Science.gov

Sample records for regional cost estimates

  1. Well cost estimates in various geothermal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Bomber, T.M.; Livesay, B.J.

    1997-06-01

    A project to estimate well costs in regions of current geothermal activity has been initiated. Costs associated with commonly encountered drilling problems will be included. Activity-based costing techniques will be employed to allow the identification of cost drivers and the evaluation of the economic effects of new technologies and operational procedures on well costs. The sensitivity of well costs to a number of parameters such as rate-of-penetration and daily operating costs will be examined. Additional sensitivity analyses and trade-off studies will evaluate the efficiency of various operational practices and preventive, as well as remedial, actions. These efforts should help provide an understanding of the consumption of resources in geothermal drilling.

  2. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  3. Estimating cost of large-fire suppression for three Forest Service regions

    Treesearch

    Eric L. Smith; Gonz& aacute; lez-Cab& aacute; n Armando

    1987-01-01

    The annual costs attributable to large fire suppression in three Forest Service Regions (1970-1981) were estimated as a function of fire perimeters using linear regression. Costs calculated on a per chain of perimeterbasis were highest for the Pacific Northwest Region, next highest for the Northern Region, and lowest for the Intermountain Region. Recent costs in real...

  4. Probabilistic estimation of numbers and costs of future landslides in the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Coe, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We used historical records of damaging landslides triggered by rainstorms and a newly developed Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) to estimate the numbers and direct costs of future landslides in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region. Historical records of damaging landslides in the region are incomplete. Therefore, our estimates of numbers and costs of future landslides are minimal estimates. The estimated mean annual number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region is about 65. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated mean annual number of damaging future landslides (about 18), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated mean numbers of damaging landslides (about 1 each). The estimated mean annual cost of future landslides in the entire region is about US $14.80 million (year 2000 $). The estimated mean annual cost is highest for San Mateo County ($3.24 million) and lowest for Solano County ($0.18 million). The annual per capita cost for the entire region will be about $2.10. Santa Cruz County will have the highest annual per capita cost at $8.45, whereas San Francisco County will have the lowest per capita cost at $0.31. Normalising costs by dividing by the percentage of land area with slopes equal to or greater than 17% indicates that San Francisco County will have the highest cost per square km ($7,101), whereas Santa Clara County will have the lowest cost per square km ($229). These results indicate that the San Francisco Bay region has one of the highest levels of landslide risk in the United States. Compared with landslide cost estimates from the rest of the world, the risk level in the Bay region seems high, but not exceptionally high.

  5. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions - Precedents, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Parthan, Shantha R.; Milke, Mark W.; Wilson, David C.; Cocks, John H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review cost estimation approaches for solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit cost method and benchmarking techniques used in industrialising regions (IR). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variety in scope, quality and stakeholders makes cost estimation challenging in IR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrate waste flow and cost models using cost functions to improve cost planning. - Abstract: The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  6. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table

  7. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  8. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  9. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  10. Regional economic activity and absenteeism: a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of employee productivity loss.

    PubMed

    Bankert, Brian; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of health-related absenteeism. Productivity losses related to employee absenteeism have negative business implications for employers and these losses effectively deprive the business of an expected level of employee labor. The approach herein quantifies absenteeism cost using an output per labor hour-based method and extends employer-level results to the region. This new approach was applied to the employed population of 3 health insurance carriers. The economic cost of absenteeism was estimated to be $6.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.7 million on average for the 3 employers; regional losses were roughly twice the magnitude of employer-specific losses. The new approach suggests that costs related to absenteeism for high output per labor hour industries exceed similar estimates derived from application of the human capital approach. The materially higher costs under the new approach emphasize the importance of accurately estimating productivity losses.

  11. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  12. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  13. Estimating the costs of collective treatment of wastewater: the case of Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Dogot, Thomas; Xanthoulis, Yanni; Fonder, Nathalie; Xanthoulis, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of costs for collective wastewater treatment in the Walloon Region (Belgium). Based on a large set of data, unit costs to population equivalents are modelled. Considering investment as well as exploitation costs, the model includes not only wastewater treatment plants but also collector and sewage networks in an integrated approach at the technical basin level. Beyond this modelling, each type of process is analyzed independently in order to explore the structure of investment costs and their variation factors. Then, the model was used to forecast the upcoming expenses for 36 areas which are not yet equipped with collective wastewater treatment facilities. In light of these results, strategic choices for decision makers are discussed.

  14. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The annual costs of maintaining Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus), now numbering about 2,500, under 2 plans are compared: (1) maintaining a population of about 1,400 primarily in the wilderness and semi-wilderness as recommended by the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan, and (2) allowing wolves to continue colonizing agricultural areas for 5 years after removal from the endangered species list, as recommended by a consensus of wolf stakeholders (Minnesota Wolf Management Roundtable). Under the first plan, each year an estimated 27 farms would suffer livestock losses; wolves would kilt about 3 dogs; 36 wolves would be destroyed; and the cost per wolf in the total population would be $86. Under the second plan, conservative estimates are that by the year 2005, there would be an estimated 3,500 wolves; each year 94-171 farms would suffer damage; wolves would kill 8-52 dogs; 109-438 wolves would have to be killed for depredation control; and the annual cost averaged over the total population would be $86 for each of the 1,438 wolves living primarily in the wilderness and an additional $197 for each wolf outside the wilderness.

  15. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  16. Acquisition Cost/Price Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    SYSTEMS, RECOMMENDING COST COALS FOR THOSE SYSTEMS, AND VALIDATING THOSE ESTIMATES THROUGH INDEPENDENT COSTING METHODS. INSTRUMENTS THROUGH WHICH SYSTEM...REVIEW AND VALIDATION, (3) RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY AND (4) DATA ANALYSIS. THESE FUNCTIONAL THRUSTS ARE IN TURN FOCUSED TO ESTIMATING AND ANALISIS ...ANALYSIS OF COST ISSUES -- TO PROVIDE CONSISTENCY AND COMPLETENESS OF ESTIMATES PREPARED BY OTHER FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES. MANAGERIAL 1. COST ANALISIS HAS

  17. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  18. Equipment Cost Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-24

    The ECE application forecasts annual costs of preventive and corrective maintenance for budgeting purposes. Features within the application enable the user to change the specifications of the model to customize your forecast to best fit their needs and support “what if” analysis. Based on the user's selections, the ECE model forecasts annual maintenance costs. Preventive maintenance costs include the cost of labor to perform preventive maintenance activities at the specific frequency and labor rate. Corrective maintenance costs include the cost of labor and the cost of replacement parts. The application presents forecasted maintenance costs for the next five years in two tables: costs by year and costs by site.

  19. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  20. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution.

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  3. Mortality and treatment cost estimates for 1075 consecutive patients treated by a regional adult burn service over a five year period: the Liverpool experience.

    PubMed

    Jeevan, R; Rashid, A; Lymperopoulos, N S; Wilkinson, D; James, M I

    2014-03-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes and treatment costs of a regional adult burn service in northwest England. We retrospectively reviewed data on a five year cohort of 1075 patients treated by the Mersey Regional Burn Service between 2006 and 2010 to obtain age-stratified mortality estimates based on the lethal area 50 (LA50) measure. Treatment cost estimates were made for a one year cohort of 262 patients treated between April 2011 and April 2012. 44 (4.1%) of the five year cohort died; 36 had suffered flame burns. Our LA50 was 71.08 for the 15-44 age group, 56.64 for the 45-64 age group, and 28.82 for the 65 and over age group. Mean treatment costs associated with patients allocated to different burn-specific healthcare resource groups ranged from £2527.77 to £31,870.95. Detailed cost estimates for three patients ranged from £12,553.23 to £66,029.33. The LA50 estimates for the Mersey Regional Burn Service compare favourably with previous reports in the literature. Our treatment costs were substantially lower compared to those reported previously in the United Kingdom. This study demonstrates that high quality and cost effective care can be delivered by a service that treats relatively few major burns (>70% TBSA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional public health cost estimates of contaminated coastal waters: a case study of gastroenteritis at southern California beaches.

    PubMed

    Given, Suzan; Pendleton, Linwood H; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2006-08-15

    We present estimates of annual public health impacts, both illnesses and cost of illness, attributable to excess gastrointestinal illnesses caused by swimming in contaminated coastal waters at beaches in southern California. Beach-specific enterococci densities are used as inputs to two epidemiological dose-response models to predict the risk of gastrointestinal illness at 28 beaches spanning 160 km of coastline in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. We use attendance data along with the health cost of gastrointestinal illness to estimate the number of illnesses among swimmers and their likely economic impact. We estimate that between 627,800 and 1,479,200 excess gastrointestinal illnesses occur at beaches in Los Angeles and Orange Counties each year. Using a conservative health cost of gastroenteritis, this corresponds to an annual economic loss of dollars 21 or dollars 51 million depending upon the underlying epidemiological model used (in year 2000 dollars). Results demonstrate that improving coastal water quality could result in a reduction of gastrointestinal illnesses locally and a concurrent savings in expenditures on related health care costs.

  5. Estimating the Cost of Doing a Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate...Our earlier work provided data for high technology projects. This article adds data from the construction industry which validates the model over a wider range of technology.

  6. Estimating Costs Of Aerospace Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents brief descriptions of techniques, instructional and reference literature, computer hardware and software, and compilations of data used to estimate costs of specially equipped buildings and other aerospace construction projects. Descriptions replete with practical examples. Experiences gained in estimating costs of specific projects included.

  7. Development of underground-mine cost-estimating equations. [Dependence of initial capital cost, deferred capital cost and annual operating cost on region, annual mine output and seam depth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-06

    Table 3.3 summarizes the initial capital, deferred capital, and operating costs (in millions of 1980 dollars) for the four regionally-based underground model mines. The initial capital is divided into two components, fixed and variable. The fixed component is just the investment cost for surface facilities, which is assumed to be independent of mine size. The rest of the initial capital cost is associated with production (primarily face-related) and is assumed to vary linearly with mine size (i.e., annual output). There exists a concern that deferred capital costs will change due to entry mode. However, the installations concerned primarily with this point are depreciated off over the mine life and are not targeted for replacement. Therefore, deferred capital costs will not change significantly with entry mode changes or seam depth. In conclusion, it is our feeling that, within the resources of this project, development of cost adjustment factors relating productivity to various supply regions and seam heights is not practical. Assuming that productivity and, therefore, cost is independent of seam height will introduce errors into the system; however, their extent should be minimized by the incorporation of multiple model mines into the RAMC. Lastly, the relationship presented in this memorandum for depth of cover should be used in the RAMC.

  8. The Psychology of Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation for large (and even not so large) government programs is a challenge. The number and magnitude of cost overruns associated with large Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs highlight the difficulties in developing and promulgating accurate cost estimates. These overruns can be the result of inadequate technology readiness or requirements definition, the whims of politicians or government bureaucrats, or even as failures of the cost estimating profession itself. However, there may be another reason for cost overruns that is right in front of us, but only recently have we begun to grasp it: the fact that cost estimators and their customers are human. The last 70+ years of research into human psychology and behavioral economics have yielded amazing findings into how we humans process and use information to make judgments and decisions. What these scientists have uncovered is surprising: humans are often irrational and illogical beings, making decisions based on factors such as emotion and perception, rather than facts and data. These built-in biases to our thinking directly affect how we develop our cost estimates and how those cost estimates are used. We cost estimators can use this knowledge of biases to improve our cost estimates and also to improve how we communicate and work with our customers. By understanding how our customers think, and more importantly, why they think the way they do, we can have more productive relationships and greater influence. By using psychology to our advantage, we can more effectively help the decision maker and our organizations make fact-based decisions.

  9. Spacecraft platform cost estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhl, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The three main cost areas of unmanned satellite development are discussed. The areas are identified as: (1) the spacecraft platform (SCP), (2) the payload or experiments, and (3) the postlaunch ground equipment and operations. The SCP normally accounts for over half of the total project cost and accurate estimates of SCP costs are required early in project planning as a basis for determining total project budget requirements. The development of single formula SCP cost estimating relationships (CER) from readily available data by statistical linear regression analysis is described. The advantages of single formula CER are presented.

  10. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  11. Estimating 'costs' for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Miners, Alec

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Programme has been charged with producing guidance for the NHS in England and Wales on the appropriate use of new and existing healthcare programmes. Guidance is based on an assessment of a number of factors, including cost effectiveness. The identification, measurement and valuation of costs are important components of any cost-effectiveness analysis. However, working through these steps raises a number of important methodological questions. For example, how should 'future' resource use be estimated, and is there a need to consider all 'future' costs? Given that NICE produces national guidance, should national unit cost data be used to value resources or should local variations in negotiated prices be taken into account? This paper was initially prepared as a briefing paper as part of the process of updating NICE's 2004 Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal for a workshop on 'costs'. It outlines the issues that were raised in the original briefing paper and the subsequent questions that were discussed at the workshop.

  12. Software Cost-Estimation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation Model SOFTCOST provides automated resource and schedule model for software development. Combines several cost models found in open literature into one comprehensive set of algorithms. Compensates for nearly fifty implementation factors relative to size of task, inherited baseline, organizational and system environment and difficulty of task.

  13. Handbook for estimating fabrication costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Guide helps design engineers determine total cost of fabricating electronic equipment. It contains tables of "factors" for determining costs associated with fabrication. "Standards" section includes estimations of time required for procedures ranging from machining, to wiring, to printed-circuit board fabrication.

  14. Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-15

    TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS (TCE) – MAKE OR BUY , AND ASSOCIATED DIFFICULTIES • OUR VIEW OF TCE AND COST ...1 Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology Diana Angelis, Francois Melese (DRMI) John Dillard, Chip Franck (GSBPP) NAVAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  15. Software Development Cost Estimating Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    Hill AFB, UT Researching Blueprinting Technical writing I t l i i / ditin erna rev ew ng e ng Naval Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA), Arlington, VA...development processes Software estimating models Defense Acquisition Framework Data collection Acronyms T i lerm no ogy References Systems & Software...Designed for readability and comprehension Large right margin for notes Systems & Software Technology Conference 921 April 2009 Part I - Basics

  16. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  17. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  18. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  19. Tunnel Cost-Estimating Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    This sensitivity analysis provided insight into which factors were critical, requiring reliable quantitative determination, and which factors could...seg- ment and reach. Some of these estimates reflected genuine uncertainty while others were used to test the sensitivity of costs to changes in a 36...I8 655290 00 65 BE.A(1,59) 055300 0060 P1HA(IS7) SS310 000 TSEGL-A(I,4S) 0SS320 000 DM-A(1,46) SS330 e000 RTEMP-A(,12) 055340 000 MSTAI A( 1,31

  20. Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

  1. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  2. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  3. Software Development Cost Estimation Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identify simple fully validated cost models that provide estimation uncertainty with cost estimate. Based on COCOMO variable set. Use machine learning techniques to determine: a) Minimum number of cost drivers required for NASA domain based cost models; b) Minimum number of data records required and c) Estimation Uncertainty. Build a repository of software cost estimation information. Coordinating tool development and data collection with: a) Tasks funded by PA&E Cost Analysis; b) IV&V Effort Estimation Task and c) NASA SEPG activities.

  4. A model for the cost of doing a cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1992-01-01

    A model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate for Deep Space Network (DSN) projects that range from $0.1 to $100 million is presented. The cost of the cost estimate in thousands of dollars, C(sub E), is found to be approximately given by C(sub E) = K((C(sub p))(sup 0.35)) where C(sub p) is the cost of the project being estimated in millions of dollars and K is a constant depending on the accuracy of the estimate. For an order-of-magnitude estimate, K = 24; for a budget estimate, K = 60; and for a definitive estimate, K = 115. That is, for a specific project, the cost of doing a budget estimate is about 2.5 times as much as that for an order-of-magnitude estimate, and a definitive estimate costs about twice as much as a budget estimate. Use of this model should help provide the level of resources required for doing cost estimates and, as a result, provide insights towards more accurate estimates with less potential for cost overruns.

  5. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  6. Regional and National Estimates of the PotentialEnergy Use, Energy Cost, and CO{sub 2} Emissions Associated with Radon Mitigation by Sub-slab Depressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1996-03-01

    Active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) systems are an effective means of reducing indoor radon concentrations in residential buildings. However, energy is required to operate the system fan and to heat or cool the resulting increased building ventilation. We present regional and national estimates of the energy requirements, operating expenses, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with using SSD systems at saturation (i.e., in all U.S. homes with radon concentrations above the EPA remediation guideline and either basement or slab-on-grade construction). The primary source of uncertainty in these estimates is the impact of the SSD system on house ventilation rate. Overall, individual SSD system operating expenses are highest in the Northeast and Midwest at about $99 y{sup -1}, and lowest in the South and West at about $66 y{sup -1}. The fan consumes, on average, about 40% of the end-use energy used to operate the SSD system and accounts for about 60% of the annual expense. At saturation, regional impacts are largest in the Midwest because this area has a large number of mitigable houses and a relatively high heating load. We estimate that operating SSD systems in U.S. houses where it is both appropriate and possible (about 2.6 million houses), will annually consume 1.7 x 10{sup 4} (6.4 x 10{sup 3} to 3.9 x 10{sup 4}) TJ of end-use energy, cost $230 (130 to 400) million (at current energy prices), and generate 2.0 x 10{sup 9} (1.2 x 10{sup 9} to 3.5 x 10{sup 9}) kg of CO{sub 2}. Passive or energy efficient radon mitigation systems currently being developed offer opportunities to substantially reduce these impacts.

  7. Cost Estimates for Federal Student Loans: The Market Cost Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In an ongoing debate about the relative costs of the federal government's direct and guaranteed student loan programs, some budget experts and private lenders have argued for the use of "market cost" estimates. They assert that official government cost estimates for federal student loans differ from what private entities would likely charge…

  8. A better approach to cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Using ratios of costs to charges (RCCs) to estimate costs can cause hospitals to significantly over- or under-invest in service lines. A focus on improving cost estimation in cost centers where physicians have significant control over operating expenses, such as drugs or implants, can strengthen decision making and strategic planning. Connecting patient file information to purchasing data can lead to more accurate reflections of actual costs and help hospitals gain better visibility across service lines.

  9. Cost Estimating Cases: Educational Tools for Cost Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    case was their lack of understanding of the ACEIT software used to conduct the estimate. Specifically, many students misinterpreted the cost...skills through the proper application of cost estimating techniques. Many of the cost estimating techniques used in DoD acquisition are currently...sponsorship of SAF/FMC, this thesis effort was initiated to develop such cases. Specific Research Problem Many GCA students graduate with under

  10. Estimating the full cost of workplace injuries.

    PubMed Central

    French, M T

    1990-01-01

    While many studies estimate medical costs and lost wages from workplace injuries, few have estimated pain and suffering costs. This study develops a wage-risk model for railroad workers and estimates the total cost of on-the-job injuries. On average, the total cost of an on-the-job injury to a railroad worker in 1980 was between $19,500 and $22,500. These estimates are substantially higher than the sum of medical costs plus lost wages. PMID:2382753

  11. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  12. Virtualness of the Cost Estimating Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    VIRTUALNESS OF THE COST ESTIMATING COMMUNITY THESIS Whiticar S. Darvill , Capt, USAF AFIT/GCA/ENV/11-M01 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...of Master of Science in Cost Analysis Whiticar S. Darvill Capt, USAF March, 2011 APPROVED FOR RELEASE; DISTRUBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT...GCA/ENV/11-M01 VIRTUALNESS OF THE COST ESTIMATING COMMUNITY Whiticar S. Darvill Capt, USAF Approved: //SIGNED

  13. Estimating the cost of extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Daggert, Larry G.; Gillett, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    For future giant telescopes, control of construction and operation costs will be the key factor in their success. The best way to accomplish this cost control, while maximizing the performance of the telescope, will be through design-to-cost methods that use value engineering techniques to develop the most cost-effective design in terms of performance per dollar. This will require quantifiable measures of performance and cost, including: (1) a way of quantifying science value with scientific merit functions; (2) a way of predicting telescope performance in the presence of real-world disturbances by means of integrated modeling; and (3) a way of predicting the cost of multiple design configurations. Design-to-cost methods should be applied as early as possible in the project, since the majority of the life-cycle costs for the observatory will be locked in by choices made during the conceptual design phase. However, there is a dilemma: how can costs be accurately estimated for systems that have not yet been designed? This paper discusses cost estimating methods and describes their application to estimating the cost of ELTs, showing that the best method to use during the conceptual design phase is parametric cost estimating. Examples of parametric estimating techniques are described, based on experience gained from instrument development programs at NOAO. We then describe efforts underway to collect historical cost information and develop cost estimating relationships in preparation for the conceptual design phase of the Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope.

  14. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The development of parametric cost estimating methods for advanced space systems in the conceptual design phase is discussed. The process of identifying variables which drive cost and the relationship between weight and cost are discussed. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested using a historical data base of research and development projects.

  15. Regional cost information for private timberland conversion and management.

    Treesearch

    Lucas S Bair; Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Cost of private timber management practices in the United States are identified, and their relationship to timber production in general is highlighted. Costs across timber-producing regions and forest types are identified by forest type and timber management practices historically applied in each region. This includes cost estimates for activities such as forest...

  16. Simplified Life-Cycle Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.; Eisenberger, I.

    1983-01-01

    Simple method for life-cycle cost (LCC) estimation avoids pitfalls inherent in formulations requiring separate estimates of inflation and interest rates. Method depends for validity observation that interest and inflation rates closely track each other.

  17. Hypothetical assessment of regional liming costs for the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C. ); Britt, D.L.; Steiner, A.J. ); Callaway, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Previous studies of lake liming costs in the Adirondacks have developed methods for predicting liming costs for individual lakes and reported these costs both for representative and specific lakes in the region. This study develops a method for estimating lake liming costs for a large number of lakes. The specific objectives of this study consisted of developing a methodology for predicting regional lake liming costs that can be extended to other regions in the United States; developing total and marginal cost (i.e., supply) curves for liming and restocking lakes in the Adirondacks Lake region; and assessing the sensitivity of the total cost and supply curves in the Adirondack Lakes region to alternative selection criteria. Lake liming and restocking costs were estimated using a version of the DeAcid model, modified specifically for this study. 2 figs.

  18. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  19. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  20. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  1. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mishiro, Izumi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-10-05

    Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies.

  2. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  3. Estimating nursing costs--a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bea

    2009-05-01

    A critical cost accounting issue relating to nursing costs is that nursing costs are currently averaged into the daily room rate in the hospitals. This accounting practice treats nursing units as cost centers as nursing costs are bundled into a per diem rate instead of billed separately. As a result, all patients in a given care unit of the hospital are presumed to consume the same amount of nursing care resources. This costing and billing system creates a mismatch between resources consumption and billed charges. The objective of this paper is to (1) demonstrate current practice to estimate nursing costs, (2) classify nursing costs into direct and indirect costs in order to refine the existing approaches and (3) argue that a system of billing nursing costs separately better reflects the costs of patient care.

  4. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  5. A Cost Estimation Tool for Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Keller, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To align their financing strategies and fundraising efforts with their fiscal needs, charter school leaders need to know how much funding they need and what that funding will support. This cost estimation tool offers a simple set of worksheets to help start-up charter school operators identify and estimate the range of costs and timing of…

  6. Estimating yarding costs for the Clearwater yarder

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1987-01-01

    Describes an equation that can be used to estimate yarding costs for the Clearwater yarder in clearcuts and light and heavy thinnings in eastern hardwoods. Yarding costs can be estimated with a hand-held calculator or the data can be incorporated into stump-to-mill desktop and mainframe computer programs.

  7. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    Parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase are developed. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance, and time. The relationship between weight and cost is examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested statistically against a historical data base of major research and development programs. It is concluded that the technique presented is sound, but that it must be refined in order to produce acceptable cost estimates.

  8. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  9. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  10. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  11. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  12. An approach to software cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F.; Page, J.; Card, D.; Rohleder, M.; Church, V.

    1984-01-01

    A general procedure for software cost estimation in any environment is outlined. The basic concepts of work and effort estimation are explained, some popular resource estimation models are reviewed, and the accuracy of source estimates is discussed. A software cost prediction procedure based on the experiences of the Software Engineering Laboratory in the flight dynamics area and incorporating management expertise, cost models, and historical data is described. The sources of information and relevant parameters available during each phase of the software life cycle are identified. The methodology suggested incorporates these elements into a customized management tool for software cost prediction. Detailed guidelines for estimation in the flight dynamics environment developed using this methodology are presented.

  13. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, H. P.; Lyons, Jennifer; White, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  14. Estimating the costs of human space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

  15. Estimating the cost of a smoking employee.

    PubMed

    Berman, Micah; Crane, Rob; Seiber, Eric; Munur, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    We attempted to estimate the excess annual costs that a US private employer may attribute to employing an individual who smokes tobacco as compared to a non-smoking employee. Reviewing and synthesising previous literature estimating certain discrete costs associated with smoking employees, we developed a cost estimation approach that approximates the total of such costs for U.S. employers. We examined absenteeism, presenteesim, smoking breaks, healthcare costs and pension benefits for smokers. Our best estimate of the annual excess cost to employ a smoker is $5816. This estimate should be taken as a general indicator of the extent of excess costs, not as a predictive point value. Employees who smoke impose significant excess costs on private employers. The results of this study may help inform employer decisions about tobacco-related policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  17. Estimated Costs of Sporadic Gastrointestinal Illness ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: The ·burden of illness can be described by addressing both incidence and illness severity attributable to water recreation. Monetized as cost. attributable disease burden estimates can be useful for environmental management decisions. OBJECTIVES: We characterize the disease burden attributable to water recreation using data from two cohort studies using a cost of illness (COI) approach and estimate the largest drivers of the disease burden of water recreation. METHODS: Data from the NEEAR study, which evaluated swimming and wading in marine and freshwater beaches in six U.S. states, and CHEERS, which evaluated illness after incidental-contact recreation (boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing) on waterways in the Chicago area, were used to estimate the cost per case of gastrointestinal illness and costs attributable to water recreation. Data on health care and medication utilization and missed days of work or leisure were collected and combined with cost data to construct measures of COI. RESULTS: Depending on different assumptions, the cost of gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to water recreation are estimated to be $1,220 for incidental-contact recreation (range $338-$1,681) and $1,676 for swimming/wading (range $425-2,743) per 1,000 recreators. Lost productivity is a major driver of the estimated COI, accounting for up to 90% of total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates suggest gastrointestinal illness attributed to surface water rec

  18. Rule-Based Flight Software Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stukes, Sherry A.; Spagnuolo, John N. Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental process for the computation of Flight Software (FSW) cost estimates. This process has been incorporated in a rule-based expert system [1] that can be used for Independent Cost Estimates (ICEs), Proposals, and for the validation of Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) submissions. A high-level directed graph (referred to here as a decision graph) illustrates the steps taken in the production of these estimated costs and serves as a basis of design for the expert system described in this paper. Detailed discussions are subsequently given elaborating upon the methodology, tools, charts, and caveats related to the various nodes of the graph. We present general principles for the estimation of FSW using SEER-SEM as an illustration of these principles when appropriate. Since Source Lines of Code (SLOC) is a major cost driver, a discussion of various SLOC data sources for the preparation of the estimates is given together with an explanation of how contractor SLOC estimates compare with the SLOC estimates used by JPL. Obtaining consistency in code counting will be presented as well as factors used in reconciling SLOC estimates from different code counters. When sufficient data is obtained, a mapping into the JPL Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) from the SEER-SEM output is illustrated. For across the board FSW estimates, as was done for the NASA Discovery Mission proposal estimates performed at JPL, a comparative high-level summary sheet for all missions with the SLOC, data description, brief mission description and the most relevant SEER-SEM parameter values is given to illustrate an encapsulation of the used and calculated data involved in the estimates. The rule-based expert system described provides the user with inputs useful or sufficient to run generic cost estimation programs. This system's incarnation is achieved via the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and will be addressed at the end of this paper.

  19. Cross Service Fixed-Wing Cost Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-17

    making up the majority of fixed-wing costs , with occasional spikes in some of the other fields like 5.0 Continuing System Improvements. Category 6.0... Costs , a field that can differentiate widely between services and is not a key cost driver when evaluated with the Air Force Systems. The main cost ...TRAC-M-TR-16-021 May 2016 Cross Service Fixed-Wing Cost Estimation TRADOC Analysis Center 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943-0692 This study

  20. ADP (Automated Data Processing) cost estimating heuristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadlowe, A.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Jones, K.A.; Emrich, M.L.; Watson, B.D.

    1987-09-11

    Artificial Intelligence, in particular expert systems methodologies, is being applied to the US Navy's Automated Data Processing estimating tasks. Skilled Navy project leaders are nearing retirement; replacements may not yet possess the many years of experience required to make accurate decisions regarding time, cost, equipment, and personnel needs. The potential departure of expertise resulted in the development of a system to capture organizational expertise. The prototype allows inexperienced project leaders to interactively generate cost estimates. 5 refs.

  1. COST ESTIMATING EQUATIONS FOR BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of an interactive internet-based cost-estimating tool for commonly used urban storm runoff best management practices (BMP), including: retention and detention ponds, grassed swales, and constructed wetlands. The paper presents the cost data, c...

