the river had been reduced by three-fourth from the 1960s to 1990s, with the flux value being down to 14.2 mol.m-2.yr-1 in the 1990s. For a rough estimate, approximately 15.3 Mt of carbon was degassed annually into the atmosphere from the entire Changjiang drainage basin in the 1990s. PMID:17686186

  1. Potentials and challenges associated with automated closed dynamic chamber measurements of soil CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration fluxes are influenced by natural factors such as climate and soil type, but also by anthropogenic activities in managed ecosystems. As a result, soil CO2 fluxes show a large intra- and interannual as well as intra- and intersite variability. Most of the available soil CO2 flux data giving insights into this variability have been measured with manually closed static chambers, but technological advances in the past 15 years have also led to an increased use of automated closed chamber systems. The great advantage of automated chambers in comparison to manually operated chambers is the higher temporal resolution of the flux data. This is especially important if we want to better understand the effects of short-term events, e.g. fertilization or heavy rainfall, on soil CO2 flux variability. However, the chamber method is an invasive measurement method which can potentially alter soil CO2 fluxes and lead to biased measurement results. In the peer-reviewed literature, many papers compare the field performance and results of different closed static chamber designs, or compare manual chambers with automated chamber systems, to identify potential biases in CO2 flux measurements, and thus help to reduce uncertainties in the flux data. However, inter-comparisons of different automated closed dynamic chamber systems are still lacking. Here we are going to present a field comparison of the most-cited automated chamber system, the LI-8100A Automated Soil Flux System, with the also commercially available Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System AGPS. Both measurement systems were installed side by side at a recently harvested poplar bioenergy plantation (POPFULL, http://uahost.uantwerpen.be/popfull/) from April 2014 until August 2014. The plantation provided optimal comparison conditions with a bare field situation after the harvest and a regrowing canopy resulting in a broad variety of microclimates. Furthermore, the plantation was planted in a double-row system with

  2. Effect of microtopography and species composition on small-scale variability of CO2 fluxes in a subalpine grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagno, Marta; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Isabellon, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Grassland ecosystems cover around 30% of the Earth's land surface and consequently play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance. Climate and land use changes have a significant effect on the sink/source strength of grasslands, especially in mountain regions. For these reasons the carbon cycle of high-altitude grasslands has recently received higher attention, however little is know on the within-ecosystem variability in CO2 fluxes. In fact, alpine and subalpine grasslands are often characterized by complex topography which generates differences in snowmelt dynamics at site level and related different microhabitats. The deriving patchy distribution of vegetation leads to the coexistence of different plant functional traits and developmental strategies within the same ecosystem. In this study we evaluated the effect of microtopography and associated vegetation types on the CO2 flux components of an unamanaged subalpine grassland located at 2160 m asl, by means of automated clear and opaque chambers. In order to disentangle the contribution of different growth forms to the whole ecosystem carbon sequestration we compare chambers with eddy covariance CO2 flux data. Results show that: i) different growth forms are associated with concave o convex shapes of the terrain and, in detail, grass species dominate in convex areas while forbs are especially found in concave ones ii) two distinct CO2 flux trajectories associated to these shapes can be distinguished in this ecosystem: graminoids show a later beginning of the carbon uptake period but higher CO2 net uptake (NEE), while forbs develop just after snowmelt but show lower NEE. The observed small-scale patterns of carbon sequestration may reflect the distinct vegetation type responses to snowmelt and different adaptations to resource use efficiency (light, temperature, nutrients) specific of their own microhabitat. Further investigations will be carried on to better evaluate the role of microhabitat

  3. Rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest of China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Chu, Guowei; Han, Xi; Zhang, Quanfa

    2017-07-17

    Rain-induced soil CO2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains. Direct releases of CO2 from litter layer only accounted for ~19% increases in soil CO2 flux, suggesting that the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from litter layer to the topsoil is the major cause of rain-induced soil CO2 pulse. In addition, rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial PLFA biomass decreased with increasing rain sizes, but they were positively correlated with litter-leached DOC concentration rather than total DOC flux. Our findings reveal an important role of litter-leached DOC input in regulating rain-induced soil CO2 pulses and microbial community composition, and may have significant implications for CO2 losses from tropical forest soils under future rainfall changes.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, Suvarna; Kumar, K. Ravi; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Pozzoli, Luca

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we examine CO2 emission hot spots and sink regions over India as identified from global model simulations during the period 2000-2009. CO2 emission hot spots overlap with locations of densely clustered thermal power plants, coal mines and other industrial and urban centres; CO2 sink regions coincide with the locations of dense forest. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are compared with two bottom-up inventories: the Regional Emission inventories in ASia (REAS v1.11; 2000-2009) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.2) (2000-2009). Estimated fossil fuel emissions over the hot spot region are ˜ 500-950 gC m-2 yr-1 as obtained from the global model simulation, EDGAR v4.2 and REAS v1.11 emission inventory. Simulated total fluxes show increasing trends, from 1.39 ± 1.01 % yr-1 (19.8 ± 1.9 TgC yr-1) to 6.7 ± 0.54 % yr-1 (97 ± 12 TgC yr-1) over the hot spot regions and decreasing trends of -0.95 ± 1.51 % yr-1 (-1 ± 2 TgC yr-1) to -5.7 ± 2.89 % yr-1 (-2.3 ± 2 TgC yr-1) over the sink regions. Model-simulated terrestrial ecosystem fluxes show decreasing trends (increasing CO2 uptake) over the sink regions. Decreasing trends in terrestrial ecosystem fluxes imply that forest cover is increasing, which is consistent with India State of Forest Report (2009). Fossil fuel emissions show statistically significant increasing trends in all the data sets considered in this study. Estimated trend in simulated total fluxes over the Indian region is ˜ 4.72 ± 2.25 % yr-1 (25.6 TgC yr-1) which is slightly higher than global growth rate ˜ 3.1 % yr-1 during 2000-2010.

  5. Spatial and seasonal variability of CO2 flux at the air-water interface of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Le, Yang; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Duan, Xiaonan; Tong, Lei; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Hepeng

    2013-11-01

    Diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the water surface of the Three Gorges Reservoir, currently the largest hydroelectric reservoir in the world, were measured using floating static chambers over the course of a yearlong survey. The results showed that the average annual CO2 flux was (163.3 +/- 117.4) mg CO2/(m2.hr) at the reservoir surface, which was larger than the CO2 flux in most boreal and temperate reservoirs but lower than that in tropical reservoirs. Significant spatial variations in CO2 flux were observed at four measured sites, with the largest flux measured at Wushan (221.9 mg CO2/(m2.hr)) and the smallest flux measured at Zigui (88.6 mg CO2/(m(2).hr)); these differences were probably related to the average water velocities at different sites. Seasonal variations in CO2 flux were also observed at four sites, starting to increase in January, continuously rising until peaking in the summer (June-August) and gradually decreasing thereafter. Seasonal variations in CO2 flux could reflect seasonal dynamics in pH, water velocity, and temperature. Since the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 flux were significant and dependent on multiple physical, chemical, and hydrological factors, it is suggested that long-term measurements should be made on a large spatial scale to assess the climatic influence of hydropower in China, as well as the rest of the world.

  6. Effect of spatial vegetation and relief heterogeneity on vertical CO2 fluxes between land surface and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Mukhartova, Yulia; Levashova, Natalia; Volkova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of the study is to describe the influence of spatial vegetation and relief heterogeneity on turbulent CO2 fluxes between land surface and the atmosphere using a process-based two-dimensional turbulent exchange models. As a key area for this modeling study the hilly territory situated at the southern boundary of broadleaf forest community in European part of Russia (Tula region) was selected. The vegetation cover in the study region is mainly represented by mosaic of agricultural areas, grasslands, mires and groves that makes very difficult an adequate determining the local and regional CO2 fluxes using experimental methods only. Applied two two-dimensional models based on solution of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the first-order and one-and-a-half order (TKE) closure schemes. Numerical scheme of the first-order closure model is based on the theory of contrast structures (Levashova et al 2005). For description of the plant canopy photosynthesis and respiration rates an aggregated approach based on the model of Ball et al (1987) in Leuning modification (1990, 1995), the Beer-Lambert equation for the description of solar radiation penetration within a plant canopy (Monsi, Saeki 1953), and also an algorithm describing the response of stomatal conductance of the leaves to incoming photosynthetically active radiation is used. All necessary input parameters describing the photosynthesis and respiration properties of different plants and soil types in the study region were obtained from the field measurements or taken from the literature. To quantify the possible effects of relief and vegetation heterogeneity on CO2 fluxes the three transects crossing the study area were chosen. For each transect the 2D patterns of wind speed components, turbulent exchange coefficients, CO2 concentrations and fluxes were calculated both for actual vegetation structure and for additional scenario assuming the total area deforestation. All modeling

  7. Mapping CO2 emission in highly urbanized region using standardized microbial respiration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Ananyeva, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is a major recent land-use change pathway. Land conversion to urban has a tremendous and still unclear effect on soil cover and functions. Urban soil can act as a carbon source, although its potential for CO2 emission is also very high. The main challenge in analysis and mapping soil organic carbon (SOC) in urban environment is its high spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics. The urban environment provides a number of specific features and processes that influence soil formation and functioning and results in a unique spatial variability of carbon stocks and fluxes at short distance. Soil sealing, functional zoning, settlement age and size are the predominant factors, distinguishing heterogeneity of urban soil carbon. The combination of these factors creates a great amount of contrast clusters with abrupt borders, which is very difficult to consider in regional assessment and mapping of SOC stocks and soil CO2 emission. Most of the existing approaches to measure CO2 emission in field conditions (eddy-covariance, soil chambers) are very sensitive to soil moisture and temperature conditions. They require long-term sampling set during the season in order to obtain relevant results. This makes them inapplicable for the analysis of CO2 emission spatial variability at the regional scale. Soil respiration (SR) measurement in standardized lab conditions enables to overcome this difficulty. SR is predominant outgoing carbon flux, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic respiration of soil microorganisms. Microbiota is responsible for 50-80% of total soil carbon outflow. Microbial respiration (MR) approach provides an integral CO2 emission results, characterizing microbe CO2 production in optimal conditions and thus independent from initial difference in soil temperature and moisture. The current study aimed to combine digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques with standardized microbial respiration approach in order to analyse and

  8. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, Sander; Manohar, Swagath; Vermeulen, Alex; Bosveld, Fred; Meijer, Harro; Manning, Andrew; van der Molen, Michiel; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid

    2016-11-01

    We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC), to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy covariance. For specific events, the regional (222Rn) surface flux is calculated from short-term changes in ambient (222Rn) activity concentration scaled by the ratio of the mean CO2 surface flux for the specific event to the change in its observed mole fraction. The resulting 222Rn surface emissions are integrated in time (between the moment of observation and the last prior background levels) and space (i.e. over the footprint of the observations). The measurement uncertainty obtained is about ±15 % for diurnal events and about ±10 % for longer-term (e.g. seasonal or annual) means. The method does not provide continuous observations, but reliable daily averages can be obtained. We applied our method to in situ observations from two sites in the Netherlands: Cabauw station (CBW) and Lutjewad station (LUT). For LUT, which is an intensive agricultural site, we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.29 ± 0.02) atoms cm-2 s-1 with values > 0.5 atoms cm-2 s-1 to the south and south-east. For CBW we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.63 ± 0.04) atoms cm-2 s-1. The highest values were observed to the south-west, where the soil type is mainly river clay. For both stations good agreement was found between our results and those from measurements with soil chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe. At both sites, large spatial and temporal variability of 222Rn surface fluxes were observed which would be impractical to measure with a soil chamber. SPOT-EC, therefore, offers an important new tool for estimating regional-scale 222Rn surface fluxes. Practical applications furthermore include calibration of process-based 222Rn soil flux models, validation

  9. Riverine GHG emissions: one year of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 flux measurements on Vistula river in Krakow, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasek, Alina; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Zimnoch, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial surface waters are generally considered to be sources of carbon dioxide and methane, because respiration of organic matter via aerobic and anaerobic pathways causes supersaturation of surface waters with respect to CO2 and CH4, respectively. In rivers, these processes are influenced by such anthropogenic factors as changes of land-use, wastewater and alteration of river channels. The research object is Vistula, the largest Polish river. It has the length of 1047 km and annual runoff of 6.2x1010m3. The urban section of Vistula in Krakow receives large amounts of organic matter from highly urbanized catchment and point discharges of urban waste waters within the city limits. The river was sampled regularly at three points: the entrance to the city, the center and the point where Vistula leaves the agglomeration. A floating chamber coupled with Picarro G2101-i analyzer was applied to quantify CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 fluxes leaving the surface of the river. A floating chamber was equipped with sensors to measure air pressure, temperature and humidity inside the chamber and the temperature of water. The chamber was equipped with a set of floats and an anchor. The measurements started in October 2011, and were repeated with approximately monthly frequency. Physicochemical properties of water (temperature, conductivity, pH, CO2 partial pressure over the water surface and alkalinity) were also measured during each measurement campaign. In addition, at each site short-term variability of the measured fluxes was also investigated. Additionally, short-term variability of the measured fluxes of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 were performed in all three sites. The results indicate that fluxes of CO2 released from the river are comparable with the soil emissions of this gas measured in Krakow area. The δ13CO2 signature of riverine CO2 flux allowed to identify decomposition of C3 organic matter as the major source of this gas. No distinct seasonal variability of the CO2 emission and

  10. Changes of soil CO2 flux under different stocking rates during spring-thaw period in a northern desert steppe, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shiming; Zhang, Yujuan; Guo, Yupin; Zhai, Xiajie; Wilkes, Andreas; Han, Guodong; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Kesi; Zhou, Pei; Wang, Kun; Wang, Chengjie

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the radiative balance of the earth's atmosphere. Most studies have primarily focused on the growing season. However, few reports are available on CO2 emissions in the Inner Mongolian desert steppe ecosystem during the spring thaw period. To assess the responses of soil-atmosphere CO2 exchange to different stocking rates in the desert steppe, we conducted this study during the winter-spring transition period. The experiment was conducted with four treatments defined along a grazing gradient of un-grazing (UG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and heavy grazing (HG) with three replications of each treatment in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia during the spring thaw period in 2010 and 2011. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured using Picarro G1301 (an automatic cavity ring-down spectrophotometer) in twelve grazing areas. Our results indicate that mean CO2 emission during the spring thaw period was 8.23 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. Average CO2 fluxes over the two years during the spring thaw period were 10.59 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (UG), 8.10 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (LG), 7.89 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (MG) and 6.35 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (HG). Cumulative CO2 emission amounted to 118.51 kg C ha-1 during the spring thaw period (March-April) on average over two years. In this study, grazing practice significantly reduced CO2 emission during the spring thaw period in the desert steppe. Our results are in accordance with other findings suggesting that emissions of CO2 are regulated significantly by soil temperature during the spring thaw period in this area. The significant empirical relationships provide a simple way to estimate regional amounts of CO2 emission from desert steppe during the spring thaw period.