  2. COST ESTIMATING EQUATIONS FOR BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of an interactive internet-based cost-estimating tool for commonly used urban storm runoff best management practices (BMP), including: retention and detention ponds, grassed swales, and constructed wetlands. The paper presents the cost data, c...

  3. 40 CFR 261.142 - Cost estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... current dollars, of the cost of disposing of any hazardous secondary material as listed or characteristic... requirements if he can demonstrate that on-site disposal capacity will exist at all times over the life of the... value. (b) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the cost estimate...

  4. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1994-01-01

    NASA is responsible for developing much of the nation's future space technology. Cost estimates for new programs are required early in the planning process so that decisions can be made accurately. Because of the long lead times required to develop space hardware, the cost estimates are frequently required 10 to 15 years before the program delivers hardware. The system design in conceptual phases of a program is usually only vaguely defined and the technology used is so often state-of-the-art or beyond. These factors combine to make cost estimating for conceptual programs very challenging. This paper describes an effort to develop parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance and time. The nature of the relationships between the driver variables and cost will be discussed. In particular, the relationship between weight and cost will be examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost will be developed and tested statistically against a historical database of major research and development projects.

  5. NASA Software Cost Estimation Model: An Analogy Based Estimation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Juster, Leora; Menzies, Tim; Mathew, George; Johnson, James

    2015-01-01

    The cost estimation of software development activities is increasingly critical for large scale integrated projects such as those at DOD and NASA especially as the software systems become larger and more complex. As an example MSL (Mars Scientific Laboratory) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched with over 2 million lines of code making it the largest robotic spacecraft ever flown (Based on the size of the software). Software development activities are also notorious for their cost growth, with NASA flight software averaging over 50% cost growth. All across the agency, estimators and analysts are increasingly being tasked to develop reliable cost estimates in support of program planning and execution. While there has been extensive work on improving parametric methods there is very little focus on the use of models based on analogy and clustering algorithms. In this paper we summarize our findings on effort/cost model estimation and model development based on ten years of software effort estimation research using data mining and machine learning methods to develop estimation models based on analogy and clustering. The NASA Software Cost Model performance is evaluated by comparing it to COCOMO II, linear regression, and K-­ nearest neighbor prediction model performance on the same data set.

  6. Decommissioning Cost Estimating -The ''Price'' Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, R.; Gilmour, J.

    2002-02-26

    Over the past 9 years UKAEA has developed a formalized approach to decommissioning cost estimating. The estimating methodology and computer-based application are known collectively as the PRICE system. At the heart of the system is a database (the knowledge base) which holds resource demand data on a comprehensive range of decommissioning activities. This data is used in conjunction with project specific information (the quantities of specific components) to produce decommissioning cost estimates. PRICE is a dynamic cost-estimating tool, which can satisfy both strategic planning and project management needs. With a relatively limited analysis a basic PRICE estimate can be produced and used for the purposes of strategic planning. This same estimate can be enhanced and improved, primarily by the improvement of detail, to support sanction expenditure proposals, and also as a tender assessment and project management tool. The paper will: describe the principles of the PRICE estimating system; report on the experiences of applying the system to a wide range of projects from contaminated car parks to nuclear reactors; provide information on the performance of the system in relation to historic estimates, tender bids, and outturn costs.

  7. Estimating patient-level nursing home costs.

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, R E; Shaughnessy, P W; Yslas, I

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a methodology developed to estimate patient-level nursing home costs. Such estimates are difficult to obtain because most cost data for nursing homes are available from Medicare or Medicaid cost reports, which provide only average values per patient-day across all patients (or all of a particular payer's patients). The methodology presented in this article yields "resource consumption" (RC) measures of the variable cost of nursing staff care incurred in treating individual nursing home patients. Results from the application of the methodology are presented, using data collected in 1980 on a sample of 961 nursing home patients in 74 Colorado nursing homes. This type of approach could be used to link nursing home payments to the care needs of individual patients, thus improving the overall equity of the payment system and possibly reducing the access barriers facing especially Medicaid patients with high-cost care needs. PMID:3921494

  8. Cost estimating procedure for unmanned satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, H.; Campbell, H. G.

    1980-11-01

    Historical costs from 11 unmanned satellite programs were analyzed. From these data, total satellite cost estimating relationships (CERs) were developed for use during preliminary design studies. A time-related factor, which it is believed accounts for differences in technology, was observed in the data. Stratification of the data by type of payload was also found to be necessary. Cost differences that stem from production quantity variations were accounted for by adjustment factors developed from standard learning curve theory. An example to illustrate use of the CERs is provided.

  9. Support to LANL: Cost estimation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-04

    This report summarizes the activities and progress by ICF Kaiser Engineers conducted on behalf of Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Waste Management (EM-33) in the area of improving methods for Cost Estimation. This work was conducted between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993. ICF Kaiser Engineers supported LANL in providing the Office of Waste Management with planning and document preparation services for a Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide (Guide). The intent of the Guide was to use Activity-Based Cost (ABC) estimation as a basic method in preparing cost estimates for DOE planning and budgeting documents, including Activity Data Sheets (ADSs), which form the basis for the Five Year Plan document. Prior to the initiation of the present contract with LANL, ICF Kaiser Engineers was tasked to initiate planning efforts directed toward a Guide. This work, accomplished from June to September, 1992, included visits to eight DOE field offices and consultation with DOE Headquarters staff to determine the need for a Guide, the desired contents of a Guide, and the types of ABC estimation methods and documentation requirements that would be compatible with current or potential practices and expertise in existence at DOE field offices and their contractors.

  10. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  11. Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Jet PRopulsion Laboratory (JPL) Deep Space Network (DSN) Data System implementation tasks is described. The resource estimation mdel modifies and combines a number of existing models. The model calibrates the task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software life-cycle statistics.

  12. PACE 2: Pricing and Cost Estimating Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Shepherd, T.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic data processing system to be used for the preparation of industrial engineering type manhour and material cost estimates has been established. This computer system has evolved into a highly versatile and highly flexible tool which significantly reduces computation time, eliminates computational errors, and reduces typing and reproduction time for estimators and pricers since all mathematical and clerical functions are automatic once basic inputs are derived.

  13. Cost estimate of initial SSC experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The cost of the initial detector complement at recently constructed colliding beam facilities (or at those under construction) has been a significant fraction of the cost of the accelerator complex. Because of the complexity of large modern-day detectors, the time-scale for their design and construction is comparable to the time-scale needed for accelerator design and construction. For these reasons it is appropriate to estimate the cost of the anticipated detector complement in parallel with the cost estimates of the collider itself. The fundamental difficulty with this procedure is that, whereas a firm conceptual design of the collider does exist, comparable information is unavailable for the detectors. Traditionally, these have been built by the high energy physics user community according to their perception of the key scientific problems that need to be addressed. The role of the accelerator laboratory in that process has involved technical and managerial coordination and the allocation of running time and local facilities among the proposed experiments. It seems proper that the basic spirit of experimentation reflecting the scientific judgment of the community should be preserved at the SSC. Furthermore, the formal process of initiation of detector proposals can only start once the SSC has been approved as a construction project and a formal laboratory administration put in place. Thus an ad hoc mechanism had to be created to estimate the range of potential detector needs, potential detector costs, and associated computing equipment.

  14. Hydrogen from coal cost estimation guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to establish baseline information whereby specific projects can be evaluated, a current set of parameters which are typical of coal gasification applications was developed. Using these parameters a computer model allows researchers to interrelate cost components in a sensitivity analysis. The results make possible an approximate estimation of hydrogen energy economics from coal, under a variety of circumstances.

  15. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  16. 40 CFR 261.142 - Cost estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial... guarantee, the cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's... using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross...

  17. 2012 NASA Cost Estimating Handbook Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Stukes, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The major goal is to ensure that appropriate policy is adopted and that best practices are being developed, communicated, and used across the Agency. -- Accomplished by engaging the NASA Cost Estimating Community representatives in the update. Scheduled to be complete by the end of FY 2012. Document has been through 3 detailed reviews across NASA.

  18. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  20. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  1. Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Deep Space Network (DSN) Data Systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit DSN software life cycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN Work Breakdown Structure skeleton, which is then input into a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  2. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  3. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  4. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  5. Probabilistic cost estimates for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David L; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-01-03

    For more than a decade, the target of keeping global warming below 2 °C has been a key focus of the international climate debate. In response, the scientific community has published a number of scenario studies that estimate the costs of achieving such a target. Producing these estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well known, but poorly quantified, uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on the one hand, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other hand, has spent years improving its understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases. This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty in the cost of mitigation scenarios but has been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in only a rudimentary manner, that is, for equilibrium conditions. Here we bridge this gap between the two research communities by generating distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific values, taking into account uncertainties in four factors: geophysical, technological, social and political. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by geophysical uncertainties, social factors influencing future energy demand and, lastly, technological uncertainties surrounding the availability of greenhouse gas mitigation options. Our information on temperature risk and mitigation costs provides crucial information for policy-making, because it clarifies the relative importance of mitigation costs, energy demand and the timing of global action in reducing the risk of exceeding a global temperature increase of 2 °C, or other limits such as 3 °C or 1.5

  6. Estimating the costs of landslide damage in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Robert W.; Taylor, Fred A.

    1980-01-01

    Landslide damages are one of the most costly natural disasters in the United States. A recent estimate of the total annual cost of landslide damage is in excess of $1 billion {Schuster, 1978}. The damages can be significantly reduced, however, through the combined action of technical experts, government, and the public. Before they can be expected to take action, local governments need to have an appreciation of costs of damage in their areas of responsibility and of the reductions in losses that can be achieved. Where studies of cost of landslide damages have been conducted, it is apparent that {1} costs to the public and private sectors of our economy due to landslide damage are much larger than anticipated; {2} taxpayers and public officials generally are unaware of the magnitude of the cost, owing perhaps to the lack of any centralization of data; and {3} incomplete records and unavailability of records result in lower reported costs than actually were incurred. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to estimate the cost of landslide damages in regional and local areas and has applied the method in three urban areas and one rural area. Costs are for different periods and are unadjusted for inflation; therefore, strict comparisons of data from different years should be avoided. Estimates of the average annual cost of landslide damage for the urban areas studied are $5,900,000 in the San Francisco Bay area; $4,000,000 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5,170,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Adjusting these figures for the population of each area, the annual cost of damages per capita are $1.30 in the nine-county San Francisco Bay region; $2.50 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5.80 in Hamilton County, Ohio. On the basis of data from other sources, the estimated annual damages on a per capita basis for the City of Los Angeles, Calif., are about $1.60. If the costs were available for the damages from landslides in Los Angeles in 1977-78 and 1979-80, the annual per

  7. An Evaluation of Software Cost Estimating Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE COST ESTIMATING Sep 73- Oct 79 MODELS. R14- --. R IOTNME 7. AUTHOR (.) * ce.4 **CT OR GRANT NUMBER(C.’ * ~ Robert Thibodeau K 1 F30602...review of the draft DCP begins, the program can be terminated with the approval of the highest command level which authorized it. Once DSARC review begins...concert with many other elements. Initially, we might speak of the navigation subsystem and its functions. Later, we would describe the alignment element

  8. Estimating Costs for Army Materiei Health Hazards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    associated with Army materiel, it can be used in other areas of preventive medi- cine . The model estimates total medical costs based on the determination of a...ber 1996. Biblio . 1 Leutwyler, Kristin. "The Price of Prevention." Scientific American. April 1995. Logistics Management Institute...Hearing Loss Cases and Compensation for Veterans—1986-1994. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, Unpublished, undated. Biblio . 2 Bibliography U.S. Army

  9. Estimating the social costs of nitrogen pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourevitch, J.; Keeler, B.; Polasky, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural expansion can degrade water quality and related ecosystem services through increased export of nutrients. Such damages to water quality can negatively affect recreation, property values, and human health. While the relationship between agricultural production and nitrogen export is well-studied, the economic costs of nitrogen loss are less well understood. We present a comprehensive assessment of the full costs associated with nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in Minnesota. We found that the most significant economic costs are likely from groundwater contamination of nitrate in public and private wells. For example, we estimated that loss of grassland to corn cultivation in Minnesota between 2007 and 2012 is expected to increase the future number of domestic wells exceeding nitrate concentrations of 10 ppm by 31%. This increase in contamination is estimated to cost well owners $1.4 to 19 million (present values over a 20 year horizon) through remediation, avoidance, and replacement. Our findings demonstrate linkages between changes in land use, water quality, and human well-being.

  10. Biodiversity on Swedish pastures: estimating biodiversity production costs.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Fredrik Olof Laurentius

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the costs of producing biological diversity on Swedish permanent grasslands. A simple model is introduced where biodiversity on pastures is produced using grazing animals. On the pastures, the grazing animals create a sufficient grazing pressure to lead to an environment that suits many rare and red-listed species. Two types of pastures are investigated: semi-natural and cultivated. Biological diversity produced on a pasture is estimated by combining a biodiversity indicator, which measures the quality of the land, with the size of the pasture. Biodiversity is, in this context, a quantitative measure where a given quantity can be produced either by small area with high quality or a larger area with lower quality. Two areas in different parts of Sweden are investigated. Box-Cox transformations, which provide flexible functional forms, are used in the empirical analysis and the results indicate that the biodiversity production costs differ between the regions. The major contribution of this paper is that it develops and tests a method of estimating biodiversity production costs on permanent pastures when biodiversity quality differs between pastures. If the method were to be used with cost data, that were more thoroughly collected and covered additional production areas, biodiversity cost functions could be estimated and used in applied policy work.

  11. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... historical costs, and other analyses used to generate cost estimates. (b) General. The Contractor shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost estimating system... of Provisions And Clauses 252.215-7002 Cost estimating system requirements. As prescribed in...

  12. Statistical Cost Estimation in Higher Education: Some Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Niwa, Shelley

    Recent developments in econometrics that are relevant to the task of estimating costs in higher education are reviewed. The relative effectiveness of alternative statistical procedures for estimating costs are also tested. Statistical cost estimation involves three basic parts: a model, a data set, and an estimation procedure. Actual data are used…

  13. Cost estimators for construction of forest roads in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Deborah, A. Layton; Chris O. LeDoux; Curt C. Hassler; Curt C. Hassler

    1992-01-01

    Regression equations were developed for estimating the total cost of road construction in the central Appalachian region. Estimators include methods for predicting total costs for roads constructed using hourly rental methods and roads built on a total-job bid basis. Results show that total-job bid roads cost up to five times as much as roads built than when equipment...

  14. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74-99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014-22, dasatinib 2020-26, everolimus 2019-25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. Setting This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. Participants There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Results Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74–99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014–22, dasatinib 2020–26, everolimus 2019–25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. PMID:28110283

  16. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  18. Estimation of immunization providers' activities cost, medication cost, and immunization dose errors cost in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba B; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Al-abbassi, Mustafa G; Salih, Muhannad R M; Basher, Amena Y

    2012-06-06

    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England.

  20. Estimating the public costs of teenage childbearing.

    PubMed

    Burt, M R

    1986-01-01

    A formula for making national, state and local estimates of the cost to the public of teenage childbearing is derived from a review of 12 studies. The formula is then applied to U.S. data. The calculations yield a single-year cost for 1985 of $16.65 billion paid through three programs--Aid to Families with Dependent Children, food stamps and Medicaid--for women who first gave birth as teenagers. The calculations also show that the public will pay an average of $13,902 over the next 20 years for the family begun by each first birth to a teenager in 1985 and $5.16 billion over the same period for the families of all teenagers experiencing a first birth in 1985. If all teenage births were delayed until the mother was 20 or older, the potential savings to the public would be $5,560 for each birth delayed and $2.06 billion for the entire cohort of teenagers who would otherwise have had a first birth in 1985.

  1. Present, old and future strategies for anti-HCV treatment in patients infected by genotype-1: estimation of the drug costs in the Calabria Region in the era of the directly acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Alessio; Costa, Chiara; Pisani, Vincenzo; De Maria, Vincenzo; Giancotti, Francesca; Di Salvo, Sebastiano; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Basso, Monica; Franzetti, Marzia Maria; Marascio, Nadia; Liberto, Maria Carla; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Zicca, Emilia; Postorino, Maria Concetta; Matera, Giovanni; Focà, Alfredo; Torti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, anti-HCV drugs are provided free of charge by the National Health System. Since 2011, three drug regimens including a directly acting antiviral (DAA) are considered the gold standard for HCV treatment. However, these drugs add a significant cost (roughly €26,000) to the combination of pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV), which before DAA represented the unique treatment. To provide the National Health System potential useful information, we estimated costs to provide anti-HCV drugs to treat a population experienced for PEG-INF/RBV. Genotype 1 HCV mono-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected individuals who were treated with PEG-IFN/RBV between 2008 and 2013 were included. The cost to treat these patients with PEG-IFN/RBV was calculated (cost 1). We also estimated costs if we had to treat these patients with a lead-in period of PEG-INF/RBV followed by PEG-IFN/RBV and a DAA in naïves (cost 2), in addition to cost 1 plus the estimated cost to re-treat with PEG-IFN/RBV and a DAA patients who had a relapse or a non response (cost 3). Moreover, all costs were normalized by SVR. Rates of foreseen response with DAA were obtained from literature data. The overall study population consisted of 104 patients. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) was 55%, while it was estimated that SVR would be obtained in 75% of patients with a lead-in period with PEG-IFN/RBV followed by a DAA combination, and in 78% if this treatment is used to re-treat experienced patients with a DAA. Drug costs associated with these treatments were: €1,214,283 for cost 1, €3,474,977 for cost 2 and €3,002,095 for cost 3. Costs per SVR achieved were: €22,284 for cost 1, €44,643 for cost 2 and €38,322 for cost 3. Treatments including DAAs achieve a SVR in more patients than PEG-IFN/RBV but they cost around three times more than PEG-IFN/RBV alone regimens. Also, cost per SVR is almost twofold greater than PEG-IFN/RBV regimens. Therefore, it is mandatory to implement use

  2. Preparing Rapid, Accurate Construction Cost Estimates with a Personal Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstel, Sanford M.

    1986-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid method for preparing accurate cost estimates of construction projects in a university setting, using a personal computer, purchased software, and one estimator, is described. The case against defined estimates, the rapid estimating system, and adjusting standard unit costs are discussed. (MLW)

  3. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver L.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations and Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) architectures offer unique benefits to Earth observation scientists and unique challenges to cost estimators. The Cost and Risk (CR) module of the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) being developed by NASA Goddard seeks to address some of these challenges by providing a new approach to cost modeling, which aggregates existing Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) from respected sources, cost estimating best practices, and data from existing and proposed satellite designs. Cost estimation through this tool is approached from two perspectives: parametric cost estimating relationships and analogous cost estimation techniques. The dual approach utilized within the TAT-C CR module is intended to address prevailing concerns regarding early design stage cost estimates, and offer increased transparency and fidelity by offering two preliminary perspectives on mission cost. This work outlines the existing cost model, details assumptions built into the model, and explains what measures have been taken to address the particular challenges of constellation cost estimating. The risk estimation portion of the TAT-C CR module is still in development and will be presented in future work. The cost estimate produced by the CR module is not intended to be an exact mission valuation, but rather a comparative tool to assist in the exploration of the constellation design tradespace. Previous work has noted that estimating the cost of satellite constellations is difficult given that no comprehensive model for constellation cost estimation has yet been developed, and as such, quantitative assessment of multiple spacecraft missions has many remaining areas of uncertainty. By incorporating well-established CERs with preliminary approaches to approaching these uncertainties, the CR module offers more complete approach to constellation costing than has previously been available to mission architects or Earth

  4. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver L.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations and Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) architectures offer unique benefits to Earth observation scientists and unique challenges to cost estimators. The Cost and Risk (CR) module of the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) being developed by NASA Goddard seeks to address some of these challenges by providing a new approach to cost modeling, which aggregates existing Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) from respected sources, cost estimating best practices, and data from existing and proposed satellite designs. Cost estimation through this tool is approached from two perspectives: parametric cost estimating relationships and analogous cost estimation techniques. The dual approach utilized within the TAT-C CR module is intended to address prevailing concerns regarding early design stage cost estimates, and offer increased transparency and fidelity by offering two preliminary perspectives on mission cost. This work outlines the existing cost model, details assumptions built into the model, and explains what measures have been taken to address the particular challenges of constellation cost estimating. The risk estimation portion of the TAT-C CR module is still in development and will be presented in future work. The cost estimate produced by the CR module is not intended to be an exact mission valuation, but rather a comparative tool to assist in the exploration of the constellation design tradespace. Previous work has noted that estimating the cost of satellite constellations is difficult given that no comprehensive model for constellation cost estimation has yet been developed, and as such, quantitative assessment of multiple spacecraft missions has many remaining areas of uncertainty. By incorporating well-established CERs with preliminary approaches to approaching these uncertainties, the CR module offers more complete approach to constellation costing than has previously been available to mission architects or Earth

  5. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

  6. Estimating archiving costs for engineering records

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1997-02-01

    Information technology has completely changed the concept of record keeping for engineering projects -- the advent of digital records was a momentous discovery, as significant as the invention of the printing press. Digital records allowed huge amounts of information to be stored in a very small space and to be examined quickly. However, digital documents are much more vulnerable to the passage of time than printed documents because the media on which they are stored are easily affected by physical phenomena, such as magnetic fields, oxidation, material decay, and by various environmental factors that may erase the information. Even more important, digital information becomes obsolete because, even if future generations may be able to read it, they may not necessarily be able to interpret it. Engineering projects of all sizes are becoming more dependent on digital records. These records are created on computers used in design, estimating, construction management, and construction. The necessity for the accurate and accessible storage of these documents, generated by computer software systems, is increasing for a number of reasons including legal and environment issues. This paper will discuss media life considerations and life cycle costs associated with several methods of storing engineering records.

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  8. On the Utility of National Datasets and Resource Cost Models for Estimating Faculty Instructional Costs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Christopher; Baker, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the results of a research study in which they used two national datasets to construct and examine a model that estimates relative faculty instructional costs for specific undergraduate degree programs and also identifies differences in these costs by region and institutional type. They conducted this research…

  9. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and cost-sharing. 1552.216-76 Section 1552.216-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1552.216-76 Estimated cost and cost-sharing. As prescribed in 1516.307(c), insert the following clause...

  10. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Estimated cost and cost-sharing. 1552.216-76 Section 1552.216-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1552.216-76 Estimated cost and cost-sharing. As prescribed in 1516.307(c), insert the following clause...

  11. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated cost and cost-sharing. 1552.216-76 Section 1552.216-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1552.216-76 Estimated cost and cost-sharing. As prescribed in 1516.307(c), insert the following clause...

  12. Closing the Credibility Gap in Construction Cost Estimating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picardi, E. Alfred

    The construction cost estimate, often expressed as an absolute cost, leads to misunderstanding between client, designers, and builders. If estimates are to be used as adequate cost indicators, their probabilistic nature must be recognized and they must be expressed not as absolute numbers but in terms of a number with some indication of the…

  13. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation of the estimated costs. The FBI reserves the right to request additional cost data from carriers... if, as determined by the FBI, all cost data reasonably available to the carrier are either submitted... explain the estimating process are required by the FBI and the carrier refuses to provide necessary...

  14. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation of the estimated costs. The FBI reserves the right to request additional cost data from carriers... if, as determined by the FBI, all cost data reasonably available to the carrier are either submitted... explain the estimating process are required by the FBI and the carrier refuses to provide necessary...

  15. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost estimate submission. 100.16 Section 100.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.16 Cost estimate submission. (a) The carrier...

  16. Assuring Software Cost Estimates: Is it an Oxymoron?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jarius; Tregre, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The software industry repeatedly observes cost growth of well over 100% even after decades of cost estimation research and well-known best practices, so "What's the problem?" In this paper we will provide an overview of the current state oj software cost estimation best practice. We then explore whether applying some of the methods used in software assurance might improve the quality of software cost estimates. This paper especially focuses on issues associated with model calibration, estimate review, and the development and documentation of estimates as part alan integrated plan.

  17. Systems engineering and integration: Cost estimation and benefits analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, ED; Fridge, Ernie; Hamaker, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation Avionics hardware and software cost has traditionally been estimated in Phase A and B using cost techniques which predict cost as a function of various cost predictive variables such as weight, lines of code, functions to be performed, quantities of test hardware, quantities of flight hardware, design and development heritage, complexity, etc. The output of such analyses has been life cycle costs, economic benefits and related data. The major objectives of Cost Estimation and Benefits analysis are twofold: (1) to play a role in the evaluation of potential new space transportation avionics technologies, and (2) to benefit from emerging technological innovations. Both aspects of cost estimation and technology are discussed here. The role of cost analysis in the evaluation of potential technologies should be one of offering additional quantitative and qualitative information to aid decision-making. The cost analyses process needs to be fully integrated into the design process in such a way that cost trades, optimizations and sensitivities are understood. Current hardware cost models tend to primarily use weights, functional specifications, quantities, design heritage and complexity as metrics to predict cost. Software models mostly use functionality, volume of code, heritage and complexity as cost descriptive variables. Basic research needs to be initiated to develop metrics more responsive to the trades which are required for future launch vehicle avionics systems. These would include cost estimating capabilities that are sensitive to technological innovations such as improved materials and fabrication processes, computer aided design and manufacturing, self checkout and many others. In addition to basic cost estimating improvements, the process must be sensitive to the fact that no cost estimate can be quoted without also quoting a confidence associated with the estimate. In order to achieve this, better cost risk evaluation techniques are

  18. Mars Rover/Sample Return - Phase A cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Spadoni, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary cost estimate for the design and development of the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission. The estimate was generated using a modeling tool specifically built to provide useful cost estimates from design parameters of the type and fidelity usually available during early phases of mission design. The model approach and its application to MRSR are described.

  19. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 3: Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Cost estimates for the space tug operation are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) research and development costs, (2) investment costs, (3) operations costs, and (4) funding requirements. The emphasis is placed on the single stage tug configuration using various types of liquid propellants.

  20. Estimating costs of mental health and substance abuse coverage.

    PubMed

    Frank, R G; McGuire, T G

    1995-01-01

    The cost of expanding mental health and substance abuse treatment coverage is a major impediment to reforming insurance coverage for these types of conditions. The recent experience with national health care reform offers a case study in cost estimation for mental health and substance abuse coverage. The impact of managed care and the cost of expanding coverage to currently uninsured persons introduced uncertainty into predictions. This paper critically reviews that experience and draws lessons for estimating future costs of policy initiatives.

  1. State Medicaid Pharmacy Payments and Their Relation to Estimated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E. Kathleen; Kreling, David H.; Gondek, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Although prescription drugs do not appear to be a primary source of recent surges in Medicaid spending, their share of Medicaid expenditures has risen despite efforts to control costs. As part of a general concern with prescription drug policy, Congress mandated a study of the adequacy of Medicaid payments to pharmacies. In this study, several data sources were used to develop 1991 estimates of average pharmacy ingredient and dispensing costs. A simulation was used to estimate the amounts States pay. Nationally, simulated payments averaged 96 percent of estimated costs overall but were lower for dispensing costs (79 percent) and higher for ingredient costs (102 percent). PMID:10137796

  2. Estimation of optimal educational cost per medical student.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunbae B; Lee, Seunghee

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the optimal educational cost per medical student. A private medical college in Seoul was targeted by the study, and its 2006 learning environment and data from the 2003~2006 budget and settlement were carefully analyzed. Through interviews with 3 medical professors and 2 experts in the economics of education, the study attempted to establish the educational cost estimation model, which yields an empirically computed estimate of the optimal cost per student in medical college. The estimation model was based primarily upon the educational cost which consisted of direct educational costs (47.25%), support costs (36.44%), fixed asset purchases (11.18%) and costs for student affairs (5.14%). These results indicate that the optimal cost per student is approximately 20,367,000 won each semester; thus, training a doctor costs 162,936,000 won over 4 years. Consequently, we inferred that the tuition levels of a local medical college or professional medical graduate school cover one quarter or one-half of the per- student cost. The findings of this study do not necessarily imply an increase in medical college tuition; the estimation of the per-student cost for training to be a doctor is one matter, and the issue of who should bear this burden is another. For further study, we should consider the college type and its location for general application of the estimation method, in addition to living expenses and opportunity costs.

  3. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  4. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included.

  5. Regional fuzzy chain model for evapotranspiration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güçlü, Yavuz Selim; Subyani, Ali M.; Şen, Zekai

    2017-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main hydrological cycle components that has extreme importance for water resources management and agriculture especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, regional ET estimation models based on the fuzzy logic (FL) principles are suggested, where the first stage includes the ET calculation via Penman-Monteith equation, which produces reliable results. In the second phase, ET estimations are produced according to the conventional FL inference system model. In this paper, regional fuzzy model (RFM) and regional fuzzy chain model (RFCM) are proposed through the use of adjacent stations' data in order to fill the missing ones. The application of the two models produces reliable and satisfactory results for mountainous and sea region locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but comparatively RFCM estimations have more accuracy. In general, the mean absolute percentage error is less than 10%, which is acceptable in practical applications.