  11. Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lara, Mark J; McGuire, A David; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Tweedie, Craig E; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Skurikhin, Alexei N; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Grosse, Guido; Bolton, W Robert; Genet, Helene

    2015-04-01

    The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006-2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between -438.3 and -1366 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux at 28.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2 uptake (-166.9 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux (2.8 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)) with geomorphic change from low

  12. The atmospheric footprint of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes of CO2 estimated from an ocean inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Gruber, N. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Air-sea exchange is a primary determinant of the spatial pattern of atmospheric carbon dioxide, yet there are substantial gaps in our understanding of the impact of the oceans on these gradients. Recent inverse modeling studies have used ocean interior observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other tracers and Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) to estimate separately the natural air-sea flux that already existed in preindustrial times and the component of the air-sea flux that is due to the anthropogenic perturbation of atmospheric CO2. The sum of these components is the contemporary air-sea flux. Furthermore, the results from the ocean inversion have been combined with an analogous atmospheric inversion using surface observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and atmospheric transport models to estimate air- sea and air-land fluxes. This work suggested that there might be an unexpectedly large source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from tropical land regions. We use the air-sea fluxes estimated from this ocean inversion together with estimates of the seasonal cycle of these fluxes from ΔpCO2 observations and bulk parameterizations as boundary conditions for the Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART). The effects of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes on the spatial pattern of atmospheric CO2 are analyzed and the implications for ocean interior transport are discussed. In addition, we use atmospheric observations of 13C/12C isotopic ratios in carbon dioxide to independently test the finding of a large terrestrial source in the tropics, since the terrestrial biosphere discriminates against 13C much more strongly than the oceans.

  13. High-resolution mapping of biogenic carbon fluxes to improve urban CO2 monitoring, reporting, and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, B. S.; Hutyra, L.; Gately, C.; Raciti, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban areas are home to 80% of the US population and 70% of energy related fossil fuel emissions originate from urban areas. Efforts to accurately monitor, report, and verify anthropogenic CO2 missions using atmospheric measurements require reliable partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Anthropogenic emissions peak during the daytime, coincident with biogenic drawdown of CO2. In contrast, biogenic respiration emissions peak at night when anthropogenic emissions are lower. This temporal aliasing of fluxes requires careful modeling of both biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes for accurate source attribution through inverse modeling. Biogenic fluxes in urban regions can be a significant component of the urban carbon cycle. However, vegetation in urban areas is subject to longer growing seasons, reduced competition, higher rates of nitrogen deposition, and altered patterns of biomass inputs, all interacting to elevate C turnover rates relative to analogous non-urban ecosystems. These conditions suggest that models that ignore urban vegetation or base biogenic flux estimates on non-urban forests are likely to produce inaccurate estimates of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Biosphere models often omit biogenic fluxes in urban areas despite potentially extensive vegetation coverage. For example, in Massachusetts, models mask out as much as 40% of land area, effectively assuming they have no biological flux. This results in a ~32% underestimate of aboveground biomass (AGB) across the state as compared to higher resolution vegetation maps. Our analysis suggests that some common biomass maps may underestimate forest biomass by ~520 Tg C within the state of Massachusetts. Moreover, omitted portions of the state have the highest population density, indicating that we know least about regions where most people live. We combine remote sensing imagery of urban vegetation cover with ground surveys of tree growth and mortality to improve estimates of aboveground biomass and

  14. Multiple Flux Footprints, Flux Divergences and Boundary Layer Mixing Ratios: Studies of Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Using the WLEF Tall Tower.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Bakwin, P. S.; Yi, C.; Cook, B. D.; Wang, W.; Denning, A. S.; Teclaw, R.; Isebrands, J. G.

    2001-05-01

    Long-term, tower-based measurements using the eddy-covariance method have revealed a wealth of detail about the temporal dynamics of netecosystem-atmosphere exchange (NEE) of CO2. The data also provide a measure of the annual net CO2 exchange. The area represented by these flux measurements, however, is limited, and doubts remain about possible systematic errors that may bias the annual net exchange measurements. Flux and mixing ratio measurements conducted at the WLEF tall tower as part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) allow for unique assessment of the uncertainties in NEE of CO2. The synergy between flux and mixing ratio observations shows the potential for comparing inverse and eddy-covariance methods of estimating NEE of CO2. Such comparisons may strengthen confidence in both results and begin to bridge the huge gap in spatial scales (at least 3 orders of magnitude) between continental or hemispheric scale inverse studies and kilometer-scale eddy covariance flux measurements. Data from WLEF and Willow Creek, another ChEAS tower, are used to estimate random and systematic errors in NEE of CO2. Random uncertainty in seasonal exchange rates and the annual integrated NEE, including both turbulent sampling errors and variability in enviromental conditions, is small. Systematic errors are identified by examining changes in flux as a function of atmospheric stability and wind direction, and by comparing the multiple level flux measurements on the WLEF tower. Nighttime drainage is modest but evident. Systematic horizontal advection occurs during the morning turbulence transition. The potential total systematic error appears to be larger than random uncertainty, but still modest. The total systematic error, however, is difficult to assess. It appears that the WLEF region ecosystems were a small net sink of CO2 in 1997. It is clear that the summer uptake rate at WLEF is much smaller than that at most deciduous forest sites, including the nearby

  15. Use of stable isotopes in the study of CO2 fluxes between terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere in shortgrass steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. H.; Pendall, E.; Ojima, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    The shortgrass steppe ecosystem is ecologically sensitive to climate change due the mixture of C3 and C4 plant species and the semi-arid environment. In order to make reliable predictions about effects of climate change on plant communities, it is prerequisite to understand how individual C3 and C4 plant functional groups contribute gross photosynthetic activity and respiration in the semi-arid grassland. We observed diurnal and seasonal changes of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes, and associated isotopic signatures of 13C and 18O from air flasks above canopy at 1 and 2m heights, to estimate changes in activity of C3 andC4 plants and gross photosynthesis and respiration fluxes during the growing seasons of 2000 and 2001 in the shortgrass steppe region of north-eastern Colorado. Flasks were collected from a tower instrumented with Bowen ratio equipment, allowing us to evaluate latent heat fluxes simultaneously with flask measurements. We partitioned gross fluxes using the 13C and 18O isotopic mass balance method outlined by Yakir and Wang (1996). The results indicated that the grass canopy was a sink for CO2 during the daytime, as we expected, but peak times for CO2 uptake varied seasonally. Peak patterns of daily photosynthesis were attributed microclimatic variables such as leaf to air vapor pressure deficit related to stomatal conductance. The diurnal patterns of gradients for d13 C were similar to those for d18O. Discrimination against 13 C associated with CO2 fixation and isotopic exchange with 18O-enriched leaf water during daytime may be correlated process in this ecosystem. Seasonally, gross photosynthesis was positively correlated to magnitude of depleted d13C of CO2 from all sources, latent heat flux at night, and total greenness of plants. Seasonal changes in atmospheric d13C and d18O values, CO2 fluxes and gross photosynthesis reflected changes in plant biomass and its composition by functional groups (C3, C4 and CAM) and environmental variables especially

  16. Soil CO2 Flux in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, during El Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Alan C.; Stannard, David I.; Maestas, Florentino B.; Karlinger, Michael R.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Mean annual soil CO2 fluxes from normally bare mineral soil in the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada, United States, measured with clear and opaque soil CO2-flux chambers (autochambers) were small - <5 millimoles per square meter per day - during both El Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999. The 1998 opaque-chamber flux exceeded 1999 opaque-chamber flux by an order of magnitude, whereas the 1998 clear-chamber flux exceeded 1999 clear-chamber flux by less than a factor of two. These data suggest that above-normal soil moisture stimulated increased metabolic activity, but that much of the extra CO2 produced was recaptured by plants. Fluxes from warm moist soil were the largest sustained fluxes measured, and their hourly pattern is consistent with enhanced soil metabolic activity at some depth in the soil and photosynthetic uptake of a substantial portion of the CO2 released. Flux from cool moist soil was smaller than flux from warm moist soil. Flux from hot dry soil was intermediate between warm-moist and cool-moist fluxes, and clear-chamber flux was more than double the opaque-chamber flux, apparently due to a chamber artifact stemming from a thermally controlled CO2 reservoir near the soil surface. There was no demonstrable metabolic contribution to the very small flux from cool dry soil, which was dominated by diffusive up-flux of CO2 from the water table and temperature-controlled CO2-reservoir up- and down-fluxes. These flux patterns suggest that transfer of CO2 across the land surface is a complex process that is difficult to accurately measure.

  17. Effects of biased CO2 flux measurements by open-path sensors on the interpretation of CO2 flux dynamics at contrasting ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Manuel; Humphreys, Elyn; Bogoev, Ivan; Quinton, William L.; Wischnweski, Karoline; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Long-term measurements of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) are conducted across a global network of flux tower sites. These sites are characterised by varying climatic and vegetation conditions, but also differ in the type of CO2/H2O gas analyser used to obtain NEE. Several studies have observed a systematic bias in measured NEE when comparing open-path (OP) and closed-path (CP) sensors with consistently more negative daytime NEE measurements when using OP sensors, both during the growing and non-growing season. A surface heating correction has been proposed in the literature, but seems not to be universally applicable. Systematic biases in NEE measurements are particularly problematic for synthesis papers and inter-comparison studies between sites where the 'true' NEE is small compared to the potential instrument bias. For example, NEE estimates for boreal forest sites derived from OP sensors show large, ecologically unreasonable winter CO2 uptake. To better understand the causes and the magnitude of this potential bias, we conducted a sensor inter-comparison study at the Mer Bleue peatland near Ottawa, ON, Canada. An eddy covariance system with a CP (LI7000 & GILL R3-50) and an OP sensor (EC150 & CSAT3A) was used. Measurements were made between September 2012 and January 2013 and covered late summer, fall, and winter conditions. Flux calculations were made as consistently as possible to minimise differences due to differing processing procedures (e.g. spectral corrections). The latent (LE, slope of orthogonal linear regression of LEOP on LECP: 1.02 ± 0.01 & intercept: -0.2 ± 0.6 W m-2 and sensible heat fluxes (H, slope of HCSAT3A on HGILL: 0.96 ± 0.01 & intercept: 0.1 ± 0.03 W m-2) did not show any significant bias. However, a significant bias was apparent in the NEE measurements (slope of NEEOP on NEECP: 1.36 ± 0.02 & intercept: -0.1 ± 0.05). The differences between NEEOP and NEECP were linearly related to the magnitude of HCSAT3A with a slope of -0

  18. The effects of ecological restoration on CO2 fluxes from a climatically marginal upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Qassim, Suzane; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    A legacy of gully incision, deposition of industrially-derived aerial pollutants, inappropriate management and wildfire has left large expanses of the topographic Bleaklow Plateau (Peak District National Park, England, UK) bare of vegetation and susceptible to massive erosion of the peat soils. The consequence of such degradation has been to decrease the capacity of the peatland on the plateau to provide important ecosystem services including; loss of net C sink function, discolouration of surface waters, mobilisation to surface waters of stored heavy metals and infilling of upland reservoirs with peat-derived sediment. In response to on-going and worsening degradation a programme of ecological restoration has been undertaken. Restoration methods include: seeding with a lawn grass mix; liming; fertilisation; slope stabilisation; and gully blocking. This talk will present data from a five-year, observational-study of CO2 fluxes from eight sites, with four sites sampling different restoration treatments and four sampling bare and least disturbed areas. The results of the analysis reveal that sites with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation were most productive and were the largest net (daylight hours) sinks of CO2. Unrestored, bare sites, while having relatively low gross fluxes of CO2 were the largest net sources of CO2. Revegetation without slope stabilisation took longer (~18 months) to show an impact on CO2 flux in comparison to the sites with slope stabilisation. Binary logistic regression indicated that a ten centimetre increase in water table depth decreases the odds of observing a net CO2 sink, on a given site, by up to 30%. Sites with slope stabilisation were between 5-8x more likely to be net CO2 sinks than the bare sites. Sites without slope stabilisation were only 2-2.3x more likely to be net CO2 sinks compared to the bare sites. The most important conclusion of this research is that revegetation appears to be effective at increasing the likelihood

  19. Upscaling of CO2 fluxes from heterogeneous tundra plant communities in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, Anja; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Euskirchen, EugéNie S.; Edgar, Colin; Fulweber, Randy A.

    2012-12-01

    We characterized the tundra vegetation at three eddy covariance towers located along a toposequence in northern Alaska and studied seasonal variations in plot-level CO2 fluxes among the dominant vegetation types with chambers during the summer and with the gradient-diffusion technique during the winter. We performed footprint analyses to determine the source areas contributing to the tower fluxes and scaled plot-level to eddy-covariance CO2 data based on the proportion of vegetation types occurring within the footprints. At peak growing season, both gross ecosystem exchange and ecosystem respiration were greater in moist acidic tussock tundra and wet sedge tundra than in dry heath tundra. This resulted in relatively similar values of net ecosystem exchange as measured by chambers in July in tussock tundra across all topographic positions and wet sedge tundra (-2.4 to -4.2 μmol CO2/m2/s) but low values in dry heath tundra (-0.4 μmol CO2/m2/s). Winter respiration was highest for tussock tundra in December, but there were no significant differences among vegetation types in February and April. Net and gross ecosystem exchange scaled up from summer chamber measurements compared well to tower data (r2 = 0.84 and r2 = 0.78, respectively), especially on level terrain, whereas plot-level CO2-flux measurements in the winter did not agree well with tower data. This is one of few studies to compare plot-level and tower fluxes during both summer and winter and to demonstrate successful upscaling of carbon exchange in Arctic tundra systems under certain conditions.

  20. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen effects on soil CO2 flux from a pasture upon return to cultivation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil CO2 efflux patterns associated with converting pastures back to row crop production remain understudied in the Southeastern U.S. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was conducted using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous,...

  1. Long-term pasture under elevated CO2 and N management: CO2 flux patterns upon return to cultivation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil CO2 efflux patterns associated with converting pastures back to row crop production remain understudied in the Southeastern US. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was conducted using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, ...

  2. Summertime CO2 fluxes and ecosystem respiration from marine animal colony tundra in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Bao, Tao; Wang, Qing; Xu, Hua; Liu, Yashu

    2014-12-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) were investigated at penguin, seal and skua colony tundra and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra sites in maritime Antarctica. Net CO2 fluxes showed a large difference between marine animal colonies and animal-lacking tundra sites. The mean NEE from penguin, seal and skua colony tundra sites ranged from -37.2 to 5.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, whereas animal-lacking tundra sites experienced a larger net gain of CO2 with the mean flux range from -85.6 to -23.9 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. Ecosystem respiration rates at penguin colony tundra sites (mean 201.3 ± 31.4 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those at penguin-lacking tundra sites (64.0-87.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1). The gross photosynthesis (Pg) showed a consistent trend to ER with the highest mean Pg (219.7 ± 34.5 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) at penguin colony tundra sites. When all the data were combined from different types of tundra ecosystems, summertime tundra NEE showed a weak or strong positive correlation with air temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature or precipitation. The NEE from marine animal colony and animal-lacking tundra was significantly positively correlated (P < 0.001) with soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents and C:N ratios. The ER showed a significant exponential correlation (P < 0.01) with mean 0-15 cm soil temperature, and much higher Q10 value (9.97) was obtained compared with other terrestrial ecosystems, indicating greater temperature sensitivity of tundra ecosystem respiration. Our results indicate that marine animals and the deposition of their excreta might have an important effect on tundra CO2 exchanges and ecosystem respiration, and current climate warming will further decrease tundra CO2 sink in maritime Antarctica.

  3. Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and energy fluxes in the city of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Z.; Feng, J. W.; Järvi, L.; Vesala, T.

    2012-03-01

    Long-term measurement of carbon dioxide flux (Fc) was performed using the eddy covariance (EC) method in the Beijing megacity over a 4-yr period in 2006-2009. The EC setup was installed at a height of 47 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower in the northwest part of the city. Latent heat flux dominated the energy exchange between the urban surface and the atmosphere in summer, while sensible heat flux was the main component in the spring. The source area of the measurements of CO2 is highly heterogeneous, which consists of buildings, parks, and highways. It is valuable for global carbon budget research to study the temporal and spatial variability of Fc in this urban environment of a developing country. Both on a diurnal and monthly scale, the urban surface acted as a net source for CO2 and downward fluxes were only occasionally observed. The diurnal pattern of Fc showed dependence on automobile traffic and the typical two peak traffic pattern appeared in Fc diurnal cycle. Also, the Fc was higher on weekdays than on weekends due to the higher traffic volumes on weekdays. On seasonal scale, Fc was generally higher in winter than during other seasons, likely due to domestic heating during colder months. Total annual average CO2 emissions were estimated to be 4.90 kg C m-2 y-1 over the 4-yr period.