  6. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  7. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  8. Estimating the cost of major ongoing cost plus hardware development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Approaches are developed for forecasting the cost of major hardware development programs while these programs are in the design and development C/D phase. Three approaches are developed: a schedule assessment technique for bottom-line summary cost estimation, a detailed cost estimation approach, and an intermediate cost element analysis procedure. The schedule assessment technique was developed using historical cost/schedule performance data.

  9. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

  10. Adaptive arrival cost update for improving Moving Horizon Estimation performance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Murillo, M; Giovanini, L

    2017-03-01

    Moving horizon estimation is an efficient technique to estimate states and parameters of constrained dynamical systems. It relies on the solution of a finite horizon optimization problem to compute the estimates, providing a natural framework to handle bounds and constraints on estimates, noises and parameters. However, the approximation of the arrival cost and its updating mechanism are an active research topic. The arrival cost is very important because it provides a mean to incorporate information from previous measurements to the current estimates and it is difficult to estimate its true value. In this work, we exploit the features of adaptive estimation methods to update the parameters of the arrival cost. We show that, having a better approximation of the arrival cost, the size of the optimization problem can be significantly reduced guaranteeing the stability and convergence of the estimates. These properties are illustrated through simulation studies.

  11. The Acquisition Cost-Estimating Workforce. Census and Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    were also more likely to use organic staff than contractors as lead estimators (82 and 61 percent, respectively). At SMC, where many lead estimators...cost estimators who took time from their busy schedules to meet with us and candidly answered our many questions. We hope we have faithfully...Abbreviations AAC Air Armament Center ACAT acquisition category ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFCAA Air

  12. Satellite servicing mission preliminary cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The cost model presented is a preliminary methodology for determining a rough order-of-magnitude cost for implementing a satellite servicing mission. Mission implementation, in this context, encompassess all activities associated with mission design and planning, including both flight and ground crew training and systems integration (payload processing) of servicing hardward with the Shuttle. A basic assumption made in developing this cost model is that a generic set of servicing hardware was developed and flight tested, is inventoried, and is maintained by NASA. This implies that all hardware physical and functional interfaces are well known and therefore recurring CITE testing is not required. The development of the cost model algorithms and examples of their use are discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 261.142 - Cost estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Financial Requirements for Management of Excluded Hazardous Secondary... hazardous waste, and the potential cost of closing the facility as a treatment, storage, and disposal...

  14. Parametric Equations for Estimating Aircraft Airframe Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    the following cost elements: engineering, tooling , nonrecurring manufacturing labor, recurring manu- facturing labor, nonrecurring manufacturing... TOOLING 23 V. MANUFACTURING LABOR 27 VI. MANUFACTURING MATERIALS 31 VII. FLIGHT TEST 36 VIII. QUALITY CONTROL 38 IX. TOTAL COST 40 X. OTHER...man-hours are higher than they would be under normal conditions. In anticipating a high produc- tion rate a contractor may expend many more tooling

  15. How to estimate productivity costs in economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2014-04-01

    Productivity costs are frequently omitted from economic evaluations, despite their often strong impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes. This neglect may be partly explained by the lack of standardization regarding the methodology of estimating productivity costs. This paper aims to contribute to standardization of productivity cost methodology by offering practical guidance on how to estimate productivity costs in economic evaluations. The paper discusses the identification, measurement and valuation of productivity losses. It is recommended to include not only productivity losses related to absenteeism from and reduced productivity at paid work, but also those related to unpaid work. Hence, it is recommended to use a measurement instrument including questions about both paid and unpaid productivity, such as the iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire (iPCQ) or the Valuation of Lost Productivity (VOLP). We indicate how to apply the friction cost and the human capital approach and give practical guidance on deriving final cost estimates.

  16. The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Hansen, Ronald W; Grabowski, Henry G

    2003-03-01

    The research and development costs of 68 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per new drug is 403 million US dollars (2000 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 11% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of 802 million US dollars (2000 dollars). When compared to the results of an earlier study with a similar methodology, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 7.4% above general price inflation. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foreman, Veronica; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the shortcomings of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-the-art in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority weaknesses within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  18. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the limitations of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-theart in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority shortcomings within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  19. Benefit cost estimation and cooperation in greenhouse gas abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaide, B.

    1997-12-31

    The world is divided in five players: the USA, the other OECD countries, the former Soviet Union, China and the Rest of the World. The damage equation is formulated around the benchmark damage (at twice the CO{sub 2} level) and the change of temperature in time due to past concentration and current emissions. For having damage cost data (or benefit data) with respect to emissions reduction, damages must be computed at each level of restriction, summed from 2000 to 2100 and discounted back at a predetermined two percent rate of time preference. Abatement costs have been estimated by various authors, some of which believe in no-regrets and some of which only believe in low-regrets policy, some of which are aggregate and some of which are disaggregate. Both theories are taken into account to find abatement cost data between the lower bound of some studies and the upper bound of others. Finally, all exercise is undertaken for getting a curve through the disaggregated benefit and cost data and the best regional fit, represented by a mathematical expression is chosen.

  20. Methodology for estimating costs of burn injuries and property losses.

    PubMed

    Stacey, G S; Smith, K S

    1979-08-01

    This paper deals with the broad subject of the estimation of losses that result from fires and the comparison of the costs of actions to prevent losses with the resultant benefits in the form of loss reduction. It discusses how to estimate fire losses and suggests a framework for comparing prevention costs and loss reduction benefits.

  1. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year. (1) The first... adjusted closure cost estimate. (2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor. (c) During the active life of the facility, the...

  2. 40 CFR 265.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year. (1) The first... adjusted closure cost estimate. (2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor. (c) During the active life of the facility, the...

  3. 40 CFR 265.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year. (1) The first... adjusted closure cost estimate. (2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor. (c) During the active life of the facility, the...

  4. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  6. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  7. Estimating two indirect logging costs caused by accelerated erosion.

    Treesearch

    Glen O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    In forest areas where high soil erosion potential exists, a comparative yarding cost estimate, including the indirect costs determined by methods proposed here, shows that the total cost of using "advanced" logging methods may be less than that of "traditional" systems.

  8. Retrofit FGD cost-estimating guidelines. Final report. [6 processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shattuck, D.M.; Ireland, P.A.; Keeth, R.J.; Mora, R.R.; Scheck, R.W.; Archambeault, J.A.; Rathbun, G.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents a method to estimate specific plant FGD retrofit costs. The basis of the estimate is a new plant's FGD system cost, as provided in EPRI's Economic Evaluation of FGD Systems CS-3342, or any other generalized cost estimate. The methodology adjusts the capital cost for the sulfur content of the coal, sulfur removal required, unit size, geographic location variables, and retrofit considerations. The methodology also allows the user to calculate first year operating and maintenance (O and M) costs based on site-specific variables. Finally, the report provides a means to adjust for remaining unit life in determining the levelized busbar cost. Levelized cost is presented in mills/kWh and $/t SO/sub 2/ removed.

  9. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  10. A Review of Software Sizing for Cost Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    A variety of Software Sizing approaches have been conjectured in the literature. While many of these approaches have been used for Software Cost...Estimation, none were specifically designed for Software Costing. This paper reviews current methods of Software Sizing to determine their suitability for... Software Cost Estimation. The approach differs from previous approaches in that it is based on a framework of evaluation criteria including Measurement Theoretic as well as practical considerations.

  11. Conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    French, M T; Rachal, J V; Hubbard, R L

    1991-01-01

    Drug abuse imposes costs on individuals and society. Researchers have produced several studies on a subset of tangible costs of drug abuse and other illnesses, but key tangible costs sometimes have been overlooked and, even when recognized, rarely have been estimated. An assortment of intangible costs also have received very little research attention. This study outlines a comprehensive conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse. We address both the tangible and intangible costs for the drug-abusing and non-drug-abusing population. Our conceptual framework is based on critical reviews of new and traditional methods for estimating the costs of illness and disease including cost-of-illness methods, averting behavior methods, and utility valuation techniques. We show how the proposed methods can be combined with existing data to estimate the total social cost of drug abuse. Using social cost estimates will enable policymakers to more accurately assess the total burden of drug abuse and related problems on society.

  12. Ship Operating and Support Cost Estimating Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    Temporary Additional Duty Pay. . . . . . 12 5.2.2 Ship Fuel . . . . . ............... 12 5.2.2.1 Conventional Fuel. ........... 12 5.2.2.2 Nuclear Fuel...DIRECT UNIT COST Personnel Officers Enlisted Civilian Temporary Additional Duty Ship Fuel Conventional Fuel Nuclear Fuel Repair Parts Supplies Training...Temporary Additional Duty Ship Fuel Conventional Fuel Nuclear Fuel Repair Parts Supplies Equi pment/Equi page Consumables Ships Force Material Training

  13. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen

    2008-01-01

    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  14. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised.

  15. Fuzzy case based reasoning in sports facilities unit cost estimating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an example of estimating costs in the early phase of the project using fuzzy case-based reasoning. The fragment of database containing descriptions and unit cost of sports facilities was shown. The formulas used in Case Based Reasoning method were presented, too. The article presents similarity measurement using a few formulas, including fuzzy similarity. The outcome of cost calculations based on CBR method was presented as a fuzzy number of unit cost of construction work.

  16. Regional Bias of Satellite Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrick, T. M.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Spencer, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-based estimates of precipitation have improved the spatial availability of precipitation data particularly for regions with limited gauge networks due to limited accessibility or infrastructure. Understanding the quality and reliability of satellite precipitation estimates is important, especially when the estimates are utilitized for real-time hydrologic forecasting and for fast-responding phenomena. In partnership with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) and the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Hydrologic Research Center has begun implementation of real-time flash flood warning systems for diverse regions around the world. As part of this effort, bias characteristics of satellite precipitation have been examined in these various regions, such includes portions of Southeastern Asia, Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, Central America, and the southern half of the African continent. The work has focused on the Global Hydro-Estimator (GHE) precipitation product from NOAA/NESDIS. These real-time systems utilize the GHE given low latency times of this product. This presentation focuses on the characterization of precipitation bias as compared to in-situ gauge records, and the regional variations or similarities. Additional analysis is currently underway considering regional bias for other satellite precipitation products (e.g., CMORPH) for comparison with the GHE results.

  17. Estimating lifetime healthcare costs with morbidity data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many developed countries, the economic crisis started in 2008 producing a serious contraction of the financial resources spent on healthcare. Identifying which individuals will require more resources and the moment in their lives these resources have to be allocated becomes essential. It is well known that a small number of individuals with complex healthcare needs consume a high percentage of health expenditures. Conversely, little is known on how morbidity evolves throughout life. The aim of this study is to introduce a longitudinal perspective to chronic disease management. Methods Data used relate to the population of the county of Baix Empordà in Catalonia for the period 2004–2007 (average population was N = 88,858). The database included individual information on morbidity, resource consumption, costs and activity records. The population was classified using the Clinical Risk Groups (CRG) model. Future morbidity evolution was simulated under different assumptions using a stationary Markov chain. We obtained morbidity patterns for the lifetime and the distribution function of the random variable lifetime costs. Individual information on acute episodes, chronic conditions and multimorbidity patterns were included in the model. Results The probability of having a specific health status in the future (healthy, acute process or different combinations of chronic illness) and the distribution function of healthcare costs for the individual lifetime were obtained for the sample population. The mean lifetime cost for women was €111,936, a third higher than for men, at €81,566 (all amounts calculated in 2007 Euros). Healthy life expectancy at birth for females was 46.99, lower than for males (50.22). Females also spent 28.41 years of life suffering from some type of chronic disease, a longer period than men (21.9). Conclusions Future morbidity and whole population costs can be reasonably predicted, combining stochastic microsimulation with a

  18. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  19. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  20. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the estimating methods and rationale used in developing cost estimates and budgets; (v) Provide for... management systems; and (4) Is subject to applicable financial control systems. Estimating system means the Contractor's policies, procedures, and practices for budgeting and planning controls, and...

  1. Cost estimates for removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew; Ashley, Howard

    1989-01-01

    While there are currently no active measures for the removal of nonfunctional satellites or spent rocket stages from earth orbit, it has been deemed prudent to begin to identify and economically evaluate potential approaches for such orbital decluttering. The methods presently considered encompass retrieval with an OMV, forcible deorbiting via attached propulsive devices, and deorbiting via passive, drag-augmentation devices; the increases in payload-delivery costs they represent are respectively $15-20 million/object, $7.8 million/vehicle, and $5.5-15.5 million/unit. OMV removal appears the least economically feasible method.

  2. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  3. Estimating the cost of new public health legislation

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel; Cobiac, Linda; Blakely, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a new method for estimating the cost to governments of enacting public health legislation. Methods We adopted a central government perspective in estimating costs. The parliamentary cost of legislative acts and regulations in New Zealand was calculated from the proportion of parliamentary time devoted to law-making (i.e. sitting days in the debating chamber), and the cost of associated policy advice from government agencies was calculated from the proportion of documented policy issues related to law-making. The relative costs of acts and regulations were estimated from the number of pages in the legislation. Findings We estimated that, between 1999 and 2010, 26.7% of parliamentary resources and 16.7% of policy advice from government agencies were devoted to generating new laws in New Zealand. The mean cost of an act was 2.6 million United States dollars (US$; 95% uncertainty interval, UI: 1.5 to 4.4 million) and the mean cost of a regulation was US$ 382 000 (95% UI: 221 000 to 665 000). For comparison, the average cost of a bill enacted by the 50 state governments in the United States of America between 2008 and 2009 was US$ 980 000. Conclusion We were able to estimate the cost of new legislation in New Zealand. Our method for estimating this cost seemed to capture the main government costs involved and appears to be generally applicable to other developed countries. Ideally such costs should be included in economic evaluations of public health interventions that involve new legislation. PMID:22807599

  4. Melanoma costs: a dynamic model comparing estimated overall costs of various clinical stages.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Doru Traian

    2009-11-15

    The rapidly increasing incidence of melanoma occurs at the same time as an increase in general healthcare costs, particularly the expenses associated with cancer care. Previous cost estimates in melanoma have not utilized a dynamic model considering the evolution of the disease and have not integrated the multiple costs associated with different aspects of medical interventions and patient-related factors. Futhermore, previous calculations have not been updated to reflect the modern tendencies in healthcare costs. We designed a comprehensive model of expenses in melanoma that considers the dynamic costs generated by the natural progression of the disease, which produces costs associated with treatment, surveillance, loss of income, and terminal care. The complete range of initial clinical (TNM) stages of the disease and initial tumor stages were analyzed in this model and the total healthcare costs for the five years following melanoma presentation at each particular stage were calculated. We have observed dramatic incremental total costs associated with progressively higher initial stages of the disease, ranging from a total of $4,648.48 for in situ tumors to $159,808.17 for Stage IV melanoma. By stage, early lesions associate 30-55 percent of their costs for the treatment of the primary tumor, due to a low rate of recurrence (local, regional, or distant), which limits the need for additional interventions. For in situ melanoma, T1a, and T1b, surveillance is an important contributor to the medical costs, accounting for more than 25 percent of the total cost over 5 years. In contrast, late lesions incur a much larger proportion of their associated costs (up to 80-85%) from the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic disease because of the increased propensity of those lesions to disseminate. This cost increases with increasing tumor stage (from $2,442.17 for T1a to $6,678.00 for T4b). The most expensive items in the medical care of patients with melanoma consist of

  5. A cost estimation model for high power FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    A cost estimation model for scaling high-power free-electron lasers has been developed for estimating the impact of system-level design choices in scaling high-average-power superconducting-accelerator-based FELs. The model consists of a number of modules which develop subsystem costs and derive as an economic criterion the cost per kilojoule of light produced. The model does not include design engineering or development costs, but represents the 2nd through nth device. Presented in the paper is the relative sensitivity of designs to power and linac frequency while allowing the operating temperature of the superconducting cavities to optimize.

  6. Planetary spacecraft cost modeling utilizing labor estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    A basic computerized technology is presented for estimating labor hours and cost of unmanned planetary and lunar programs. The user friendly methodology designated Labor Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship (LERCER) organizes the forecasting process according to vehicle subsystem levels. The level of input variables required by the model in predicting cost is consistent with pre-Phase A type mission analysis. Twenty one program categories were used in the modeling. To develop the model, numerous LER and CER studies were surveyed and modified when required. The result of the research along with components of the LERCER program are reported.

  7. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  8. Regional estimates of radiated seismic energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Choy, G.L.; Seekins, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    We revise the spectral technique for estimating radiated energy from recordings of large earthquakes at regional distances (?? 27.5 km from the source, we model the geometrical spreading of the regional wavefield as r-?? where???? = 0.5 for f ??? 0.2 Hz and ?? = 0.7 for f ??? 0.25 Hz. We fit the spectral falloff with distance using a frequency-dependent attenuation Q = 400(f/1.5)0.6, where Q = 400 for f ??? 1.5 Hz. There is little directivity apparent in the corrected velocity spectra: the velocity spectra observed to the northwest along strike are amplified by a factor of 2.5 from 0.3 to 1.0 Hz and those to the southeast are amplified by a factor of 1.6 from 0.3 to 0.7 Hz. We group the stations in NEHRP site classes, using average 1-D velocity structures to estimate site amplification as a function of frequency and assuming 0.40 ??? ?? ??? 0.55 sec for the near-surface attenuation. We increase the amplification of the soft-soil sites from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz by a factor that reaches 1.7 at 0.3 Hz because they are more strongly amplified than the NEHRP-D velocity structure predicts. We combine the 65 single-station estimates of radiated energy using an equal-azimuth weighting scheme that compensates for station distribution and incorporates the observed directivity, yielding a regional estimate of Es = 3.4 ?? 0.7 ?? 1022 dyne cm. This regional estimate of radiated energy corresponds closely to the teleseismic estimate of Es = 3.2 ?? 1022 dyne cm.

  9. Improving The Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning many program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility. This paper presents the plans for the newly established role. Described is how the Independent Program Assessment Office, working with all NASA Centers, NASA Headquarters, other Government agencies, and industry, is focused on creating cost estimation and analysis as a professional discipline that will be recognized equally with the technical disciplines needed to design new space and aeronautics activities. Investments in selected, new analysis tools, creating advanced training opportunities for analysts, and developing career paths for future analysts engaged in the discipline are all elements of the plan. Plans also include increasing the human resources available to conduct independent cost analysis of Agency programs during their formulation, to improve near-term capability to conduct economic cost-benefit assessments, to support NASA management's decision process, and to provide cost analysis results emphasizing "full-cost" and "full-life cycle" considerations. The Agency cost analysis improvement plan has been approved for implementation starting this calendar year. Adequate financial

  10. Improving The Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning many program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility. This paper presents the plans for the newly established role. Described is how the Independent Program Assessment Office, working with all NASA Centers, NASA Headquarters, other Government agencies, and industry, is focused on creating cost estimation and analysis as a professional discipline that will be recognized equally with the technical disciplines needed to design new space and aeronautics activities. Investments in selected, new analysis tools, creating advanced training opportunities for analysts, and developing career paths for future analysts engaged in the discipline are all elements of the plan. Plans also include increasing the human resources available to conduct independent cost analysis of Agency programs during their formulation, to improve near-term capability to conduct economic cost-benefit assessments, to support NASA management's decision process, and to provide cost analysis results emphasizing "full-cost" and "full-life cycle" considerations. The Agency cost analysis improvement plan has been approved for implementation starting this calendar year. Adequate financial

  11. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 3: Program cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The approach used to estimate costs for the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is based on a computer program developed internally at Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE). The program produces time-phased estimates of cost elements for each hardware component, based on experience with similar components. Engineering estimates of the degree of similarity or difference between the current project and the historical data is then used to adjust the computer-produced cost estimate and to fit it to the current project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The SSFF Concept as presented at the Requirements Definition Review (RDR) was used as the base configuration for the cost estimate. This program incorporates data on costs of previous projects and the allocation of those costs to the components of one of three, time-phased, generic WBS's. Input consists of a list of similar components for which cost data exist, number of interfaces with their type and complexity, identification of the extent to which previous designs are applicable, and programmatic data concerning schedules and miscellaneous data (travel, off-site assignments). Output is program cost in labor hours and material dollars, for each component, broken down by generic WBS task and program schedule phase.

  12. COSTMODL: An automated software development cost estimation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, George B.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of developing computer software continues to consume an increasing portion of many organizations' total budgets, both in the public and private sector. As this trend develops, the capability to produce reliable estimates of the effort and schedule required to develop a candidate software product takes on increasing importance. The COSTMODL program was developed to provide an in-house capability to perform development cost estimates for NASA software projects. COSTMODL is an automated software development cost estimation tool which incorporates five cost estimation algorithms including the latest models for the Ada language and incrementally developed products. The principal characteristic which sets COSTMODL apart from other software cost estimation programs is its capacity to be completely customized to a particular environment. The estimation equations can be recalibrated to reflect the programmer productivity characteristics demonstrated by the user's organization, and the set of significant factors which effect software development costs can be customized to reflect any unique properties of the user's development environment. Careful use of a capability such as COSTMODL can significantly reduce the risk of cost overruns and failed projects.

  13. Commercial Crew Cost Estimating - A Look at Estimating Processes, Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, Rick; Cole, Lance

    2015-01-01

    To support annual PPBE budgets and NASA HQ requests for cost information for commercial crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), the NASA ISS ACES team developed system development and per flight cost estimates for the potential providers for each annual PPBE submit from 2009-2014. This paper describes the cost estimating processes used, challenges and lessons learned to develop estimates for this key NASA project that diverted from the traditional procurement approach and used a new way of doing business

  14. Regional estimation of current and future forest biomass

    Treesearch

    R.A. Mickler; T.S. Earnhardt; J.A. Moore

    2002-01-01

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exclusion policies and practices. The fire regime at any given location in these regions is a...

  15. Cost estimate for the Kilometric Optical Interferometer (KOI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Parameswariah, Chethan; Rajagopal, Jayadev

    2008-07-01

    We present a parametric cost estimate for the Kilometric Optical Interferometer (KOI) in a classical array configuration: 24 telescopes, 4-meter primary mirror, up to 1 km baseline. The parametric cost estimate is based on available cost information from the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) Interferometer at New Mexico Tech. A Kilometric Optical Interferometer based on a classical array concept has an estimated construction cost between 1B and 3B if it would be built today (2008 dollars and technology). The implication of the estimated construction cost is that cost reductions are critical in the planning phase to bring the cost within a reasonable envelope. Hence we propose to set a budget ceiling that seems feasible given the support to be expected from the scientific community and funding agencies. Given a budget ceiling, a design-to-cost process should be followed. We propose to set a construction phase budget cap of $800M (2008 dollars) for KOI as an initial goal. Narrowing down of the science goals in combination with technology development to reduce cost and technological complexity are the main areas of activities for the next decade. We propose to establish a virtual project office to coordinate these activities.

  16. Estimates of the national benefits and costs of improving ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, G.L.; Bower, B.T.; Lakhani, H.A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper examines the estimates of national benefits and national costs of ambient air quality improvement in the United States for the period 1970 to 1978. Analysis must be at the micro-level for both receptors of pollution and the dischargers of residuals. Section 2 discusses techniques for estimating the national benefits from improving ambient air quality. The literature on national benefits to health (mortality and morbidity) and non-health (avoiding damages to materials, plants, crops, etc.) is critically reviewed in this section. For the period 1970 to 1978, the value of these benefits ranged from about $5 billion to $51 billion, with a point estimate of about $22 billion. The national cost estimates by the Council on Environmental Quality, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and McGraw-Hill are provided in section 2. Cost estimates must include not only the end-of-pipe treatment measures, but also the alternatives: changes in product specification, product mix, processes, etc. These types of responses are not generally considered in estimates of national costs. For the period 1970 to 1978, estimates provided in section 3 of national costs of improving ambient air quality ranged from $8 to $9 billion in 1978 dollars. Section 4 concludes that the national benefits for improving ambient air quality exceed the national costs for the average and the high values of benefits, but not for the low estimates. Section 5 discusses the requirements for establishing a national regional computational framework for estimating national benefits and national costs. 49 references, 2 tables

  17. Econometric estimation of country-specific hospital costs

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B; Murray, Christopher JL

    2003-01-01

    Information on the unit cost of inpatient and outpatient care is an essential element for costing, budgeting and economic-evaluation exercises. Many countries lack reliable estimates, however. WHO has recently undertaken an extensive effort to collect and collate data on the unit cost of hospitals and health centres from as many countries as possible; so far, data have been assembled from 49 countries, for various years during the period 1973–2000. The database covers a total of 2173 country-years of observations. Large gaps remain, however, particularly for developing countries. Although the long-term solution is that all countries perform their own costing studies, the question arises whether it is possible to predict unit costs for different countries in a standardized way for short-term use. The purpose of the work described in this paper, a modelling exercise, was to use the data collected across countries to predict unit costs in countries for which data are not yet available, with the appropriate uncertainty intervals. The model presented here forms part of a series of models used to estimate unit costs for the WHO-CHOICE project. The methods and the results of the model, however, may be used to predict a number of different types of country-specific unit costs, depending on the purpose of the exercise. They may be used, for instance, to estimate the costs per bed-day at different capacity levels; the "hotel" component of cost per bed-day; or unit costs net of particular components such as drugs. In addition to reporting estimates for selected countries, the paper shows that unit costs of hospitals vary within countries, sometimes by an order of magnitude. Basing cost-effectiveness studies or budgeting exercises on the results of a study of a single facility, or even a small group of facilities, is likely to be misleading. PMID:12773218

  18. Econometric estimation of country-specific hospital costs.

    PubMed

    Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B; Murray, Christopher JL

    2003-02-26

    Information on the unit cost of inpatient and outpatient care is an essential element for costing, budgeting and economic-evaluation exercises. Many countries lack reliable estimates, however. WHO has recently undertaken an extensive effort to collect and collate data on the unit cost of hospitals and health centres from as many countries as possible; so far, data have been assembled from 49 countries, for various years during the period 1973-2000. The database covers a total of 2173 country-years of observations. Large gaps remain, however, particularly for developing countries. Although the long-term solution is that all countries perform their own costing studies, the question arises whether it is possible to predict unit costs for different countries in a standardized way for short-term use. The purpose of the work described in this paper, a modelling exercise, was to use the data collected across countries to predict unit costs in countries for which data are not yet available, with the appropriate uncertainty intervals.The model presented here forms part of a series of models used to estimate unit costs for the WHO-CHOICE project. The methods and the results of the model, however, may be used to predict a number of different types of country-specific unit costs, depending on the purpose of the exercise. They may be used, for instance, to estimate the costs per bed-day at different capacity levels; the "hotel" component of cost per bed-day; or unit costs net of particular components such as drugs.In addition to reporting estimates for selected countries, the paper shows that unit costs of hospitals vary within countries, sometimes by an order of magnitude. Basing cost-effectiveness studies or budgeting exercises on the results of a study of a single facility, or even a small group of facilities, is likely to be misleading.

  19. Psychometrics for the Cost Conscious: Using Discriminant Analysis to Refine Estimates of Program Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Raymond J.

    This presentation uses data from a long-term juvenile diversion counseling program to illustrate a sample method of estimating program cost. Several problems in using average cost figures are first presented. Then a method is described in which discriminant analysis can be used to refine cost comparisons. This makes it possible to produce…

  20. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  3. A Parametric Cost Model for Estimating Acquisition Costs of Conventional U.S. Navy Surface Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    techniques return cost estimating relationships able to predict average procurement cost from ship light displacement, ship overall length, ship ... propulsion shaft horsepower or number of propulsion engines. The formulated parametric cost model is approximate and appropriate only for rough order of

  4. Software cost estimation using class point metrics (CPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghode, Aditi; Periyasamy, Kasilingam

    2011-12-01

    Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation.

  5. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merion M.

    2002-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  6. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  7. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2003-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  8. Aircraft Airframe Cost Estimation Using a Random Coefficients Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    DOD is aircraft. Aircraft purchase contracts run into billions of dollars and make up a significant part of the defense budget. Cost estimates for...aircraft can help managers make better decisions, but these estimates can be inaccurate for two primary reasons. First, if any aspect of the aircraft...term is additive assumes that the error is of the same mag- nitude regardless of the size of Y. This does not make much sense for airframe cost data

  9. Estimating Costs for Development of Candidate Performance Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David A.

    This paper contains cost unit tables and instructions for their use in estimating the total cost of evaluating a given instructional objective or group of objectives. Included is a list of analytical procedures to be followed in the development of any device to evaluate student performance, (e.g., a unit exam in child development or an attitude…

  10. COST ESTIMATING EQUATIONS FOR BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of an interactive internet-based cost-estimating tool for commonly used urban storm runoff best management practices (BMP), including: retention and detention ponds, grassed swales, and constructed wetlands. The paper presents the cost data, c...

  11. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  12. Improving the Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning man), program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility.

  13. Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes.

  14. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.