  4. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  5. Role of biomass burning and climate anomalies for land-atmosphere carbon fluxes based on inverse modeling of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Prabir K.; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Inoue, Gen

    2005-09-01

    A Time-dependent inverse (TDI) model is used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes for 64 regions of the globe from atmospheric measurements in the period January 1994 to December 2001. The global land anomalies agree fairly well with earlier results. Large variability in CO2 fluxes are recorded from the land regions, which are typically controlled by the available water for photosynthesis, and air temperature and soil moisture dependent heterotrophic respiration. For example, the anomalous CO2 emissions during the 1997/1998 El Niño period are estimated to be about 1.27 ± 0.22, 2.06 ± 0.37, and 1.17 ± 0.20 Pg-C yr-1 from tropical regions in Asia, South America, and Africa, respectively. The CO2 flux anomalies for boreal Asia region are estimated to be 0.83 ± 0.19 and 0.45 ± 0.14 Pg-C yr-1 of CO2 during 1996 and 1998, respectively. Comparison of inversion results with biogeochemical model simulations provide strong evidence that biomass burning (natural and anthropogenic) constitutes the major component in land-atmosphere carbon flux anomalies. The net biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges based on the biogeochemical model used in this study are generally lower than those estimated from TDI model results, by about 1.0 Pg-C yr-1 for the periods and regions of intense fire. The correlation and principal component analyses suggest that changes in meteorology (i.e., rainfall and air temperature) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation are the most dominant controlling factors of CO2 flux anomaly in the tropics, followed by the Indian Ocean Dipole Oscillation. Our results indicate that the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations are closely linked with CO2 flux variability in the temperate and high-latitude regions.

  6. CO2-MEGAPARIS: Quantification of CO2 emissions from Paris megacity and their spread out to the neightbouring Centre region. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing of more than 30% since the pre-industrial era due to human activities, and is very likely involved in the recent global temperature increase [IPCC, 2007]. Although we have good estimates of the CO2 fluxes on a global basis, and have a relatively well-established system to detect the large-scale trends, regional information (10-500km) is needed if society is ever to manage or verify carbon emissions. We must improve our understanding of regional variations in the sources and sinks of CO2 because they help identify possible sequestration or emission management options. New programs are needed to improve our understanding of meso-scale carbon fluxes, and to discriminate between the anthropogenic and biospheric sources which are very strongly overlapped in European countries. In this context we need to monitor the emissions originating from the megalopolis such as Paris and its agglomeration, and the way they are spreading in the background atmosphere. Nowadays, inventories (CITEPA, AIRPARIF) based on statistical information provide CO2 emissions from Ile de France and all others regions of France, but no independent verification based on CO2 measurements has been done yet. Atmospheric measurements coupled to a meso-scale model can be used to provide such verification, especially to detect the interannual and decadal trends which could result from regional management strategy. The CO2-MEGAPARIS project (2009-2012) objective is to develop four independent methods to verify the emission inventories, and to monitor the daily to monthly CO2 emissions from Ile de France as well as their spreading to neighbouring regions with a scale up to 2x2 km2. The first method consists in developing a synergy between a mesoscale model (CHIMERE/MM5), inventories and observations using a top-down approach based on an inversion technique to retrieve surface fluxes (3 new observing stations are developed among which the top of the Eiffel

  7. Intra-seasonal mapping of CO2 flux in rangelands of northern Kazakhstan at one-kilometer resolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, B.K.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, K.; Tieszen, L.L.; Reed, B.C.; Laca, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Algorithms that establish relationships between variables obtained through remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technologies are needed to allow the scaling up of site-specific CO2 flux measurements to regional levels. We obtained Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) flux tower measurements during the growing seasons of 1998-2000 above a grassland steppe in Kazakhstan. These BREB data were analyzed using ecosystem light-curve equations to quantify 10-day CO2 fluxes associated with gross primary production (GPP) and total respiration (R). Remotely sensed, temporally smoothed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVIsm) and environmental variables were used to develop multiple regression models for the mapping of 10-day CO2 fluxes for the Kazakh steppe. Ten-day GPP was estimated (R 2 = 0.72) by day of year (DOY) and NDVIsm, and 10-day R was estimated (R2 = 0.48) with the estimated GPP and estimated 10-day photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Regression tree analysis estimated 10-day PAR from latitude, NDVIsm, DOY, and precipitation (R2 = 0.81). Fivefold cross-validation indicated that these algorithms were reasonably robust. GPP, R, and resulting net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were mapped for the Kazakh steppe grassland every 10 days and summed to produce regional growing season estimates of GPP, R, and NEE. Estimates of 10-day NEE agreed well with BREB observations in 2000, showing a slight underestimation in the late summer. Growing season (May to October) mean NEE for Kazakh steppe grasslands was 1.27 Mg C/ha in 2000. Winter flux data were collected during the winter of 2001-2002 and are being analyzed to close the annual carbon budget for the Kazakh steppe. ?? 2004 Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.

  8. Volcanic CO2 mapping and flux measurements at Campi Flegrei by Tunable Diode Laser absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, Maria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Grassa, Fausto; Chiodini, Giovanni; Valenza, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared room-temperature Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in Volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) to measurement of volcanic CO2 flux emissions. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei (near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy), where the GasFinder was used (during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013) to repeatedly measure the path-integrated concentrations of CO2 along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes of the two main fumarolic fields in the area (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using ad-hoc designed field-set-up and a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the 2 manifestations, the contour maps of CO2 concentrations in their atmospheric plumes, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained [1]. The so-calculated fluxes average of 490 tons/day, which agrees well with independent evaluations of Aiuppa et al. (2013) [2] (460 tons/day on average), and support a significant contribution of fumaroles to the total CO2 budget. The cumulative (fumarole [this study] +soil [2]) CO2 output from Campi Flegrei is finally evaluated at 1600 tons/day. The application of lasers to volcanic gas studies is still an emerging (though intriguing) research field, and requires more testing and validation experiments. We conclude that TDL technique may valuably assist CO2 flux quantification at a number of volcanic targets worldwide. [1] Pedone M. et al. (2013) Gold2013:abs:5563, Goldschmidt Conference, session 11a. [2] Aiuppa A. et al. (2013) Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20261. [3] Chiodini G. et al. (2010) Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 115, B03205. doi:10.1029/2008JB006258.

  9. High CO2 emissions through porous media: Transport mechanisms and implications for flux measurement and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Sorey, M.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Rogie, J.D.; Shuster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Diffuse emissions of CO2 are known to be large around some volcanoes and hydrothermal areas. Accumulation-chamber measurements of CO2 flux are increasingly used to estimate the total magmatic or metamorphic CO2 released from such areas. To assess the performance of accumulation chamber systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude higher than normally encountered in soil respiration studies, a test system was constructed in the laboratory where known fluxes could be maintained through dry sand. Steady-state gas concentration profiles and fractionation effects observed in the 30-cm sand column nearly match those predicted by the Stefan-Maxwell equations, indicating that the test system was functioning successfully as a uniform porous medium. Eight groups of investigators tested their accumulation chamber equipment, all configured with continuous infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), in this system. Over a flux range of ~ 200-12,000 g m-2 day-1, 90% of their 203 flux measurements were 0-25% lower than the imposed flux with a mean difference of - 12.5%. Although this difference would seem to be within the range of acceptability for many geologic investigations, some potential sources for larger errors were discovered. A steady-state pressure gradient of -20 Pa/m was measured in the sand column at a flux of 11,200 g m-2 day-1. The derived permeability (50 darcies) was used in the dusty-gas model (DGM) of transport to quantify various diffusive and viscous flux components. These calculations were used to demonstrate that accumulation chambers, in addition to reducing the underlying diffusive gradient, severely disrupt the steady-state pressure gradient. The resultant diversion of the net gas flow is probably responsible for the systematically low flux measurements. It was also shown that the fractionating effects of a viscous CO2 efflux against a diffusive influx of air will have a major impact on some important geochemical indicators, such as N2/Ar, ??15N-N2, and 4He/22