  15. Costs of sea dikes - regressions and uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenk, Stephan; Rybski, Diego; Heidrich, Oliver; Dawson, Richard J.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2017-05-01

    Failure to consider the costs of adaptation strategies can be seen by decision makers as a barrier to implementing coastal protection measures. In order to validate adaptation strategies to sea-level rise in the form of coastal protection, a consistent and repeatable assessment of the costs is necessary. This paper significantly extends current knowledge on cost estimates by developing - and implementing using real coastal dike data - probabilistic functions of dike costs. Data from Canada and the Netherlands are analysed and related to published studies from the US, UK, and Vietnam in order to provide a reproducible estimate of typical sea dike costs and their uncertainty. We plot the costs divided by dike length as a function of height and test four different regression models. Our analysis shows that a linear function without intercept is sufficient to model the costs, i.e. fixed costs and higher-order contributions such as that due to the volume of core fill material are less significant. We also characterise the spread around the regression models which represents an uncertainty stemming from factors beyond dike length and height. Drawing an analogy with project cost overruns, we employ log-normal distributions and calculate that the range between 3x and x/3 contains 95 % of the data, where x represents the corresponding regression value. We compare our estimates with previously published unit costs for other countries. We note that the unit costs depend not only on the country and land use (urban/non-urban) of the sites where the dikes are being constructed but also on characteristics included in the costs, e.g. property acquisition, utility relocation, and project management. This paper gives decision makers an order of magnitude on the protection costs, which can help to remove potential barriers to developing adaptation strategies. Although the focus of this research is sea dikes, our approach is applicable and transferable to other adaptation measures.

  16. Regional Earthquake Shaking and Loss Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses in the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Both Level 0 (similar to PAGER system of USGS) and Level 1 analyses of the ELER routine are based on obtaining intensity distributions analytically and estimating total number of casualties and their geographic distribution either using regionally adjusted intensity-casualty or magnitude-casualty correlations (Level 0) of using regional building inventory data bases (Level 1). Level 0 analysis is similar to the PAGER system being developed by USGS. For given

  17. Cost estimation for unmanned lunar and planetary programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Pekar, P. R.; Spadoni, D. J.; Stone, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    A basic model is presented for estimating the cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs. Cost data were collected and analyzed for eight lunar and planetary programs. Total cost was separated into the following components: labor, overhead, materials, and technical support. The study determined that direct labor cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs comprises 30 percent of the total program cost. Twelve program categories were defined for modeling: six spacecraft subsystem categories (science, structure, propulsion, electrical power, communications, and guidance and integration, test and quality assurance, launch and flight operations, ground equipment, systems analysis and engineering, and program management). An analysis showed that on a percentage basis, direct labor cost and direct labor manhours compare on a one-to-one ratio. Therefore, direct labor hours is used as the parameter for predicting cost, with the advantage of eliminating the effect of inflation on the analysis.

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  19. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  20. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (d) of this clause, and provides for a system that— (1) Is maintained, reliable, and consistently... provide for the use of appropriate source data, utilize sound estimating techniques and good judgment...) Identify and document the sources of data and the estimating methods and rationale used in developing cost...

  1. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estimate for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial... guarantee, the closure cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the... current dollars, or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator...

  2. Resource utilisation and cost of ambulatory HIV care in a regional HIV centre in Ireland: a micro-costing study.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Aline; Jackson, Arthur; Horgan, Mary; Bergin, Colm J; Browne, John P

    2015-04-03

    It is anticipated that demands on ambulatory HIV services will increase in coming years as a consequence of the increased life expectancy of HIV patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Accurate cost data are needed to enable evidence based policy decisions be made about new models of service delivery, new technologies and new medications. A micro-costing study was carried out in an HIV outpatient clinic in a single regional centre in the south of Ireland. The costs of individual appointment types were estimated based on staff grade and time. Hospital resources used by HIV patients who attended the ambulatory care service in 2012 were identified and extracted from existing hospital systems. Associations between patient characteristics and costs per patient month, in 2012 euros, were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The average cost of providing ambulatory HIV care was found to be €973 (95% confidence interval €938-€1008) per patient month in 2012. Sensitivity analysis, varying the base-case staff time estimates by 20% and diagnostic testing costs by 60%, estimated the average cost to vary from a low of €927 per patient month to a high of €1019 per patient month. The vast majority of costs were due to the cost of HAART. Women were found to have significantly higher HAART costs per patient month while patients over 50 years of age had significantly lower HAART costs using multivariate analysis. This study provides the estimated cost of ambulatory care in a regional HIV centre in Ireland. These data are valuable for planning services at a local level, and the identification of patient factors, such as age and gender, associated with resource use is of interest both nationally and internationally for the long-term planning of HIV care provision.

  3. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  4. A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-09

    When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

  5. State estimates for the annual cost of foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    An understanding of the costs associated with foodborne illnesses is important to policy makers for prioritizing resources and assessing whether proposed interventions improve social welfare. At the national level, measured costs have been used by federal food safety regulatory agencies in regulatory impact analyses. However, when costs differ across states, use of national cost-of-illness values for state-based interventions will lead to biased estimates of intervention effectiveness. In this study, the costs of foodborne illness at the state level were estimated. Using a more conservative economic model, the average cost per case ranged from $888 (90% credible interval [CI], $537 to $1,419) in West Virginia to $1,766 (90% CI, $1,231 to $2,588) in the District of Columbia. A less conservative model generated average costs per case of $1,505 (90% CI, $557 to $2,836) in Kentucky to $2,591 (90% CI, $857 to $5,134) in Maryland. Aggregated across the states, the average national cost of foodborne illness was estimated as $55.5 billion (90% CI, $33.9 to $83.3 billion) using the conservative model and $93.2 billion (90% CI, $33.0 to $176.3 billion) using the enhanced model.

  6. [Methodologies for estimating the indirect costs of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Soledad; Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents generate multiple costs to society, including those associated with the loss of productivity. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate methodology for estimating those costs. The aim of this study was to review methods for estimating indirect costs applied in crash cost studies. A thematic review of the literature was carried out between 1995 and 2012 in PubMed with the terms cost of illness, indirect cost, road traffic injuries, productivity loss. For the assessment of costs we used the the human capital method, on the basis of the wage-income lost during the time of treatment and recovery of patients and caregivers. In the case of premature death or total disability, the discount rate was applied to obtain the present value of lost future earnings. The computed years arose by subtracting to life expectancy at birth the average age of those affected who are not incorporated into the economically active life. The interest in minimizing the problem is reflected in the evolution of the implemented methodologies. We expect that this review is useful to estimate efficiently the real indirect costs of traffic accidents.

  7. Valuing productivity costs using the friction-cost approach: Estimating friction-period estimates by occupational classifications for the UK.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-04-27

    The friction cost approach has been proposed as an alternative to the human capital approach in estimating productivity costs. However, it is difficult, in practice, to apply this approach due to limited availability of context-specific data. Using national and firm-level data on vacancy durations sourced from 4 organisations, we estimated vacancy durations, and consequently, length of friction period for the United Kingdom disaggregated by occupational classification. We found comparable estimates to previously reported friction periods elsewhere. The disaggregated friction period analysis confirmed occupational class has an effect on the estimated length of the friction period. The research presents estimates on vacancy durations and friction periods necessary to use the friction cost approach in a practical way in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made for specific commercial nuclear power plants and for reference plants, utilities, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Dept. of Energy, consultants, and others. The different technical, site-specific, and economic assumptions used have made it difficult to interpret these cost estimates during the process of developing rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning expenses. The estimates made to date have not anticipated that form the bases for the variations in cost estimates. The perceived incompatibility among the economic and technical assumptions in these estimates has added to the difficulties regulators have in deciding rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning costs by nuclear utilities. To assist the industry, the National Environmental Studies Project (NESP) of the Atomic Industrial Forum sponsored a study to produce guidelines for developing decommissioning cost estimates. This guideline document was developed by TLG Engineering for NESP under the direction of a task force made up of some of the top experts in the decommissioning field from nuclear utilities, manufacturers, architect/engineering firms, accounting firms, the NRC, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, state regulatory bodies, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the electric industry research community.

  9. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  10. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  11. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  12. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  13. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  14. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  15. Cost functions to estimate a posteriori probabilities in multiclass problems.

    PubMed

    Cid-Sueiro, J; Arribas, J I; Urbán-Muñoz, S; Figueiras-Vidal, A R

    1999-01-01

    The problem of designing cost functions to estimate a posteriori probabilities in multiclass problems is addressed in this paper. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions that these costs must satisfy in one-class one-output networks whose outputs are consistent with probability laws. We focus our attention on a particular subset of the corresponding cost functions; those which verify two usually interesting properties: symmetry and separability (well-known cost functions, such as the quadratic cost or the cross entropy are particular cases in this subset). Finally, we present a universal stochastic gradient learning rule for single-layer networks, in the sense of minimizing a general version of these cost functions for a wide family of nonlinear activation functions.

  16. Cost estimates for membrane filtration and conventional treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, M.R.; Hackney, J.; Sethi, S. ); Jacangelo, J.G. ); Laine, J.M. . Lyonnaise des Eaux)

    1994-12-01

    Costs of several ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are compared with the cost of conventional liquid-solid separation with and without GAC adsorption for small water treatment facilities. Data on raw-water quality, permeate flux, recovery, frequency of backflushing, and chemical dosage obtained from a pilot study were used with a previously developed model for membrane costs to calculate anticipated capital and operating costs for each instance. Data from the US Environmental Protection Agency were used to estimate conventional treatment costs. All of the membrane process calculations showed comparable or lower total costs per unit volume treated compared with conventional treatment for small facilities (< 200,000 m[sup 3]/d or about 5 mgd). Membrane processes may offer small facilities a less expensive alternative for the removal of particles and organic materials from drinking water.

  17. US-Based Drug Cost Parameter Estimation for Economic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joseph F; Meek, Patrick D; Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, more than 10% of national health expenditures are for prescription drugs. Assessing drug costs in US economic evaluation studies is not consistent, as the true acquisition cost of a drug is not known by decision modelers. Current US practice focuses on identifying one reasonable drug cost and imposing some distributional assumption to assess uncertainty. We propose a set of Rules based on current pharmacy practice that account for the heterogeneity of drug product costs. The set of products derived from our Rules, and their associated costs, form an empirical distribution that can be used for more realistic sensitivity analyses and create transparency in drug cost parameter computation. The Rules specify an algorithmic process to select clinically equivalent drug products that reduce pill burden, use an appropriate package size, and assume uniform weighting of substitutable products. Three diverse examples show derived empirical distributions and are compared with previously reported cost estimates. The shapes of the empirical distributions among the 3 drugs differ dramatically, including multiple modes and different variation. Previously published estimates differed from the means of the empirical distributions. Published ranges for sensitivity analyses did not cover the ranges of the empirical distributions. In one example using lisinopril, the empirical mean cost of substitutable products was $444 (range = $23-$953) as compared with a published estimate of $305 (range = $51-$523). Our Rules create a simple and transparent approach to creating cost estimates of drug products and assessing their variability. The approach is easily modified to include a subset of, or different weighting for, substitutable products. The derived empirical distribution is easily incorporated into 1-way or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Airframe RDT&E Cost Estimating: A Justification for and Development of Unique Cost Estimating Relationships According to Aircraft Type.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Requirements for the Degree of Master in Science in Logistics Management By Charles L. Beck, 3r., BS Dennis L. Pfeil, BA Captain, USAF Major, USAF...the infor- mation on which the estimates are based. On some large, complex development programs, the degree of accuracy surrounding an estimate may be...mathematical equations, are referred to as cost estimating relationships (CERs), which can be quite simple or very complex . Normally, the dependent

  19. Valuing productivity costs in a changing macroeconomic environment: the estimation of colorectal cancer productivity costs using the friction cost approach.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Paul; Koopmanschap, Marc; Sharp, Linda

    2016-06-01

    The friction cost approach (FCA) has been proposed as an alternative to the human capital approach for productivity cost valuation. However, FCA estimates are context dependent and influenced by extant macroeconomic conditions. We applied the FCA to estimate colorectal cancer labor productivity costs and assessed the impact of a changing macroeconomic environment on these estimates. Data from colorectal cancer survivors (n = 159) derived from a postal survey undertaken in Ireland March 2010 to January 2011 were combined with national wage data, population-level survival data, and occupation-specific friction periods to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality costs using the FCA. The effects of changing labor market conditions between 2006 and 2013 on the friction period were modeled in scenario analyses. Costs were valued in 2008 euros. In the base-case, the total FCA per-person productivity cost for incident colorectal cancer patients of working age at diagnosis was €8543. In scenario 1 (a 2.2 % increase in unemployment), the fall in the friction period caused total productivity costs to decrease by up to 18 % compared to base-case estimates. In scenario 2 (a 9.2 % increase in unemployment), the largest decrease in productivity cost was up to 65 %. Adjusting for the vacancy rate reduced the effect of unemployment on the cost results. The friction period used in calculating labor productivity costs greatly affects the derived estimates; this friction period requires reassessment following changes in labor market conditions. The influence of changes in macroeconomic conditions on FCA-derived cost estimates may be substantial.

  20. How utilities can achieve more accurate decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.

    1999-07-01

    The number of commercial nuclear power plants that are undergoing decommissioning coupled with the economic pressure of deregulation has increased the focus on adequate funding for decommissioning. The introduction of spent-fuel storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste into the cost analysis places even greater concern as to the accuracy of the fund calculation basis. The size and adequacy of the decommissioning fund have also played a major part in the negotiations for transfer of plant ownership. For all of these reasons, it is important that the operating plant owner reduce the margin of error in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. To data, all of these estimates have been prepared via the building block method. That is, numerous individual calculations defining the planning, engineering, removal, and disposal of plant systems and structures are performed. These activity costs are supplemented by the period-dependent costs reflecting the administration, control, licensing, and permitting of the program. This method will continue to be used in the foreseeable future until adequate performance data are available. The accuracy of the activity cost calculation is directly related to the accuracy of the inventory of plant system component, piping and equipment, and plant structural composition. Typically, it is left up to the cost-estimating contractor to develop this plant inventory. The data are generated by searching and analyzing property asset records, plant databases, piping and instrumentation drawings, piping system isometric drawings, and component assembly drawings. However, experience has shown that these sources may not be up to date, discrepancies may exist, there may be missing data, and the level of detail may not be sufficient. Again, typically, the time constraints associated with the development of the cost estimate preclude perfect resolution of the inventory questions. Another problem area in achieving accurate cost

  1. Detailed cost estimate of reference residential photovoltaic designs

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.S.; Penasa, D.A.; Thomas, M.G.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents estimated installation costs for four reference residential photovoltaic designs. Installation cost estimates ranged from $1.28 to $2.12/W/sub p/ for arrays installed by union labor (4.1 to 6.07 kW/sub p/-systems), and from $1.22 to $1.83 W/sub p/ for non-union installations. Standoff mounting was found to increase costs from $1.63/W/sub p/ to $2.12/W/sub p/ for a representative case, whereas 25 kWh of battery storage capacity increased installation costs from $1.44/W/sub p/ to $2.08/W/sub p/. Overall system costs (union-based were $6000 to $7000 for a 4.1 kW array in the northeast, to approx. $9000 for a 6.07 kW/sub p/ array in the southwest. This range of installation costs, approx. $1 to $2/W/sub p/ (in 1980 dollars), is representative of current installation costs for residential PV systems. Any future cost reductions are likely to be small and can be accomplished only by optimization of mounting techniques, module efficiencies, and module reliability in toto.

  2. Essays on the Bayesian estimation of stochastic cost frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xia

    This dissertation consists of three essays that focus on a Bayesian estimation of stochastic cost frontiers for electric generation plants. This research gives insight into the changing development of the electric generation market and could serve to inform both private investment and public policy decisions. The main contributions to the growing literature on stochastic cost frontier analysis are to (1) Empirically estimate the possible efficiency gain of power plants due to deregulation. (2) Estimate the cost of electric power generating plants using coal as a fuel taking into account both regularity restrictions and sulfur dioxide emissions. (3) Compare costs of plants using coal to those who use natural gas. (4) Apply the Bayesian stochastic frontier model to estimate a single cost frontier and allow firm type to vary across regulated and deregulated plants. The average group efficiency for two different types of plants is estimated. (5) Use a fixed effects and random effects model on an unbalanced panel to estimated group efficiency for regulated and deregulated plants. The first essay focuses on the possible efficiency gain of 136 U.S. electric power generation coal-fired plants in 1996. Results favor the constrained model over the unconstrained model. SO2 is also included in the model to provide more accurate estimates of plant efficiency and returns to scale. The second essay focuses on the predicted costs and returns to scale of coal generation to natural gas generation at plants where the cost of both fuels could be obtained. It is found that, for power plants switching fuel from natural gas to coal in 1996, on average, the expected fuel cost would fall and returns to scale would increase. The third essay first uses pooled unbalanced panel data to analyze the differences in plant efficiency across plant types---regulated and deregulated. The application of a Bayesian stochastic frontier model enables us to apply different mean plant inefficiency terms by

  3. Uncertainty of air pollution cost estimates: to what extent does it matter?

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2005-01-15

    How large is the social cost penalty if one makes the wrong choice because of uncertainties in the estimates of the costs and benefits of environmental policy measures? For discrete choices there is no general rule other than the recommendation to always carefully compare costs and benefits when introducing policies for environmental protection. For continuous choices (e.g., the ceiling for the total emissions of a pollutant by an entire sector or region), it is instructive to look at the cost penalty as a function of the error in the incremental damage cost estimate. Using abatement cost curves for NOx, SO2, dioxins, and CO2, this paper evaluates the cost penalty for errors in the following: national emission ceilings for NOx and SO2 in each of 12 countries of Europe, an emission ceiling for dioxins in the UK, and limits for the emission of CO2 in Europe. The cost penalty turns out to be remarkably insensitive to errors. An error by a factor of 3 due to uncertainties in the damage estimates for NOx and SO2 increases the total social cost by at most 20% and in most cases much less. For dioxins, the total social cost is increased by at most 10%. For CO2, several different possible cost curves are examined: for some the sensitivity to uncertainties is greater than for the other pollutants, but even here the penalty is less than 30% and in most cases much less if the true damage costs are twice as high as the ones estimated. The paper also quantifies the benefit of improving the accuracy of damage cost estimates by further research.

  4. Cost of chronic disease in California: estimates at the county level.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul M; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Dhaul, Ritem Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 39% of people in California suffer from at least one chronic condition or disease. While the increased coverage provided by the Affordable Care Act will result in greater access to primary health care, coordinated strategies are needed to prevent chronic conditions. To identify cost-effective strategies, local health departments and other agencies need accurate information on the costs of chronic conditions in their region. To present a methodology for estimating the cost of chronic conditions for counties. Estimates of the attributable cost of 6 chronic conditions-arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression-from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Chronic Disease Cost Calculator were combined with prevalence rates from the various sources and census data for California counties to estimate the number of cases and costs of each condition. The estimates were adjusted for differences in prices using Medicare geographical adjusters. An estimated $98 billion is currently spent on treating chronic conditions in California. There is significant variation between counties in the percentage of total health care expenditure due to chronic conditions and county size, ranging from a low 32% to a high of 63%. The variations between counties result from differing rates of chronic conditions across age, ethnicity, and gender. Information on the cost of chronic conditions is important for planning prevention and control efforts. This study demonstrates a method for providing local health departments with estimates of the scope of the problems in their region. Combining the cost estimates with information on current prevention strategies can identify gaps in prevention activities and the prevention measures that promise the greatest return on investment for each county.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Complexity Generators for Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Predicting the cost of cutting edge new technologies involved with spacecraft hardware can be quite complicated. A new feature of the NASA Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), called the Complexity Generator, is being developed to model the complexity factors that drive the cost of space hardware. This parametric approach is also designed to account for the differences in cost, based on factors that are unique to each system and subsystem. The cost driver categories included in this model are weight, inheritance from previous missions, technical complexity, and management factors. This paper explains the Complexity Generator framework, the statistical methods used to select the best model within this framework, and the procedures used to find the region of predictability and the prediction intervals for the cost of a mission.

  6. Geostatistical Estimations of Regional Hydraulic Conductivity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, D.; Castro, M. C.; Goovaerts, P.

    2004-12-01

    Direct and indirect measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K) are commonly performed, providing information on the magnitude of this parameter at the local scale (tens of centimeters to hundreds of meters) and at shallow depths. By contrast, field information on hydraulic conductivities at regional scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers and at greater depths is relatively scarce. Geostatistical methods allow for sparsely sampled observations of a variable (primary information) to be complemented by a more densely sampled secondary attribute. Geostatistical estimations of the hydraulic conductivity field in the Carrizo aquifer, a major groundwater flow system extending along Texas, are performed using available primary (e.g., transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity) and secondary (specific capacity) information, for depths up to 2.2 km, and over three regional domains of increasing extent: 1) the domain corresponding to a three-dimensional groundwater flow model previously built (model domain); 2) the area corresponding to the ten counties encompassing the model domain (County domain), and; 3) the full extension of the Carrizo aquifer within Texas (Texas domain). Two different approaches are used: 1) an indirect approach are transmissivity (T) is estimated first and (K) is retrieved through division of the T estimate by the screening length of the wells, and; 2) a direct approach where K data are kriged directly. Prediction performances of the tested geostatistical procedures (kriging combined with linear regression, kriging with known local means, kriging of residuals, and cokriging) are evaluated through cross validation for both log-transformed variables and back-transformed ones. For the indirect approach, kriging of log T residuals yields the best estimates for both log-transformed and back-transformed variables in the model domain. For larger regional scales (County and Texas domains), cokriging performs generally better than univariate kriging procedures

  7. Costs and regional impacts of restoration thinning programs on the national forests in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Darius M. Adams; Gregory S. Latta

    2005-01-01

    An intertemporal spatial equilibrium model of the eastern Oregon softwood log market was employed to estimate the market and economic welfare impacts of restoration thinning programs established on national forests in the region. Programs treated only lands with sawtimber thinning volume and varied by the extent of public subsidies for costs, the types of costs that...

  8. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach--Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    The purpose of this study was to develop an appropriate methodology and use it to estimate the costs of providing appropriate special education programs and services for all school-aged handicapped children in the U.S. in 1980-81. A resource-cost model approach was selected, based on a mathematical formulation of the relationships among students,…

  9. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Estimated cost and cost-sharing. 1552.216-76 Section 1552.216-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and...

  10. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Elias, Amanuel; Paradies, Yin

    2016-11-29

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP) over 2001-11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD). This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  11. Utilizing Expert Knowledge in Estimating Future STS Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortner, David B.; Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.

    2004-01-01

    A method of estimating the costs of future space transportation systems (STSs) involves classical activity-based cost (ABC) modeling combined with systematic utilization of the knowledge and opinions of experts to extend the process-flow knowledge of existing systems to systems that involve new materials and/or new architectures. The expert knowledge is particularly helpful in filling gaps that arise in computational models of processes because of inconsistencies in historical cost data. Heretofore, the costs of planned STSs have been estimated following a "top-down" approach that tends to force the architectures of new systems to incorporate process flows like those of the space shuttles. In this ABC-based method, one makes assumptions about the processes, but otherwise follows a "bottoms up" approach that does not force the new system architecture to incorporate a space-shuttle-like process flow. Prototype software has been developed to implement this method. Through further development of software, it should be possible to extend the method beyond the space program to almost any setting in which there is a need to estimate the costs of a new system and to extend the applicable knowledge base in order to make the estimate.

  12. Estimating Incremental Costs with Skew: A Cautionary Note

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Linnea A.; Brooks, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models (GLMs) with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. Objectives To demonstrate that when modeling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. Methods We simulated cost data using a linear model with a “treatment”, a covariate, and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). Results All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Conclusions Although specification checks are always needed, the potential of misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean. PMID:22762544

  13. Estimating incremental costs with skew: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Brooks, John M

    2012-09-01

    Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus, researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when modelling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. We simulated cost data using a linear model with a 'treatment', a covariate and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Although specification checks are always needed, the potential for misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness it is vital that researchers and policymakers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean.

  14. Robust guaranteed-cost adaptive quantum phase estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibdas; Berry, Dominic W.; Petersen, Ian R.; Huntington, Elanor H.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum parameter estimation plays a key role in many fields like quantum computation, communication, and metrology. Optimal estimation allows one to achieve the most precise parameter estimates, but requires accurate knowledge of the model. Any inevitable uncertainty in the model parameters may heavily degrade the quality of the estimate. It is therefore desired to make the estimation process robust to such uncertainties. Robust estimation was previously studied for a varying phase, where the goal was to estimate the phase at some time in the past, using the measurement results from both before and after that time within a fixed time interval up to current time. Here, we consider a robust guaranteed-cost filter yielding robust estimates of a varying phase in real time, where the current phase is estimated using only past measurements. Our filter minimizes the largest (worst-case) variance in the allowable range of the uncertain model parameter(s) and this determines its guaranteed cost. It outperforms in the worst case the optimal Kalman filter designed for the model with no uncertainty, which corresponds to the center of the possible range of the uncertain parameter(s). Moreover, unlike the Kalman filter, our filter in the worst case always performs better than the best achievable variance for heterodyne measurements, which we consider as the tolerable threshold for our system. Furthermore, we consider effective quantum efficiency and effective noise power, and show that our filter provides the best results by these measures in the worst case.

  15. Pricing Medicare's diagnosis-related groups: Charges versus estimated costs

    PubMed Central

    Price, Kurt F.

    1989-01-01

    Hospital payments under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) are based on prices established for 474 diagnosis-related groups (DRG's). Previous analyses using 1981 data demonstrated that DRG prices based on charges alone were not that different from prices calculated from estimated costs. Data for 1986 were used in this study to show that the differences between the two sets of DRG prices are much larger than previously reported. If DRG prices were once again based on estimated costs instead of the current charge-based prices, payments would be significantly redistributed. PMID:10313356

  16. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  17. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  18. Estimating the mission-related costs of teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Lane; Dobson, Allen; Ho, Silver; Siegel, Jonathan M; Blumenthal, David; Weissman, Joel S

    2003-01-01

    Academic health centers and other teaching hospitals face higher patient care costs than nonteaching community hospitals face, because of their missions of graduate medical education (GME), biomedical research, and the maintenance of standby capacity for medically complex patients. We estimate that total mission-related costs were dollar 27 billion in 2002 for all teaching hospitals, with GME (including indirect and direct GME) and standby capacity accounting for roughly 60 and 35 percent of these costs, respectively. To assure their continued ability to perform important social missions in a competitive environment, it may be necessary to reassess the way in which these activities are financed.

  19. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  20. Estimating the total cost of bovine fasciolosis in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sariözkan, S; YalÇin, C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the total cost of bovine fasciolosis under three different scenarios (expected, optimistic and pessimistic scenarios) in Turkey. The weighted mean prevalence of infection was calculated as 1.9% and the financial losses were estimated in US$ at 2010 current prices. The total costs of bovine fasciolosis per infected beef cattle and dairy cow were estimated as 223.7 US$ (201.3–246.1, under optimistic-pessimistic scenarios) and 430.7 US$ (387.6–473.7), respectively. Total cost of the disease was estimated as 7.4 million US$ (6.1–8.8) for beef cattle and 35.4 million US$ (28.9–42.6) for dairy cows. The nation-wide total cost of the disease in Turkey for 2010 was estimated to be 42.8 million US$ (35.1–51.4). Most of the losses arise from reduced meat yield, fertility and milk yield, and smaller losses are due to condemnation of livers and disease control expenditures. As a result, the quantity of these losses may help the farmers and policy makers to give the better decision for controlling and eradication of the animal diseases in Turkey. PMID:22117853

  1. A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie C; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    'Biodiesel' is the name given to a renewable diesel fuel that is produced from fats and oils. It consists of the simple alkyl esters of fatty acids, most typically the methyl esters. We have developed a computer model to estimate the capital and operating costs of a moderately-sized industrial biodiesel production facility. The major process operations in the plant were continuous-process vegetable oil transesterification, and ester and glycerol recovery. The model was designed using contemporary process simulation software, and current reagent, equipment and supply costs, following current production practices. Crude, degummed soybean oil was specified as the feedstock. Annual production capacity of the plant was set at 37,854,118 l (10 x 10(6)gal). Facility construction costs were calculated to be US dollar 11.3 million. The largest contributors to the equipment cost, accounting for nearly one third of expenditures, were storage tanks to contain a 25 day capacity of feedstock and product. At a value of US dollar 0.52/kg (dollar 0.236/lb) for feedstock soybean oil, a biodiesel production cost of US dollar 0.53/l (dollar 2.00/gal) was predicted. The single greatest contributor to this value was the cost of the oil feedstock, which accounted for 88% of total estimated production costs. An analysis of the dependence of production costs on the cost of the feedstock indicated a direct linear relationship between the two, with a change of US dollar 0.020/l (dollar 0.075/gal) in product cost per US dollar 0.022/kg (dollar 0.01/lb) change in oil cost. Process economics included the recovery of coproduct glycerol generated during biodiesel production, and its sale into the commercial glycerol market as an 80% w/w aqueous solution, which reduced production costs by approximately 6%. The production cost of biodiesel was found to vary inversely and linearly with variations in the market value of glycerol, increasing by US dollar 0.0022/l (dollar 0.0085/gal) for every US

  2. Estimating flood exceedance probabilities in estuarine regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Flood events in estuarine regions can arise from the interaction of extreme rainfall and storm surge. Determining flood level exceedance probabilities in these regions is complicated by the dependence of these processes for extreme events. A comprehensive study of tide and rainfall gauges along the Australian coastline was conducted to determine the dependence of these extremes using a bivariate logistic threshold-excess model. The dependence strength is shown to vary as a function of distance over many hundreds of kilometres indicating that the dependence arises due to synoptic scale meteorological forcings. It is also shown to vary as a function of storm burst duration, time lag between the extreme rainfall and the storm surge event. The dependence estimates are then used with a bivariate design variable method to determine flood risk in estuarine regions for a number of case studies. Aspects of the method demonstrated in the case studies include, the resolution and range of the hydraulic response table, fitting of probability distributions, computational efficiency, uncertainty, potential variation in marginal distributions due to climate change, and application to two dimensional output from hydraulic models. Case studies are located on the Swan River (Western Australia), Nambucca River and Hawkesbury Nepean River (New South Wales).

  3. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. Methods We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Results Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Conclusions Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially

  4. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Wilm; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Changalucha, John; Soteli, Selephina; Edmunds, W John; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ross, David A; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-11-13

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially, integrating HPV vaccine delivery with cost

  5. Estimating the cost of operating cancer registries: Experience in Colombia.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Esther; Pardo, Constanza; Arias, Nelson; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Navarro, Edgar; Uribe, Claudia; Yepez, María Clara; Jurado, Daniel; Garci, Luz Stella; Piñeros, Marion; Edwards, Patrick; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha

    2016-12-01

    Maintaining population-based registries requires adequate and sustained resources; however, to date there has been no systematic evaluation to identify the resource needs for cancer registration in most countries, including Colombia. A systematic assessment of the costs can quantify the funding required and identify processes to improve efficiency of cancer registries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) was tailored specifically for the Colombian registries and was used to collect resource use data from five regional population-based cancer registries: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales, and Pasto. The registries provided cost data for the year 2013 and cancer cases corresponding to the year 2010. We identified an almost threefold variation in the average cost per case (77,932 to 214,082 Colombian pesos or US $41 to US $113 in 2013) across the registries, but there were also substantial differences in data collection approaches, types of data collected, and activities performed. Cost per inhabitant varied between 95 and 415 Colombian pesos (US $0.05 to US $0.22). Between 20% and 45% of the total cost was due to fixed cost activities. The detailed economic information presented in this study constitutes a valuable source of activity-based cost data that registries can use to compare operations, assess key factors that lead to differences in cost per case, and identify potential approaches to improve efficiencies. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from studying the Colombian registries can help inform the planning and operations of other registries in the region. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Stochastic Estimation of Cost Frontier: Evidence from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of higher education cost function study, enough knowledge is created in the area of economy scale in the context of developed countries but the knowledge of input demand is lacking. On the other hand, empirical knowledge in the context of developing countries is very meagre. The paper fills up the knowledge gap, estimating a…

  7. Stochastic Estimation of Cost Frontier: Evidence from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of higher education cost function study, enough knowledge is created in the area of economy scale in the context of developed countries but the knowledge of input demand is lacking. On the other hand, empirical knowledge in the context of developing countries is very meagre. The paper fills up the knowledge gap, estimating a…

  8. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  9. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  10. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  11. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  12. Estimating the avoided fuel-reatment costs of wildfire

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Thomas C. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Although the importance of wildfire to fire-adapted ecosystems is widely recognized, wildfire management has historically placed less emphasis on the beneficial effects of wildfire. We estimate the avoided fuel treatment cost for 10 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands on the Umatilla National Forest in the Pacific Northwest. Results show that...

  13. 40 CFR 267.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility's active life when the extent and manner of its operation would make closure the most expensive... that on-site disposal capacity will exist at all times over the life of the facility. (3) The closure... active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the closure cost estimate for inflation...

  14. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Coordinated DSM Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lawrence J.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated programs from the standpoint of an electric or gas utility is described and illustrated. The discussion focuses on demand-side management programs cofunded by the government and utilities, but it can be applied to other types of cofunded programs. (SLD)

  15. Advanced Composite Air Frame Life Cycle Cost Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    achievements. And, also, I dedicate this page to the soul of my father and lovely mother who taught me many life lessons and to my beautiful wife and four...Test Panel [ 17] .......................................................... 18 Figure 2 : Boeing 787 Dreamliner External Skin Makeup [ 7...exist a relationship between variables and empty wieght (EW) to build better cost estimation relationships (CERs). This research will help the

  16. Estimating the standardized mean difference with minimum risk: Maximizing accuracy and minimizing cost with sequential estimation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhargab; Kelley, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The standardized mean difference is a widely used effect size measure. In this article, we develop a general theory for estimating the population standardized mean difference by minimizing both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. Fixed sample size methods, when sample size is planned before the start of a study, cannot simultaneously minimize both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. To overcome this limitation of the current state of affairs, this article develops a purely sequential sampling procedure, which provides an estimate of the sample size required to achieve a sufficiently accurate estimate with minimum expected sampling cost. Performance of the purely sequential procedure is examined via a simulation study to show that our analytic developments are highly accurate. Additionally, we provide freely available functions in R to implement the algorithm of the purely sequential procedure. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Modular space station phase B extension program cost and schedules. Volume 1: Cost and schedule estimating process and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frassinelli, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Cost estimates and funding schedules are presented for a given configuration and costing ground rules. Cost methodology is described and the cost evolution from a baseline configuration to a selected configuration is given, emphasizing cases in which cost was a design driver. Programmatic cost avoidance techniques are discussed.

  18. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  19. VERIFICATION OF SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR SITE- SPECIFIC SO2 AND NOX CONTROL COST ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents results of an evaluation to verify the accuracy of simplified procedures for estimating sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) retrofit control costs and performance for 200 502-emitting coal-fired power plants in the 31-state eastern region. nitially...

  20. VERIFICATION OF SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR SITE- SPECIFIC SO2 AND NOX CONTROL COST ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents results of an evaluation to verify the accuracy of simplified procedures for estimating sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) retrofit control costs and performance for 200 502-emitting coal-fired power plants in the 31-state eastern region. nitially...

  1. Time-driven activity-based costing to estimate cost of care at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jordan A; Mistry, Bipin; Hardy, Stephen; Fracchia, Mary Shannon; Hersh, Cheryl; Wentland, Carissa; Vadakekalam, Joseph; Kaplan, Robert; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Providing high-value healthcare to patients is increasingly becoming an objective for providers including those at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Measuring value has two components: 1) identify relevant health outcomes and 2) determine relevant treatment costs. Via their inherent structure, multidisciplinary care units consolidate care for complex patients. However, their potential impact on decreasing healthcare costs is less clear. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential cost savings of treating patients with laryngeal clefts at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Retrospective chart review. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to estimate the cost of care for patients with laryngeal cleft seen between 2008 and 2013 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Pediatric Aerodigestive Center. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinic utilization by patients as well as patient diet outcomes after treatment. Patients were stratified into neurologically complex and neurologically noncomplex groups. The cost of care for patients requiring surgical intervention was five and three times as expensive of the cost of care for patients not requiring surgery for neurologically noncomplex and complex patients, respectively. Following treatment, 50% and 55% of complex and noncomplex patients returned to normal diet, whereas 83% and 87% of patients experienced improved diets, respectively. Additionally, multidisciplinary team-based care for children with laryngeal clefts potentially achieves 20% to 40% cost savings. These findings demonstrate how time-driven activity-based costing can be used to estimate and compare patient costs in multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:2152-2158, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Compile-time estimation of communication costs in multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Manish; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1991-01-01

    An important problem facing numerous research projects on parallelizing compilers for distributed memory machines is that of automatically determining a suitable data partitioning scheme for a program. Any strategy for automatic data partitioning needs a mechanism for estimating the performance of a program under a given partitioning scheme, the most crucial part of which involves determining the communication costs incurred by the program. A methodology is described for estimating the communication costs at compile-time as functions of the numbers of processors over which various arrays are distributed. A strategy is described along with its theoretical basis, for making program transformations that expose opportunities for combining of messages, leading to considerable savings in the communication costs. For certain loops with regular dependences, the compiler can detect the possibility of pipelining, and thus estimate communication costs more accurately than it could otherwise. These results are of great significance to any parallelization system supporting numeric applications on multicomputers. In particular, they lay down a framework for effective synthesis of communication on multicomputers from sequential program references.

  3. Conceptual design and cost estimate for zinc ferrite plant section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    For a number of years the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been involved in developing coal gasification processes to produce electricity from coal. Coal gasifiers produce raw synthesis gas at temperatures ranging from 700{degree} to 3,000{degree}F. Before these gases can be fed to a combustion gas turbine, hydrogen sulfide and particulates in the raw gas must be removed. To improve the efficiency of coal gasification processes, METC has been actively involved in the development of hot gas cleanup technologies for coal gasification processes. One of these technologies is the zinc ferrite process for hydrogen sulfide removal. The zinc ferrite process has been studied extensively at METC, and is now at the stage of demonstration testing. The objective of this study was to determine the cost of a zinc ferrite plant section within {plus minus}30 percent accuracy. The approach taken was to develop a detailed design for the zinc ferrite section for a given coal gasification plant and prepare a factored capital cost estimate for the section. Section 2.0 of this report describes the zinc ferrite process design and Section 3.0 presents the factored capital cost estimate for the section. The appendices include the section mass balance, an equipment list, major equipment specifications, and capital cost estimates. 1 ref.

  4. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  5. Estimating the Cost of NASA's Space Launch Initiative: How SLI Cost Stack Up Against the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph H.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is planning to replace the Space Shuttle with a new completely reusable Second Generation Launch System by approximately 2012. Numerous contracted and NASA in-house Space Transportation Architecture Studies and various technology maturation activities are proceeding and have resulted in scores of competing architecture configurations being proposed. Life cycle cost is a key discriminator between all these various concepts. However, the one obvious analogy for costing purposes remains the current Shuttle system. Are there credible reasons to believe that a second generation reusable launch system can be accomplished at less cost than the Shuttle? The need for a credible answer to this question is critical. This paper reviews the cost estimating approaches being used by the contractors and the government estimators to address this issue and explores the rationale behind the numbers.

  6. Estimating the Cost of NASA's Space Launch Initiative: How SLI Cost Stack Up Against the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph H.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is planning to replace the Space Shuttle with a new completely reusable Second Generation Launch System by approximately 2012. Numerous contracted and NASA in-house Space Transportation Architecture Studies and various technology maturation activities are proceeding and have resulted in scores of competing architecture configurations being proposed. Life cycle cost is a key discriminator between all these various concepts. However, the one obvious analogy for costing purposes remains the current Shuttle system. Are there credible reasons to believe that a second generation reusable launch system can be accomplished at less cost than the Shuttle? The need for a credible answer to this question is critical. This paper reviews the cost estimating approaches being used by the contractors and the government estimators to address this issue and explores the rationale behind the numbers.

  7. Cost of diabetes: comparison of disease-attributable and matched cohort cost estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Tunceli, Ozgur; Wade, Ron; Gu, Tao; Bouchard, Jonathan R; Aagren, Mark; Luo, Wenli

    2010-08-01

    To estimate and compare the annual direct healthcare cost among Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) diabetes patients using two cost estimation methods: (1) DM-attributable cost and (2) all cause case-control cost. An administrative claims cohort study using the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD(R)) identified T1DM and T2DM patients age >or=18 and <65 years between 1/1/2006 - 12/31/2006. DM patients (cases) were matched 1:1 with non-DM patients (controls) by age, gender, state, and commercial plan type (HMO, PPO, POS). All patients had continuous eligibility for calendar years 2006-07. DM-attributable cost was assessed by summing medical claims for DM (ICD-9-CM codes 250.xx) and pharmacy claims for anti-hyperglycemic agents, and all cause health care cost was assessed for cases and controls, for the calendar year 2007. A total of 12,096 T1DM and 256,245 T2DM cases and matched controls were identified. T1DM and T2DM cases had significantly higher average baseline comorbidities and Deyo-Charleson Comorbidity scores than controls (2.17 vs. 0.23 and 1.62 vs. 0.39, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both).While DM attributable cost estimation resulted in a mean annual cost of $6247 for T1DM and $3002 for T2DM in 2007, the mean annual (per patient) all-cause total cost estimation using the case-control method resulted in a difference of $10,837 ($14,060 for cases, vs. $3223 for controls) for T1DM; and $4217 ($8070 for cases, vs. $3853 for controls) for T2DM. The DM-attributable cost method underestimated costs by 42% for T1DM and 29% for T2DM compared to the case-control method. The difference was smaller but still significant (33% for T1DM and 14% for T2DM) when multivariate technique was used. Patients with DM may use a substantial amount of medical and pharmacy services not directly attributable to DM, and attributable cost method may underestimate the total cost of DM. This study has limitations inherent to the retrospective claims data analysis and

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VIII. Capital cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of the Initial Effort for the Breckinridge Project is to develop engineering to the point where realistic economics for the construction and operation of the plant can be made. The plant is designed to process 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine coal to produce a nominal 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products using the H-COAL and standard industry technology. The plant will be located in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. Considerable preliminary engineering has been performed for this estimate. This work uses a single-point design based on the Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) data from run 5, period 29 of the pilot plant. The design basis is discussed in Volume II of this report. Many aspects of plant construction and cost have been considered that were not taken into account in the past studies. Ashland and Bechtel believe the accuracy of the capital estimate to be +19%, -17%. This accuracy is postulated on January 1981 dollars, the as-spent dollar amount naturally depending upon the inflation rate through the construction period. Considerable attention has been devoted to reliability of operation, and redundant equipment has been used where it was deemed necessary to assure reasonable onstream time. This equipment is included in the capital estimate. The capital is summarized by total plant cost on Table 1. The subtotal plant cost, excluding contingency, fee, and adjustment is $2,710,940,000. Adding the contingency, fee and adjustment, the total depreciable cost of the plant is $3,167,430,000. Adding the working capital to the total plant cost results in total capital requirements of $3,258,430,000 as shown on the individual plant cost summary Table 2.

  9. Parametric Cost Estimation for Amphibious Assault Vehicle’s Life Cycle Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    procurement costs of a weapon system is weight. "Cost has found to correlate very well with weight.", quoted from Beltramo and Morris who, devised a method to...calculate to calculate Weight Estimating Relationships (WER) from design and performance characteristics of eighteen sub-systems in aircraft ( Beltramo ...Ph.D. Thesis, George Washington University, Washington D.C., 1972. Beltramo , M.N., and Morris, M.A., Parametric Study of Helicopter Aircraft Systems

  10. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Cost Estimating Error Risk Associated with Flyaway Costs Versus Individual Components of Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    18 Parametric Estimation .......................................................................19...prevalent in many different cost estimation techniques. They are the cornerstones of the parametric estimation technique developed by the RAND Corporation...estimation technique spectrum are parametric estimation and grass roots estimation. The parametric estimation technique can be 19 considered a macro

  12. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Cross, P C; Almberg, E S; Haase, C G; Hudson, P J; Maloney, S K; Metz, M C; Munn, A J; Nugent, P; Putzeys, O; Stahler, D R; Stewart, A C; Smith, D W

    2016-08-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with a data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2-12 MJ per night (1,240-2,850 kcal, or a 65-78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively, accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8, and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level, mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  13. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  14. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  15. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  16. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary Michael; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia

    2009-10-09

    The paper calculates regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of screening, prevention, treatment and combined interventions for cervical cancer. Using standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology, a cervical cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening, vaccination and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod) that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. In regions characterized by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of any screening programme to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective. However, based on projections of the future price per dose (representing the economic costs of the vaccination excluding monopolistic rents and vaccine development cost) vaccination is the most cost-effective intervention. In regions characterized by low income, low mortality and existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without combining it with screening appears to be cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening in a no-treatment scenario would not be cost-effective. Vaccination is usually the most cost-effective intervention. Penta or tri-annual PAP smears appear to be cost-effective, though when combined with HPV-DNA testing they are not cost-effective. In regions characterized by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, expanding treatment with or without adding screening would be very cost-effective. A one off vaccination plus expanding treatment was usually very cost-effective. One-off PAP or VIA screening at age 40 are more cost-effective than other interventions though less effective overall. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, consideration should be given to implementing

  17. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Results Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 – 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs) ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV), and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 – 0.11 tCO2. Conclusions The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to provide information on the

  18. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Merger, Eduard; Held, Christian; Tennigkeit, Timm; Blomley, Tom

    2012-08-09

    Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 - 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs) ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV), and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 - 0.11 tCO2. The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to provide information on the economic baseline situation of

  19. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  20. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  1. Estimation of the social costs of home injury: a comparison with estimates for road injury.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Guria, Jagadish; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Home injury is thought to constitute a major health burden in most developed countries. However, efforts to address this burden have been hampered by reluctance from outside agencies to interfere with the home environment of individuals, even if it benefits the occupant's safety. This paper outlines cost-benefit evaluation methods established in the transport safety domain applied to home safety to estimate the social cost of unintentional home injury in New Zealand. Estimates of costs imposed on society by home injury can provide an important motivator for initiating research and programmes to reduce home injury risk. Data sources used included mortality data, hospitalisation data and data on minor injuries that required medical treatment, but not hospital admission. We estimated that unintentional home injuries in New Zealand impose an annual social cost of about $NZ 13 billion (about $US 9 billion), which is about 3.5 times the annual social cost of road injury. These estimates provide a rational evidence base for decisions on housing-focused safety regulation or interventions that always carry some cost, and therefore need to be weighed against the benefits of injuries potentially prevented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Man power/cost estimation model: Automated planetary projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchen, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A manpower/cost estimation model is developed which is based on a detailed level of financial analysis of over 30 million raw data points which are then compacted by more than three orders of magnitude to the level at which the model is applicable. The major parameter of expenditure is manpower (specifically direct labor hours) for all spacecraft subsystem and technical support categories. The resultant model is able to provide a mean absolute error of less than fifteen percent for the eight programs comprising the model data base. The model includes cost saving inheritance factors, broken down in four levels, for estimating follow-on type programs where hardware and design inheritance are evident or expected.

  3. 48 CFR 2452.216-80 - Estimated cost and fixed-fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated cost and fixed... Clauses 2452.216-80 Estimated cost and fixed-fee. As prescribed in 2416.307(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost And Fixed-Fee (DEC 2012) (a) It is estimated that the total cost to the Government...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Estimated cost and fixed... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract is...

  5. 48 CFR 2452.216-80 - Estimated cost and fixed-fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Estimated cost and fixed... Clauses 2452.216-80 Estimated cost and fixed-fee. As prescribed in 2416.307(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost And Fixed-Fee (DEC 2012) (a) It is estimated that the total cost to the Government...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Estimated cost and fixed... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract is...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated cost and fixed... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract is...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and fixed... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract is...

  9. A Model for Estimating Aircraft Recoverable Spares Annual Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Wright- Patterson AFB OH, 15 May 1991. Mattern , Virgenia, Research Fellow. Personal Correspondence providing Historical Common Component Allocation...I AIR UNIVERSITY LR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright- Patterson Air Force’Sase, Ohio 01 2 042 AFIT/GCA/LSQ/91S-10 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING AIRCRAFT...System Cost Retrieval System (WSCRS) located at Wright- Patterson AFB, Ohio in the analysis. In his study, Mr. Johnson compared the spares obligation

  10. Estimating Fixed and Variable Costs of Airframe Manufacturers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964, p. 243. [B-2] Pindyck , Robert S., and Daniel L. Rubinfeld. Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts. New York...the estimating techniques in use at IDA and several Department of Defense offices. 19 REFERENCES [1] Dickey, Robert I., ed. Accountants’ Cost Handbook...November 1973. [14] Kaplan, Robert S. Advanced Management Accounting. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1982, pp. 90-92. [15] Womer, Norman K

  11. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  12. [Methodology for estimating total direct costs of comprehensive care for non-communicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nancy; Malo, Miguel; Villacres, Nilda; Chauca, José; Cornetero, Víctor; de Flores, Karin Roedel; Tapia, Rafaela; Ríos, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) generate high costs and are the most common cause of mortality in the Americas. In the case of Peru, given demographic and epidemiological changes, particularly the alarming increase in overweight and obesity, the burden of these diseases is constantly increasing, resulting in the need to budget more financial resources to the health services. The total care costs of these diseases and their complications represent a financial burden that should be considered very carefully by health institutions when they draft their budgets. With this aim, the Pan American Health Organization has assisted the Ministry of Health (MINSA) with a study to estimate these costs. This article graphically describes the methodology developed to estimate the direct costs of comprehensive care for DM and HT to the health services of MINSA and regional governments.

  13. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  14. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sabine; Bijwaard, Govert; Heij, Christiaan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port state control inspections and industry vetting inspections. The dataset consists of more than half a million ship arrivals between 2002 and 2007 and contains inspections of port state authorities in the USA and Australia and of three industry vetting regimes. The effect of inspections in reducing the risk of total loss accidents is estimated by means of duration models, in terms of the gained probability of survival. The monetary benefit of port state control inspections is estimated to range, on average, from about 70 to 190 thousand dollars, with median values ranging from about 20 to 45 thousand dollars. Industry inspections have even higher benefits, especially for tankers. The savings are in general higher for older and larger vessels, and also for vessels with undefined flag and unknown classification society. As inspection costs are relatively low in comparison to potential cost savings, the results underline the importance of determining ships with relatively high risk of total loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W. L.; Rainey, R. H.

    1980-02-01

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods.

  16. Methods for cost estimation in software project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.

  17. Estimating the cost of blood: past, present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Theusinger, Oliver M; Spahn, Donat R

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the costs associated with blood products requires sophisticated knowledge about transfusion medicine and is attracting the attention of clinical and administrative healthcare sectors worldwide. To improve outcomes, blood usage must be optimized and expenditures controlled so that resources may be channeled toward other diagnostic, therapeutic, and technological initiatives. Estimating blood costs, however, is a complex undertaking, surpassing simple supply versus demand economics. Shrinking donor availability and application of a precautionary principle to minimize transfusion risks are factors that continue to drive the cost of blood products upward. Recognizing that historical accounting attempts to determine blood costs have varied in scope, perspective, and methodology, new approaches have been initiated to identify all potential cost elements related to blood and blood product administration. Activities are also under way to tie these elements together in a comprehensive and practical model that will be applicable to all single-donor blood products without regard to practice type (e.g., academic, private, multi- or single-center clinic). These initiatives, their rationale, importance, and future directions are described.

  18. COSTMODL - AN AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATION TOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    The cost of developing computer software consumes an increasing portion of many organizations' budgets. As this trend continues, the capability to estimate the effort and schedule required to develop a candidate software product becomes increasingly important. COSTMODL is an automated software development estimation tool which fulfills this need. Assimilating COSTMODL to any organization's particular environment can yield significant reduction in the risk of cost overruns and failed projects. This user-customization capability is unmatched by any other available estimation tool. COSTMODL accepts a description of a software product to be developed and computes estimates of the effort required to produce it, the calendar schedule required, and the distribution of effort and staffing as a function of the defined set of development life-cycle phases. This is accomplished by the five cost estimation algorithms incorporated into COSTMODL: the NASA-developed KISS model; the Basic, Intermediate, and Ada COCOMO models; and the Incremental Development model. This choice affords the user the ability to handle project complexities ranging from small, relatively simple projects to very large projects. Unique to COSTMODL is the ability to redefine the life-cycle phases of development and the capability to display a graphic representation of the optimum organizational structure required to develop the subject project, along with required staffing levels and skills. The program is menu-driven and mouse sensitive with an extensive context-sensitive help system that makes it possible for a new user to easily install and operate the program and to learn the fundamentals of cost estimation without having prior training or separate documentation. The implementation of these functions, along with the customization feature, into one program makes COSTMODL unique within the industry. COSTMODL was written for IBM PC compatibles, and it requires Turbo Pascal 5.0 or later and Turbo

  19. COSTMODL - AN AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATION TOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    The cost of developing computer software consumes an increasing portion of many organizations' budgets. As this trend continues, the capability to estimate the effort and schedule required to develop a candidate software product becomes increasingly important. COSTMODL is an automated software development estimation tool which fulfills this need. Assimilating COSTMODL to any organization's particular environment can yield significant reduction in the risk of cost overruns and failed projects. This user-customization capability is unmatched by any other available estimation tool. COSTMODL accepts a description of a software product to be developed and computes estimates of the effort required to produce it, the calendar schedule required, and the distribution of effort and staffing as a function of the defined set of development life-cycle phases. This is accomplished by the five cost estimation algorithms incorporated into COSTMODL: the NASA-developed KISS model; the Basic, Intermediate, and Ada COCOMO models; and the Incremental Development model. This choice affords the user the ability to handle project complexities ranging from small, relatively simple projects to very large projects. Unique to COSTMODL is the ability to redefine the life-cycle phases of development and the capability to display a graphic representation of the optimum organizational structure required to develop the subject project, along with required staffing levels and skills. The program is menu-driven and mouse sensitive with an extensive context-sensitive help system that makes it possible for a new user to easily install and operate the program and to learn the fundamentals of cost estimation without having prior training or separate documentation. The implementation of these functions, along with the customization feature, into one program makes COSTMODL unique within the industry. COSTMODL was written for IBM PC compatibles, and it requires Turbo Pascal 5.0 or later and Turbo

  20. Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    i.e., requirements) and dependent variables (i.e., effort or cost ). The inputs characterize the nature of the work to be done, plus the...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous...Controlling Costs in Weapons Systems Procurement Thursday, May 5, 2016 1:45p.m. – 3:15 p.m. Chair: Todd Calhoun, Director of Program Assessment

  1. Cost of employee assistance programs: comparison of national estimates from 1993 and 1995.

    PubMed

    French, M T; Zarkin, G A; Bray, J W; Hartwell, T D

    1999-02-01

    The cost and financing of mental health services is gaining increasing importance with the spread of managed care and cost-cutting measures throughout the health care system. The delivery of mental health services through structured employee assistance programs (EAPs) could be undermined by revised health insurance contracts and cutbacks in employer-provided benefits at the workplace. This study uses two recently completed national surveys of EAPs to estimate the costs of providing EAP services during 1993 and 1995. EAP costs are determined by program type, worksite size, industry, and region. In addition, information on program services is reported to determine the most common types and categories of services and whether service delivery changes have occurred between 1993 and 1995. The results of this study will be useful to EAP managers, mental health administrators, and mental health services researchers who are interested in the delivery and costs of EAP services.

  2. Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) for estimating costs of outpatient treatment services.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Patrick M; Broome, Kirk M; Beaston-Blaakman, Aaron; Knight, Danica K; Horgan, Constance M; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-02-01

    A Microsoft Excel-based workbook designed for research analysts to use in a national study was retooled for treatment program directors and financial officers to allocate, analyze, and estimate outpatient treatment costs in the U.S. This instrument can also be used as a planning and management tool to optimize resources and forecast the impact of future changes in staffing, client flow, program design, and other resources. The Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) automatically provides feedback and generates summaries and charts using comparative data from a national sample of non-methadone outpatient providers. TCAT is being used by program staff to capture and allocate both economic and accounting costs, and outpatient service costs are reported for a sample of 70 programs. Costs for an episode of treatment in regular, intensive, and mixed types of outpatient treatment were $882, $1310, and $1381 respectively (based on 20% trimmed means and 2006 dollars). An hour of counseling cost $64 in regular, $85 intensive, and $86 mixed. Group counseling hourly costs per client were $8, $11, and $10 respectively for regular, intensive, and mixed. Future directions include use of a web-based interview version, much like some of the commercially available tax preparation software tools, and extensions for use in other modalities of treatment.

  3. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result.

  4. Measuring costs of child abuse and neglect: a mathematic model of specific cost estimations.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Few empirical facts exist regarding the actual costs of child abuse in the United States. Consistent data is not available for national or even statewide analysis. Clearly there is a need for such accounting in order to fully understand the damage created by child abuse and neglect. Policy makers and social welfare planners should take child abuse costs into consideration when determining expenditures for prevention and intervention programs. The real savings may far outweigh the costs of such programs when both direct and indirect costs of child abuse and neglect enter into the analysis. This paper offers a model in which the actual costs of child abuse and neglect, based on direct, indirect, and opportunity costs associated with each case. Direct costs are those associated with the treatment of abused and neglected children as well as the costs of family intervention programs or foster care. Indirect costs are costs to society created by the negative effects of child abuse and neglect evinced by individuals who suffer such abuse and then as teens or adults engage in criminal behavior. Indirect costs also derive from the long term and ongoing health care needs required by victims of abuse, for both physical and mental health disorders. With the existence of this model, the author hopes to stimulate the discussion and desire for better data collection and analysis. In order to demonstrate the utility of the model, the author has included some cost estimates from the Connecticut State Department of Children and Families and the works of other scholars looking into the question of costs for child abuse and neglect. This data represents the best available at this time. As a result, the model appearing here is specific to Connecticut. Even so, once more valid data becomes available, the model's structure and theoretical framework should adapt to the needs of other states to facilitate better measurement of relevant costs and provide a clearer picture of the utility of

  5. Architects and Design-Phase Cost Estimates: Design Professionals Should Reconsider the Value of Third-Party Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, John

    2010-01-01

    Professional cost estimators are widely used by architects during the design phases of a project to provide preliminary cost estimates. These estimates may begin at the conceptual design phase and are prepared at regular intervals through the construction document phase. Estimating professionals are frequently tasked with "selling" the importance…

  6. Architects and Design-Phase Cost Estimates: Design Professionals Should Reconsider the Value of Third-Party Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, John

    2010-01-01

    Professional cost estimators are widely used by architects during the design phases of a project to provide preliminary cost estimates. These estimates may begin at the conceptual design phase and are prepared at regular intervals through the construction document phase. Estimating professionals are frequently tasked with "selling" the importance…

  7. Estimates of outage costs of electricity in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, J.; Sabih, F.

    1993-12-31

    This article estimates outage costs of electricity for each of the four provinces in Pakistan (Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, and Sind). The term {open_quotes}power outage{close_quotes} refers to all problems associated with electricity supply, such as voltage drops (brownouts), power failures (blackouts), and load shedding. The most significant of these in Pakistan is load shedding when power supply to different consumers is shut off during different times of the day, especially during peak hours when the pressure on the system is the highest. Power shortages mainly arise during the low-water months when the effective capacity of hydropower plants drops significantly. This decline in power supplied by hydro plants cannot be made up by operating thermal power plants because of the limited availability of gas and the high cost of alternative fuels required for the operation of gas turbines.