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2 fluxes and their climate controlling factors for a subtropical forest in Ningxiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Binghao; Xie, Zhenghui; Zeng, Yujin; Wang, Linying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Jinbo; Xie, Zhipeng

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2 fluxes in a subtropical mixed evergreen forest in Ningxiang of Hunan Province, part of the East Asian monsoon region, were quantified for the first time. The fluxes were based on eddy covariance measurements from a newly initiated flux tower. The relationship between the CO2 fluxes and climate factors was also analyzed. The results showed that the target ecosystem appeared to be a clear carbon sink in 2013, with integrated net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (RE), and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) of -428.8, 1534.8 and 1963.6 g C m-2yr-1, respectively. The net carbon uptake (i.e. the -NEE), RE and GEP showed obvious seasonal variability, and were lower in winter and under drought conditions and higher in the growing season. The minimum NEE occurred on 12 June (-7.4 g C m-2 d-1), due mainly to strong radiation, adequate moisture, and moderate temperature; while a very low net CO2 uptake occurred in August (9 g C m-2 month-1), attributable to extreme summer drought. In addition, the NEE and GEP showed obvious diurnal variability that changed with the seasons. In winter, solar radiation and temperature were the main controlling factors for GEP, while the soil water content and vapor pressure deficit were the controlling factors in summer. Furthermore, the daytime NEE was mainly limited by the water-stress effect under dry and warm atmospheric conditions, rather than by the direct temperature-stress effect.

  11. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil surface CO2 fluxes in Siberian forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, Anastasia; Menyailo, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Human activities, production of nitrogen fertilizers have altered the global nitrogen cycle greater than the carbon cycle. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen application on the CO2 flux under two tree species - Siberian larch and Scots pine. To estimate nitrogen effect on heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration the three-year experiment with deep and shallow collars was carried out. Collars were installed in May of 2010. Nitrogen was applied in June of 2010 in the form of ammonium nitrate (dry) at the rate of 50 kg N/ha on the four replicated plots under both tree species. The emission of CO2 was measured every 2 weeks from May to October over three years with LI-8100A CO2 analyzer. Nitrogen application positively affected soil surface CO2 flux under both tree species. The effect of N was even significant for annual CO2 production. Under Scots pine, the N fertilization increased annual CO2 production during the first and second year of measurements, under larch only for the first year. For the third year the effect of N has disappeared under both tree species. The total losses of soil carbon due to N application were 600-650 kg C/ha under Siberian larch and three times higher (1800-2000 kg C/ha) under Scots pine. Different collar types revealed that the effect was mostly due to increased activity of heterotrophs and subsequent laboratory incubations proved that this activity was accelerated by N mostly in the litter layers. Overall, our results suggest that in N unpolluted Siberia, the application of N leads to soil C losses, mainly due to accelerated decomposition of forest floor. The losses of soil C might exceed N-driven C sequestration in tree biomass, negating thus positive effect of N addition on net C sequestration.

  12. Quantifying and reducing uncertainties in estimated soil CO2 fluxes with hierarchical data-model integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Kiona; Ryan, Edmund; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Pendall, Elise

    2016-12-01

    Nonsteady state chambers are often employed to measure soil CO2 fluxes. CO2 concentrations (C) in the headspace are sampled at different times (t), and fluxes (f) are calculated from regressions of C versus t based on a limited number of observations. Variability in the data can lead to poor fits and unreliable f estimates; groups with too few observations or poor fits are often discarded, resulting in "missing" f values. We solve these problems by fitting linear (steady state) and nonlinear (nonsteady state, diffusion based) models of C versus t, within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Data are from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment study that manipulated atmospheric CO2, temperature, soil moisture, and vegetation. CO2 was collected from static chambers biweekly during five growing seasons, resulting in >12,000 samples and >3100 groups and associated fluxes. We compare f estimates based on nonhierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian (B versus HB) versions of the linear and diffusion-based (L versus D) models, resulting in four different models (BL, BD, HBL, and HBD). Three models fit the data exceptionally well (R2 ≥ 0.98), but the BD model was inferior (R2 = 0.87). The nonhierarchical models (BL and BD) produced highly uncertain f estimates (wide 95% credible intervals), whereas the hierarchical models (HBL and HBD) produced very precise estimates. Of the hierarchical versions, the linear model (HBL) underestimated f by 33% relative to the nonsteady state model (HBD). The hierarchical models offer improvements upon traditional nonhierarchical approaches to estimating f, and we provide example code for the models.

  13. Seasonal to decadal variations of sea surface pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux in the equatorial oceans over 1984-2013: A basin-scale comparison of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Raghu; Hackert, Eric; Wang, Jing; Beauchamp, Jim

    2015-05-01

    The equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans release significant amount of CO2 each year. Not much attention has been paid to evaluating the similarities and differences between these two basins in terms of temporal variability. Here we employ a basin-scale, fully coupled physical-biogeochemical model to study the spatial and temporal variations in sea surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux over the period of 1984-2013 in the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The model reproduces the overall spatial and temporal variations in the carbon fields for both basins, including higher values to the south of the equator than to the north, the annual maximum sea surface pCO2 in boreal spring, and the annual peak in sea-to-air CO2 flux in boreal fall in the upwelling regions. The equatorial Pacific reveals a large interannual variability in sea surface pCO2, which is associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. As a contrast, there is a strong seasonality but little interannual variability in the carbon fields of the equatorial Atlantic. The former is driven by the variability of dissolved inorganic carbon but the latter by sea surface temperature. Our model estimates an average sea-to-air CO2 flux of 0.521 ± 0.204 Pg C yr-1 for the tropical Pacific (18°S-18°N, 150°E-90°W), which is in good agreement with the observation-based estimate (0.51 ± 0.24 Pg C yr-1). On average, sea-to-air CO2 flux is 0.214 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in the tropical Atlantic (10°S-10°N), which compares favorably with observational estimates.

  14. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  15. Effects of residual biomass burning on the CO2 flux from a paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.; Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural field is influenced by some artificial management. After the harvest, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or remained and harrowed into the fields. If open burning was conducted in a field, one part of biomass carbon is emitted into atmosphere as CO2, and the other part is harrowed into soils. In this study, quantity of lost carbon according to burning of residual biomass were investigated at a single rice cropping field in western Japan, in which long-term continuous CO2 flux (NEE) measurement by the eddy-covariance technique was conducted. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

  16. Regional US carbon sinks from three-dimensional atmospheric CO2 sampling

    PubMed Central

    Crevoisier, Cyril; Sweeney, Colm; Gloor, Manuel; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2010-01-01

    Studies diverge substantially on the actual magnitude of the North American carbon budget. This is due to the lack of appropriate data and also stems from the difficulty to properly model all the details of the flux distribution and transport inside the region of interest. To sidestep these difficulties, we use here a simple budgeting approach to estimate land-atmosphere fluxes across North America by balancing the inflow and outflow of CO2 from the troposphere. We base our study on the unique sampling strategy of atmospheric CO2 vertical profiles over North America from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory aircraft network, from which we infer the three-dimensional CO2 distribution over the continent. We find a moderate sink of 0.5 ± 0.4 PgC y-1 for the period 2004–2006 for the coterminous United States, in good agreement with the forest-inventory-based estimate of the first North American State of the Carbon Cycle Report, and averaged climate conditions. We find that the highest uptake occurs in the Midwest and in the Southeast. This partitioning agrees with independent estimates of crop uptake in the Midwest, which proves to be a significant part of the US atmospheric sink, and of secondary forest regrowth in the Southeast. Provided that vertical profile measurements are continued, our study offers an independent means to link regional carbon uptake to climate drivers. PMID:20937899