  8. Fast Conceptual Cost Estimating of Aerospace Projects Using Historical Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butts, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates can be created in less than a minute by applying powerful techniques and algorithms to create an Excel-based parametric cost model. In five easy steps you will learn how to normalize your company 's historical cost data to the new project parameters. This paper provides a complete, easy-to-understand, step by step how-to guide. Such a guide does not seem to currently exist. Over 2,000 hours of research, data collection, and trial and error, and thousands of lines of Excel Visual Basic Application (VBA) code were invested in developing these methods. While VBA is not required to use this information, it increases the power and aesthetics of the model. Implementing all of the steps described, while not required, will increase the accuracy of the results.

  9. Mitigating climate change through afforestation: new cost estimates for the United States

    Treesearch

    Anne Sofie Elberg Nielsen; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    We provide new cost estimates for carbon sequestration through afforestation in the U.S. We extend existing studies of carbon sequestration costs in several important ways, while ensuring the transparency of our approach. Our costs estimates have five distinguishing features: (1) we estimate costs for each county in the contiguous U.S., (2) we include afforestation of...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award...

  11. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award...

  12. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award Fee...

  13. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award Fee...

  14. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award Fee...

  15. Why Don't They Just Give Us Money? Project Cost Estimating and Cost Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Van Wychen, Kristin; Zimmerman, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Successful projects require an integrated approach to managing cost, schedule, and risk. This is especially true for complex, multi-year projects involving multiple organizations. To explore solutions and leverage valuable lessons learned, NASA's Virtual Project Management Challenge will kick off a three-part series examining some of the challenges faced by project and program managers when it comes to managing these important elements. In this first session of the series, we will look at cost management, with an emphasis on the critical roles of cost estimating and cost reporting. By taking a proactive approach to both of these activities, project managers can better control life cycle costs, maintain stakeholder confidence, and protect other current and future projects in the organization's portfolio. Speakers will be Doug Comstock, Director of NASA's Cost Analysis Division, Kristin Van Wychen, Senior Analyst in the GAO Acquisition and Sourcing Management Team, and Mary Beth Zimmerman, Branch Chief for NASA's Portfolio Analysis Branch, Strategic Investments Division. Moderator Ramien Pierre is from NASA's Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL).

  16. Cost-Estimating Relationships for Tactical Combat Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Copy 19 f 275 copies " 0 IDA MEMORANDUM REPORT M-14 L2 COST-ESTIMATING RELATIONSHIPS FOR TACTICAL COMBAT AIRCRAFT Joseph W. Stahl Joseph A. Arena...Mark 1. Knapp " November 1984 0 MAR 91985 Prepared jor Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering f his document has been...34. *","-, . , ... . - . " *. ° •" . •-• o- . • include aircraft introduced into the force in the 1970s and 1980s; the F -14, F -15, F -16, F /A-18, A-10 and AV-8B

  17. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 5: Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The costing approach, methodology, and rationale utilized for generating cost data for composite IUS and space tug orbital operations are discussed. Summary cost estimates are given along with cost data initially derived for the IUS program and space tug program individually, and cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  18. Dairy farm cost efficiency in leading milk-producing regions in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sobczyński, T; Klepacka, A M; Revoredo-Giha, C; Florkowski, W J

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the cost efficiency of dairy farms in 2 important regions of commercial milk production in Poland (i.e., Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie). Both regions gained importance following the market-driven resource allocation mechanism adopted after Poland's transition to the market economy in 1989 and accession to the European Union (EU) in 2004. The elimination of the dairy quota system in the EU in 2015 offers new expansion opportunities. The analysis of trends in cow numbers, milk production, and yield per cow shows different patterns of expansion of the dairy sector in the 2 regions. We selected dairy farm data from the Farm Accounts Data Network database for both regions and applied the cost frontier estimation model to calculate the relative cost-efficiency index for the period 2004 to 2009. The indexes compare each farm in the sample to the most efficient dairy farm in each region separately. Additionally, the top 5% of dairy farms with the highest relative cost efficiency index from each region were compared in terms of production costs with published results from a study using the representative farm approach. The comparison of results from 2 different studies permits a conclusion that Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie dairy farms are able to compete with farms from the 4 largest milk-producing countries in the EU. Although both regions can improve yields per cow, especially Podlaskie, both regions are likely to take advantage of the expansion opportunities offered by the 2015 termination of the milk quota system.

  19. An evolutionary morphological approach for software development cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo de A; Oliveira, Adriano L I; Soares, Sergio; Meira, Silvio

    2012-08-01

    In this work we present an evolutionary morphological approach to solve the software development cost estimation (SDCE) problem. The proposed approach consists of a hybrid artificial neuron based on framework of mathematical morphology (MM) with algebraic foundations in the complete lattice theory (CLT), referred to as dilation-erosion perceptron (DEP). Also, we present an evolutionary learning process, called DEP(MGA), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) to design the DEP model, because a drawback arises from the gradient estimation of morphological operators in the classical learning process of the DEP, since they are not differentiable in the usual way. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed model using five complex SDCE problems and three well-known performance metrics, demonstrating good performance of the DEP model to solve SDCE problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in upper west region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Issah, Shamwill; Ansah, Patrick; Malm, Keziah L; Ofosu, Winfred; Tagoe, Titus; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aikins, Moses

    2016-07-16

    In Ghana, malaria is endemic and perennial (with significant seasonal variations in the three Northern Regions), accounting for 33 % of all deaths among children under 5 years old, with prevalence rates in children under-five ranging from 11 % in Greater Accra to 40 % in Northern Region. Ghana adopted the WHO-recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) strategy with a trial in the Upper West Region in 2015. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention. Costs were analysed from provider and societal perspectives and are reported in 2015 US$. Data on resource use (direct and indirect costs) of the SMC intervention were collected from intervention records and a survey in all districts and at regional level. Additional numbers of malaria cases and deaths averted by the intervention were estimated based on prevalence data obtained from an SMC effectiveness study in the region. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated for the districts and region. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the ICERs. The total financial cost of the intervention was US$1,142,040.80. The total economic cost was estimated to be US$7.96 million and US$2.66 million from the societal and provider perspectives, respectively. The additional numbers of cases estimated to be averted by the intervention were 24,881 and 808, respectively. The economic cost per child dosed was US$67.35 from societal perspective and US$22.53 from the provider perspective. The economic cost per additional case averted was US$107.06 from the provider perspective and US$319.96 from the societal perspective. The economic cost per additional child death averted by the intervention was US$3298.36 from the provider perspective and US$9858.02 from the societal perspective. The financial cost per the SMC intervention delivered to a child under-five was US$9.66. The ICERs were sensitive to mortality rate used. The SMC

  1. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  2. Notification: Preliminary Research: Review of Independent Government Cost Estimates and Indirect Costs for EPA’s Interagency Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY14-0130, February 11, 2014. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research of the independent government cost estimates and indirect costs for the EPA's funds-in interagency agreements.

  3. Estimating regional plant biodiversity with GIS modelling

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Anantha M. Prasad

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed a statewide species database together with a county-level geographic information system to build a model based on well-surveyed areas to estimate species richness in less surveyed counties. The model involved GIS (Arc/Info) and statistics (S-PLUS), including spatial statistics (S+SpatialStats).

  4. Regional Variation of Cost of Care in the Last 12 Months of Life in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Luta, Xhyljeta; Maessen, Maud; Stuck, Andreas E.; Berlin, Claudia; Schmidlin, Kurt; Reich, Oliver; von Wyl, Viktor; Goodman, David C.; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland. Methods: We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply. Results: The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%–95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals. Conclusions: In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers. PMID:27579912

  5. The use of parametric cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft systems in establishing initial Design to Cost Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Anderson, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of Design to Cost (DTC). Problems inherent in attempting to estimate costs are discussed, along with techniques and types of models that have been developed to estimate aircraft costs. A set of cost estimating relationships that estimate the total production cost of commercial and military transport aircraft at the systems level is presented and the manner in which these equations might be used effectively in developing initial DTC targets is indicated. The principal point made in this paper is that, by using a disagregated set of equations to estimate transport aircraft costs at the systems level, reasonably accurate preliminary cost estimates may be achieved. These estimates may serve directly as initial DTC targets, or adjustments may be made to the estimates obtained for some of the systems to estimate the production cost impact of alternative designs or manufacturing technologies. The relative ease by which estimates may be made with this model, the flexibility it provides by being disaggregated, and the accuracy of the estimates it provides make it a unique and useful tool in establishing initial DTC targets.

  6. The use of parametric cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft systems in establishing initial Design to Cost Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Anderson, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of Design to Cost (DTC). Problems inherent in attempting to estimate costs are discussed, along with techniques and types of models that have been developed to estimate aircraft costs. A set of cost estimating relationships that estimate the total production cost of commercial and military transport aircraft at the systems level is presented and the manner in which these equations might be used effectively in developing initial DTC targets is indicated. The principal point made in this paper is that, by using a disagregated set of equations to estimate transport aircraft costs at the systems level, reasonably accurate preliminary cost estimates may be achieved. These estimates may serve directly as initial DTC targets, or adjustments may be made to the estimates obtained for some of the systems to estimate the production cost impact of alternative designs or manufacturing technologies. The relative ease by which estimates may be made with this model, the flexibility it provides by being disaggregated, and the accuracy of the estimates it provides make it a unique and useful tool in establishing initial DTC targets.

  7. Software cost/resource modeling: Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for JPL deep space network (DSN) data systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models, such as those of the General Research Corporation, Doty Associates, IBM (Walston-Felix), Rome Air Force Development Center, University of Maryland, and Rayleigh-Norden-Putnam. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software lifecycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN work breakdown structure skeleton, which is then input to a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  8. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  9. Image Location Estimation by Salient Region Matching.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Zhao, Yisi; Han, Junwei

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, locations of images have been widely used in many application scenarios for large geo-tagged image corpora. As to images which are not geographically tagged, we estimate their locations with the help of the large geo-tagged image set by content-based image retrieval. In this paper, we exploit spatial information of useful visual words to improve image location estimation (or content-based image retrieval performances). We proposed to generate visual word groups by mean-shift clustering. To improve the retrieval performance, spatial constraint is utilized to code the relative position of visual words. We proposed to generate a position descriptor for each visual word and build fast indexing structure for visual word groups. Experiments show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  10. Determining Usability Versus Cost and Yields of a Regional Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvozdenovic, Slobodan

    1999-01-01

    Regional transports are designed to operate on air networks having the basic characteristics of short trip distances and low density passengers/cargo, i.e. small numbers of passengers per flight. Regional transports passenger capacity is from 10 to 100 seats and operate on routes from 350 to 1000 nautical miles (nm). In order to meet passenger requirements providing low fares and high or required number of frequencies, airlines must constantly monitor operational costs and keep them low. It is obvious that costs of operating aircraft must be lower than yield obtained by transporting passengers and cargo. The requirement to achieve favorable yield/cost ratio must provide the answer to the question of which aircraft will best meet a specific air network (Simpson, 1972). An air network is defined by the number of services, the trip distance of each service, and the number of flights (frequencies) per day and week.

  11. Management Models and Cost Analysis for Regional Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Eugene T.

    The implementation of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) has placed an enormous financial burden on local districts. In order to create special education programs that combine cost effectiveness and high quality, a regional model has been developed. The Therapeutic Residential Experience for Emotional Stability (TREES) in…

  12. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These guidelines were prepared in response to a nuclear industry need to facilitate the preparation of cost estimates to decommission nuclear power plants. The objective of these guidelines is to enhance the credibility and thoroughness of cost estimates by providing detailed breakdown of costs to measurable, comprehensible levels in order to ensure that all estimates employing the guidelines will properly identify and account for all activities and elements of cost. These guidelines were prepared for decommissioning commercial nuclear power reactors of the pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor types. Chapter 1 define the purpose and scope of the document and discusses the general approach, i.e., elements of decommissioning costs and cost estimating processes. A separate abstract has been prepared for each of the additional five chapters entitled: List of Decommissioning Work Activities, Unit Factor Development, Period-Dependent Cost Factors, Collateral Costs, and Cost Estimate Structure. Volume 2 contains the detailed user reference information similar to a cost estimator's notebook.

  13. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the...

  17. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  18. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost...

  19. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supplemental index. (h) Headings for submission are as follows: (1) Total Project Cost: Summary. (i) Cost... or identified in writing by the date of agreement on the costs. (c) If cost data and information to... item is proposed, summary total amounts covering all line items shall be furnished for each cost...

  20. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental index. (h) Headings for submission are as follows: (1) Total Project Cost: Summary. (i) Cost... or identified in writing by the date of agreement on the costs. (c) If cost data and information to... item is proposed, summary total amounts covering all line items shall be furnished for each cost...

  1. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

    2008-07-29

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 10(5) g) CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion.yr(-1) for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion.yr(-1). Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  2. Advanced Composite Cost Estimating Manual. Volume II. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    0~~~~~~; - -m- O1 .,a 0 j in N j "s w f 0 0 Av .s 00 4 164 "i’ 3. -%’ 1*4*J. - N w 0-uo 16 fo moNi o w w -Q * * 0 h" v 0 a rq)E 4.1 w 0 -0 S p4 4 4...REkMOVE CHAIS 0.00J32 06COC43 I I 34 OPIN LC-OR 0*01402 o.ci’r2 I 31 PELEA *. 1.L. L JAO4 000035 22 36 RILtLA5E VAC. LINES 0.0031 !I kfMOVF lPAIk Ptk OVL...0 - NO 1- YES Ia YES INSERTS: 0 - NO 1 - YES 59 a *1 ACCEM-S COST PROJECTION CAM I UNIT MNER~aJboo~ AVE , LOT SIZiTYPE OF ESTIMATE UNIT COST aL. 21

  3. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  4. Determining Usability Versus Cost and Yields of a Regional Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvozdenovic, Slobodan

    1999-01-01

    Regional transports are designed to operate on air networks having the basic characteristics of short trip distances and low density passengers/cargo, i.e. small numbers of passengers per flight. Regional transports passenger capacity is from 10 to 100 seats and operate on routes from 350 to 1000 nautical miles (nm). An air network operated by regional transports has the following characteristics: (1) connecting regional centers; (2) operating on low density passengers/cargo flow services with minimum two frequencies per day; (3) operating on high density passengers/cargo flow with more than two frequencies per day; and (4) operating supplemental services whenever market demands in order to help bigger capacity aircraft already operating the same routes. In order to meet passenger requirements providing low fares and high or required number of frequencies, airlines must constantly monitor operational costs and keep them low. It is obvious that costs of operating aircraft must be lower than yield obtained by transporting passengers and cargo. The requirement to achieve favorable yield/cost ratio must provide the answer to the question of which aircraft will best meet a specific air network. An air network is defined by the number of services, the trip distance of each service, and the number of flights (frequencies) per day and week.

  5. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  6. IDC reengineering Phase 2 & 3 US industry standard cost estimate summary

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  7. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  8. Cost estimation for the active debris removal of multiple priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Wiedemann, Carsten; Schulz, Eugen

    The increasing number of space debris objects, especially in distinct low Earth orbit (LEO) altitudes between 600 and 1000 km, leads to an increase in the potential collision risk between the objects and threatens active satellites in that region. Several recent studies show that active debris removal (ADR) has to be performed in order to prevent a collisional cascading effect, also known as the Kessler syndrome. In order to stabilize the population growth in the critical LEO region, a removal of five prioritized objects per year has been recognized as a significant figure. Various proposals are addressing the technical issues for ADR missions, including the de-orbiting of objects by means of a service satellite using a chemical or an electric propulsion system. The servicer would rendezvous with a preselected target, perform a docking maneuver and then provide a de-orbit burn to transfer the target on a trajectory where it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere within a given time frame. In this paper the technical aspects are complemented by a cost estimation model, focusing on multi target missions, which are based on a service satellite capable of de-orbiting more than one target within a single mission. The cost model for ADR includes initial development cost, production cost, launch cost and operation cost as well as the modelling of the propulsion system of the servicer. Therefore, different scenarios are defined for chemical and electric propulsion systems as applied to multi target missions, based on a literature review of concepts currently being under discussion. The costs of multi target missions are compared to a scenario where only one target is removed. Also, the results allow to determine an optimum number of objects to be removed per mission and provide numbers which can be used in future studies, e.g. those related to ADR cost and benefit analyses.

  9. Cost analysis of impacts of climate change on regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G; Amar, Praveen; He, Shan; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2010-02-01

    Climate change has been predicted to adversely impact regional air quality with resulting health effects. Here a regional air quality model and a technology analysis tool are used to assess the additional emission reductions required and associated costs to offset impacts of climate change on air quality. Analysis is done for six regions and five major cities in the continental United States. Future climate is taken from a global climate model simulation for 2049-2051 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario, and emission inventories are the same as current ones to assess impacts of climate change alone on air quality and control expenses. On the basis of the IPCC A1B emission scenario and current control technologies, least-cost sets of emission reductions for simultaneously offsetting impacts of climate change on regionally averaged 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average ozone and yearly averaged PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) for the six regions examined are predicted to range from $36 million (1999$) yr(-1) in the Southeast to $5.5 billion yr(-1) in the Northeast. However, control costs to offset climate-related pollutant increases in urban areas can be greater than the regional costs because of the locally exacerbated ozone levels. An annual cost of $4.1 billion is required for offsetting climate-induced air quality impairment in 2049-2051 in the five cities alone. Overall, an annual cost of $9.3 billion is estimated for offsetting climate change impacts on air quality for the six regions and five cities examined. Much of the additional expense is to reduce increased levels of ozone. Additional control costs for offsetting the impacts everywhere in the United States could be larger than the estimates in this study. This study shows that additional emission controls and associated costs for offsetting climate impacts could significantly increase currently estimated

  10. Estimating the Cost of High-Quality Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Martha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that investing more presales dollars in timely, accurate, and complete documentation may significantly reduce the total cost of customer support. Shows how judiciously increasing investment costs significantly reduced the avoidable costs of supporting customers of a computer software documentation product, and reduced the total costs to a…

  11. The cost implications of participatory research. Experience of a health services review in a rural region in South Africa

    PubMed

    Doherty; Price

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to estimate the total costs incurred by a comprehensive review of primary health care services in a rural region in South Africa, and to determine which of these costs were incurred because of the participatory research techniques employed by the review. DESIGN: The costing study estimated the direct and indirect costs of each component of the review in order to determine total costs. Costs that were linked to participatory research activities were aggregated separately. SETTING: The review that was costed was conducted in an area that included the former 'homeland' KaNgwane and the adjacent areas of 'white' South Africa, in part of what is now known as Mpumalanga Province. SUBJECTS: Not relevant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct, indirect, total, research and participation costs were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: Expenditure generated by participatory research techniques was estimated to be almost 14% of the total (direct and indirect) costs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these costs, participatory research techniques are invaluable in terms of the many benefits they have for a research project. However, because of these costs, it is important that the financing of participatory research should be carefully planned. Projects must budget for the direct costs of participatory techniques, participating organisations and individuals must be committed to bearing the indirect costs of participation, and, increasingly, funders must consider funding these indirect costs. This is important in the South African situation, where public health research relies increasingly on the participation of relevant stakeholders.

  12. Effect of Regional Heterogeneity on Flood Frequency Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Wallis, James R.; Wood, Eric F.

    1987-02-01

    Recent work on regional flood frequency estimation has shown that accurate flood quantile estimates are possible when the underlying flood frequency distributions are identical at all sites in the region except for a scaling factor, particularly when the underlying distribution has a two-parameter form. The class of regional probability-weighted moment (PWM) estimators is investigated for robustness to mis-specification of the assumed distributional form and to regional heterogeneity in moments of order higher than one. Whereas two-parameter distributions belonging to the extreme value family perform quite well when the form of the underlying distribution is close to that of the fitted distribution, large biases can result when the distribution is misspecified. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution (GEV), when fitted using the regional PWM method, has been shown to be relatively insensitive to violations of the distributional assumption, and to have low variability and bias. In this paper it is shown that regional estimation methods using the three-parameter GEV distribution are relatively insensitive to modest regional heterogeneity in the coefficient of variation and quite insensitive to regional variation in the skew coefficient. The key determinant of the performance of the regional estimators is shown to be the regional mean coefficient of variation. For high values of the mean coefficient of variation, such as might be encountered in arid regions, an alternate PWM estimation method based on the GEV distribution that accommodates the regional heterogeneity in the higher order moments is preferred. The trade-off between this alternate method and the approach that assumes regional homogeneity in moments higher than order one is sensitive to the record lengths.

  13. Challenges from Variation across Regions in Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Multi-Regional Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yunbo; Dai, Luyan; Qi, Sheng; Smith, Matthew Lee; Huang, Hui; Li, Yang; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in the form of cost-effectiveness analysis has become a popular means to inform decisions in healthcare. With multi-regional clinical trials in a global development program becoming a new venue for drug efficacy testing in recent decades, questions in methods for cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials setting also emerge. This paper addresses some challenges from variation across regions in cost effectiveness analysis in multi-regional clinical trials. Several discussion points are raised for further attention and a multi-regional clinical trial example is presented to illustrate the implications in industrial application. A general message is delivered to call for a depth discussion by all stakeholders to reach an agreement on a good practice in cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials. Meanwhile, we recommend an additional consideration of cost-effectiveness analysis results based on the clinical evidence from a certain homogeneous population as sensitivity or scenario analysis upon data availability. PMID:27840606

  14. A cost-benefit analysis of bariatric surgery on the South Plains region of Texas.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bradley T; Thompson, Mark A; Wachtel, Mitchell S; Frezza, Eldo E

    2011-05-01

    The regional economic burdens of obesity have not been fully quantified. This study incorporated bariatric surgery demographics collected from a large university hospital with regional economic and employment data to evaluate the cost of obesity for the South Plains region of Texas. Data were collected from patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic banding between September 2003 and September 2005 at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. A regional economic model estimated the economic impact of lost productivity due to obesity. Comparisons of lost work days in the year before and after surgery were used to estimate the potential benefit of bariatric surgery to the South Plains economy. Total output impacts of obesity, over $364 million, were 3.3% of total personal income; total labor income impacts neared $60 million: the losses corresponded to $2,389 lost output and $390 lost labor income per household. Obesity cost the South Plains over 1,977 jobs and decreased indirect business tax revenues by over $13 million. The net benefit of bariatric surgery was estimated at $9.9 billion for a discount rate of 3%, $5.0 billion for a discount rate of 5%, and $1.3 billion for a discount rate of 10%. Potential benefits to the South Plains economy of performing bariatric surgery more than outweigh its costs.

  15. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-31

    development efforts often are derived from other related programs and contribute to other programs, making it difficult to separate costs . The effect is...control. Less temperature control implies a less expensive battery pack, however the cost of the batteries themselves make the Lithium Ion battery... Cost -per-farad is a good measure of the cost of the cells that make up the modules used in the vehicles. Cost -per-farad trends, as a function of

  16. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report IX. Operating cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Operating costs are normally broken into three major categories: variable costs including raw materials, annual catalyst and chemicals, and utilities; semi-variable costs including labor and labor related cost; and fixed or capital related charges. The raw materials and utilities costs are proportional to production; however, a small component of utilities cost is independent of production. The catalyst and chemicals costs are also normally proportional to production. Semi-variable costs include direct labor, maintenance labor, labor supervision, contract maintenance, maintenance materials, payroll overheads, operation supplies, and general overhead and administration. Fixed costs include local taxes, insurance and the time value of the capital investment. The latter charge often includes the investor's anticipated return on investment. In determining operating costs for financial analysis, return on investment (ROI) and depreciation are not treated as cash operating costs. These costs are developed in the financial analysis; the annual operating cost determined here omits ROI and depreciation. Project Annual Operating Costs are summarized in Table 1. Detailed supporting information for the cost elements listed below is included in the following sections: Electrical, catalyst and chemicals, and salaries and wages.

  18. Regional estimation of current and future forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Mickler, R A; Earnhardt, T S; Moore, J A

    2002-01-01

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exclusion policies and practices. The fire regime at any given location in these regions is a result of complex interactions between forest biomass, topography, ignitions, and weather. Forest structure and biomass are important aspects in determining current and future fire regimes. Efforts to quantify live and dead forest biomass at the local to regional scale has been hindered by the uncertainty surrounding the measurement and modeling of forest ecosystem processes and fluxes. The interaction of elevated CO2 with climate, soil nutrients, and other forest management factors that affect forest growth and fuel loading will play a major role in determining future forest stand growth and the distribution of species across the southern United States. The use of satellite image analysis has been tested for timely and accurate measurement of spatially explicit land use change and is well suited for use in inventory and monitoring of forest carbon. The incorporation of Landsat Thematic Mapper data coupled with a physiologically based productivity model (PnET), soil water holding capacity, and historic and projected climatic data provides an opportunity to enhance field plot based forest inventory and monitoring methodologies. We use periodic forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) project to obtain estimates of forest area and type to generate estimates of carbon storage for evergreen, deciduous, and mixed forest classes for use in an assessment of remotely sensed forest cover at the regional scale for the southern United States. The displays of net primary productivity (NPP) generated from the PnET model show areas of high and low forest carbon storage

  19. Endometriosis in Italy: from cost estimates to new medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Stefano; Lazzeri, Lucia; Ciani, Valentina; Petraglia, Felice

    2009-11-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus, which induced a chronic inflammatory reaction. The data collected from Italy showed that around 3 million women are affected by endoemtriosis and the condition was predominantly found in women of reproductive age (50% of women were in the 29-39 age range), only 25% of women were asymptomatic. The associated symptoms can create an impact in general physical, mental, and social well-being. Endometriosis is associated with severe dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, ovulation pain, cyclical, or perimenstrual symptoms, with or without abnormal bleeding, infertility, and chronic fatigue. The annual cost for hospital admission can be estimated to be in a total around 54 million euros. The average time for right diagnosis is around 9 years still today and it follows a long and expensive diagnostic search. Therapies can be useful to relieve and sometimes solve the symptoms, encourage fertility, eliminate endometrial lesions, and restore the anatomy of the pelvis. For medical therapy, several different preparations (oral contraceptives, progestogenics, gestrinone, danazol, and GnRHa) and new options (GnRH antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, estrogen receptor beta agoinist, progesterone receptor modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and COX-2 selective inhibitors) are available.

  20. [Estimation of hospital costs of colorectal cancer in Catalonia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Corral, Julieta; Borràs, Josep Maria; Chiarello, Pietro; García-Alzorriz, Enric; Macià, Francesc; Reig, Anna; Mateu de Antonio, Javier; Castells, Xavier; Cots, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    To assess the hospital cost associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment by stage at diagnosis, type of cost and disease phase in a public hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the hospital costs associated with a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed with CRC and treated for this disease between 2000 and 2006 in a teaching hospital and who had a 5-year follow-up from the time of diagnosis. Data were collected from clinical-administrative databases. Mean costs per patient were analysed by stage at diagnosis, cost type and disease phase. The mean cost per patient ranged from 6,573 Euros for patients with a diagnosis of CRC in situ to 36,894 € in those diagnosed in stage III. The main cost components were surgery-inpatient care (59.2%) and chemotherapy (19.4%). Advanced disease stages were associated with a decrease in the relative weight of surgical and inpatient care costs and an increase in chemotherapy costs. This study provides the costs of CRC treatment based on clinical practice, with chemotherapy and surgery accounting for the major cost components. This cost analysis is a baseline study that will provide a useful source of information for future studies on cost-effectiveness and on the budget impact of different therapeutic innovations in Spain. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  2. Development of cost estimation tools for total occupational safety and health activities and occupational health services: cost estimation from a corporate perspective.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji; Aratake, Yutaka; Ide, Hiroshi; Ishida, Hiromi; Nobori, Junichiro; Kojima, Reiko; Odagami, Kiminori; Kato, Anna; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop standardized cost estimation tools that provide information to employers about occupational safety and health (OSH) activities for effective and efficient decision making in Japanese companies. We interviewed OSH staff members including full-time professional occupational physicians to list all OSH activities. Using activity-based costing, cost data were obtained from retrospective analyses of occupational safety and health costs over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces and were obtained from retrospective analyses of occupational health services costs in four manufacturing workplaces. We verified the tools additionally in four workplaces including service businesses. We created the OSH and occupational health standardized cost estimation tools. OSH costs consisted of personnel costs, expenses, outsourcing costs and investments for 15 OSH activities. The tools provided accurate, relevant information on OSH activities and occupational health services. The standardized information obtained from our OSH and occupational health cost estimation tools can be used to manage OSH costs, make comparisons of OSH costs between companies and organizations and help occupational health physicians and employers to determine the best course of action.

  3. Regional Seismic Focal Depth Estimation in Complex Tectonic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    seismicity in Iran region, Geophys. J. Int. 167: 761–778. Hatzfeld, D., M. Tatar, K. Priestley, and M. Ghafory-Ashtiany (2003). Seismological constraints...receiver functions and crustal structure. In Computer programs in seismology . Kennett B. L. N., and E. R. Engdahl (1991), Travel times for global...estimation. Proc. RADC Spectral Estimation Workshop, 243–258, Rome, Italy . Stroujkova, A. and D. Reiter (2006). Regional Depth Phase Detection and Focal

  4. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  5. Assessment of transparency of cost estimates in economic evaluations of patient safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2009-06-01

    Transparency of costing is essential for decision-makers who require information on the efficiency of a health care programme, because effective decisions depend largely on applicability to their settings. The main objectives of this study were to assess published studies for transparency of cost estimates. We first developed criteria with two axes by reviewing publications dealing with economic evaluations and cost accounting studies: clarification of the scope of costing and accuracy of method evaluating costs. We then performed systematic searches of the literature for studies which estimated prevention costs and assessed the transparency and accuracy of costing based on our criteria. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Half of the studies reported data for both the quantity and unit price of programmes in regard to prevention costs. Although 30 studies estimated costs of adverse events, 19 of these described the scope of costing only, and just five studies used a micro-costing method. Among 30 studies that estimated 'gross cost savings' and 'net cost savings', there was a huge discrepancy in labels. Even if a cost study was conducted in accordance with existing techniques of economic evaluation which mostly paid attention to internal validity of cost estimates, without adequate explanation of the process of costing, reproducibility cannot be assured and the study may lose its value as scientific information. This study found that there is tremendous room for improvement.

  6. Sample representativeness: A must for reliable regional lake condition estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.A.; Urquhart, N.S.; Welch, E.B.

    1999-05-15

    Reliable environmental resource estimates are essential to informed regional scale decisions regarding protection, restoration, and enhancement of natural resources. Reliable estimates depend on objective and representative sampling. Probability-based sampling meets these requirements and provides accuracy estimates. Non-probability-based sampling often is biased, thus less reliable, and potentially misleading. The authors compare results from a probability- and a non-probability-based Secchi transparency sampling of lakes in the northeastern geographic region of the United States and its three primary ecoregions. Results from these samplings are compared on the basis of sample representativeness relative to the regional lake population and subsequent reliability of lake condition estimates. Statistically derived sampling indicates the northeast lake population median lake size to be about 9.5 ({+-}2.3) ha and the Secchi disk transparency (SDT) to be about 2.4 ({+-}0.4) m. On the basis of judgment sampling estimates, the median SDT for lakes in the same area would be 4.2 m. However, only about 15% of the regional lake population based on statistically designed sampling estimates has a SDT {ge} 4.2 m. Estimate unreliability of this magnitude can have profound effects on lake management decisions. Thus, regional extrapolation of non-probability-based sampling results should be avoided.

  7. Social inequalities and pharmaceutical cost sharing in Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Marco; Sarti, Simone; Tognetti Bordogna, Mara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Italian citizens have increasingly been asked to share pharmaceutical costs, but at the same time, households' medicines expenditure has decreased. Cost-sharing policies have to be assessed not just in terms of limitation of moral hazard and revenue to the state, but also for equal opportunities for citizen users accessing health services. The aim of this article is to analyze how Italian co-payment policies ("ticket") on medicines may affect pharmaceutical expenditure of households, considering territorial and social groups variation. We reviewed the per capita private spending on medicines of Italian regions, separating pharmaceutical outlay and "ticket." Across the period 2001-2010 we found that the overall per capita private spending on medicines remained substantially stable, although medicine expenditure decreases while the "ticket" increases. When cost sharing rises, out-of-pocket spending on medicines by poorer families seems to remain unchanged; however, poorer families seem to reduce their pharmaceutical expenditure. Our analysis suggests that applying co-payment in Italy is partly successful, in terms of greater revenue to the health system, but in the last few years, cost-sharing increases would seem to have rebounded negatively on more vulnerable families, due to the economic crisis.

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost...

  9. What Would It Cost to Coach Every New Principal? An Estimate Using Statewide Personnel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use Levin and McEwan's (2001) cost feasibility approach and personnel data obtained from the Superintendent of Public Instruction to estimate the cost of providing coaching support to every newly hired principal in Washington State. Based on this descriptive analysis, I estimate that the cost to provide leadership coaching to…

  10. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator...

  11. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator...

  12. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator...

  14. New cost estimates for carbon sequestration through afforestation in the United States

    Treesearch

    Anne Sofie Elburg Nielsen; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    This report provides new cost estimates for carbon sequestration through afforestation in the United States. We extend existing studies of carbon sequestration costs in several important ways, while ensuring the transparency of our approach. We clearly identify all components of our cost estimates so that other researchers can reconstruct our results as well as use our...

  15. VA Construction: Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Abbreviations ACBM Activation Cost Budget Model CFM Office of Construction and Facilities Management eCMS Electronic Contract ...VA CONSTRUCTION Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs...Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs What GAO Found The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has taken steps to

  16. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-14

    Resources Energy Technology Basics Electricity Grid Basics Costs Renewable Technologies Biomass Geothermal Solar Concentrators Solar Photovoltaics Wind...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 14 July 2014...SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Final report on cost estimate of forward superconducting air core toroid

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, T.

    1992-12-01

    An independent cost-estimate for key components of the forward superconducting air core toroid (ACT) was obtained in May 1992 from an experienced manufacturer of large cryogenic vessels. This new cost estimate is summarized in this report. It implies that a suitably designed ACT may have a cost which is approximately equal to that of the presently designed SDC forward iron core toroid.

  18. Cost of near-roadway and regional air pollution-attributable childhood asthma in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Sylvia; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; McConnell, Rob

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that near-roadway air pollution (NRP) exposure causes childhood asthma. The associated costs are not well documented. We estimated the cost of childhood asthma attributable to residential NRP exposure and regional ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels in Los Angeles County. We developed a novel approach to apportion the costs between these exposures under different pollution scenarios. We integrated results from a study of willingness to pay to reduce the burden of asthma with results from studies of health care use and charges to estimate the costs of an asthma case and exacerbation. We applied those costs to the number of asthma cases and exacerbations caused by regional pollution in 2007 and to hypothetical scenarios of a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 20% reduction or increase in the proportion of the total population living within 75 m of a major roadway. Cost of air pollution-related asthma in Los Angeles County in 2007 was $441 million for O3 and $202 million for NO2 in 2010 dollars. Cost of routine care (care in absence of exacerbation) accounted for 18% of the combined NRP and O3 cost and 39% of the combined NRP and NO2 cost; these costs were not recognized in previous analyses. NRP-attributable asthma accounted for 43% (O3) to 51% (NO2) of the total annual cost of exacerbations and routine care associated with pollution. Hypothetical scenarios showed that costs from increased NRP exposure might offset savings from reduced regional pollution. Our model disaggregates the costs of regional pollution and NRP exposure and illustrates how they might vary under alternative exposure scenarios. The cost of air pollution is a substantial burden on families and an economic loss for society. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC.

  20. REGIONAL ESTIMATION OF CURRENT AND FUTURE FOREST BIOMASS. (R828785)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exc...

  1. REGIONAL ESTIMATION OF CURRENT AND FUTURE FOREST BIOMASS. (R828785)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exc...

  2. Conservation voltage reduction: Estimating methodology for a large regional application

    SciTech Connect

    De Steese, J.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Merrick, S.B.

    1992-04-01

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is an established and cost-effective practice that has motivated many utilities to investigate its application on individual systems. This paper describes a supply-curve methodology that can determine the conservation value of CVR applied to many distribution systems in a region. In the area served by Bonneville Power Administration involving approximately 150 utilities, the systematic implementations of CVR could conserve between 170 and 268 Average Megawatts at a cost of 5 cents/kWh. This was shown to be a larger resource than might be achievable by applying more conventional efficiency improvements to transmission and distribution (T&D) systems in the region.

  3. Conservation voltage reduction: Estimating methodology for a large regional application

    SciTech Connect

    De Steese, J.G. ); Kennedy, B.W. ); Merrick, S.B. )

    1992-04-01

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is an established and cost-effective practice that has motivated many utilities to investigate its application on individual systems. This paper describes a supply-curve methodology that can determine the conservation value of CVR applied to many distribution systems in a region. In the area served by Bonneville Power Administration involving approximately 150 utilities, the systematic implementations of CVR could conserve between 170 and 268 Average Megawatts at a cost of 5 cents/kWh. This was shown to be a larger resource than might be achievable by applying more conventional efficiency improvements to transmission and distribution (T D) systems in the region.

  4. Regional flood quantile estimation for a Weibull Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, Duane C.; Heo, Jun-Haeng; Salas, Jose D.

    1989-05-01

    Estimation of annual flood quantiles at a given site, based on a regional Weibull model with independence in space and time, is considered. A common shape parameter over sites, motivated by an index flood assumption, was assumed. An exact simple formula for the Cramer-Rao lower bound for the variance of unbiased estimators of the quantile is obtained, and the gain of regional flood frequency analysis over single-site analysis can be quantified via this formula. The estimation techniques of the method of moments, the method of probability-weighted moments, and the method of maximum likelihood are compared.

  5. Investigation of error sources in regional inverse estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, E.; Chan, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Vogel, F.; Brioude, J.; Delcloo, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, B.

    2015-08-01

    Inversion models can use atmospheric concentration measurements to estimate surface fluxes. This study is an evaluation of the errors in a regional flux inversion model for different provinces of Canada, Alberta (AB), Saskatchewan (SK) and Ontario (ON). Using CarbonTracker model results as the target, the synthetic data experiment analyses examined the impacts of the errors from the Bayesian optimisation method, prior flux distribution and the atmospheric transport model, as well as their interactions. The scaling factors for different sub-regions were estimated by the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and cost function minimization (CFM) methods. The CFM method results are sensitive to the relative size of the assumed model-observation mismatch and prior flux error variances. Experiment results show that the estimation error increases with the number of sub-regions using the CFM method. For the region definitions that lead to realistic flux estimates, the numbers of sub-regions for the western region of AB/SK combined and the eastern region of ON are 11 and 4 respectively. The corresponding annual flux estimation errors for the western and eastern regions using the MCMC (CFM) method are -7 and -3 % (0 and 8 %) respectively, when there is only prior flux error. The estimation errors increase to 36 and 94 % (40 and 232 %) resulting from transport model error alone. When prior and transport model errors co-exist in the inversions, the estimation errors become 5 and 85 % (29 and 201 %). This result indicates that estimation errors are dominated by the transport model error and can in fact cancel each other and propagate to the flux estimates non-linearly. In addition, it is possible for the posterior flux estimates having larger differences than the prior compared to the target fluxes, and the posterior uncertainty estimates could be unrealistically small that do not cover the target. The systematic evaluation of the different components of the inversion

  6. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  7. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: A comparison of two approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Compare two approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive Method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates using a lesser intensive M...

  8. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    SciTech Connect

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-12-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale.

  9. Estimating the Cost of Standardized Student Testing in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes and contrasts different methods of estimating costs of standardized testing. Using a cost-accounting approach, compares gross and marginal costs and considers testing objects (test materials and services, personnel and student time, and administrative/building overhead). Social marginal costs of replacing existing tests with a national…

  10. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  11. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  12. Some regional costs of a synthetic fuel industry: The case of illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on other coal users will be substantial. Moreover, because the lowest-cost coal deposits will be committed to synthetic fuels production regardless of the industry's commercial viability, distortions in regional coal markets will develop. If economic efficiency requires that the price of the resource reflect its replacement value, then a State government is justified in imposing a tax on coal destined for subsidized synthetic fuel plants. Amounts of such a tax, based on the higher costs of coal that must be accepted by other users as the result of the subsidized synthetic fuel plants' preempting the largest and lowest-cost deposits, are estimated for the case of Illinois strippable coal. ?? 1981 Annals of Regional Science.

  13. Estimating the direct and indirect costs associated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Lizán, Luis; Paz, Silvia; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder whose symptoms and manifestations greatly deteriorate the health, functional status and quality of life of patients, has severe consequences on their families and caregivers and supposes a challenge for the healthcare system and society. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively and descriptively review studies on the economic impact of the disease and interventions, analyzing major contributing factors to direct and indirect costs in PD. Cost-of-illness studies have shown that costs of PD are high, mainly due to drug, hospitalization and productivity loss, and tend to increase as the disease progresses. Studies on PD treatment have suggested that therapies for advanced PD (levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel and apomorphine) and surgical procedures are cost-effective and cost saving, despite their high expenditures; however, further research such as on the economic impact of non-motor manifestations or on the cost-effectiveness of non-medical interventions is still needed.

  14. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    generation. As the CPV market has matured, production costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) production costs. CPV units...sink designs to increase efficiency. Modern heat sink design can achieve greater overall efficiencies of electricity generation. As the CPV market ...capital costs and intermittency (DASN, 2012). While the price per kWh of solar is falling as the solar market continues to mature, solar installation

  15. Cost of near-roadway and regional air pollution-attributable childhood asthma in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Sylvia; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; McConnell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that near-roadway air pollution (NRP) exposure causes childhood asthma. Associated costs are not well documented. Objective We estimated the cost of childhood asthma attributable to residential NRP exposure and regional ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Los Angeles County. We developed a novel approach to apportion the costs between these exposures under different pollution scenarios. Methods We integrated results from a study of willingness to pay to reduce the burden of asthma with studies of health care utilization and charges to estimate the costs of an asthma case and exacerbation. We applied those costs to the number of asthma cases and exacerbations due to regional pollution in 2007 and to hypothetical scenarios of a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 20% reduction or increase in the proportion of the total population living within 75m of a major roadway. Results Cost of air pollution-related asthma in Los Angeles County in 2007 was $441 million for O3 and $202 million for NO2 in 2010 dollars. Cost of routine care (care in absence of exacerbation) accounted for 18% of the combined NRP and O3 cost and 39% of the combined NRP and NO2 cost—costs not recognized in previous analyses. NRP-attributable asthma accounted for 43% (O3) to 51% (NO2) of the total annual cost of exacerbations and routine care associated with pollution. Hypothetical scenarios showed that costs from increased NRP exposure may offset savings from reduced regional pollution. Conclusions Our model disaggregates the costs of regional pollution and NRP exposure and illustrates how they might vary under alternative exposure scenarios. The cost of air pollution is a substantial burden on families and an economic loss for society. PMID:25439228

  16. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared.

  17. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  18. Laboratory demonstration of aircraft estimation using low-cost sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four nonlinear state estimators were devised which provide techniques for obtaining the angular orientation (attitude) of the aircraft. An extensive FORTRAN computer program was developed to demonstrate and evaluate the estimators by using recorded flight test data. This program simulates the estimator operation, and it compares the state estimates with actual state measurements. The program was used to evaluate the state estimators with data recorded on the NASA Ames CV-990 and CESSNA 402B aircraft. A preliminary assessment was made of the memory, word length, and timing requirements for implementing the selected state estimator on a typical microcomputer.

  19. Improved rapid magnitude estimation for a community-based, low-cost MEMS accelerometer network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung, Angela I.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Anna E.; Christensen, Carl M.; Yildirim, Battalgazi; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following the Mw 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, over 180 Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) low‐cost micro‐electro‐mechanical systems accelerometers were deployed in the Canterbury region. Using data recorded by this dense network from 2010 to 2013, we significantly improved the QCN rapid magnitude estimation relationship. The previous scaling relationship (Lawrence et al., 2014) did not accurately estimate the magnitudes of nearby (<35  km) events. The new scaling relationship estimates earthquake magnitudes within 1 magnitude unit of the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog magnitudes for 99% of the events tested, within 0.5 magnitude units for 90% of the events, and within 0.25 magnitude units for 57% of the events. These magnitudes are reliably estimated within 3 s of the initial trigger recorded on at least seven stations. In this report, we present the methods used to calculate a new scaling relationship and demonstrate the accuracy of the revised magnitude estimates using a program that is able to retrospectively estimate event magnitudes using archived data.

  20. An Analysis of Multi-Year Procurement Cost Estimating Methods at the Aeronautical Systems Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    estimators are not the only group that feels that multi-year contracts will result in cost savings. Hughes Aircraft Company, a major defense contractor...costs were lost forever. The Army Procurement Research Office stated that "the $5 million cancellation ceiling effectively limits the application of multi...on WBS element costs. Depending on program characteristics and the cost estimator’s capabilities, some techniques may not be as applicable as others in

  1. An Analysis of the Cost Estimating Process in Air Force Research and Development Laboratories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOO COvEREO AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ESTIMATING PROCESS IN AIR FORCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Master’s...final typed thesis. Her efficiency and professionalism was unexcelled. Finally, very special thanks go to my children, Chris and Brian, and especially my...42 3-6 Computer Costs - Estimating Methods. . 44 3-7 Type of Work Unit Versus Estimating Methods Used ... ............. .47 3-8 Cost Variance Between

  2. Defense Contractor’s Cost Estimating Methods for State-of-the-Art Extensions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    framework in which to place empirical measures of technological change, hedonic price indices, and cost estimating relationships. In this study they...importance and magnitude is software cost estimating, which experts like Elmer Branyan from General Electric predict will account for eighty-five percent...developed by RCA 9 ( Price -S model) and Hughes Aircraft (developed by Dr. Jensen). Hardware cost estimation for initial developed relies on three

  3. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    PubMed

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  4. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  5. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  6. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  7. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  8. Stochastic Frontier Estimation of a CES Cost Function: The Case of Higher Education in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Hooshang; Johnes, Geraint; Oskrochi, Reza; Crouchley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of stochastic frontier estimation of constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost function to measure differences in efficiency among British universities. (Contains 28 references.) (PKP)

  9. Stochastic Frontier Estimation of a CES Cost Function: The Case of Higher Education in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Hooshang; Johnes, Geraint; Oskrochi, Reza; Crouchley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of stochastic frontier estimation of constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost function to measure differences in efficiency among British universities. (Contains 28 references.) (PKP)

  10. A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2002-08-01

    Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and of the related construction cost structures of those facilities becomes essential for dealing with an effective regional water pollution control program. But deviations between the observed values and the estimated values are supposed to be due to measurement errors only in the conventional regression models. The inherent uncertainties of the underlying cost structure, where the human estimation is influential, are rarely explored. This paper is designed to recast a well-known problem of construction cost estimation for both domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants via a comparative framework. Comparisons were made for three technologies of regression analyses, including the conventional least squares regression method, the fuzzy linear regression method, and the newly derived fuzzy goal regression method. The case study, incorporating a complete database with 48 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 29 industrial wastewater treatment plants being collected in Taiwan, implements such a cost estimation procedure in an uncertain environment. Given that the fuzzy structure in regression estimation may account for the inherent human complexity in cost estimation, the fuzzy goal regression method does exhibit more robust results in terms of some criteria. Moderate economy of scale exists in constructing both the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Findings indicate that the optimal size of a domestic wastewater treatment plant is approximately equivalent to 15,000 m3/day (CMD) and higher in Taiwan

  11. The health and visibility cost of air pollution: a comparison of estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, Mark A; Murphy, James J; McCubbin, Donald R

    2002-02-01

    Air pollution from motor vehicles, electricity-generating plants, industry, and other sources can harm human health, injure crops and forests, damage building materials, and impair visibility. Economists sometimes analyze the social cost of these impacts, in order to illuminate tradeoffs, compare alternatives, and promote efficient use of scarce resource. In this paper, we compare estimates of the health and visibility costs of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis, with an estimate of health costs derived from a damage-function analysis and an estimate of the visibility cost derived from contingent valuation. We find that the meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate of the health cost that lies at the low end of the range of damage-function estimates. This is consistent with hypotheses that on the one hand, hedonic price analysis does not capture all of the health costs of air pollution (because individuals may not be fully informed about all of the health effects), and that on the other hand, the value of mortality used in the high-end damage function estimates is too high. The analysis of the visibility cost of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate that is essentially identical to an independent estimate based on contingent valuation. This close agreement lends some credence to the estimates. We then apply the meta hedonic-price model to estimate the visibility cost per kilogram of motor vehicle emissions.

  12. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  14. Regional scaling based estimation of IDF curves in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnova, Silvia; Zechelova, Karolina; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are of a great practical importance in water resources management e.g. for the design of hydraulic structures and urban drainage systems, and for the estimation of flash flood risk. However the lack of rainfall data with sufficient temporal resolution (usually caused by limited number of rain gauges with continuous recording and short series of measurements) does not generally allow for constructing maps of extreme short-duration rainfall with the desired spatial resolution. In such cases the simple scaling model, which has proved its applicability in various regions of the world, offers a solution to this problem. Using the scaling hypothesis, it is possible to estimate design values of rainfall of selected recurrence intervals and durations shorter than a day by using only the daily data, which are available from a considerably denser network with long series of measurements. In this study the simple scaling theory was applied in the whole territory of Slovakia for the estimation of the intensity-duration-frequency characteristics of short duration rainfall. For the analysis the data series in one minute time step from 21 rainfall gauging stations were used. To estimate T-year rainfall quantiles of sub-daily duration at ungauged sites, two methodologies are combined: the regional index value approach, and the local concept of simple scaling. The former approach is used to estimate the quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima in the warm season, supposing that the so called index value can be estimated locally and the dimensionless quantiles (the regional growth curve) can be derived by means of regional frequency analysis. The latter approach is employed to estimate the local IDF curves by downscaling the T-year quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima using the regionally averaged scaling exponent. The derived IDF curves for these stations are finally compared with those defined by Šamaj and Valovič (1973), which are

  15. But what will it Cost? The history of NASA cost estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    Within two years of being chartered in 1958 as an independent agency to conduct civilian pursuits in aeronautics and space, NASA absorbed either wholly or partially the people, facilities, and equipment of several existing organizations. These included the laboratories of the National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics (NACA) at Langley Research Center in Virginia, Ames Research Center in California, and Lewis Research Center in Ohio; the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) at Redstone Arsenal Alabama, for which the team of Wernher von Braun worked; and the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and their ongoing work on big boosters. These were especially valuable resources to jump start the new agency in light of the shocking success of the Soviet space probe Sputnik in the autumn of the previous year and the corresponding pressure from an impatient American public to produce some response. Along with these inheritances, there came some existing systems engineering and management practices, including project cost estimating methodologies. This paper will briefly trace the origins of those methods and how they evolved within the agency over the past three decades.

  16. Estimates and implications of the costs of compliance with biosafety regulations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Falck-Zepeda, Jose; Yorobe, Jose; Husin, Bahagiawati Amir; Manalo, Abraham; Lokollo, Erna; Ramon, Godfrey; Zambrano, Patricia; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    Estimating the cost of compliance with biosafety regulations is important as it helps developers focus their investments in producer development. We provide estimates for the cost of compliance for a set of technologies in Indonesia, the Philippines and other countries. These costs vary from US $100,000 to 1.7 million. These are estimates of regulatory costs and do not include product development or deployment costs. Cost estimates need to be compared with potential gains when the technology is introduced in these countries and the gains in knowledge accumulate during the biosafety assessment process. Although the cost of compliance is important, time delays and uncertainty are even more important and may have an adverse impact on innovations reaching farmers.

  17. Life Cycle Cost Estimate of LSD(X)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Propulsion Plant Boilers, reactors, turbines, gears, shafting propellers, steam piping and lube oil piping 300 Electric Plant Ship service power... refining adequate prediction models will always be compulsory. 43 APPENDIX A. AGGREGATED MATERIEL COST REGRESSION MODELS This section shows the

  18. Estimation of cartilaginous region in noncontrast CT of the chest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Safdar, Nabile; Yu, Glenna; Myers, Emmarie; Sandler, Anthony; Linguraru, Marius George

    2014-03-01

    Pectus excavatum is a posterior depression of the sternum and adjacent costal cartilages and is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall. Its surgical repair can be performed via minimally invasive procedures that involve sternum and cartilage relocation and benefit from adequate surgical planning. In this study, we propose a method to estimate the cartilage regions in thoracic CT scans, which is the first step of statistical modeling of the osseous and cartilaginous structures for the rib cage. The ribs and sternum are first segmented by using interactive region growing and removing the vertebral column with morphological operations. The entire chest wall is also segmented to estimate the skin surface. After the segmentation, surface meshes are generated from the volumetric data and the skeleton of the ribs is extracted using surface contraction method. Then the cartilage surface is approximated via contracting the skin surface to the osseous structure. The ribs' skeleton is projected to the cartilage surface and the cartilages are estimated using cubic interpolation given the joints with the sternum. The final cartilage regions are formed by the cartilage surface inside the convex hull of the estimated cartilages. The method was validated with the CT scans of two pectus excavatum patients and three healthy subjects. The average distance between the estimated cartilage surface and the ground truth is 2.89 mm. The promising results indicate the effectiveness of cartilage surface estimation using the skin surface.

  19. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  20. Estimating Software Development Costs and Schedules for Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    SSCAG) participants. The SSCAG is an industry and government group 3l formed to enhance space system cost analysis. Another data source was the NASA...government and industry working group formed to advance space systems cost analysis. The SSCAG database contains software development information of...34The Management of Large Software Projects in the Space Industry Meeting," Logica, CNES, Toulouse, France, 1991. C-1 [17] Anderson, Christine, and

  1. Regional variation in the cost effectiveness of childhood hepatitis A immunization.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R Jake; Greenberg, David P; Koff, Raymond S; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S

    2003-10-01

    Routine childhood hepatitis A immunization is recommended in regions with incidence rates twice the national average, but it may be cost-effective in a wider geographic area. To evaluate the costs and benefits of potential hepatitis A immunization of healthy US children in regions with varying hepatitis A incidences. We considered vaccination of the 2000 US birth cohort in states defined by historic hepatitis A incidence rates. Infections among potential vaccinees and their personal contacts were predicted from age 2 through 85 years. Net vaccination costs were estimated from health system and societal perspectives and were compared with life-years saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained using a 3% discount rate. RESULTS Nationally vaccination would prevent >75 000 cases of overt hepatitis A disease. Approximately two-thirds of health benefits would accrue to personal contacts rather than to vaccinees themselves. In states with incidence rates of > or =200%, 100 to 199%, 50 to 99% and <50% the national average, societal costs per QALY gained would be <0, <0, 13,800 and 63,000 US dollars, respectively. Nationally vaccination would cost 9100 US dollars per QALY gained from the perspective of the health system and 1400 US dollars per QALY gained from society's perspective. Results are most sensitive to vaccination costs and rates of disease transmission through personal contact. Childhood hepatitis A vaccination is most cost-effective in areas with the highest incidence rates but would also meet accepted standards of economic efficiency in most of the US. A national immunization policy would prevent substantial morbidity and mortality, with cost effectiveness similar to that of other childhood immunizations.

  2. Estimation of regional pulmonary perfusion parameters from microfocal angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, A.V.; Al-Tinawi, A.; Linehan, J.H.; Dawson, C.A. |

    1995-12-31

    An important application of functional imaging is the estimation of regional blood flow and volume using residue detection of vascular indicators. An indicator-dilution model applicable to tissue regions distal from the inlet site was developed. Theoretic methods for determining regional blood flow, volume and mean transit time parameters from time-absorbance curves arise from this model. The robustness of the parameter estimation methods was evaluated using a computer-simulated vessel network model. Flow through arterioles, networks of capillaries and venules was simulated. Parameter identification and practical implementation issues were addressed. The shape of the inlet concentration curve and moderate amounts of random noise did not effect the ability of the method to recover accurate parameter estimates. The parameter estimates degraded in the presence of significant dispersion of the measured inlet concentration curve as it traveled through arteries upstream from the microvascular region. The methods were applied to image data obtained using microfocal x-ray angiography to study the pulmonary microcirculation. Time-absorbance curves were acquired from a small feeding artery, the surrounding microvasculature and a draining vein of an isolated dog lung as contrast material passed through the field-of-view. Changes in regional microvascular volume were determined from these curves.

  3. Estimation of regional pulmonary perfusion parameters from microfocal angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Anne V.; Al-Tinawi, Amir; Linehan, John H.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1995-05-01

    An important application of functional imaging is the estimation of regional blood flow and volume using residue detection of vascular indicators. An indicator-dilution model applicable to tissue regions distal from the inlet site was developed. Theoretical methods for determining regional blood flow, volume, and mean transit time parameters from time-absorbance curves arise from this model. The robustness of the parameter estimation methods was evaluated using a computer-simulated vessel network model. Flow through arterioles, networks of capillaries, and venules was simulated. Parameter identification and practical implementation issues were addressed. The shape of the inlet concentration curve and moderate amounts of random noise did not effect the ability of the method to recover accurate parameter estimates. The parameter estimates degraded in the presence of significant dispersion of the measured inlet concentration curve as it traveled through arteries upstream from the microvascular region. The methods were applied to image data obtained using microfocal x-ray angiography to study the pulmonary microcirculation. Time- absorbance curves were acquired from a small feeding artery, the surrounding microvasculature and a draining vein of an isolated dog lung as contrast material passed through the field-of-view. Changes in regional microvascular volume were determined from these curves.