  17. Regional US carbon sinks from three-dimensional atmospheric CO2 sampling.

    PubMed

    Crevoisier, Cyril; Sweeney, Colm; Gloor, Manuel; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Tans, Pieter P

    2010-10-26

    Studies diverge substantially on the actual magnitude of the North American carbon budget. This is due to the lack of appropriate data and also stems from the difficulty to properly model all the details of the flux distribution and transport inside the region of interest. To sidestep these difficulties, we use here a simple budgeting approach to estimate land-atmosphere fluxes across North America by balancing the inflow and outflow of CO(2) from the troposphere. We base our study on the unique sampling strategy of atmospheric CO(2) vertical profiles over North America from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory aircraft network, from which we infer the three-dimensional CO(2) distribution over the continent. We find a moderate sink of 0.5 ± 0.4 PgC y(-1) for the period 2004-2006 for the coterminous United States, in good agreement with the forest-inventory-based estimate of the first North American State of the Carbon Cycle Report, and averaged climate conditions. We find that the highest uptake occurs in the Midwest and in the Southeast. This partitioning agrees with independent estimates of crop uptake in the Midwest, which proves to be a significant part of the US atmospheric sink, and of secondary forest regrowth in the Southeast. Provided that vertical profile measurements are continued, our study offers an independent means to link regional carbon uptake to climate drivers.

  18. Direct measurements of the CO2 flux over the ocean: Development of a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, John; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Moat, Bengamin I.; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Neill, Craig C.

    2010-02-01

    Over the ocean, eddy correlation measurements of the air-sea CO2 flux obtained with open-path sensors have typically been an order of magnitude larger than those estimated by other techniques or sensors. It is shown here that this discrepancy is due to cross sensitivity to water vapor fluctuations: a novel correction procedure is demonstrated, tested against an independent data set and proved to be robust. After correction, the observed gas transfer velocities are in reasonable agreement with published values obtained using closed-path sensors or by tracer techniques. Data from open-path sensors may now be used for air-sea CO2 flux estimation, greatly increasing the information available on air-sea gas transfer velocity.

  19. Seasonal and diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes over a hemiboreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Noe, Steffen M.; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Forest ecosystems are a major part of the biosphere and control land surface-atmosphere interactions. They influence atmospheric composition and climate significantly being sources and sinks of trace gases and energy. Hemiboreal forests are located in the transitional zone between boreal and temperate forest bioms. Mixed stands of both coniferous and deciduous tree species are characterized by a greater seasonal variability of forest microclimate, canopy shape and density compared to boreal forests. A 20 m height scaffolding tower located in Järvselja (58°16'N 27°16'E) in a forest stand dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with co-domination of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) was used for the CO2 flux measurements. We present two years (2011-2012) of continuous eddy covariance CO2 fluxes over a mixed hemiboreal forest at the SMEAR Estonia (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations).

  20. Carbon Release from Melting Arctic Permafrost on the North Slope, AK: 12CO2 and 13CO2 Concentrations and Fluxes, and Their Relationship to Methane and Methane Isotope Concentrations Measured in August 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munster, J. B.; Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Dumas, E. J.; Dobosy, R.; Kochendorfer, J.; Heuer, M.; Meyers, T. P.; Baker, B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most important uncertainties in climate change is the positive feedback mechanism associated with the melting Arctic. As the Arctic permafrost destabilizes, labile carbon stored in the permafrost is subject to respiration and methanogenesis, producing greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Understanding the timing and rate of this release is paramount to our long-term understanding of the global climate structure, yet the remote location of the North Slope logistically precludes widespread tower measurements, necessitating airborne measurements. Presented are 12C and 13C CO2 concentration flux measurements taken via an aircraft at a height of 10-30m during mid to late August 2013 from the north slope of Alaska. The data show different regimes for CO2 vs δ-13C over regions within a roughly 100km box, indicating heterogenous landscape with differing dominant biological processes. The data are compared to CH4 measurements that were taken simultaneously, showing highly varying concentrations of CH4 with several different archetypical relationships to the total CO2 regimes. The relationship between CO2, δ-13C CO2, and CH4 concentrations provide further insight into the biological processes occurring in the melting Arctic permafrost. The data show that the dominant uptake and emission processes change by time of day and location. While the CO2 and isotopologue data alone indicates whether a region is dominant in respiration or photosynthesis, combining the data with CH4 measurements provides insight into the provenance of the CH4 as well as methanogenic biological pathways active on the North Slope, while mass balance between CH4, CO2 or δ-13C CO2 determines whether the methane signature is from methanogenesis, natural hydrocarbon seeps, or methane flaring. The data show few if any cases for which increases in methane concentrations are accompanied by a deviation in CO2 or δ-13C CO2 that would indicate incomplete methane flaring or natural seeps.

  1. Carbon fluxes in natural plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels: a stable isotope labeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kluijver, A.; Soetaert, K.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-05-01

    The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon fluxes in natural plankton communities was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Triplicate mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated with 1×(~350 μatm), 2×(~700 μatm), and 3× present day CO2(~1050 μatm) levels for 3 weeks. 13C labeled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, zooplankton, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, while it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores grew faster than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria. There was no indication of enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  2. Air-sea flux of CO2 in the Arctic Ocean, 1998-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Pabi, Sudeshna; van Dijken, Gert L.; Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has experienced an unprecedented reduction in sea ice over the last 3 decades, increasing the potential for greater exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the upper ocean. The present study utilizes remotely sensed data on distributions of both sea ice and chlorophyll a, together with modeled temperature and salinity fields, to obtain high-resolution basin-scale estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 (FCO2) in the Arctic Ocean for the years 1998-2003. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were derived from multiple linear regression relationships with sea surface temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters was computed from DIC and alkalinity, the latter of which varied with salinity. FCO2 was calculated from the air-sea difference in pCO2 and wind speed. Annual FCO2 was highest in the Atlantic-dominated Greenland and Barents sectors due to their lower sea ice cover, although area-normalized FCO2 in these sectors was low. Only the Siberian sector exhibited a significant increase in annual FCO2 during the time of our study, due to a corresponding increase in ice-free water. Overall, the Arctic Ocean was a net atmospheric sink for CO2, with annual FCO2 averaging 118 ± 7 Tg C yr-1 during 1998-2003.

  3. Temporal variability in the sources and fluxes of CO2 in a residential area in an evergreen subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of CO2 fluxes in temperate climates have shown that urban areas are a net source of CO2 and that photosynthetic CO2 uptake is generally not sufficient to offset local CO2 emissions. However, little is known about the role of vegetation in cities where biogenic CO2 uptake is not limited to a 2-8 months growing season. This study used the eddy covariance technique to quantify the atmospheric CO2 fluxes over a period of 12 months in a residential area in subtropical Auckland, New Zealand, where the vegetation cover (surface cover fraction: 47%) is dominated by evergreen vegetation. Radiocarbon isotope measurements of CO2 were conducted at three different times of the day (06:00-09:00, 12:00-15:00, 01:00-04:00) for four consecutive weekdays in summer and winter to differentiate anthropogenic sources of CO2 (fossil fuel combustion) from biogenic sources (ecosystem respiration, combustion of biofuel/biomass). The results reveal previously unreported patterns for CO2 fluxes, with no seasonal variability and negative (net uptake) CO2 midday fluxes throughout the year, demonstrating photosynthetic uptake by the evergreen vegetation all year-round. The winter radiocarbon measurements showed that 85% of the CO2 during the morning rush hour was attributed to fossil fuel emissions, when wind was from residential areas. However, for all other time periods radiocarbon measurements showed that fossil fuel combustion was not a large source of CO2, suggesting that biogenic processes likely dominate CO2 fluxes at this residential site. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of vegetation in residential areas to mitigate local CO2 emissions, particularly in cities with a climate that allows evergreen vegetation to maintain high photosynthetic rates over winter. As urban areas grow, urban planners need to consider the role of urban greenspace to mitigate urban CO2 emissions.

  4. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-10-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  5. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-07-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly, but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there was no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam river in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the two campaigns, respectively. Overall, we found that only 26 ± 15 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  6. Feedbacks Between Microenvironment and Plant Functional Type and Implications for CO2 Flux in Arctic Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, E.; Rodenheizer, H.; Natali, S.; Mann, P.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate models predict a warmer, drier Arctic, with resultant shifts in vegetative composition and implications for ecosystem carbon budgets. The impact of vegetation change, however, may depend on which plant functional groups are favored in a warming Arctic. Physiological and functional differences between plant groups influence both the local microenvironment and, on a broader scale, whole-ecosystem CO2 flux. We examined the interactions between plants and their microenvironment, and analyzed the effect of these interactions on both soil microbial communities and CO2 flux across different functional groups. Physical and biological aspects of the microenvironment differed between plant functional groups. Lichen patches were characterized by deeper thaw depths, lower soil moisture, greater thermal conductivity, and a thinner organic layer than mosses. To better understand the development of these plant-environment interactions, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment, switching multiple lichen and moss patches. Temporal changes in environmental parameters at these sites will demonstrate how different plants modify their environment and will help identify associated implications for soil microbial communities and CO2 flux. We measured CO2 flux and used Biolog assays to examine soil microbial communities in undisturbed patches of mosses, lichens, and shrubs. Patches of birch shrubs had more negative net ecosystem exchange, signifying a carbon sink. Soils from alder shrubs and mosses hosted more active microbial communities than soils under birch shrubs and lichens. These results suggest a strong link between environment, plant functional type, and C cycling. Understanding how this relationship differs among plant functional types is an important part of predicting ecosystem carbon budgets as Arctic vegetation composition shifts in response to climate change.

  7. Ensemble calibration and sensitivity study of a surface CO2 flux scheme using an optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lulin; Pan, Zaitao

    2008-05-01

    Carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem is a key component affecting climate changes. Because the in situ measurements are not dense enough to resolve CO2 exchange spatial variation on various scales, the variation has been mainly simulated by numerical ecosystem models. These models contain large uncertainties in estimating CO2 exchange owing to incorporating a number of empirical parameters on different scales. This study applied a global optimization algorithm and ensemble approach to a surface CO2 flux scheme to (1) identify sensitive photosynthetic and respirational parameters, and (2) optimize the sensitive parameters in the modeling sense and improve the model skills. The photosynthetic and respirational parameters of corn (C4 species) and soybean (C3 species) in NCAR land surface model (LSM) are calibrated against observations from AmeriFlux site at Bondville, IL during 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Results showed that the most sensitive parameters are maximum carboxylation rate at 25°C and its temperature sensitivity parameter (Vcmax25 and avc), quantum efficiency at 25°C (Qe25), temperature sensitivity parameter for maintenance respiration (arm), and temperature sensitivity parameter for microbial respiration (amr). After adopting calibrated parameter values, simulated seasonal averaged CO2 fluxes were improved for both the C4 and the C3 crops (relative bias reduced from 0.09 to -0.02 for the C4 case and from 0.28 to -0.01 for the C3 case). An updated scheme incorporating new parameters and a revised flux-integration treatment is also proposed.

  8. BOREAS TGB-1 NSA CH4 and CO2 Chamber Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth K.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-1 team made methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) dark chamber flux measurements at the NSA-OJP, NSA-OBS, NSA-BP, and NSA-YJP sites from 16-May-1994 through 13-Sep-1994. Gas samples were extracted approximately every 7 days from dark chambers and analyzed at the NSA lab facility. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  9. Standardized Automated CO2/H2O Flux Systems for Individual Research Groups and Flux Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Begashaw, Israel; Fratini, Gerardo; Griessbaum, Frank; Kathilankal, James; Xu, Liukang; Franz, Daniela; Joseph, Everette; Larmanou, Eric; Miller, Scott; Papale, Dario; Sabbatini, Simone; Sachs, Torsten; Sakai, Ricardo; McDermitt, Dayle

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly, and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. Such tools are needed to maximize time dedicated to authoring publications and answering research questions, and to minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, and quality control. Thus, these tools should produce standardized verifiable datasets and provide a way to cross-share the standardized data with external collaborators to leverage available funding, promote data analyses and publications. LI-COR gas analyzers are widely used in past and present flux networks such as AmeriFlux, ICOS, AsiaFlux, OzFlux, NEON, CarboEurope, and FluxNet-Canada, etc. These analyzers have gone through several major improvements over the past 30 years. However, in 2016, a three-prong development was completed to create an automated flux system which can accept multiple sonic anemometer and datalogger models, compute final and complete fluxes on-site, merge final fluxes with supporting weather soil and radiation data, monitor station outputs and send automated alerts to researchers, and allow secure sharing and cross-sharing of the station and data access. Two types of these research systems were developed: open-path (LI-7500RS) and enclosed-path (LI-7200RS). Key developments included: • Improvement of gas analyzer performance • Standardization and automation of final flux calculations onsite, and in real-time • Seamless integration with latest site management and data sharing tools In terms of the gas analyzer performance, the RS analyzers are based on established LI-7500/A and LI-7200

  10. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  11. Elevated CO2 effects on canopy and soil water flux parameters measured using a large chamber in crops grown with free-air CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burkart, S; Manderscheid, R; Wittich, K-P; Löpmeier, F J; Weigel, H-J

    2011-03-01

    An arable crop rotation (winter barley-sugar beet-winter wheat) was exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2) ]) using a FACE facility (Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment) during two rotation periods. The atmospheric [CO(2) ] of the treatment plots was elevated to 550 ppm during daylight hours (T>5°C). Canopy transpiration (E(C) ) and conductance (G(C) ) were measured at selected intervals (>10% of total growing season) using a dynamic CO(2) /H(2) O chamber measuring system. Plant available soil water content (gravimetry and TDR probes) and canopy microclimate conditions were recorded in parallel. Averaged across both growing seasons, elevated [CO(2) ] reduced E(C) by 9%, 18% and 12%, and G(C) by 9%, 17% and 12% in barley, sugar beet and wheat, respectively. Both global radiation (Rg) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main driving forces of E(C) , whereas G(C) was mostly related to Rg. The responses of E(C) and especially G(C) to [CO(2) ] enrichment were insensitive to weather conditions and leaf area index. However, differences in LAI between plots counteracted the [CO(2) ] impact on E(C) and thus, at least in part, explained the variability of seasonal [CO(2) ] responses between crops and years. As a consequence of lower transpirational canopy water loss, [CO(2) ] enrichment increased plant available soil water content in the course of the season by ca. 15 mm. This was true for all crops and years. Lower transpirational cooling due to a [CO(2) ]-induced reduction of E(C) increased canopy surface and air temperature by up to 2 °C and 0.5 °C, respectively. This is the first study to address effects of FACE on both water fluxes at canopy scale and water status of a European crop rotation. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Impact of elevated CO2, water table, and temperature changes on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Haynes, Katherine; Deutschman, Douglas; Bryant, Emma; McEwing, Katherine; Davidson, Scott; Oechel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Large uncertainties still exist on the response of tundra C emissions to future climate due, in part, to the lack of understanding of the interactive effects of potentially controlling variables on C emissions from Arctic ecosystems. In this study we subjected 48 soil cores (without active vegetation) from dominant arctic wetland vegetation types, to a laboratory manipulation of elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated temperature, and altered water table, representing current and future conditions in the Arctic for two growing seasons. To our knowledge this experiment comprised the most extensively replicated manipulation of intact soil cores in the Arctic. The hydrological status of the soil was the most dominant control on both soil CO2 and CH4 emissions. Despite higher soil CO2 emission occurring in the drier plots, substantial CO2 respiration occurred under flooded conditions, suggesting significant anaerobic respirations in these arctic tundra ecosystems. Importantly, a critical control on soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes was the original vascular plant cover. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was correlated with cumulative CH4 emissions but not with cumulative CO2 suggesting C quality