  4. Use of Multiple Data Sources to Estimate the Economic Cost of Dengue Illness in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Halasa, Yara; Lum, Lucy Chai See; Ng, Chiu Wan

    2012-01-01

    Dengue represents a substantial burden in many tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. We estimated the economic burden of dengue illness in Malaysia. Information about economic burden is needed for setting health policy priorities, but accurate estimation is difficult because of incomplete data. We overcame this limitation by merging multiple data sources to refine our estimates, including an extensive literature review, discussion with experts, review of data from health and surveillance systems, and implementation of a Delphi process. Because Malaysia has a passive surveillance system, the number of dengue cases is under-reported. Using an adjusted estimate of total dengue cases, we estimated an economic burden of dengue illness of US$56 million (Malaysian Ringgit MYR196 million) per year, which is approximately US$2.03 (Malaysian Ringgit 7.14) per capita. The overall economic burden of dengue would be even higher if we included costs associated with dengue prevention and control, dengue surveillance, and long-term sequelae of dengue. PMID:23033404

  5. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles--a case study of Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ji-Ming; Li, Ji; Ye, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Tian-Le

    2003-09-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO4(2-)) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation( r = 0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1 x 10(-6) - 3.2 x 10(-6)) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO4(2-)) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach, WTP) or 0.16 (human capital approach, HC) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(WTP) or 200 USD(HC). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced.

  6. A travel cost study to estimate recreational value for a bird refuge at Lake Manyas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürlük, Serkan; Rehber, Erkan

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the recreational economic value of bird watching in the Kuşcenneti National Park (KNP) at Lake Manyas, one of the Ramsar sites of Turkey and an important endangered species habitat. The lake and KNP provide considerable benefits for the region, although they have faced many environmental conflicts due to diverse stakeholders' needs. An economic valuation for the benefits provided by the KNP is important data for stakeholders and local authorities. The travel cost method is used to estimate recreational demand for the KNP. The recreational value of the KNP is 103,320,074 USD annually. Results shed light on important policy issues and help to resolve conflicts among stakeholders. This calculated value is considerably higher than the annual investment and operation expenditures of the KNP. Sustainability of the important species around the lake could be achieved if the region's inhabitants are compensated by KNP visitors.

  7. Regionalized rainfall-runoff model to estimate low flow indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Florine; Folton, Nathalie; Oudin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Estimating low flow indices is of paramount importance to manage water resources and risk assessments. These indices are derived from river discharges which are measured at gauged stations. However, the lack of observations at ungauged sites bring the necessity of developing methods to estimate these low flow indices from observed discharges in neighboring catchments and from catchment characteristics. Different estimation methods exist. Regression or geostatistical methods performed on the low flow indices are the most common types of methods. Another less common method consists in regionalizing rainfall-runoff model parameters, from catchment characteristics or by spatial proximity, to estimate low flow indices from simulated hydrographs. Irstea developed GR2M-LoiEau, a conceptual monthly rainfall-runoff model, combined with a regionalized model of snow storage and melt. GR2M-LoiEau relies on only two parameters, which are regionalized and mapped throughout France. This model allows to cartography monthly reference low flow indices. The inputs data come from SAFRAN, the distributed mesoscale atmospheric analysis system, which provides daily solid and liquid precipitation and temperature data from everywhere in the French territory. To exploit fully these data and to estimate daily low flow indices, a new version of GR-LoiEau has been developed at a daily time step. The aim of this work is to develop and regionalize a GR-LoiEau model that can provide any daily, monthly or annual estimations of low flow indices, yet keeping only a few parameters, which is a major advantage to regionalize them. This work includes two parts. On the one hand, a daily conceptual rainfall-runoff model is developed with only three parameters in order to simulate daily and monthly low flow indices, mean annual runoff and seasonality. On the other hand, different regionalization methods, based on spatial proximity and similarity, are tested to estimate the model parameters and to simulate

  8. An updated estimate of costs of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery among Medicare patients: 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Schmier, Jordana K; Hulme-Lowe, Carolyn K; Covert, David W; Lau, Edmund C

    2016-01-01

    Background Endophthalmitis, which can occur after ophthalmic surgery, is an inflammation of the intraocular cavity and causes temporary or permanent vision impairment. However, little is known about the cost of treatment. The objective of this analysis was to update and expand upon the results of a previously published report that estimated the direct medical cost of treatment for endophthalmitis. Methods Retrospective data analysis using 2010 through 2014 United States Medicare Limited Data Sets. Procedure codes were used to identify beneficiaries who underwent cataract surgery; demographic and clinical characteristics at the time of diagnosis were determined. Patients were stratified into cases (those who developed endophthalmitis) and controls (those who did not develop endophthalmitis) in the 3 months following surgery. Claims (ie, charges) and reimbursements (ie, costs) for cases and controls in the 6 months following cataract surgery were identified and compared. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. Results Of a total of 153,860 cataract surgery patients, 181 were diagnosed with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery, at a rate of 1.2 per 1,000. Cases were more likely to be male and less likely to be white than controls; age was similar. Total medical claims and reimbursements as well as ophthalmic claims and reimbursements were significantly higher for cases compared with controls. Total reimbursements, adjusted for age, sex, and region, were $4,893 higher (83% greater) and adjusted ophthalmic reimbursements were $3,002 higher (156% greater) for cases than for controls. Claims and reimbursements were significantly higher across all types of Medicare cost components. Conclusion Postcataract surgery endophthalmitis is associated with a substantial cost. Successful prophylaxis with antibiotic agents would reduce the significant costs associated with treating endophthalmitis. PMID:27822008

  9. Scanning linear estimation: improvements over region of interest (ROI) methods.

    PubMed

    Kupinski, Meredith K; Clarkson, Eric W; Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-03-07

    In tomographic medical imaging, a signal activity is typically estimated by summing voxels from a reconstructed image. We introduce an alternative estimation scheme that operates on the raw projection data and offers a substantial improvement, as measured by the ensemble mean-square error (EMSE), when compared to using voxel values from a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) reconstruction. The scanning-linear (SL) estimator operates on the raw projection data and is derived as a special case of maximum-likelihood estimation with a series of approximations to make the calculation tractable. The approximated likelihood accounts for background randomness, measurement noise and variability in the parameters to be estimated. When signal size and location are known, the SL estimate of signal activity is unbiased, i.e. the average estimate equals the true value. By contrast, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affect standard algorithms that operate on reconstructed data. The SL method is demonstrated for two different tasks: (1) simultaneously estimating a signal's size, location and activity; (2) for a fixed signal size and location, estimating activity. Noisy projection data are realistically simulated using measured calibration data from the multi-module multi-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging system. For both tasks, the same set of images is reconstructed using the MLEM algorithm (80 iterations), and the average and maximum values within the region of interest (ROI) are calculated for comparison. This comparison shows dramatic improvements in EMSE for the SL estimates. To show that the bias in ROI estimates affects not only absolute values but also relative differences, such as those used to monitor the response to therapy, the activity estimation task is repeated for three different signal sizes.

  10. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  11. Application of parametric weight and cost estimating relationships to future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Morris, M. A.; Anderson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model comprised of system level weight and cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft is presented. In order to determine the production cost of future aircraft its weight is first estimated based on performance parameters, and then the cost is estimated as a function of weight. For initial evaluation CERs were applied to actual system weights of six aircraft (3 military and 3 commercial) with mean empty weights ranging from 30,000 to 300,000 lb. The resulting cost estimates were compared with actual costs. The average absolute error was only 4.3%. Then the model was applied to five aircraft still in the design phase (Boeing 757, 767 and 777, and BAC HS146-100 and HS146-200). While the estimates for the 757 and 767 are within 2 to 3 percent of their assumed break-even costs, it is recognized that these are very sensitive to the validity of the estimated weights, inflation factor, the amount assumed for nonrecurring costs, etc., and it is suggested that the model may be used in conjunction with other information such as RDT&E cost estimates and market forecasts. The model will help NASA evaluate new technologies and production costs of future aircraft.

  12. Estimating Development Cost of an Interactive Website Based Cancer Screening Promotion Program

    PubMed Central

    Lairson, David R.; Chung, Tong Han; Smith, Lisa G.; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Champion, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the initial development costs for an innovative talk show format tailored intervention delivered via the interactive web, for increasing cancer screening in women 50 to 75 who were non-adherent to screening guidelines for colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Methods The cost of the intervention development was estimated from a societal perspective. Micro costing methods plus vendor contract costs were used to estimate cost. Staff logs were used to track personnel time. Non-personnel costs include all additional resources used to produce the intervention. Results Development cost of the interactive web based intervention was $.39 million, of which 77% was direct cost. About 98% of the cost was incurred in personnel time cost, contract cost and overhead cost. Conclusions The new web-based disease prevention medium required substantial investment in health promotion and media specialist time. The development cost was primarily driven by the high level of human capital required. The cost of intervention development is important information for assessing and planning future public and private investments in web-based health promotion interventions. PMID:25749548

  13. Estimating development cost of an interactive website based cancer screening promotion program.

    PubMed

    Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Smith, Lisa G; Springston, Jeffrey K; Champion, Victoria L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the initial development costs for an innovative talk show format tailored intervention delivered via the interactive web, for increasing cancer screening in women 50-75 who were non-adherent to screening guidelines for colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. The cost of the intervention development was estimated from a societal perspective. Micro costing methods plus vendor contract costs were used to estimate cost. Staff logs were used to track personnel time. Non-personnel costs include all additional resources used to produce the intervention. Development cost of the interactive web based intervention was $.39 million, of which 77% was direct cost. About 98% of the cost was incurred in personnel time cost, contract cost and overhead cost. The new web-based disease prevention medium required substantial investment in health promotion and media specialist time. The development cost was primarily driven by the high level of human capital required. The cost of intervention development is important information for assessing and planning future public and private investments in web-based health promotion interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic for malaria in Extra-Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria have been demonstrated to be effective and they should replace microscopy in certain areas. Method The cost-effectiveness of five RDT and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, laboratory suppliers and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2010. Two costing methods were produced, based on exclusive-use microscopy or shared-use microscopy. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2010 U.S. dollars. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the cost-effectiveness analysis with exclusive-use microscopy, the RDT CareStart™ was the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy. Microscopy was the most expensive and most effective, with an additional case adequately diagnosed by microscopy costing US$ 35,550.00 in relation to CareStart™. In opposite, in the cost-effectiveness analysis with shared-use microscopy, the thick smear was extremely cost-effective. Introducing into the analytic model with shared-use microscopy a probability for individual access to the diagnosis, assuming a probability of 100% of access for a public health system user to any RDT and, hypothetically, of 85% of access to microscopy, this test saw its effectiveness reduced and was dominated by the RDT CareStart™. Conclusion The analysis of cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis technologies in the Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region depends on the exclusive or shared use of the microscopy. Following the assumptions of this study, shared-use microscopy would be the most cost

  15. Estimating the social cost of respiratory cancer cases attributable to occupational exposures in France.

    PubMed

    Serrier, Hassan; Sultan-Taieb, Hélène; Luce, Danièle; Bejean, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this article was to estimate the social cost of respiratory cancer cases attributable to occupational risk factors in France in 2010. According to the attributable fraction method and based on available epidemiological data from the literature, we estimated the number of respiratory cancer cases due to each identified risk factor. We used the cost-of-illness method with a prevalence-based approach. We took into account the direct and indirect costs. We estimated the cost of production losses due to morbidity (absenteeism and presenteeism) and mortality costs (years of production losses) in the market and nonmarket spheres. The social cost of lung, larynx, sinonasal and mesothelioma cancer caused by exposure to asbestos, chromium, diesel engine exhaust, paint, crystalline silica, wood and leather dust in France in 2010 were estimated at between 917 and 2,181 million euros. Between 795 and 2,011 million euros (87-92%) of total costs were due to lung cancer alone. Asbestos was by far the risk factor representing the greatest cost to French society in 2010 at between 531 and 1,538 million euros (58-71%), ahead of diesel engine exhaust, representing an estimated social cost of between 233 and 336 million euros, and crystalline silica (119-229 million euros). Indirect costs represented about 66% of total costs. Our assessment shows the magnitude of the economic impact of occupational respiratory cancers. It allows comparisons between countries and provides valuable information for policy-makers responsible for defining public health priorities.

  16. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.

  17. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  19. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Treesearch

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  20. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost estimates... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.330 Work write-ups and cost estimates. (a) HUD preparation of work write-ups. If needed, a work write-up, including plans...

  1. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost estimates... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.330 Work write-ups and cost estimates. (a) HUD preparation of work write-ups. If needed, a work write-up, including plans...

  2. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost estimates... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.330 Work write-ups and cost estimates. (a) HUD preparation of work write-ups. If needed, a work write-up, including plans...

  3. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost estimates... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.330 Work write-ups and cost estimates. (a) HUD preparation of work write-ups. If needed, a work write-up, including plans...

  4. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost estimates... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.330 Work write-ups and cost estimates. (a) HUD preparation of work write-ups. If needed, a work write-up, including plans...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  7. 40 CFR 265.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the post-closure cost estimate for inflation...-closure care cost estimate must be updated for inflation no later than 30 days after the close of the firm... current dollars or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator...

  8. 40 CFR 264.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility, the owner or operator must adjust the post-closure cost estimate for inflation within 60 days... cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal year... dollars or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for...

  9. Estimating the Cost of National Class Size Reductions under Different Policy Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Krop, Cathy; Gill, Brian P.; Reichardt, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Estimates the operational costs of nationwide class-size-reduction programs under various policy alternatives, including the specified class size, flexibility in implementation, and whether the policy is targeted toward at-risk students. Depending on the options, estimated costs range from about $2 billion per year to over $11 billion per year.…

  10. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  11. Techniques for estimating health care costs with censored data: an overview for the health services researcher

    PubMed Central

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wang, Xuesong; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Krahn, Murray D

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to review statistical techniques for estimating the mean population cost using health care cost data that, because of the inability to achieve complete follow-up until death, are right censored. The target audience is health service researchers without an advanced statistical background. Methods Data were sourced from longitudinal heart failure costs from Ontario, Canada, and administrative databases were used for estimating costs. The dataset consisted of 43,888 patients, with follow-up periods ranging from 1 to 1538 days (mean 576 days). The study was designed so that mean health care costs over 1080 days of follow-up were calculated using naïve estimators such as full-sample and uncensored case estimators. Reweighted estimators – specifically, the inverse probability weighted estimator – were calculated, as was phase-based costing. Costs were adjusted to 2008 Canadian dollars using the Bank of Canada consumer price index (http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/cpi.html). Results Over the restricted follow-up of 1080 days, 32% of patients were censored. The full-sample estimator was found to underestimate mean cost ($30,420) compared with the reweighted estimators ($36,490). The phase-based costing estimate of $37,237 was similar to that of the simple reweighted estimator. Conclusion The authors recommend against the use of full-sample or uncensored case estimators when censored data are present. In the presence of heavy censoring, phase-based costing is an attractive alternative approach. PMID:22719214

  12. A Review of Cost Estimates for Direct Spending Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-10

    savings estimated. OMB estimated savings of $124 billion for all of the fourteen bills—7 percent or $9 billion less than CBO. On balance , almost all of...five-year savings of $133.3 billion—a difference of $8.8 billion, or 7 percent. On balance , almost all of this difference arises in just three...go scorecard . If OMB moved to the CBO definitions for scoring, OMB’s estimate of pay-as-you-go savings in the Budget would be $24.4 billion. If CBO

  13. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  14. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yong, J H E; McGowan, T; Redmond-Misner, R; Beca, J; Warde, P; Gutierrez, E; Hoch, J S

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption.

  15. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  16. Estimating Resource Costs of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann; Johnson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this study identified the major activities and associated costs of school levy campaigns in five districts. The ingredients were divided into one of five cost categories--human resources, facilities, fees, marketing, and supplies. As to overall costs of the campaigns, estimates ranged…

  17. A computer program for estimating decommissioning costs for light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses a desk-top computer program has been developed for estimating the costs, waste volumes, and occupational radiation exposures associated with decommissioning light-water reactor power stations. Cost categories and cost algorithms used in the program are discussed and a brief description of the user interface is given.

  18. Estimating the Degree Cost Functions of the Philippines Public and Private Higher Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rufino, Cesar C.

    2006-01-01

    A flexible one-output and two-input cost function is estimated for the degree program offerings of public and private higher educational institutions (HEIs) of the Philippines, employing the data from a nationally representative sample of 29 HEIs. This model, called Flexible Fixed Cost Quadratic cost function includes as output--full time…

  19. The Pilot Training Study: A Cost-Estimating Model for Advanced Pilot Training (APT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knollmeyer, L. E.

    The Advanced Pilot Training Cost Model is a statement of relationships that may be used, given the necessary inputs, for estimating the resources required and the costs to train pilots in the Air Force formal flying training schools. Resources and costs are computed by weapon system on an annual basis for use in long-range planning or sensitivity…

  20. Estimating Resource Costs of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann; Johnson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this study identified the major activities and associated costs of school levy campaigns in five districts. The ingredients were divided into one of five cost categories--human resources, facilities, fees, marketing, and supplies. As to overall costs of the campaigns, estimates ranged…

  1. The Estimation of a Long Run Cost Function for West Virginia Public High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gary P.

    This paper sets out a model that generates new, relevant information about the relationship among educational output, scale, and perpupil costs. According to the author, this information, if used, would result in more efficient educational spending. Specifically, a long run average cost function is estimated. Minimum perpupil operating costs are…

  2. Estimating the costs of the vaccine supply chain and service delivery for selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Lorenson, Kristina; Chweya, Amos; Kigadye, Rosemary; Bartholomew, Kathryn; Makame, Mohammed; Lennon, T Patrick; Mwangi, Steven; Kirika, Lydia; Kamau, Peter; Otieno, Abner; Murunga, Peninah; Omurwa, Tom; Dafrossa, Lyimo; Kristensen, Debra

    2015-05-28

    Having data on the costs of the immunization system can provide decision-makers with information to benchmark the costs when evaluating the impact of new technologies or programmatic innovations. This paper estimated the supply chain and immunization service delivery costs and cost per dose in selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania. We also present operational data describing the supply chain and service delivery points (SDPs). To estimate the supply chain costs, we collected resource-use data for the cold chain, distribution system, and health worker time and per diems paid. We also estimated the service delivery costs, which included the time cost of health workers to provide immunization services, and per diems and transport costs for outreach sessions. Data on the annual quantities of vaccines distributed to each facility, and the occurrence and duration of stockouts were collected from stock registers. These data were collected from the national store, 2 regional and 4 district stores, and 12 SDPs in each country for 2012. Cost per dose for the supply chain and immunization service delivery were estimated. The average annual costs per dose at the SDPs were $0.34 (standard deviation (s.d.) $0.18) for Kenya when including only the vaccine supply chain costs, and $1.33 (s.d. $0.82) when including immunization service delivery costs. In Tanzania, these costs were $0.67 (s.d. $0.35) and $2.82 (s.d. $1.64), respectively. Both countries experienced vaccine stockouts in 2012, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine being more likely to be stocked out in Kenya, and oral poliovirus vaccine in Tanzania. When stockouts happened, they usually lasted for at least one month. Tanzania made investments in 2011 in preparation for planned vaccine introductions, and their supply chain cost per dose is expected to decline with the new vaccine introductions. Immunization service delivery costs are a significant portion of the total costs at the SDPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Estimation of regional differences in wind erosion sensitivity in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezősi, G.; Blanka, V.; Bata, T.; Kovács, F.; Meyer, B.

    2015-01-01

    In Hungary, wind erosion is one of the most serious natural hazards. Spatial and temporal variation in the factors that determine the location and intensity of wind erosion damage are not well known, nor are the regional and local sensitivities to erosion. Because of methodological challenges, no multi-factor, regional wind erosion sensitivity map is available for Hungary. The aim of this study was to develop a method to estimate the regional differences in wind erosion sensitivity and exposure in Hungary. Wind erosion sensitivity was modelled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available data sets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab on...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  9. Estimating the Costs of Torture: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Due to its nature, extent and consequences, torture is considered a major public health problem and a serious violation of human rights. Our study aims to set the foundation for a theoretical framework of the costs related to torture. It examines existing challenges and proposes some solutions. Our proposed framework targets policy makers, human rights activists, professionals working in programmes, centres and rehabilitation projects, judges and lawyers, survivors of torture and their families and anyone involved in the prevention and fight against this practice and its consequences. We adopted a methodology previously used in studies investigating the challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs in health disorders. We identify and discuss conceptual, methodological, political and ethical challenges that studies on the economic and social costs of torture pose and propose alternatives in terms of possible solutions to these challenges. The economic dimension of torture is rarely debated and integrated in research, policies and programmes. Several challenges such as epistemological, methodological, ethical or political ones have often been presented as obstacles to cost studies of torture and as an excuse for not investigating this dimension. In identifying, analysing and proposing solutions to these challenges, we intend to stimulate the integration of the economic dimension in research and prevention of torture strategies.

  10. ESTIMATING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY COSTS FOR THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the objectives of the EPA`s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program are two which pertain to the issue of economics: 1) That the program will provide a projected cost for each treatment technology demonstrated. 2) That the program will attempt to identify ...

  11. Aircraft Contractor Logistics Support: A Cost Estimating Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    April 1983. 17. Enright , Mike. C-20A Cost Analyst, WPAFB OH. Per- sonal interview. 15 August 1983. 18. Fatkin, Allen. AFSC CAIG Research Report NRI...Aviation, Peterson AFB CO. Telephone interview. 11 May 1983. 32. Robert , Bob. Engineer for Doss Aviation, Randolph AFB TX. Telephone interview. 17 June

  12. ESTIMATING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY COSTS FOR THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the objectives of the EPA`s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program are two which pertain to the issue of economics: 1) That the program will provide a projected cost for each treatment technology demonstrated. 2) That the program will attempt to identify ...

  13. Regional collaborative quality improvement for trauma reduces complications and costs.

    PubMed

    Hemmila, Mark R; Cain-Nielsen, Anne H; Wahl, Wendy L; Vander Kolk, Wayne E; Jakubus, Jill L; Mikhail, Judy N; Birkmeyer, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that quality improvement to reduce complications for trauma patients should decrease costs, studies have not addressed this question directly. In Michigan, trauma centers and a private payer have created a regional collaborative quality initiative (CQI). This CQI program began as a pilot in 2008 and expanded to a formal statewide program in 2010. We examined the relationship between outcomes and expenditures for trauma patients treated in collaborative participant and nonparticipant hospitals. Payer claims and collaborative registry data were analyzed for 30-day episode payments and serious complications in patients admitted with trauma diagnoses. Patients were categorized as treated in hospitals that had different CQI status: (1) never participated (Never-CQI); (2) collaborative participant, but patient treated before CQI initiation (Pre-CQI); or (3) active collaborative participant (Post-CQI). DRG International Classification of Diseases--9th Rev. codes were crosswalked to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005 codes. Episode payment data were risk adjusted (age, sex, comorbidities, type/severity of injury, and year of treatment), and price was standardized. Outcome data were risk adjusted. A serious complication consisted of one or more of the following occurrences: acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, cardiac arrest with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, decubitus ulcer, deep vein thrombosis, enterocutaneous fistula, extremity compartment syndrome, mortality, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, severe sepsis, stroke/cerebral vascular accident, unplanned intubation, or unplanned return to operating room. The risk-adjusted rate of serious complications declined from 14.9% to 9.1% (p < 0.001) in participating hospitals (Post-CQI, n = 26). Average episode payments decreased by $2,720 (from $36,043 to $33,323, p = 0.08) among patients treated in Post-CQI centers, whereas patients treated

  14. The hospital cost of road traffic accidents at a South African regional trauma centre: a micro-costing study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S J W; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes are responsible for a vast amount of death and disability in developing countries. This study uses a bottom up, micro-costing approach to determine the cost of road traffic related crashes in South Africa. Using the data from one hundred consecutive RTC related admissions to a regional hospital in South Africa we performed a bottom up costing study. To calculate costs patients were reviewed every 48 h and all interventions were recorded for each individual patient. Prices of interventions were obtained from hospital pricelists. A total cost was calculated on an individual basis. The total cost of in-patient care for these patients was US $6,98,850. Upper limb injuries were the most expensive, and the total cost increased with the number of body regions injured. The biggest expenditure was on ward overheads ($2,81,681). Ninety operations were performed - the total cost of theatre time was $1,48,230 and the cost of orthopaedic implants was $1,26,487. The cost of care of a RTC victim is significant. In light of the high numbers of RTC victims admitted over the course of the year this is a significant cost burden for a regional hospital to bear. This cost must be taken into account when allocating hospital budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Index cost estimate based BIM method - Computational example for sports fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents an example ofcost estimation in the early phase of the project. The fragment of relative database containing solution, descriptions, geometry of construction object and unit cost of sports facilities was shown. The Index Cost Estimate Based BIM method calculationswith use of Case Based Reasoning were presented, too. The article presentslocal and global similarity measurement and example of BIM based quantity takeoff process. The outcome of cost calculations based on CBR method was presented as a final result of calculations.

  16. Estimating the cost of new drug development: is it really 802 million dollars?

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher P; Brantner, Van V

    2006-01-01

    This paper replicates the drug development cost estimates of Joseph DiMasi and colleagues ("The Price of Innovation"), using their published cost estimates along with information on success rates and durations from a publicly available data set. For drugs entering human clinical trials for the first time between 1989 and 2002, the paper estimated the cost per new drug to be 868 million dollars. However, our estimates vary from around 500 million dollars to more than 2,000 million dollars, depending on the therapy or the developing firm.

  17. Region-based motion estimation for content-based video coding and indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Bertrand; Francois, Edouard

    2000-05-01

    For the past decade, the region-based approach, that combines object segmentation and optical flow estimation, has emerged as the only one likely to provide automatically, at a reasonable computational cost, higher-quality descriptions of 2D apparent motion in video sequences, as compared to conventional pixel-based motion estimation. Within this framework, a hybrid algorithm, embedding classical defense motion field estimation and color-based spatial segmentation, is presented. Per each, arbitrarily shaped, color-homogeneous region, a polynomial motion- parameter set is robustly estimated from pixel displacement vectors. Following a graph-based approach and starting from the initial color partition, neighboring regions are iteratively merged according to their mutual motion similarity. The obtained motion-homogeneous regions are eventually temporally tracked along the sequence. The region-based motion estimation algorithm is described in details and its computational complexity is loosely evaluated through processing time statistics on a workstation. The partition maps and modeled motion fields obtained on three well-known test sequences--`Table Tennis', `Mobile and calendar' and `Flower Garden'--are displayed. Alternative approaches in the literature are then assessed, their results being compared with the above ones. Application of such an automatic `mid-level' image analysis tool to object-based representation, manipulation and coding as well as indexing of video is outlined at last.

  18. Molten Salt: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, Larry; Andrew, Daniel; Adams, Shannon; Galluzzo, Geoff

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2

  19. Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Grabowski, Henry G; Hansen, Ronald W

    2016-05-01

    The research and development costs of 106 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug and biologics development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per approved new compound is $1395 million (2013 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 10.5% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of $2558 million (2013 dollars). When compared to the results of the previous study in this series, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 8.5% above general price inflation. Adding an estimate of post-approval R&D costs increases the cost estimate to $2870 million (2013 dollars). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: an estimation of costs.

    PubMed

    Dee, Anne; Callinan, Aoife; Doherty, Edel; O'Neill, Ciaran; McVeigh, Treasa; Sweeney, Mary Rose; Staines, Anthony; Kearns, Karen; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Sharp, Linda; Kee, Frank; Hughes, John; Balanda, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-03-16

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide continues to compromise population health and creates a wider societal cost in terms of productivity loss and premature mortality. Despite extensive international literature on the cost of overweight and obesity, findings are inconsistent between Europe and the USA, and particularly within Europe. Studies vary on issues of focus, specific costs and methods. This study aims to estimate the healthcare and productivity costs of overweight and obesity for the island of Ireland in 2009, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Costs were estimated across four categories: healthcare utilisation, drug costs, work absenteeism and premature mortality. Healthcare costs were estimated using Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs). PAFs were applied to national cost data for hospital care and drug prescribing. PAFs were also applied to social welfare and national mortality data to estimate productivity costs due to absenteeism and premature mortality. The healthcare costs of overweight and obesity in 2009 were estimated at €437 million for the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and €127.41 million for NI. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity was up to €865 million for ROI and €362 million for NI. The main drivers of healthcare costs are cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, colon cancer, stroke and gallbladder disease. In terms of absenteeism, low back pain is the main driver in both jurisdictions, and for productivity loss due to premature mortality the primary driver of cost is coronary heart disease. The costs are substantial, and urgent public health action is required in Ireland to address the problem of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, which if left unchecked will lead to unsustainable cost escalation within the health service and unacceptable societal costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence