Science.gov

Sample records for regional econmic impact

  1. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  2. Overview of the Impact Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-29

    On April 30th, this region of Mercury's surface will have a new crater! Traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), the MESSENGER spacecraft will collide with Mercury's surface, creating a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter. The large, 400-kilometer-diameter (250-mile-diameter), impact basin Shakespeare occupies the bottom left quarter of this image. Shakespeare is filled with smooth plains material, likely due to extensive lava flooding the basin in the past. As of 24 hours before the impact, the current best estimates predict that the spacecraft will strike a ridge slightly to the northeast of Shakespeare. View this image to see more details of the predicted impact site and time. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Latitude Range: 49°-59° N Longitude Range: 204°-217° E Topography: Exaggerated by a factor of 5.5. Colors: Coded by topography. The tallest regions are colored red and are roughly 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) higher than low-lying areas such as the floors of impact craters, colored blue. Scale: The large crater on the left side of the image is Janacek, with a diameter of 48 kilometers (30 miles) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19444

  3. Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

  4. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  5. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  6. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  7. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  8. Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, J. F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions J.-F. Lamarque, A. M. Fiore and D. Shindell In this talk, we present the analysis of constant -forcing present-day simulations pertaining to the perturbation of SO2 emissions over the United States and China. Using 3 chemistry-climate models (CESM, GFDL and GISS), we show that the removal of SO2 anthropogenic emissions over each region leads to significant (at the 95% or above; significance is also assessed relative to internal variability as determined from a 200-year control simulation with perpetual year 2000 conditions) perturbations in temperature over multiple regions of the Northern Hemisphere. While more limited, significant perturbations in regional precipitation are also found. While the overall (global and zonal means) forcing from Chinese emissions is similar to the US case, we found that the regional response to the emissions has different regional distributions.

  9. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  10. Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as

  11. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  12. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  13. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north.

  14. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north.

  15. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  16. Agriculture Impacts of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian

    2013-04-01

    One of the major consequences of nuclear war would be climate change due to massive smoke injection into the atmosphere. Smoke from burning cities can be lofted into the stratosphere where it will have an e-folding lifetime more than 5 years. The climate changes include significant cooling, reduction of solar radiation, and reduction of precipitation. Each of these changes can affect agricultural productivity. To investigate the response from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, we used the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer agricultural simulation model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices in China and the USA for rice, maize, wheat, and soybeans. Then we perturbed observed weather data using monthly climate anomalies for a 10-year period due to a simulated 5 Tg soot injection that could result from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using a total of 100 15 kt atomic bombs, much less than 1% of the current global nuclear arsenal. We computed anomalies using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE and NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We perturbed each year of the observations with anomalies from each year of the 10-year nuclear war simulations. We found that different regions respond differently to a regional nuclear war; southern regions show slight increases of crop yields while in northern regions crop yields drop significantly. Sensitivity tests show that temperature changes due to nuclear war are more important than precipitation and solar radiation changes in affecting crop yields in the regions we studied. In total, crop production in China and the USA would decrease 15-50% averaged over the 10 years using both models' output. Simulations forced by ModelE output show smaller impacts than simulations forced by WACCM output at the end of the 10 year period because of the different temperature responses in the two models.

  17. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-20

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00474

  18. Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

  19. Modeling Regional Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissonnade, A.; Hallegate, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Schlumberger, M.; Onur, T.

    2007-05-01

    Common features of natural disasters are intense regional impacts and the need for assessing their economic impacts on the construction sectors. The years 2004 and 2005 were record-setting time for natural disasters with major disasters or catastrophic (Cat) events all around the world with dramatic consequences in human lives and economic losses around the world, affecting developed and developing countries. Although there is a large body of literature on assessing the impact of cat events, there is little available research on the quantification and modeling of the regional economic impact of such events on the cost and length of reconstruction. Current available econometric models have serious limitations because they need detailed information for modeling the complex interactions between the different stakeholders of the economy at a regional level that is generally not available. Also, very little research was performed for quantifying the demand surge, defined as the sudden increase in the cost of repairs due to amplified payments, following a hurricane or a series of hurricane events or other natural disasters. Demand surge is an important component of the overall economic impact of cat events and there is a need to better quantify it. This paper presents results of a research program that started after the 2004 and 2005 U.S. hurricane seasons. A large data set of economic and observed losses resulting from the hurricanes that affected Florida and the Gulf states in the US was collected at county level. This provided us with the basis for assessing the change in repair costs before and after these historical events, to quantify the demand surge (after removing the underlying baseline trends) at several dozens of locations across the areas affected, and to provide information on how the changes in demand surge vary spatially and temporally in affected areas for which the amount of structure losses were reported. A parallel research effort was undertaken for

  20. Sustainable regional development and natural hazard impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena; Svetlosanov, Vladimir; Kudin, Valery

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, natural hazard impacts on social and economic development in many countries were increasing due to the expansion of human activities into the areas prone to natural risks as well as to increasing in number and severity of natural hazardous events caused by climate changes and other natural phenomena. The escalation of severe disasters (such as Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2011) triggered by natural hazards and related natural-technological and environmental events is increasingly threatening sustainable development at different levels from regional to global scale. In our study, we develop a model of ecological, economic and social sustainable development for the European part of Russia and the Republic of Belarus. The model consists of six blocks including 1) population, 2) environment, 3) mineral resources, 4) geographic space, 5) investments, and 6) food production and import. These blocks were created based on the analysis of the main processes at the regional level; all the blocks are closely interrelated between each other. Reaching the limit values of block parameters corresponds to a sharp deterioration of the system; as a result, the system can lose its stability. Aggravation of natural and natural-technological risk impacts on each block and should be taken into account in the model of regional development. Natural hazards can cause both strong influences and small but permanent perturbations. In both cases, a system can become unstable. The criterion for sustainable development is proposed. The Russian Foundation for Humanities and Belorussian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research supported the study (project 15-22-01008).

  1. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  2. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  3. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  4. Regional, Rural Home ABE Program Spells Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Claude

    Maine's State Division of Adult Education began setting up a regionalized Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in rural Franklin county in 1974 to serve the area's functional illiterates. Located in the building housing the Franklin County Community Action Program (CAP), linkages were developed with a large number of agencies; initially the 10 CAP…

  5. Impacts on regional climate of Amazon deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Kennedy, P. NCAR, Boulder, CO )

    1992-10-01

    A simulation of the climate response to Amazon deforestation has been carried out. Precipitation is decreased on the average by 25 percent or 1.4 mm/day, with ET and runoff both decreasing by 0.7 mm/day. Modifications of surface energy balance through change of albedo and roughness are complicated by cloud feedbacks. The initial decrease of the absorption of solar radiation by higher surface albedos is largely cancelled by a reduction in cloud cover, but consequent reduction in downward longwave has a substantial impact on surface energy balance. Smoke aerosols might have an effect comparable to deforestation during burning season. 8 refs.

  6. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  7. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  8. Impact of bioenergy on regionalized nitrogen balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häußermann, Uwe; Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Results of regionalized and overall net-N-balances are used to fulfil different reporting obligations, as well as input data for nitrate leaching modelling (Bach et al. 2014). For Germany, these regionalized net-N-balances are calculated for 402 administrative units on the NUTS-III-level (Landkreise and kreisfreie Städte in Germany), 16 administrative units on the NUTS-I-level (Bundesländer in Germany) and the whole country for every year from 1995 to 2015. The so far existing net-N-balancing method includes nitrogen inputs and outputs of crop production and animal husbandry, however, not the utilization of crops and farmyard manure for energy production (Bach et al. 2014). Due to the introduction of guaranteed feed in tariffs for electricity production from biomass by the German renewable energy law in 2000 and the introduction of more favourable conditions for electricity production from biogas in 2004 (EEG 2000, EEG 2004) in the frame of the German policy of energy transition towards renewable energies („Energiewende"), the electric capacity of biogas plants had a steep increase in the years afterwards, the installed electric capacity increased from 149 MW in 2004 to 5080 MW in 2015 (BMWi and AGEE Stat 2016). The cropping area for the production of energy cops for biogas production increased as well from 0.4 Mio ha in 2007 to 1.393 Mio ha in 2015 (Statista 2017). We introduced a method to calculate the nitrogen input via energy crops, farmyard manure and organic waste, output via biogas digestates and gaseous nitrogen losses via NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 during the anaerobic digestion, digestate storage and spreading on the field, the emission factors for these nitrogen species are obtained from the report on methods and data for the agricultural part of the German national greenhouse gas inventory and informative inventory report (Haenel et al. 2016). To obtain highly resolved information on the distribution and capacity of biogas plants on NUTS-III-level, we

  9. Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    A multiregional variable input-output (MRVIO) model is introduced to investigate the impact of a change in transportation costs on regional development and trade flows. The MRVIO model is a theoretically well-founded, practically useful, and policy sensitive model. The regional technical coefficients and the trade coefficients are endogenous variables to the MRVIO model. These coefficients are sensitive to the transportation costs as...transportation cost stimulates the regional development . However, its sensitivity differs among industries. (Author)

  10. Distal Ejecta from Lunar Impacts: Extensive Regions of Rocky Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A approximate 18,000 sq km area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5 deg E, 42.5 deg N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and aging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering approximately 730,000 sq km, centered near 310 deg E, 35 deg S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (approximately 10-30 deg) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history

  11. Distal ejecta from lunar impacts: Extensive regions of rocky deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A ∼18,000 km2 area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5°E, 42.5°N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and imaging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering ∼730,000 km2, centered near 310°E, 35°S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (∼10-30°) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history.

  12. Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: A region by region overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Raymond D.; Friess, Daniel A.; Day, Richard H.; MacKenzie, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Inter-related and spatially variable climate change factors including sea level rise, increased storminess, altered precipitation regime and increasing temperature are impacting mangroves at regional scales. This review highlights extreme regional variation in climate change threats and impacts, and how these factors impact the structure of mangrove communities, their biodiversity and geomorphological setting. All these factors interplay to determine spatially variable resiliency to climate change impacts, and because mangroves are varied in type and geographical location, these systems are good models for understanding such interactions at different scales. Sea level rise is likely to influence mangroves in all regions although local impacts are likely to be more varied. Changes in the frequency and intensity of storminess are likely to have a greater impact on N and Central America, Asia, Australia, and East Africa than West Africa and S. America. This review also highlights the numerous geographical knowledge gaps of climate change impacts, with some regions particularly understudied (e.g., Africa and the Middle East). While there has been a recent drive to address these knowledge gaps especially in South America and Asia, further research is required to allow researchers to tease apart the processes that influence both vulnerability and resilience to climate change. A more globally representative view of mangroves would allow us to better understand the importance of mangrove type and landscape setting in determining system resiliency to future climate change.

  13. Regional Scale Analyses of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, D. W.; Hayhoe, K.

    2006-12-01

    New statistically downscaled climate modeling techniques provide an opportunity for improved regional analysis of climate change impacts on agriculture. Climate modeling outputs can often simultaneously meet the needs of those studying impacts on natural as well as managed ecosystems. Climate outputs can be used to drive existing forest or crop models, or livestock models (e.g., temperature-humidity index model predicting dairy milk production) for improved information on regional impact. High spatial resolution climate forecasts, combined with knowledge of seasonal temperatures or rainfall constraining species ranges, can be used to predict shifts in suitable habitat for invasive weeds, insects, and pathogens, as well as cash crops. Examples of climate thresholds affecting species range and species composition include: minimum winter temperature, duration of winter chilling (vernalization) hours (e.g., hours below 7.2 C), frost-free period, and frequency of high temperature stress days in summer. High resolution climate outputs can also be used to drive existing integrated pest management models predicting crop insect and disease pressure. Collectively, these analyses can be used to test hypotheses or provide insight into the impact of future climate change scenarios on species range shifts and threat from invasives, shifts in crop production zones, and timing and regional variation in economic impacts.

  14. Minerals Strategic Impact on Regional Stability in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    explores the potential impact that gold, diamonds, and columbite - tantalite (coltan) has on regional stability in Africa. Recent studies indicate...market. The Importance/Attractiveness of Coltan The Democratic Republic of Congo holds 80% of the world’s reserve of colombo- tantalite ore, or coltan

  15. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  16. How global extinctions impact regional biodiversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shan; Davies, T. Jonathan; Gittleman, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) represents the evolutionary history of a species assemblage and is a valuable measure of biodiversity because it captures not only species richness but potentially also genetic and functional diversity. Preserving PD could be critical for maintaining the functional integrity of the world's ecosystems, and species extinction will have a large impact on ecosystems in areas where the ecosystem cost per species extinction is high. Here, we show that impacts from global extinctions are linked to spatial location. Using a phylogeny of all mammals, we compare regional losses of PD against a model of random extinction. At regional scales, losses differ dramatically: several biodiversity hotspots in southern Asia and Amazonia will lose an unexpectedly large proportion of PD. Global analyses may therefore underestimate the impacts of extinction on ecosystem processes and function because they occur at finer spatial scales within the context of natural biogeography. PMID:21957091

  17. Emission metrics for quantifying regional climate impacts of aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje; Bock, Lisa; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impacts of emissions from aviation in six source regions on global and regional temperatures. We consider the NOx-induced impacts on ozone and methane, aerosols and contrail-cirrus formation and calculate the global and regional emission metrics global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP) and absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP). The GWPs and GTPs vary by a factor of 2-4 between source regions. We find the highest aviation aerosol metric values for South Asian emissions, while contrail-cirrus metrics are higher for Europe and North America, where contrail formation is prevalent, and South America plus Africa, where the optical depth is large once contrails form. The ARTP illustrate important differences in the latitudinal patterns of radiative forcing (RF) and temperature response: the temperature response in a given latitude band can be considerably stronger than suggested by the RF in that band, also emphasizing the importance of large-scale circulation impacts. To place our metrics in context, we quantify temperature change in four broad latitude bands following 1 year of emissions from present-day aviation, including CO2. Aviation over North America and Europe causes the largest net warming impact in all latitude bands, reflecting the higher air traffic activity in these regions. Contrail cirrus gives the largest warming contribution in the short term, but remain important at about 15 % of the CO2 impact in several regions even after 100 years. Our results also illustrate both the short- and long-term impacts of CO2: while CO2 becomes dominant on longer timescales, it also gives a notable warming contribution already 20 years after the emission. Our emission metrics can be further used to estimate regional temperature change under alternative aviation emission scenarios. A first evaluation of the ARTP in the context of aviation suggests that further work to account for vertical sensitivities

  18. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  19. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  20. Impact of Asia Dust Aerosols on Regional Environment and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    East Asia is a major dust source in the world and has great impacts on regional climate in Asia, where the large arid and semi-arid regions are. In this study, the typical transport paths of East Asia dust, which affect regional and global climates, are demonstrated and numerous effects of dust aerosols on clouds and precipitation primarily over East Asian arid and semi-arid regions are discussed. Compared with the dust aerosols of Saharan, those of East Asian are more absorptive of solar radiation, and can influence the cloud properties not only by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei but also through changing the relative humidity and stability of the atmosphere (via semi-direct effect). Converting visible light to thermal energy, dust aerosols can burn clouds to produce a warming effect on climate, which is opposite to the first and second indirect effects of aerosols. Over Asia arid and semi-arid regions, the positive feedback in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction may aggravate drought in its inner land. Impact of Asia dust on regional environment, especially on haze weather, are also presented in this talk.

  1. Regional Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, K.; Burkett, V.; Grimm, N.; McCarthy, J.; Miles, E.; Overpeck, J.; Shea, E.; Wuebbles, D.

    2009-05-01

    Climate change will affect one region differently from another. For that reason, the U.S. Unified Synthesis Product "Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States" broke down its assessment of climate change impacts on the country into 8 regions. Key highlights include: In the Northeast, agricultural production, including dairy, fruit, and maple syrup, will be increasingly affected as favorable climates shift northward. In the Southeast, accelerated sea-level rise and increased hurricane intensity will have serious impacts. In the Midwest, under higher emissions scenarios, significant reductions in Great Lakes water levels will impact shipping, infrastructure, beaches, and ecosystems. In the Great Plains, projected increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency exacerbate concerns regarding the region's declining water resources. In the Southwest, water supplies will become increasingly scarce, calling for trade-offs among competing uses, and potentially leading to conflict. In the Northwest, salmon and other cold-water species will experience additional stresses as a result of rising water temperatures and declining summer streamflows. In Alaska, thawing permafrost damages roads, runways, water and sewer systems, and other infrastructure. And in the U.S. islands in the Caribbean and Pacific, climate changes affecting coastal and marine ecosystems will have major implications for tourism and fisheries. In addition, significant sea-level rise and storm surge will affect coastal cities and ecosystems around the nation; low-lying and subsiding areas are most vulnerable.

  2. Potential climatic impacts of vegetation change: A regional modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, J.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The human species has been modifying the landscape long before the development of modern agrarian techniques. Much of the land area of the conterminous United States is currently used for agricultural production. In certain regions this change in vegetative cover from its natural state may have led to local climatic change. A regional climate version of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to assess the impact of a natural versus current vegetation distribution on the weather and climate of July 1989. The results indicate that coherent regions of substantial changes, of both positive and negative sign, in screen height temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are a possible consequence of land use change throughout the United States. The simulated changes in the screen height quantities were closely related to changes in the vegetation parameters of albedo, roughness length, leaf area index, and fractional coverage. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  4. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  5. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum

    PubMed Central

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C.; Gray, Lesley J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Harder, Jerald W.; Knight, Jeff R.; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations. PMID:26102364

  6. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum.

    PubMed

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C; Gray, Lesley J; Scaife, Adam A; Dunstone, Nick J; Harder, Jerald W; Knight, Jeff R; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C; Wood, Richard A

    2015-06-23

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  7. Local and Regional Impacts of Large Scale Wind Energy Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalakes, J.; Hammond, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P.; Robinson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. is currently on a path to produce 20% of its electricity from wind energy by 2030, almost a 10-fold increase over present levels of electricity generated from wind. Such high-penetration wind energy deployment will entail extracting elevated energy levels from the planetary boundary layer and preliminary studies indicate that this will have significant but uncertain impacts on the local and regional environment. State and federal regulators have raised serious concerns regarding potential agricultural impacts from large farms deployed throughout the Midwest where agriculture is the basis of the local economy. The effects of large wind farms have been proposed to be both beneficial (drying crops to reduce occurrences of fungal diseases, avoiding late spring freezes, enhancing pollen viability, reducing dew duration) and detrimental (accelerating moisture loss during drought) with no conclusive investigations thus far. As both wind and solar technologies are deployed at scales required to replace conventional technologies, there must be reasonable certainty that the potential environmental impacts at the micro, macro, regional and global scale do not exceed those anticipated from carbon emissions. Largely because of computational limits, the role of large wind farms in affecting regional-scale weather patterns has only been investigated in coarse simulations and modeling tools do not yet exist which are capable of assessing the downwind affects of large wind farms may have on microclimatology. In this presentation, we will outline the vision for and discuss technical and scientific challenges in developing a multi-model high-performance simulation capability covering the range of mesoscale to sub-millimeter scales appropriate for assessing local, regional, and ultimately global environmental impacts and quantifying uncertainties of large scale wind energy deployment scenarios. Such a system will allow continuous downscaling of atmospheric processes on wind

  8. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=1058), and constituents of PM2.5 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network (n=264) and use satellite image analysis from the NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) to determine days on which visible smoke plumes are detected in the vertical column of the monitoring site. To examine the impact of smoke from these fires on regional air pollution we use a two stage approach, accounting for within site (1st stage) and between site (2nd stage) variations. At the first stage we estimate a monitor-specific plume day effect describing the relative change in pollutant concentrations on the days impacted by smoke plume while accounting for confounding effects of season and temperature_. At the second stage we combine monitor-specific plume day effects with a Bayesian hierarchical model and estimate a pooled nationally-averaged effect. HMS visible smoke plumes were detected on 6% of ozone, 8% of PM2.5 and 6% of IMPROVE network monitoring days. Our preliminary results indicate that the long range transport of air pollutants from wildfires and prescribed burns increase ozone concentration by 11% and PM2.5 mass by 34%. On all of the days where monitoring sites were AQI

  10. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  11. Ensemble-based Regional Climate Prediction: Political Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, E.; Dykema, J.; Satyanath, S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate, including temperature and precipitation, have significant implications for human activities, not just economically but socially. Sub Saharan Africa is a region that has displayed an exceptional propensity for devastating civil wars. Recent research in political economy has revealed a strong statistical relationship between year to year fluctuations in precipitation and civil conflict in this region in the 1980s and 1990s. To investigate how climate change may modify the regional risk of civil conflict in the future requires a probabilistic regional forecast that explicitly accounts for the community's uncertainty in the evolution of rainfall under anthropogenic forcing. We approach the regional climate prediction aspect of this question through the application of a recently demonstrated method called generalized scalar prediction (Leroy et al. 2009), which predicts arbitrary scalar quantities of the climate system. This prediction method can predict change in any variable or linear combination of variables of the climate system averaged over a wide range spatial scales, from regional to hemispheric to global. Generalized scalar prediction utilizes an ensemble of model predictions to represent the community's uncertainty range in climate modeling in combination with a timeseries of any type of observational data that exhibits sensitivity to the scalar of interest. It is not necessary to prioritize models in deriving with the final prediction. We present the results of the application of generalized scalar prediction for regional forecasts of temperature and precipitation and Sub Saharan Africa. We utilize the climate predictions along with the established statistical relationship between year-to-year rainfall variability in Sub Saharan Africa to investigate the potential impact of climate change on civil conflict within that region.

  12. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  13. Regional hydro-climatic impacts of contemporary Amazonian deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Jaya

    More than 17% of the Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important climatological and societal impacts. This thesis is devoted to identifying and explaining the regional hydroclimatic impacts of this change employing multidecadal satellite observations and numerical simulations providing an integrated perspective on this topic. The climatological nature of this study motivated the implementation and application of a cloud detection technique to a new geostationary satellite dataset. The resulting sub daily, high spatial resolution, multidecadal time series facilitated the detection of trends and variability in deforestation triggered cloud cover changes. The analysis was complemented by satellite precipitation, reanalysis and ground based datasets and attribution with the variable resolution Ocean-Land-Atmosphere-Model. Contemporary Amazonian deforestation affects spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers. But, unlike the well-studied impacts of a few kilometers scale deforestation, the climatic response to contemporary, large scale deforestation is neither well observed nor well understood. Employing satellite datasets, this thesis shows a transition in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing scales of deforestation, with downwind deforested regions receiving 25% more and upwind deforested regions receiving 25% less precipitation from the deforested area mean. Simulations robustly reproduce these shifts when forced with increasing deforestation alone, suggesting a negligible role of large-scale decadal climate variability in causing the shifts. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness variations are found necessary to reproduce the observed spatial patterns in recent times illustrating the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation. This phenomenon, inconsequential during the wet season, is found to substantially affect the regional hydroclimate in the local dry and parts of

  14. Earth Impact Effects Program: Estimating the Regional Environmental Consequences of Impacts On Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.; Marcus, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects) is a popular web-based calculator for estimating the regional environmental consequences of a comet or asteroid impact on Earth. It is widely used, both by inquisitive members of the public as an educational device and by scientists as a simple research tool. It applies a variety of scaling laws, based on theory, nuclear explosion test data, observations from terrestrial and extraterrestrial craters and the results of small-scale impact experiments and numerical modelling, to quantify the principal hazards that might affect the people, buildings and landscape in the vicinity of an impact. The program requires six inputs: impactor diameter, impactor density, impact velocity prior to atmospheric entry, impact angle, and the target type (sedimentary rock, crystalline rock, or a water layer above rock), as well as the distance from the impact at which the environmental effects are to be calculated. The program includes simple algorithms for estimating the fate of the impactor during atmospheric traverse, the thermal radiation emitted by the impact plume (fireball) and the intensity of seismic shaking. The program also approximates various dimensions of the impact crater and ejecta deposit, as well as estimating the severity of the air blast in both crater-forming and airburst impacts. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of the program by comparing its predictions (where possible) against known impacts, such as Carancas, Peru (2007); Tunguska, Siberia (1908); Barringer (Meteor) crater, Arizona (ca 49 ka). These tests demonstrate that, while adequate for large impactors, the simple approximation of atmospheric entry in the original program does not properly account for the disruption and dispersal of small impactors as they traverse Earth's atmosphere. We describe recent improvements to the calculator to better describe atmospheric entry of small meteors; the consequences of oceanic impacts; and

  15. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  16. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large <span class="hlt">region</span> of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium <span class="hlt">region</span>" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178755"><span>Renewable biomass energy: Understanding <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of growing energy crops at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable <span class="hlt">impact</span> of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) <span class="hlt">region</span>. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915883L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915883L"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> (RTP) coefficients, which directly link <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol or aerosol precursor emissions to the temperature response in different <span class="hlt">regions</span>. These RTP coefficients can provide a simplified way to perform an initial evaluation of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of e.g. different emission policy pathways and pollution abatement strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41F1142C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41F1142C"><span>Salinity <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these <span class="hlt">regions</span> are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of salinity in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of salinity in fresh water in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031907','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031907"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> effects and <span class="hlt">regional</span> tectonic insights: Backstripping the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hayden, T.; Kominz, M.; Powars, D.S.; Edwards, L.E.; Miller, K.G.; Browning, J.V.; Kulpecz, A.A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure is a ca. 35.4 Ma crater located on the eastern seaboard of North America. Deposition returned to normal shortly after <span class="hlt">impact</span>, resulting in a unique record of both <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related and subsequent passive margin sedimentation. We use backstripping to show that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> strongly affected sedimentation for 7 m.y. through <span class="hlt">impact</span>-derived crustal-scale tectonics, dominated by the effects of sediment compaction and the introduction and subsequent removal of a negative thermal anomaly instead of the expected positive thermal anomaly. After this, the area was dominated by passive margin thermal subsidence overprinted by periods of <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale vertical tectonic events, on the order of tens of meters. Loading due to prograding sediment bodies may have generated these events. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714640Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714640Z"><span>The <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Environmental <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate system at the MENA <span class="hlt">region</span>. At <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, <span class="hlt">regional</span> dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6347Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6347Z"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and Global <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Megacity Air Pollution in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Renyi</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00466&hterms=starfish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstarfish','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00466&hterms=starfish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstarfish"><span>Venus - Large <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater in the Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This Magellan image shows an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in the central Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the equatorial highlands of Venus. It is centered at 15 degrees north latitude and 5 degrees east longitude. The image is 76.8 kilometers (48 miles) wide. The crater is slightly irregular in planform and approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter. The walls appear terraced. Five or six lobes of radar-bright ejecta radiate up to 13.2 kilometers (8 miles) from the crater rim. These lobes are up to 3.5 kilometers (2 miles) in width and form a 'starfish' pattern against the underlying radar-dark plains. The asymmetric pattern of the ejecta suggests the angle of <span class="hlt">impact</span> was oblique. The alignment of two of the ejecta lobes along fractures in the underlying plains is apparently coincidental.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0190Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0190Y"><span>Forecasting energy security <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of biofuels using <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Campbell, E.; Snyder, M. A.; Sloan, L.; Kueppers, L. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Production of biofuels in the U.S. is growing rapidly, with corn providing the dominant feedstock for current production and corn stover potentially providing a critical feedstock source for future cellulosic ethanol production. While production of domestic biofuels is thought to improve energy security, future changes in climate may <span class="hlt">impact</span> crop yield variability and erode the energy security benefits of biofuels. Here we examine future yield variability for corn and soy using RegCM <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate data from NARCAPP, historical agronomic data, and statistical models of yield variability. Our simulations of historical yield anomalies using monthly temperature and precipitation data from RegCM show robust relationships to observed yield anomalies. Simulations of future yield anomalies show increased yield variability relative to historical yield variability in the <span class="hlt">region</span> of high corn production. Since variability in energy supply is a critical concern for energy security we suggest that the climate-induced yield variability on critical biofuels feedstocks be explored more widely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..3621806G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..3621806G"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of U.S. biofuels on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Recent work has shown that current bio-energy policy directives may have harmful, indirect consequences, affecting both food security and the global climate system. An additional unintended but direct effect of large-scale biofuel production is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate resulting from changes in the energy and moisture balance of the surface upon conversion to biofuel crops. Using the latest version of the WRF modeling system we conducted twenty-four, midsummer, continental-wide, sensitivity experiments by imposing realistic biophysical parameter limits appropriate for bio-energy crops in the Corn Belt of the United States. In the absence of strain/crop-specific parameterizations, a primary goal of this work was to isolate the maximum <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impact</span>, for a trio of individual July months, due to land-use change resulting from bio-energy crops and to identify the relative importance of each biophysical parameter in terms of its individual effect. Maximum, local changes in 2 m temperature of the order of 1°C occur for the full breadth of albedo (ALB), minimum canopy resistance (RCMIN), and rooting depth (ROOT) specifications, while the <span class="hlt">regionally</span> (105°W-75°W and 35°N-50°N) and monthly averaged response of 2 m temperature was most pronounced for the ALB and RCMIN experiments, exceeding 0.2°C. The full range of albedo variability associated with biofuel crops may be sufficient to drive <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in summertime rainfall. Individual parameter effects on 2 m temperature are additive, highlight the cooling contribution of higher leaf area index (LAI) and ROOT for perennial grasses (e.g., Miscanthus) versus annual crops (e.g., maize), and underscore the necessity of improving location- and vegetation-specific representation of RCMIN and ALB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1217A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1217A"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a biofuels policy projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Christopher J.; Anex, Robert P.; Arritt, Raymond W.; Gelder, Brian K.; Khanal, Sami; Herzmann, Daryl E.; Gassman, Phillip W.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The potential for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change arising from adoption of policies to increase production of biofuel feedstock is explored using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model. Two simulations are performed using the same atmospheric forcing data for the period 1979-2004, one with present-day land use and monthly phenology and the other with land use specified from an agro-economic prediction of energy crop distribution and monthly phenology consistent with this land use change. In Kansas and Oklahoma, where the agro-economic model predicts 15-30% conversion to switchgrass, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model simulates locally lower temperature (especially in spring), slightly higher relative humidity in spring and slightly lower relative humidity in summer, and summer depletion of soil moisture. This shows the potential for climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of biofuel policies and raises the question of whether soil water depletion may limit biomass crop productivity in agricultural areas that are responsive to the policies. We recommend the use of agronomic models to evaluate the possibility that soil moisture depletion could reduce productivity of biomass crops in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. We conclude, therefore, that agro-economic and climate models should be used iteratively to examine an ensemble of agricultural land use and climate scenarios, thereby reducing the possibility of unforeseen consequences from rapid changes in agricultural production systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W"><span>The Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a period of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the Atlantic overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> was obtained in the Arctic <span class="hlt">region</span>. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature <span class="hlt">impact</span> was found over the Atlantic and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470950"><span>Global extreme events and their <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>: 1996 update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global extreme events are what mankind needs to focus on in government and private sector policy and planning. The economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of global warming has been tracked by the Extreme Event Index (EEI) established by the Global Warming International Center (GWIC). This review will update the overall trend and the components of the EEI from 1960 to 1996. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> components of the global EEI have provided an excellent gauge for measuring the statistical vulnerability of any geographical locality in climate related economic disasters. The author further explains why we no longer fully understand the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these extreme events, precipitation and temperature oscillations, atmospheric thermal unrest, as well as the further stratification of clouds, and changes in the absorptive properties of clouds. Hurricane strength winds are increasingly common even in continental areas. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts a high public health risk as a result of the earth`s transition to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AUGGM..67...63M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AUGGM..67...63M"><span>The hydrological consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the Lublin <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michalczyk, Zdzisław; Mięsiak-Wójcik, Katarzyna; Sposób, Joanna; Turczyński, Marek</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Lublin <span class="hlt">Region</span> is an area where local transformations in the natural environment, including the hydrosphere, occur. They result from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of agriculture, industry as well as water supply and sewage disposal. These activities lead to changes in the water network resulting from land improvement works, channel straightening and water runoff acceleration, as well as to the formation of local, both point and diffuse sources, of water pollution. The consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> are manifested in local transformations of the quality or quantity of water resources. As a result of intense groundwater draw-off, hydrogeological conditions are transformed, which is reflected in the persistence of depression cones of varied size and depth, noticeable in the vicinity of water intakes for Lublin, Chełm, Zamość and Kraśnik. The lowering of the first-level groundwater table also occurs as a consequence of the drainage of chalk and marl mine workings in Chełm and Rejowiec, whereas in the area of the hard coal mine both shallow and deep groundwater was transformed. It is important to indicate the consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> changes of water conditions as the hydrosphere resources should be used according to the principles of sustainable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1909H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1909H"><span>Physical processes mediating climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> sea ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holt, J.; Schrum, C.; Cannaby, H.; Daewel, U.; Allen, I.; Artioli, Y.; Bopp, L.; Butenschon, M.; Fach, B. A.; Harle, J.; Pushpadas, D.; Salihoglu, B.; Wakelin, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> seas are exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore these physical processes and their biophysical interactions, and the effects of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial change on them. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within <span class="hlt">regional</span> seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: on long term changes in elemental budgets, on seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly on direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five <span class="hlt">regional</span> models systems using ECOSMO, POLCOMS-ERSEM and BIMS_ECO. These cover the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and a <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Northeast Atlantic, using a common global ocean-atmosphere model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and a more detailed analysis of the POLCOMS-ERSEM model. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from the varying mixing and circulation conditions. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas (Black and Baltic Seas) the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046999','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046999"><span>Scenarios of bioenergy development <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater withdrawals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin <span class="hlt">region</span> of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the <span class="hlt">region</span>, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510705N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510705N"><span>Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online: A web platform for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nocke, Thomas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Climate change is widely known but there is often uncertainty about the specific effects. One of the key tasks is - beyond discussing climate change and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in specialist groups - to present these to a wider audience. In that respect, decision-makers in the public sector as well as directly affected professional groups require to obtain easy-to-understand information. These groups are not made up of specialist scientists. This gives rise to two challenges: (1) the complex information must be presented such that it is commonly understood, and (2) access to the information must be easy. Interested parties do not have time to familiarize themselves over a lengthy period, but rather want to immediately work with the information. Beside providing climate information globally, <span class="hlt">regional</span> information become of increasing interest for local decision making regarding awareness building and adaptation options. In addition, current web portals mainly focus on climate information, considering climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on different sectors only implicitly. As solution, Potsdam Institute for Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research and WetterOnline have jointly developed an Internet portal that is easy to use, groups together interesting information about climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and offers it in a directly usable form. This new web portal Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online.com provides detailed information, combining multiple sectors for the test case of Germany. For this <span class="hlt">region</span>, numerous individual studies on climate change have been prepared by various institutions. These studies differ in terms of their aim, <span class="hlt">region</span> and time period of interest. Thus, the goal of Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online.com is to present a synthesized view on <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global climate change on hydrology, agriculture, forest, energy, tourism and health sector. The climate and <span class="hlt">impact</span> variables are available on a decadal time resolution for the period from 1901-2100, combining observed data and future projections. Detailed information are presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1743A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1743A"><span>A Multihazard <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Level <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment for South Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic <span class="hlt">regional</span>-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a <span class="hlt">region</span> are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) <span class="hlt">regional</span>-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (<span class="hlt">regions</span>/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43I..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43I..02B"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Carbonaceous Aerosols, 1850-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, S. E.; Bausch, A.; Nazarenko, L. S.; Tsigaridis, K.; McConnell, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in ice cores allow us to study historical atmospheric compositions. These datasets in combination with climate models are of great value when examining the role of anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and their role in past and future climates. In this presentation we analyze four transient climate simulations performed with the GISS-modelE climate model. Simulations differ in ocean couplings and aerosol schemes. One aerosol scheme, MATRIX, resolves aerosol microphysics and tracks mass-, number concentrations and aerosol mixing state information. The second scheme is a mass based scheme, but includes a secondary organic aerosol model. The two oceans are ocean A, which uses prescribed sea surface temperatures, and ocean C, a fully coupled dynamical ocean model. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> analysis for past and future (1850-2100) simulations will focus on Greenland, the Himalayas and the Antarctic. Each <span class="hlt">region</span> has its specific characteristic; Greenland's historic atmospheric chemistry is strongly influenced by pre-industrial land clearing, whereas its future seems to be dominated by cloud feedbacks; the Antarctic is a good indicator for remote background conditions here differences in aging and removal between the different schemes can be detected; the Himalayas show the most complicated feedbacks, due to its complex terrain, several distinctive different air-mass types influence the <span class="hlt">region</span> as well as dynamical systems. The two different ocean schemes show a shift in the ITCZ, <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the distribution of carbonaceous aerosols. In the end, future climate projections of the focus <span class="hlt">regions</span> along CMIP5s four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM52C..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM52C..04G"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> United States electric field and GIC hazard <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gannon, J. L.; Balch, C. C.; Trichtchenko, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. However, the magnitude of the induced electric field response at the ground level, and therefore the resulting hazard to the bulk power system, is determined not only by magnetic drivers, but also by the underlying geology. Convolution techniques are used to calculate surface electric fields beginning from the spectral characteristics of magnetic field drivers and the frequency response of the local geology. Using these techniques, we describe historical scenarios for <span class="hlt">regions</span> across the United States, and the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of large events on electric power infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00466.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00466.html"><span>Venus - Large <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater in the Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-09-26</p> <p>This image from NASA Magellan spacecraft shows the central Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the equatorial highlands of Venus. It is centered at 15 degrees north latitude and 5 degrees east longitude. The image is 76.8 kilometers (48 miles) wide. The crater is slightly irregular in platform and approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter. The walls appear terraced. Five or six lobes of radar-bright ejecta radiate up to 13.2 kilometers (8 miles) from the crater rim. These lobes are up to 3.5 kilometers (2 miles) in width and form a "starfish" pattern against the underlying radar-dark plains. The asymmetric pattern of the ejecta suggests the angle of <span class="hlt">impact</span> was oblique. The alignment of two of the ejecta lobes along fractures in the underlying plains is apparently coincidental. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032963','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032963"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High Resolution SST Data on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Weather Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193359','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193359"><span>Outreach <span class="hlt">impact</span> study: the case of the Greater Midwest <span class="hlt">Region</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest <span class="hlt">Region</span> (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364950','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364950"><span>Octarepeat <span class="hlt">region</span> flexibility <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prion function, endoproteolysis and disease manifestation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lau, Agnes; McDonald, Alex; Daude, Nathalie; Mays, Charles E; Walter, Eric D; Aglietti, Robin; Mercer, Robert CC; Wohlgemuth, Serene; van der Merwe, Jacques; Yang, Jing; Gapeshina, Hristina; Kim, Chae; Grams, Jennifer; Shi, Beipei; Wille, Holger; Balachandran, Aru; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Safar, Jiri G; Millhauser, Glenn L; Westaway, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The cellular prion protein (PrPC) comprises a natively unstructured N-terminal domain, including a metal-binding octarepeat <span class="hlt">region</span> (OR) and a linker, followed by a C-terminal domain that misfolds to form PrPSc in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrPC β-endoproteolysis to the C2 fragment allows PrPSc formation, while α-endoproteolysis blocks production. To examine the OR, we used structure-directed design to make novel alleles, ‘S1’ and ‘S3’, locking this <span class="hlt">region</span> in extended or compact conformations, respectively. S1 and S3 PrP resembled WT PrP in supporting peripheral nerve myelination. Prion-infected S1 and S3 transgenic mice both accumulated similar low levels of PrPSc and infectious prion particles, but differed in their clinical presentation. Unexpectedly, S3 PrP overproduced C2 fragment in the brain by a mechanism distinct from metal-catalysed hydrolysis reported previously. OR flexibility is concluded to <span class="hlt">impact</span> diverse biological endpoints; it is a salient variable in infectious disease paradigms and modulates how the levels of PrPSc and infectivity can either uncouple or engage to drive the onset of clinical disease. PMID:25661904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28851154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28851154"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of tropical cyclone track change on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lam, Yun Fat; Cheung, Hung Ming; Ying, Chi Cheong</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>There has been an increase in tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific (WNP) that traverse with a northward recurving track towards East Asia and a decrease in TC tracks entering the South China Sea (SCS) in the past few decades. To investigate the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the prevailing TC track change on Hong Kong air quality, an analysis has been carried out based on historical data (1991 to 2010) of TC tracks and air quality. Compared to TCs in other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, TCs in the vicinity of Taiwan (<span class="hlt">Region</span> 2, R2) have the greatest <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Hong Kong air quality due to <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport of air pollutants from the highly industrialized Pearl River Delta (PRD). In the last twenty years, the number of days with TCs in R2 (May to October) has increased by 45% from 111days in the period 1991-2000 to 161days in 2001-2010, during which there was an increase in yearly TC-related pollution episodes of approximately 3 episodes per year in Hong Kong. The enhancement of mean O3 concentration due to TCs in R2 is reported as 82% (~50.8μg/m(3) at a rural station) and 58% (~16.8μg/m(3) at an urban station) higher than the summer averages. A similar enhancement is also observed for PM10 (called RSP) and SO2 with an average of 70% (i.e., 22.2μg/m(3)) and 100% (i.e., 15.2μg/m(3)) increases, respectively. Overall, the 20years of historical data show that the O3 concentrations on the TC-affected days are increasing at the estimated rates of 0.5μg/m(3) and 2.6μg/m(3) per year, respectively, in the urban and remote areas, which are significantly higher than the increase of 0.3μg/m(3) and 0.4μg/m(3) per year in the average summer concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1532B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1532B"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate change on infrastructure in permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beloloutskaia, M.; Anisimov, O.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>There is a growing evidence of enhanced warming over the permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural and human systems are expected. Changes in the temperature, distribution, and depth of seasonal thawing of permafrost will have direct and immediate implications for the infrastructure built upon it. The mechanical strength of permafrost decreases with warming, resulting in damage to and possible failure of buildings, pipelines, and transportation facilities. Extensive infrastructure was developed in the Arctic largely in association with the extraction and transportation industries. Several large cities in Russia with few hundred thousand population are of particular concern since many buildings there have already been affected by the changes in permafrost properties. Detrimental changes in permafrost conditions are often not abrupt. Instead, they evolve gradually and can be predicted and monitored, allowing avoidance of catastrophic events and mitigation of negative consequences. Climate-induced threats to infrastructure in permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span> may be evaluated using a numerical "settlement" index, Iset, which allows to classify modern permafrost with respect to its potential for thermokarst development: Iset = dZ * W, where dZ is the relative change in the depth of seasonal thawing predicted by permafrost model for the conditions of the future climate and W is the volumetric proportion of near surface soil occupied by ground ice. Permafrost model of intermediate complexity (Koudriavtcev's model) was used with selected GCM-based scenarios of climate change to construct predictive maps of "settlement" index for the mid-21st century. Circumpolar permafrost area was partitioned into zones of high, moderate, and low hazard potential. Despite discrepancies in details, all scenarios yield a zone in the high-risk category distributed discontinuously around the margins of the Arctic Ocean, indicating high potential for coastal erosion. Several population centers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53A1830M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53A1830M"><span>A New Map of the Tyre <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Europa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, H. M.; Prockter, L. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Images of the Tyre feature obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Solid State Imager (SSI) at ~170 m/pixel show concentric graben and multiple secondary craters surrounding a central rough-textured circular <span class="hlt">region</span>, indicating an <span class="hlt">impact</span> origin. Only crosscut by two double ridges and a large fracture, the crater is young relative to the surrounding terrain. The crater and its surroundings were mapped by Kadel et al. (2000), who also interpreted the geological history of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. We have remapped the Tyre area for the specific purpose of creating a product that can be used for detailed comparison with 6 km/pixel Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data. The combined SSI and NIMS product will be used to determine variations in composition among different units using linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra, a technique that has been successfully implemented elsewhere on Europa by e.g., Shirley et al. (2010). The major difference between our mapping results and those of Kadel et al. is that we subdivide some of the units, in order to better compare them with NIMS pixels in the next (future) phase of the study. We use an orthographic projection centered at 34 N, 146 W, and construct a geologic map that extends from 25 N to 42 N and 153 W to 133 W. We identify a number of units, subunits and structural features on the basis of relative albedo and morphology. The units are grouped into six categories: Crater materials, chaos, ridges, bands, pre-<span class="hlt">impact</span> background terrains, and indeterminate features. Many of these units are consistent with those found in the Kadel et al. study, but we find a number of bands and chaos-related materials in the background ridged plains, that have not been mapped elsewhere. These are of a sufficient size to be relevant to our future compositional analysis. We find three types of chaos (compared to two from the previous study), which are primarily concentrated in the south of the study <span class="hlt">region</span>. Type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1824R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1824R"><span>Climatic Consequences and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Nuclear Conflict</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian; Xia, Lili</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere. This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface. Simulations with the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade. The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over several <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819867','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819867"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Opioid Treatment on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gastrointestinal Transit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poulsen, Jakob L; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background/Aims To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of opioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and <span class="hlt">regional</span> GI transit times using the 3-dimensional (3D)-Transit system. Methods Twenty-five healthy males were randomly assigned to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a double blind, crossover design. Adverse GI effects were measured with the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipation symptom questionnaire, and Bristol stool form scale. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> GI transit times were determined using the 3D-Transit system, and segmental transit times in the colon were determined using a custom Matlab® graphical user interface. Results GI symptom scores increased significantly across all applied GI questionnaires during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P < 0.001), segmental transit times in the cecum and ascending colon from 5.7 to 9.9 hours (P = 0.012), rectosigmoid colon transit from 2.7 to 9.0 hours (P = 0.044), and colorectal transit time from 18.6 to 38.6 hours (P = 0.001). No associations between questionnaire scores and segmental transit times were detected. Conclusions Self-assessed GI adverse effects and increased GI transit times in different segments were induced during oxycodone treatment. This detailed information about segmental changes in motility has great potential for future interventional head-to-head trials of different laxative regimes for prevention and treatment of constipation. PMID:26811503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811503"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Opioid Treatment on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gastrointestinal Transit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poulsen, Jakob L; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M</p> <p>2016-04-30</p> <p>To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> ofopioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and <span class="hlt">regional</span> GItransit times using the 3-dimensional (3D)-Transit system. Twenty-five healthy males were randomly assigned to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a double blind, crossover design. AdverseGI effects were measured with the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipationsymptom questionnaire, and Bristol stool form scale. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> GI transit times were determined using the 3D-Transit system, and segmental transit times in the colon were determined using a custom Matlab(®) graphical user interface. GI symptom scores increased significantly across all applied GI questionnaires during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P < 0.001), segmental transit times in the cecum and ascending colon from 5.7 to 9.9 hours (P = 0.012), rectosigmoid colon transit from 2.7 to 9.0 hours (P = 0.044), and colorectal transit time from 18.6 to 38.6 hours (P= 0.001). No associations between questionnaire scores and segmental transit times were detected. Self-assessed GI adverse effects and increased GI transit times in different segments were induced during oxycodone treatment. This detailed information about segmental changes in motility has great potential for future interventional head-to-head trials of different laxative regimes for prevention and treatment of constipation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-water-sector/regional-actions-address-climate-change-impacts-water','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-water-sector/regional-actions-address-climate-change-impacts-water"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Actions to Address Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA's ten <span class="hlt">regions</span> work to address climate change on a local level, implementing <span class="hlt">regionally</span> important solutions and working with stakeholders on the ground. Many <span class="hlt">regional</span> partners work closely with EPA to better implement climate solutions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.559S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.559S"><span>In Brief: U.S. <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>On 4 December, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change released a report that assesses climate vulnerabilities in four different areas of the United States. ``<span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change: Four case studies in the United States'' notes that midwestern cities are likely to experience more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves; that wildfires are likely to increase in the U.S. West; that sustaining fragile Gulf Coast wetlands ecosystems will be increasingly difficult due to climate change; and that the Chesapeake Bay may respond to climate change with more frequent and larger hypoxia events. The report indicates that adaptation measures need to be a critical component of any long-term U.S. climate strategy. ``The degree to which we can adapt to the consequences of climate change will be determined in large part by the policies and management practices we put in place today,'' said Pew Center president Eileen Claussen. For more information, visit the Web site: http://www.pewclimate.org.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..07M"><span>U.S. Global Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Report, Alaska <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuire, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The assessment of the Global Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are different from <span class="hlt">region</span> to <span class="hlt">region</span> and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10787','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10787"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of technical change: the case of structural particleboard in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Zhi Xu; David N. Bengston; Hans M. Gregersen; Allen L. Lundgren</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of research benefits in the United States due to the introduction of structural particleboard. The distribution of consumer benefits, producer benefits, direct employment <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and changes in wood requirements are analyzed for the four census <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The distribution of benefits is found to differ widely between <span class="hlt">regions</span>, indicating...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-28/pdf/2012-23830.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-28/pdf/2012-23830.pdf"><span>77 FR 59703 - Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement; Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Taos, NM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement; Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Taos, NM AGENCY...) for the ``Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Airport Layout Plan Improvements'' Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (EIS). The Town of Taos, owner and operator of Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport located in Taos, New Mexico,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859068"><span>Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Region</span> Imaging and Localization Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal <span class="hlt">impact</span> imaging method is adopted to obtain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span>. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is approximately 100%. The area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring <span class="hlt">region</span> is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084123"><span>Digital sequences and a time reversal-based <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal <span class="hlt">impact</span> imaging method is adopted to obtain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span>. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is approximately 100%. The area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring <span class="hlt">region</span> is reduced by more than a half.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGC11A..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGC11A..04B"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change in the Caribou Chilcotin <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Fraser River Basin, BC, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, K. E.; Werner, A. T.; Salathé, E. P.; Schnorbus, M.; Nelitz, M.; David, R. R.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The terrain and climate of British Columbia (BC) is some of the most complex in the country, and is likely going to face unprecedented changes in hydrology due to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. The Pacific Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Consortium (PCIC) was formed in 2005 to produce tools to determine how water resources in BC and its surrounding provinces, territories and states are being affected by climate change. PCIC's first large-scale watershed modelling project implemented, in collaboration with the River Forecast Centre and the University of Washington, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in several major BC watersheds. Future scenarios were developed to analyse the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on snowpack, streamflow and soil moisture in these basins. The current study focuses on the methods to develop future scenarios and the results of the hydrologic modelling. Six different GCM emissions scenarios were selected for BC from the AR4 scenarios. A modified bias correction and statistical downscaling (BCSD) technique created at the University of Washington was used to downscale GCM results to the scale of gridded historical forcings data to generate transient-daily time step, <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale projections of future climate change. These forcings were then used to drive the VIC macro-scale hydrologic model. A comparison of forcings for the historical period (1961-1990) from the downscaled GCM data to the forcings created from the observed records on the monthly-timescale demonstrated that the downscaled data captured the range of variability present in the 1961-1990 period in large and medium sized basins quite well. Accurately downscaling data for application in small basins was more difficult. Daily results created with the original BCSD technique were unrealistic in places and problematic for application in hydrologic models, such as VIC that depend on an accurate daily temperature range to model evaporation and snowpack. Results for the Fraser Basin study include</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U52A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U52A..02T"><span>Climatic Consequences and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Nuclear Conflict</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toon, O. B.; Robock, A.; Mills, M. J.; Xia, L.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere.This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface.Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade.The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation.The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..78...26D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..78...26D"><span>Interannual spring Wyrtki jet variability and its <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deshpande, Aditi; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.; Rahul, S.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The role of spring Wyrtki jets in modulating the equatorial Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate is an unexplored problem. The source of interannual variability in the spring Wyrtki jets is explored in this study. The relationship between intraseasonal and interannual variability from 1958 to 2008 and its relation with Indian Summer Monsoon is further addressed. Analysis reveals that the interannual variability in spring Wyrtki jets is controlled significantly by their intraseasonal variations. These are mostly defined by a single intraseasonal event of duration 20 days or more which either strengthens or weakens the seasonal mean jet depending on its phase. The strong spring jets are driven by such intraseasonal westerly wind bursts lasting for 20-days or more, whereas the weak jets are driven by weaker intraseasonal westerlies. During the years of strong jets, the conventional westward phase propagation of Wyrtki jets is absent and instead there is an eastward phase propagation indicating the possible role of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) in strengthening the spring Wyrtki jets. These strong intraseasonal westerly wind bursts with eastward phase propagation during strong years are observed mainly in late spring and have implications on June precipitation over the Indian and adjoining land mass. Anomalously strong eastward jets accumulate warm water in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO), leading to anomalous positive upper ocean heat content and supporting more local convection in the east. This induces subsidence over the Indian landmass and alters monsoon rainfall by modulating monsoon Hadley circulation. In case of weak current years such warm anomalies are absent over the eastern EIO. Variations in the jet strength are found to have strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> on sea level anomalies, heat content, salinity and sea surface temperature over the equatorial and north Indian Ocean making it a potentially important player in the north Indian Ocean climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ClDy...27..553R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ClDy...27..553R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roeckner, E.; Stier, P.; Feichter, J.; Kloster, S.; Esch, M.; Fischer-Bruns, I.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The past and future evolution of atmospheric composition and climate has been simulated with a version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The system consists of the atmosphere, including a detailed representation of tropospheric aerosols, the land surface, and the ocean, including a model of the marine biogeochemistry which interacts with the atmosphere via the dust and sulfur cycles. In addition to the prescribed concentrations of carbon dioxide, ozone and other greenhouse gases, the model is driven by natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol), and by emissions of mineral dust, sea salt, sulfur, black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). Transient climate simulations were performed for the twentieth century and extended into the twenty-first century, according to SRES scenario A1B, with two different assumptions on future emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (BC, POM). In the first experiment, BC and POM emissions decrease over Europe and China but increase at lower latitudes (central and South America, Africa, Middle East, India, Southeast Asia). In the second experiment, the BC and POM emissions are frozen at their levels of year 2000. According to these experiments the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of projected changes in carbonaceaous aerosols on the global mean temperature is negligible, but significant changes are found at low latitudes. This includes a cooling of the surface, enhanced precipitation and runoff, and a wetter surface. These <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in surface climate are caused primarily by the atmospheric absorption of sunlight by increasing BC levels and, subsequently, by thermally driven circulations which favour the transport of moisture from the adjacent oceans. The vertical redistribution of solar energy is particularly large during the dry season in central Africa when the anomalous atmospheric heating of up to 60 W m-2 and a corresponding decrease in surface solar radiation leads to a marked surface cooling, reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3445M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3445M"><span>The Study of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Water Transferring From Wet <span class="hlt">Regions</span> To Dry <span class="hlt">Regions</span> In Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Motiee-Homayoun, Dr.; Ghomashchi, Dr.</p> <p></p> <p>Iran, with a very diverse ecology and different climate has been classified as a dry- semidry <span class="hlt">region</span>. Iran's annual average of rain-fall is about 250 mm, while this figure is more than 1000 mm in north and less than 100 mm in the south of the country. Overall, Iran's water resources are low. Rapid population growth, economic growth together with significant urban development, in recent decades, has led to underestimate high demands for water. Therefore, water shortage has been considered more obviously. Such an important scare is rather serious in central and eastern <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. This problem has been determined as a serious challenge for Iran's government and national water authorities, in particular. Although, drinking water supply is only 6 percent of total water resources, due to direct socio-political <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, drinking water supply, in both quality and quantity, is more serious and important than agricultural water demands. Accordingly, for the following reasons: 1) Desperation and diversity of geographical conditions of urban areas 2) Low access to underground water 3) Inadequate quality surface water supply Difficulties and the costs of supplying urban water in Iran have been sharply increased. Presently, due to unconstrained consuming underground water and negative balance in most under ground resources of the country, more specifically in central and eastern <span class="hlt">regions</span>, water supply from groundwater resources is very risky and misleading. Furthermore, other reason such as rapid urban population growth and changes in people's every day life and their consumption patterns increase both water consumption and waste water in the circumstances of inadequate sewage systems, make a vast source of pollution for water resources. Due to the influence of extended See (Salty) water, in southern provinces, near to Persian Gulf, accessibility to fresh water is rather difficult and in many cases only after tens of kilometers far from the see, fresh water could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/305769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/305769"><span>Estimation of greenhouse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of continuous <span class="hlt">regional</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinisalo, J.</p> <p>1998-03-27</p> <p>In this thesis, a method to calculate the greenhouse <span class="hlt">impact</span> of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of Finland and Nordic countries. Estimates for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The uncertainty of the results is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581827','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581827"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic <span class="hlt">regions</span>: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150318','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150318"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Multi-<span class="hlt">Regional</span> - Multi-Industry Model (MRMI) Users Manual,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>the model’s data base. Considerations regarding consistency between estimated direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and MRMI’s internal data conventions are also raised. The...estimates are based upon rigid conventions imposed upon the data. In formulating scenarios, it is the users responsibility for providing direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> before forecasting the following year’s economic activity. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> data must therefore be consistent with definitional conventions in the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Assessment (MARA) are studying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>. This poster presents research investigating climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii+AND+climate+AND+change&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89769893&CFTOKEN=29051674','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii+AND+climate+AND+change&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89769893&CFTOKEN=29051674"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Assessment (MARA) are studying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>. This poster presents research investigating climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114878"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114880"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1117053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1117053"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified by the study for the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgeology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgeology"><span>Apollo 14 <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro <span class="hlt">region</span> consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses may possess a memory of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=Geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=Geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeology"><span>Apollo 14 <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro <span class="hlt">region</span> consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses may possess a memory of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32E..08A"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Irrigation Development on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Rainfall in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, R. E.; IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Potential modification of <span class="hlt">regional</span> rainfall by large-scale cropland irrigation has been investigated in several <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. In particular, <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulations over West Africa indicate that hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes reduce rainfall over the irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, these theoretical results cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. We therefore conducted two complementary analyses over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in Africa: numerical simulations using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, and observational analyses using several surface-based and satellite-derived datasets. For the observational analyses, we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of both rainfall and air temperature in and around the irrigated area. For the numerical simulations, we examined multiple variables that contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanistic pathway between irrigation and rainfall modification. The results of both the simulations and observational analysis will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A32E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A32E..08A"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Irrigation Development on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Rainfall in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, R. E.; IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Potential modification of <span class="hlt">regional</span> rainfall by large-scale cropland irrigation has been investigated in several <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. In particular, <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulations over West Africa indicate that hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes reduce rainfall over the irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, these theoretical results cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. We therefore conducted two complementary analyses over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in Africa: numerical simulations using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, and observational analyses using several surface-based and satellite-derived datasets. For the observational analyses, we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of both rainfall and air temperature in and around the irrigated area. For the numerical simulations, we examined multiple variables that contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanistic pathway between irrigation and rainfall modification. The results of both the simulations and observational analysis will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295040','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295040"><span>Bioenergy feedstock development scenarios & potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater withdrawals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Availability of ample groundwater supplies for irrigation can increase the productive potential of agricultural landscapes; however, excessive withdrawals threaten sustainable use, and shortages could be exacerbated by drier future conditions in some <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Throughout the North American Great Pla...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564989"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pharmacy graduates on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> economy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friesner, Dan; Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S</p> <p>2009-05-27</p> <p>To analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> may have been even greater. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701241"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Pharmacy Graduates on a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11F0156L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11F0156L"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Low-level Jet on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>During spring and summer seasons, the frequent occurrences of nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) over Great Plains <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States are widely recognized. As an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation this LLJ effectively transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of server weather over the central United States. The LLJ has long been known to be conducive to summer rainfall and widespread flooding over the Great Plains of North America. The LLJ transports more than just moisture. Ozone episodes occur mainly during summer and are influenced by <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport. Little is known, however,about the interrelation between the Great Plains LLJ and <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone transport. In this study, analysis of observational data during 1993-2006 has shown strong influence of the Great Plains LLJ on local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone distributions. Hourly ozone measurements from Air Quality System (AQS) are compared with wind fields at 850 hPa from the NCEP North American <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Reanalysis (NARR). It is demonstrated that the low ozone concentrations over Texas in late spring and summer are identified with large LLJ transport of clean marine air mass from the Gulf of Mexico. Significant negative correlations exist between daily ozone concentration and LLJ index (Figure 1), suggesting that lower ozone over Texas is associated with stronger LLJ. On the other hand, positive correlations occur in the Midwest and Northeast, indicating the important role of <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport of ozone and precursors along the pathway by the wind circulation accompanying the LLJ. In addition, the LLJ is significantly correlated with northerly flows in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the adjacent coast. This relationship explains the coexistence of low ozone concentrations in Texas and southwestern U.S during summer, both attributed to the inland transport of clean marine air. These observed ozone-LLJ patterns are well simulated by the <span class="hlt">regional</span> CMM5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085"><span>Winter cover crops <span class="hlt">impact</span> on corn production in semiarid <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910983C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910983C"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lateral boundary conditions on <span class="hlt">regional</span> analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chikhar, Kamel; Gauthier, Pierre</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and global climate models are usually validated by comparison to derived observations or reanalyses. Using a model in data assimilation results in a direct comparison to observations to produce its own analyses that may reveal systematic errors. In this study, <span class="hlt">regional</span> analyses over North America are produced based on the fifth-generation Canadian <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model (CRCM5) combined with the variational data assimilation system of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). CRCM5 is driven at its boundaries by global analyses from ERA-interim or produced with the global configuration of the CRCM5. Assimilation cycles for the months of January and July 2011 revealed systematic errors in winter through large values in the mean analysis increments. This bias is attributed to the coupling of the lateral boundary conditions of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> model with the driving data particularly over the northern boundary where a rapidly changing large scale circulation created significant cross-boundary flows. Increasing the time frequency of the lateral driving and applying a large-scale spectral nudging improved significantly the circulation through the lateral boundaries which translated in a much better agreement with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..133L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..133L"><span>EDMOS in ultrathin FDSOI: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litty, Antoine; Ortolland, Sylvie; Golanski, Dominique; Dutto, Christian; Cristoloveanu, Sorin</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The development of high-voltage MOSFET (HVMOS) is necessary for including power management or radiofrequency functionalities in CMOS technology. In this paper, we investigate the fabrication and optimization of an Extended Drain MOSFET (EDMOS) directly integrated in the ultra-thin SOI film (7 nm) of the 28 nm FDSOI CMOS technology node. Thanks to TCAD simulations, we analyse in detail the device behaviour as a function of the doping level and length of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span>. The influence of the back-plane doping type and of the back-biasing schemes is discussed. DC measurements of fabricated EDMOS samples reveal promising performances in particular in terms of specific on-resistance versus breakdown voltage trade-off. The experimental results indicate that, even in an ultrathin film, the engineering of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span> could be a lever to obtain integrated HVMOS (3.3-5 V).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33D0187B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33D0187B"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mineral dust on <span class="hlt">regional</span> tropical circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bangalath, H.; Stenchikov, G. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Dust aerosols from the West Asian and African subtropical deserts likely play an important role in <span class="hlt">regional</span> low-latitude circulation patterns. These aerosols both absorb solar and terrestrial radiation and reflect solar radiation and therefore both cool the surface and warm the lower troposphere. Since the distribution of dust is spatially non-uniform, its cooling/heating effect could significantly disturb <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperature and pressure fields and affect tropical circulation patterns, including the Hadley and Walker Cells, as well as the Monsoon Circulation. Here, we investigate the direct radiative effect of desert dust on the circulation over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and South Asia <span class="hlt">regions</span> using the high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (HiRAM) developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We conducted simulations with and without dust aerosols with a spatial resolution of 25 km globally, which allowed investigation of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> features of the tropical circulations and their interactions with global-scale processes. Our analysis of the 200 hPa velocity potential indicated that mineral dust increased the strength of the Hadley Cell. In general, the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon circulations over the African continent and East Atlantic were intensified by the dust effect, whereas we observed the opposite response over the Pacific. An anomalous strengthening of the wind convergence at the northern border of the Hadley cell over the African continent and in the East Atlantic, especially in the summer, became evident from our simulations. We found that dust aerosols play an important role in the formation of the climate and circulation regimes over MENA and South Asia, suggesting that they should be accounted for in future climate projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51G3117F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51G3117F"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Variable-Resolution Meshes on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and <span class="hlt">regionally</span>-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using ERA-Interim re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally- refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42D..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42D..05F"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Variable-Resolution Meshes on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and <span class="hlt">regionally</span>-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using NCEP/NCAR re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally-refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA589026','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA589026"><span>Sino-Myanmar Nexus: <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and US Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Chinese influence over Myanmar and the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The concern of the US over Myanmar’s military cooperation with North Korea for acquiring missile and nuclear ...transgressions, and unpredictability on a range of significant challenges including North Korea , Iran , Afghanistan, the South China Sea, and freedom of...military cooperation with North Korea , and arms and drug trafficking as bargaining chips prior to implementing any decision that benefits Myanmar</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004366','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004366"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Weather Forecast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for <span class="hlt">regional</span> weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.438..310P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.438..310P"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on human health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patz, Jonathan A.; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Holloway, Tracey; Foley, Jonathan A.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large influence of socio-economic factors and changes in immunity and drug resistance. Here we review the growing evidence that climate-health relationships pose increasing health risks under future projections of climate change and that the warming trend over recent decades has already contributed to increased morbidity and mortality in many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. Potentially vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> include the temperate latitudes, which are projected to warm disproportionately, the <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the Pacific and Indian oceans that are currently subjected to large rainfall variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation sub-Saharan Africa and sprawling cities where the urban heat island effect could intensify extreme climatic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16292302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16292302"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on human health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patz, Jonathan A; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Holloway, Tracey; Foley, Jonathan A</p> <p>2005-11-17</p> <p>The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large influence of socio-economic factors and changes in immunity and drug resistance. Here we review the growing evidence that climate-health relationships pose increasing health risks under future projections of climate change and that the warming trend over recent decades has already contributed to increased morbidity and mortality in many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. Potentially vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> include the temperate latitudes, which are projected to warm disproportionately, the <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the Pacific and Indian oceans that are currently subjected to large rainfall variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation sub-Saharan Africa and sprawling cities where the urban heat island effect could intensify extreme climatic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=smit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsmit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=smit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsmit"><span>KT boundary <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=glass+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass%2Bevidence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=glass+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass%2Bevidence"><span>KT boundary <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17286184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17286184"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of industrial structure change in a rural <span class="hlt">region</span> of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin; Ye, Minting; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Yuan</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>As the embodiment of human activities, the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure is an essential driving factor of global environmental change. Consequently, the research on the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure and associated effects on the environment is one of the key issues of researches on sustainable development, human-environment relationship, and <span class="hlt">regional</span> response to global environment change. However, compared to the flourish of researches on environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of industrial departments, few studies have been conducted to assess the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure. In this study, based on a synthetic analysis of environmental disturbances of different industrial departments, the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> coefficient of industrial department associated with the index of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial structure was constructed, so as to make a quantitative assessment of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure. And the results of the case study in Lijiang City, a rural <span class="hlt">region</span> of China, have showed that there are two obvious changes of industrial structure in the study area from 1992 to 2003, associated with a continuous decreasing of the index of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial structure, which indicated a positive environmental effects of the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578369"><span>A <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Public Health Field Placement Program: making an <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCormick, Lisa C; Hites, Lisle; Jenkins, Crystal; Chauvin, Sheila W; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Beginning in 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, made provisions in its Public Health Training Center cooperative agreements for field placements. This article describes best practices and lessons learned establishing and managing the South Central Public Health Partnership's Interns and Mentors Program for ACTion (<span class="hlt">IMPACT</span>) Field Placement Program, which was initially funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness Cooperative agreement in 2002. The <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> program is based on a six-step process that has been developed and refined over its 10-year history: (a) identifying field placement opportunities, (b) marketing field experience opportunities to students, (c) selecting students seeking field experience opportunities, (d) placing students with practice partners, students with practice partners, (e) evaluating student progress toward field experience objectives, and (f) evaluating the program. This article describes the program's structure and processes, delineates the roles of its academic and practice partners, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, and describes lessons learned from its decade-long history. Hopefully, this information will facilitate the establishment, management and evaluation of internship and field placement programs in other Public Health Training Centers and academic public health programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2247P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2247P"><span>Local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> smoke <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from prescribed fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F.; Horsey, Bronwyn; Jiang, Ningbo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Smoke from wildfires poses a significant threat to affected communities. Prescribed burning is conducted to reduce the extent and potential damage of wildfires, but produces its own smoke threat. Planners of prescribed fires model the likely dispersion of smoke to help manage the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on local communities. Significant uncertainty remains about the actual smoke <span class="hlt">impact</span> from prescribed fires, especially near the fire, and the accuracy of smoke dispersal models. To address this uncertainty, a detailed study of smoke dispersal was conducted for one small (52 ha) and one large (700 ha) prescribed fire near Appin in New South Wales, Australia, through the use of stationary and handheld pollution monitors, visual observations and rain radar data, and by comparing observations to predictions from an atmospheric dispersion model. The 52 ha fire produced a smoke plume about 800 m high and 9 km long. Particle concentrations (PM2.5) reached very high peak values (> 400 µg m-3) and high 24 h average values (> 100 µg m-3) at several locations next to or within ˜ 500 m downwind from the fire, but low levels elsewhere. The 700 ha fire produced a much larger plume, peaking at ˜ 2000 m altitude and affecting downwind areas up to 14 km away. Both peak and 24 h average PM2.5 values near the fire were lower than for the 52 ha fire, but this may be because the monitoring locations were further away from the fire. Some lofted smoke spread north against the ground-level wind direction. Smoke from this fire collapsed to the ground during the night at different times in different locations. Although it is hard to attribute particle concentrations definitively to smoke, it seems that the collapsed plume affected a huge area including the towns of Wollongong, Bargo, Oakdale, Camden and Campbelltown (˜ 1200 km2). PM2.5 concentrations up to 169 µg m-3 were recorded on the morning following the fire. The atmospheric dispersion model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC51E1225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC51E1225L"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Modeling of Biomass-Burning Aerosol <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lonsdale, C. R.; Brodowski, C. M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Henderson, J.; Pierce, J. R.; Lin, J. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol freshly emitted from biomass-burning events are a complex mixture of organic species, black carbon, and inorganic salts with their size, number, and chemical composition dependent on the type of vegetation that is burning, the size and combustion efficiency of the fire event, and the ambient conditions. These particles evolve quickly in the atmosphere, both physically and chemically, due to coagulation, primary organic aerosol evaporation, and secondary organic aerosol formation. Understanding and simulating the complex evolution of these aerosols is critical to understanding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of biomass-burning plumes on air quality and climate. We present results from two biomass-burning <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies using a new Lagrangian aerosol modeling tool, STILT-ASP. This modeling tool is comprised of the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model with an integrated Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). STILT allows for the identification of air parcels that were influenced by fire emissions during their transport to a model receptor (i.e. an urban monitoring site). STILT-ASP then determines the contribution of primary emission (of PM2.5) and secondary chemical formation (both O3 and PM2.5) from the fires to the pollutants in the parcel, and then sums these fire contributions across all parcels to determine the influence that the fire had on the receptor. We also discuss the preliminary integration of the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) with ASP (SAM-ASP), which will model plume-scale biomass-burning chemistry and dispersion in order to capture the evolution of aerosol size and number concentrations within the plume. The goal of this model is to ultimately better represent the near-source biomass-burning plume evolution for use in aerosol microphysics and climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC52C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC52C..08M"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Amazon deforestation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> weather and climate extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Medvigy, D.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recent deforestation projections estimate that 40% of the Amazon rainforest will be deforested by 2050. Many modeling studies have indicated that deforestation will reduce average rainfall in the Amazon. However, very few studies have investigated the potential for deforestation to change the frequency and intensity of extreme climate and weather events. To fill this gap in our understanding, we use a variable-resolution GCM to investigate how precipitation and temperature extremes throughout South America respond to deforestation. The model’s grid mesh is set up to cover South America and nearby oceans at mesoscale (25 km) resolution, and then to gradually coarsen and cover the rest of the world at 200 km resolution. This approach differs from the two most common current approaches: (1) to use a GCM with too coarse of a resolution to evaluate <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate extremes, or (2) to use a <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric model that requires lateral boundary conditions from a GCM or reanalysis. We find that deforestation induces large changes in winter (June-July-August) climate throughout much of South America. Extreme cold events become much more common along the eastern slopes of the Andes. The largest changes were in the western Amazon and, surprisingly, in Argentina, far from the actual deforested area. We also find shifts in precipitation extremes, especially in September-October-November. Such changes in temperature and precipitation extremes have important consequences for agriculture, natural ecosystems, and human society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2859P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2859P"><span>Biogeomorphic and pedogenic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trees in three soil <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pawlik, Łukasz; Šamonil, Pavel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Vegetation is an important factor of soil formation which together with topography, geology, climate and time modulates chemical and physical soil characteristics. Tree/soils/regolith interaction was recognized in recently uprooted trees and relict treethrow mounds and pits. In our present study we focus on effects of individual standing trees in pedogenesis and biogeomorphic processes. Constant pressure of tree root systems, changing hydric and temperature regime, together with rhizospheric microbes and root mycorrhizal associations may cause multiscale alterations to regolith and soils. We hypothesize different soil chemical properties under old tree stumps compared to unaffected control pedon resulted from affected pedogenetical pathways at the analyzed microsites. The present project highlights changes in soil properties under tree stumps in three different soil <span class="hlt">regions</span>: Haplic Cambisols (Turbacz Reserve, Gorce Mts., Poland, hereafter HC), Entic Podzols (Zofin Reserve, Novohradske Mts., the Czech Republic, hereafter EP), Albic Podzols (Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA, hereafter AP). These three <span class="hlt">regions</span> represent different degrees of soil weathering and leaching. Pedons under fir, beech and hemlock stumps, as well as unaffected control pedons were sampled and laboratory analyzed for several chemical properties; active and exchangeable soil reaction, oxidized carbon, total nitrogen, and various forms of Fe, Al, Mn and Si. At the same time we studied age of the sampled tree stumps, as well as age of their death using radiocarbon technique and dendrochronology. While no effects of the soil-trees interactions can be visible on hillslope surface, we found important evidence of biomechanical activities of tree roots (e.g. root channels) and biochemical changes which add to the discussion about biogeomorphic and pedogenic significance of trees and tree roots as drivers of biomechanical weathering and soil processes in the decadal and centennial time scales. Preliminary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166654"><span>Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Four <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scenarios (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tegen, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>NREL's Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impact</span> (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060603"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To identify the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85826&keyword=urban+AND+regional+AND+planning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85826&keyword=urban+AND+regional+AND+planning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>OVERVIEW OF THE CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> ON <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> AIR QUALITY (CIRAQ) PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality (CIRAQ) project will develop model-estimated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global climate changes on ozone and particulate matter (PM) in direct support of the USEPA Global Change Research Program's (GCRP) national air quality assessment. EPA's urban/reg...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23687049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23687049"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of shale gas development on <span class="hlt">regional</span> water quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D</p> <p>2013-05-17</p> <p>Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to <span class="hlt">regional</span> water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160301','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160301"><span>Working Memory Training Using Mental Calculation <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gray Matter of the Frontal and Parietal <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training working memory (WM) improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC), all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in <span class="hlt">regions</span> that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control. PMID:21886781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886781"><span>Working memory training using mental calculation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter of the frontal and parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training working memory (WM) improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC), all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in <span class="hlt">regions</span> that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H21H0815P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H21H0815P"><span>Environmental and human <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Bangalore's <span class="hlt">regional</span> water scarcity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this <span class="hlt">region</span> is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of <span class="hlt">regional</span> water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287437"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of commuter-rail services in Toronto <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wells, S.S.; Hutchinson, B.G.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Ridership of the commuter-rail system that was implemented in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 1967 increased at an annual, average compound rate of 11.4% until 1989. Demand has leveled substantially during 1990--94 and has averaged only 2.1% per year, which probably reflects the suburbanization of employment. Urban economic theory is used to explain the way in which central-business-district (CBD) employees respond differently to suburban commuter-rail services and rapid transit services, mainly serving the inner intermediate suburbs. Travel data collected in 1986 and 1991 confirmed the effects suggested by the theory. Commuter-rail passengers are drawn from the larger suburban households, living principally in single-family houses, and commuter-rail passengers are more sensitive to access and egress distances than subway passengers. Policies that improve the quality of access and egress components of commuting trips from the suburbs stimulate passenger demand. Also, land-use policies that promote high-density, residential development at suburban commuter-rail stations are unlikely to contribute significantly to commuter-rail demand, and the lakeshore commuter-rail line that has been in service since 1967 has not had a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on residential sorting and on the generation of additional demands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6348G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6348G"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of peatland forestation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate conditions in Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=support+AND+structures&pg=6&id=EJ1090998','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=support+AND+structures&pg=6&id=EJ1090998"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forbes-Mewett, Helen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The security of international students in <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education space and how this <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the security of international students. In-depth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>THE POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper assesses the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC <span class="hlt">region</span> in response to higher levels o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238766','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238766"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on terrestrial ecosystems in the multi-state <span class="hlt">region</span> centered on Chicago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants wildlife, invasive species, pests and agricultural ecosystems across the multistate <span class="hlt">region</span> centered on Chicago, Illinois. We define the <span class="hlt">region</span> broadly to include several hundred kilometers. We c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44461','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44461"><span>Mapping and assessing the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island <span class="hlt">region</span>. The Sky Island <span class="hlt">region</span>, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture&pg=2&id=EJ1137057','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture&pg=2&id=EJ1137057"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Learning Culture on Organisational Change in <span class="hlt">Regional</span> SMEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bamberry, Goff; Sabri-Matanagh, Saeed; Duncan, Glen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a learning culture on organisational change in small to medium-sized <span class="hlt">regional</span> manufacturing enterprises following a review of the related literature, and a qualitative study of 10 manufacturing SMEs in the Riverina <span class="hlt">region</span> of New South Wales. The research confirmed that key learning culture factors as identified in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A.+AND+P+AND+French&pg=2&id=EJ839211','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A.+AND+P+AND+French&pg=2&id=EJ839211"><span>Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Variation on Phoneme Perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of phonological variation resulting from a vowel merger on phoneme perception. The perception of the /e/-/[epsilon]/ contrast which does not exist in Southern French-speaking <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and which is in the process of merging in Northern French-speaking <span class="hlt">regions</span>, was compared to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space&pg=3&id=EJ1090998','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space&pg=3&id=EJ1090998"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forbes-Mewett, Helen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The security of international students in <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education space and how this <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the security of international students. In-depth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exports&pg=3&id=ED536616','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exports&pg=3&id=ED536616"><span>Making an Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Higher Education and the English <span class="hlt">Regions</span>. Research Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the first published study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the higher education sector on the English <span class="hlt">regions</span>. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English <span class="hlt">regions</span> that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=export&pg=4&id=ED536616','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=export&pg=4&id=ED536616"><span>Making an Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Higher Education and the English <span class="hlt">Regions</span>. Research Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the first published study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the higher education sector on the English <span class="hlt">regions</span>. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English <span class="hlt">regions</span> that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78729013&CFTOKEN=36566999','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78729013&CFTOKEN=36566999"><span>THE POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper assesses the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC <span class="hlt">region</span> in response to higher levels o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2426.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2426.pdf"><span>76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement for the Proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project on...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-03</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement for the Proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San... the proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project (Proposed Action) to be located on the Campo Indian... Landfill Project (Proposed Action). There is no Federal action of amended lease and amended...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178740"><span>[<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Overlap <span class="hlt">Region</span> Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz</p> <p>2017-02-08</p> <p>Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border <span class="hlt">region</span> between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233949"><span>Blastopathies and microcephaly in a Chornobyl <span class="hlt">impacted</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of Ukraine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wertelecki, Wladimir; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Wang, Bin; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Hobart, Holly H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This population-based descriptive epidemiology study demonstrates that rates of conjoined twins, teratomas, neural tube defects, microcephaly, and microphthalmia in the Rivne province of Ukraine are among the highest in Europe. The province is 200 km distant from the Chornobyl site and its northern half, a <span class="hlt">region</span> known as Polissia, is significantly polluted by ionizing radiation. The rates of neural tube defects, microcephaly and microphthalmia in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than in the rest of the province. A survey of at-birth head size showed that values were statistically smaller in males and females born in one Polissia county than among neonates born in the capital city. These observations provide clues for confirmatory and cause-effect prospective investigations. The strength of this study stems from a reliance on international standards prevalent in Europe and a decade-long population-based surveillance of congenital malformations in two distinct large populations. The limitations of this study, as those of other descriptive epidemiology investigations, is that identified cause-effect associations require further assessment by specific prospective investigations designed to address specific teratogenic factors. PMID:24666273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130265"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of seasonal and <span class="hlt">regional</span> variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.</p> <p>2013-12-05</p> <p>In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this <span class="hlt">region</span> indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this <span class="hlt">region</span> except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span>. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33G0327G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33G0327G"><span>Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Circulation Patterns and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate of Monsoon <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Su, H.; Xue, Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust modifies the circulation and influence the cloud and precipitation processes. The effect of dust on circulation and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate, such as surface temperature and precipitation, has been examined for two major monsoon <span class="hlt">regions</span>: North Africa/tropical North Atlantic and South/East Asia. It is found that surface temperature decreases over both <span class="hlt">regions</span> due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles. However, precipitation responses are different in these two <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Over the Northwest Africa where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. The changes in circulation also show strengthened/weakened southward flow at 550 hPa/200 hPa, which would in turn enhance/weaken the African easterly jet (AEJ)/tropical easterly jet, respectively, consistent with the climate feature in the Sahel dry years. The stronger AEJ is associated with the heating to its north by the dust particles, which would result in a southward shift of its location favoring more precipitation over the Guinea Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> and less precipitation over the Sahel. Over the South/East Asia where monsoon system is much stronger, dust heating occurs in the upper atmosphere where the Tibetan Plateau is located. Increased upward air movement is broadly found, which induces convergence in the lower atmosphere and draws more low-level moist air from the ocean into the land, leading to a convergence of moisture flux and increased precipitation, in agreement with the elevated heat pump theory (Lau et al. 2006). Therefore, whether the dust effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282923"><span>Estimating the economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization on US <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kort, J.R.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-<span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census <span class="hlt">regions</span> and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization on US <span class="hlt">regions</span> and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of <span class="hlt">regional</span> and state solar energy expenditures and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> appear in the Appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A53D..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A53D..04G"><span>The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> emission control Meteorology Condition and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Transport from a Modeling Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">regional</span> emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of emission control, meteorology and <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC41B0803B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC41B0803B"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Large Methane Emission in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharyya, S.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bergmann, D.; Reagan, M. T.; Collins, W.; Elliott, S. M.; Maltrud, M. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A highly potent greenhouse gas, methane, is locked in the solid phase as ice-like deposits containing a mixture of water and gas (mostly methane) called clathrates, in ocean sediments and underneath permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Clathrates are stable under high pressure and low temperatures. Recent estimates suggest that about 1600 - 2000GtC of clathrates are present in oceans and 400GtC in Arctic permafrost (Archer et al.2009) which is about 4000 times that of current annual emissions. In a warming climate, increase in ocean temperatures could alter the geothermal gradient, which in turn could lead to dissociation of the clathrates and release of methane into the ocean and subsequently into the atmosphere as well. This could be of particular importance in the shallow part of the Arctic Ocean where the clathrates are found in depths of only 300m. In this presentation, we shall show results from our ongoing simulation of a scenario of large scale methane outgassing from clathrate dissociation due to warming ocean temperatures in the Arctic based on ocean sediment modeling. To that end we use the CESM (Community Earth System Model) version 1 with fully active coupled atmosphere-ocean-land model together with fast atmospheric chemistry module to simulate the response to increasing methane emissions in the Barents Sea, Canadian Archipelago and the Sea of Okhotsk. The simulation shows the effect these methane emissions could have on global surface methane, surface ozone, surface air temperature and other related indices. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010402','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010402"><span>Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span>. By doing this with <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale models individual synoptic features (and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span> and short-term forecast <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMGC21B0171R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMGC21B0171R"><span>Modeling the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Global Climate and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Land Use Change on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate, Air Quality and Public Health in the New York Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Kinney, P. L.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>There is an imminent need to downscale the global climate models used by international consortiums like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to predict the future <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. To meet this need, a "place-based" climate model that makes specific <span class="hlt">regional</span> projections about future environmental conditions local inhabitants could face is being created by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, in collaboration with other researchers and universities, for New York City and the 31 surrounding counties. This presentation describes the design and initial results of this modeling study, aimed at simulating the effects of global climate change and <span class="hlt">regional</span> land use change on climate and air quality over the northeastern United States in order to project the associated public health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Heat waves and elevated concentrations of ozone and fine particles are significant current public health stressors in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Climate and Health Project is linking human dimension and natural sciences models to assess the potential for future public health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from heat stress and air quality, and yield improved tools for assessing climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The model will be applied to the NY metropolitan east coast <span class="hlt">region</span>. The following questions will be addressed: 1. What changes in the frequency and severity of extreme heat events are likely to occur over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and land cover (LU/LC) and climate change in the <span class="hlt">region</span>? 2. How might the frequency and severity of episodic concentrations of ozone (O3) and airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 æm in diameter (PM2.5) change over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and climate change in the metropolitan <span class="hlt">region</span>? 3. What is the range of possible human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these changes in the <span class="hlt">region</span>? 4. How might projected future human</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1171787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1171787"><span>Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> in the United States: Four <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Miles, J.; Zammit, D.; Loomis, D.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each <span class="hlt">region</span> to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in each <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33A1057T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33A1057T"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Policy on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality. We evaluate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of potential selected climate policies on modeled <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a <span class="hlt">regional</span> computable general equilibrium economic model (the US <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of <span class="hlt">regional</span> pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..08W"><span>U.S. Global Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Report, Overview of <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> outside of Alaska have several recurring themes. Prominent among these are water availability, which will be increasingly threatened by drying over much of the United States, particularly the West and South. Reduced snowpack and earlier snow melt will further <span class="hlt">impact</span> water supplies, and will have effects on outdoor recreation during winter. Increasingly severe summer heat waves will stress humans and ecosystems over much of the United States, while the combination of warming and drying will increase the threat of wildfires. Coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> will be increasingly at risk from erosion, storm surges and coastal flooding associated with rising sea level. Ocean acidification is likely to <span class="hlt">impact</span> coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the United States through its effects on marine ecosystems. Finally, climates suitable for agricultural crops and forest types will likely undergo <span class="hlt">regional</span> shifts, generally northward, in many cases by hundreds of miles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176951','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176951"><span>Current and potential ant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>. They generally have multiple queens per colony, are unicolonial (lacking internest aggression), quickly recruit to food items, thrive in a variety of habitats including disturbed areas, and can be highly aggressive to other ant species (McGlynn 1999). Hawaii’s arthropod fauna evolved in the absence of ants and has been observed by many biologists to be highly vulnerable to displacement by non-native ants. Pacific island biotas have also very likely suffered greatly from displacement by ants. However, in contrast to Hawaii, virtually nothing has been published on effects of non-native ants on native arthropod fauna elsewhere on Pacific islands, with the exception of the Galapagos archipelago, which may have at least four species of endemic ants (Lubin 1984, Nishida and Evenhuis 2000) and New Caledonia (Jourdan et al. 2001, Le Breton et al. 2005). In addition, many ant species in the Pacific have long been a nuisance for humans, and significant agricultural <span class="hlt">impacts</span> have occurred from ants tending hemipteran insects of crop plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028645','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028645"><span>The ionospheric <span class="hlt">impact</span> on GPS performance in southern polar <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hong, C.-K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.; Arslan, N.; Willis, M.; Hothem, L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of this paper is to present the results of the study of the effects of varying ionospheric conditions on the GPS signal tracking in the southern polar <span class="hlt">region</span>. In the first stage of this study, the data collected by the OSU/USGS team in October-November 2003 within the TAMDEF (Transantarctic Mountains Deformation) network were used together with some IGS Antarctic stations to study the effect of severe ionospheric storms on GPS hardware. Note that TAMDEF is a joint USGS/OSU project with the primary objective of measuring crustal motion in the Transantarctic Mountains of Southern Victoria Land using GPS techniques. This study included ten Antarctic stations equipped with different dual-frequency GPS hardware, and the data were evaluated for two 24-hour periods of severe ionospheric storm (2003/10/29) and moderate ionospheric conditions (minor storm of 2003/11/11). The results of this study were presented at the LAG Assembly in Cairns, Australia (Grejner-Brzezinska et al., 2005). Additional tests, in a more controlled environment, were carried out at the US Antarctic station, McMurdo, between January 10 and February 6, 2006, under varying ionospheric conditions, where several different types of receivers were connected to the same antenna located on the rooftop of the Crary Laboratory (the primary test site). In this scenario, each antenna was subject to identical ionospheric effects during each day of the test, and no spatial decorrelation effects were present, as seen in the previous study, due to the spatial separation of the receivers tested. It should be noted, however, that no moderate or severe ionospheric storms occurred during the experiment, so, unfortunately, this type of conditions was not tested here. The test was repeated with different receivers connected to different antenna types; a total of four 5-day sessions were carried out. The following receiver types were used at the primary site: Trimble 5700, Ashtech Z-Surveyor, JNS Euro</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A43D..03A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A43D..03A"><span>North American <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Projections for Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arritt, R. W.; Mearns, L.; Anderson, C.; Bader, D.; Buonomo, E.; Caya, D.; Duffy, P.; Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.; Gutowski, W.; Held, I.; Nunes, A.; Jones, R.; Laprise, R.; Leung, L. R.; Middleton, D.; Moufouma-Okia, W.; Nychka, D.; Qian, Y.; Roads, J.; Sain, S.; Snyder, M.; Sloan, L.; Takle, E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The North American <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale projections of future climate by using multiple <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). NARCCAP is using six nested <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models at 50 km resolution to dynamically downscale realizations of current climate (1971-2000) and future climate (2041-2070, following the A2 SRES emission scenario) from four AOGCMs. Global time slice simulations, also at 50 km resolution, will be performed using the GFDL AM2.1 and NCAR CAM3 atmospheric models forced by the AOGCM sea surface temperatures and will be compared with results of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> models. Results from this multiple-RCM, multiple-AOGCM suite will be statistically analyzed to investigate the cascade of uncertainty as one type of model draws information from another. All output will be made available to the climate analysis and climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessment communities through an archiving and data distribution plan. The climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> community will have these data at unprecedented spatial and temporal (hourly to six-hourly) resolution to support decision-relevant evaluations for public policy. As part of our evaluation of uncertainties, simulations are presently being concluded that nest the participating RCMs within reanalyses of observations. These simulations can be viewed as nesting the RCMs within a GCM that is nearly perfect (constrained by available observations), allowing us to separate errors attributable to the RCMs from those attributable to the driving AOGCMs. Results to date indicate that skill is greater in winter than in summer, and greater for temperature than for precipitation. Temperature and precipitation errors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460464','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460464"><span>Development and application of methods for <span class="hlt">regional</span> scaling and normalization in life-cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tolle, D.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Life-cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (LCIA) is a technical, quantitative and/or qualitative method to classify, characterize, and valuate potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health, ecosystems, and natural resources, based on the environmental burdens identified in a life-cycle inventory. Research described here for two LCIAs included development and application of <span class="hlt">regional</span> scaling methods for the following 5 of 14 relevant <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories: Suspended (PM{sub 10}) particulate effects, water use, acid deposition, smog creation, and eutrophication. Normalization is recommended after characterization, because aggregated sums per <span class="hlt">impact</span> category need to be expressed in equivalent terms before assigning valuation weight factors. The normalization approach described here involves determination of factors that represent the total, geographically-relevant <span class="hlt">impact</span> for a given <span class="hlt">impact</span> category. The goal for the 14 normalization factors developed and applied to two LCIAS, was to make them scientifically defensible, while utilizing existing data on emission or resource extraction quantities for three spatial perspectives. Data on the total environmental burden for each inventory item under a given <span class="hlt">impact</span> category were obtained for normalization factors. Since the boundaries of the two LCIAs were primarily in the US, the data for the <span class="hlt">regional</span> or local <span class="hlt">impact</span> category perspectives were restricted to appropriate areas in the US. Normalization factors were developed and applied in the two LCIAs for 11 <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories involving chemical emissions, water use, solid waste volume, and resource extraction/production land use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1311803S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1311803S"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of seasonal and <span class="hlt">regional</span> variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Situ, S.; Guenther, A.; Wang, X.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study investigated the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of seasonal and <span class="hlt">regional</span> variability in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on surface ozone over the Pearl River delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern China in 2010 with the WRF-Chem/MEGAN (Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry/Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) modeling system. Compared to observations in the literature and this study, MEGAN tends to predict reasonable BVOC emissions in summer, but may overestimate isoprene emissions in autumn, even when the local high-resolution land-cover data and observed emission factors of BVOCs from local plant species are combined to constrain the MEGAN BVOC emissions model. With the standard MEGAN output, it is shown that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of BVOC emissions on the surface ozone peak is ~3 ppb on average with a maximum of 24.8 ppb over the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span> in autumn, while the <span class="hlt">impact</span> is ~10 ppb on average, with a maximum value of 34.0 ppb in summer. The areas where surface ozone is sensitive to BVOC emissions are different in autumn and in summer, which is primarily due to the change of prevailing wind over the PRD; nevertheless, in both autumn and summer, the surface ozone is most sensitive to the BVOC emissions in the urban area because the area is usually VOC-limited. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables were also performed to assess the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN drivers, and the results reveal that land cover and emission factors of BVOCs are the most important drivers and have large <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the predicted surface ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7094874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7094874"><span>Proceedings of the workshop on <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> of aquatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using the Adirondacks as a case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dailey, N.S.; Olson, R.J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Alternative approaches to applying aquatic data from specific sites and surveys to additional areas within a <span class="hlt">region</span> or to broader <span class="hlt">regions</span> for analysis and assessment were examined. Studies conducted within the Adirondack <span class="hlt">Region</span> of New York provided the principal information base for evaluating <span class="hlt">regional</span> extrapolation. Primary data bases for the Adirondacks were reviewed and statistical and process modeling approaches were discussed as methodologies for <span class="hlt">regionalization</span>. Small working groups of data analysts and modelers developed approaches moving toward <span class="hlt">regional</span> extrapolation of Adirondack data sets, based on either estimating current <span class="hlt">impacts</span> or predicting future <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This report outlines suggested approaches, recommendations for future research, and existing data needs. The discussions emphasized (1) the lack of information on the extent and mechanics of aquatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the Adirondack <span class="hlt">Region</span> and across the United States as a whole, (2) the need for increased information exchanges, and (3) the need to develop modeling approaches for <span class="hlt">regionalization</span>. Recommended approaches included the development of a classification system for surface waters and watersheds, based on select criteria and the development of second generation models which would incorporate select features from both simple and complex models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JESS..126...30D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JESS..126...30D"><span>Study of the global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Kucharski, Fred; Azharuddin, Syed</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ENSO magnitude both at global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales. Hence, to better understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical <span class="hlt">regions</span> focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (`SPEEDY'). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African <span class="hlt">regions</span> very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian <span class="hlt">region</span>, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air-sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these <span class="hlt">regions</span> during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger <span class="hlt">impact</span> over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian <span class="hlt">region</span> because of its significant <span class="hlt">impact</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20783322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20783322"><span>Valuation of ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> - a <span class="hlt">regional</span> approach using the ecological footprint concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knaus, Michael . E-mail: knaus@umwelt-campus.de; Loehr, Dirk . E-mail: loehr@umwelt-campus.de; O'Regan, Bernadette . E-mail: bernadette.oregan@ul.ie</p> <p>2006-03-15</p> <p>All economic activities <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment but not all environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are assigned values and taken into consideration in development budgets. At project level, the environmental consequences of proposed economic activities have to be evaluated by conducting an environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment. Threshold levels in physical terms are outlined in corresponding laws and regulations. Projects fulfilling the necessary environmental assessment requirements (threshold levels) tend to be permitted without predicting the expected environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in monetary terms. The economic valuation of environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> tends to be affected by uncertainties. The following example of indirect monetary valuation of environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> uses the Ecological Footprint (EF) concept to calculate the total land use of projects. According to the strong sustainability concept it is assumed that every additional direct or indirect utilisation of land caused by a project requires corresponding offset areas. The offset areas required by different project alternatives are valued with relevant <span class="hlt">regional</span> guide land values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544846"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of emissions from the Los Angeles port <span class="hlt">region</span> on San Diego air quality during <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ault, Andrew P; Moore, Meagan J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Prather, Kimberly A</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>Oceangoing ships emit an estimated 1.2-1.6 million metric tons (Tg) of PM10 per year and represent a significant source of air pollution to coastal communities. As shown herein, ship and other emissions near the Los Angeles and Long Beach Port <span class="hlt">region</span> strongly influence air pollution levels in the San Diego area. During time periods with <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport, atmospheric aerosol measurements in La Jolla, California show an increase in 0.5-1 microm sized single particles with unique signatures including soot, metals (i.e., vanadium, iron, and nickel), sulfate, and nitrate. These particles are attributed to primary emissions from residual oil sourcessuch as ships and refineries, as well as traffic in the port <span class="hlt">region</span>, and secondary processing during transport. During <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport events, particulate matter concentrations were 2-4 times higher than typical average concentrations from local sources, indicating the health, environmental, and climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from these emission sources must be taken into consideration in the San Diego <span class="hlt">region</span>. Unless significant regulations are imposed on shipping-related activities, these emission sources will become even more important to California air quality as cars and truck emissions undergo further regulations and residual oil sources such as shipping continue to expand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087792"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Southeast <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified by the study for the Southeast (defined here as Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5917R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5917R"><span>Martian <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Craters Modified by Post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> Processes in the Greater Hellas <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raitala, J.; Kostama, V.-P.; Aittola, M.; Lahtela, H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The appearance of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters on the Martian surface depends on numerous factors beginning from the size, mass, velocity, type, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> angle of the approaching projectile [1]. These all have affected on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy delivered into the surface. The bedrock properties have then resulted in additional effects. Besides some major phenomena (Pre-existing faults and fractures, permafrost-saturated layers) there may have been numerous more delicate variations due to local projectile-bedrock combinations. Various post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> deformation processes may then have changed the appearance of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater to the extent that it is difficult to identify any original crater characteristics in great details. The changes in the crater appearances can, however, be looked in a positive way to provide crucial information on the local surface geology, bedrock properties and, more generally, on the whole post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> geological evolution of the area studied [2,3,4]. We have characterized and studied the various crater deformation types found from within the large Hellas area. As it is one of the possible previous water body areas on Mars and lies also close to the southern permafrost and the south-pole environment, many craters locating within the greater Hellas Basin area have undergone substantial fluvial processes. Still, many of their surviving geologic features are enough well preserved. The good state of preservation is due partly to the relative youth of the craters and/or partly to Martian relative dryness. The absence of permanent water cover limits the weathering of surface materials, while it optimizes the site's exposure for geologic surveys by remote-sensing. This allows to estimate that the effects related to permafrost, water, erosion and sedimentation have been far more important within the greater Hellas area than what was earlier assumed using the previous data sets which have had defects either in resolution or in areal coverage. The still</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917349S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917349S"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> flood <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment for Kiel and Eckernförde, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shustikova, Iuliia; Viavattene, Christophe; Seiß, Guntram</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>It is well-observed that extreme flood events bring considerable destruction to coastal communities. The estimates of damage increases when direct and indirect losses are both considered in the assessment. This study applied the INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model which is designed to estimate and compare not only tangible but also intangible losses such as risk to life, recovery mechanisms and household displacement. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was performed in order to compare hotspots of high flood risk on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale and detect which <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators influence results the most. INDRA allowed assessing the following <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators: direct damages to buildings and roads, transport disruption, risk to life and financial recovery mechanisms of private households and businesses. The focus was on two hotspots of flood risk, where direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from 200 years flood were assessed and analyzed in terms of relative importance to the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The <span class="hlt">region</span> here was defined as municipalities located on the Baltic Sea coast within the Schleswig-Holstein state, Germany. The hotspots are the towns of Kiel and Eckernförde. They are urban areas with a high concentration of people and assets, which previously experienced extreme flood events. From the performed investigation it was found out that modeled flood differently <span class="hlt">impacts</span> Kiel and Eckernförde. The results produced by MCA show that the scores of direct and indirect damage are slightly higher in Eckernförde than in Kiel. Transport disruption is a compelling element in the performed <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment and demonstrated immense weight. Extreme events may pose significant direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the coastal roads, obstructing not only the access to important landmarks such as hospitals, train stations, harbors, etc. but also to contiguous municipalities. Yet, the analysis showed that other <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators are rather of local importance and would not cause vast damage on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..483K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..483K"><span>Evaluation of GCMs in the context of <span class="hlt">regional</span> predictive climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kokorev, Vasily; Anisimov, Oleg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Significant improvements in the structure, complexity, and general performance of earth system models (ESMs) have been made in the recent decade. Despite these efforts, the range of uncertainty in predicting <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> remains large. The problem is two-fold. Firstly, there is an intrinsic conflict between the local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and adaptation strategies, on one hand, and larger scales, at which ESMs demonstrate better performance, on the other. Secondly, there is a growing understanding that majority of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> involve thresholds, and are thus driven by extreme climate events, whereas accent in climate projections is conventionally made on gradual changes in means. In this study we assess the uncertainty in projecting extreme climatic events within a <span class="hlt">region</span>-specific and process-oriented context by examining the skills and ranking of ESMs. We developed a synthetic <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> of Northern Eurasia that accounts for the spatial features of modern climatic changes and major environmental and socio-economical <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Elements of such fragmentation could be considered as natural focus <span class="hlt">regions</span> that bridge the gap between the spatial scales adopted in climate-<span class="hlt">impacts</span> studies and patterns of climate change simulated by ESMs. In each focus <span class="hlt">region</span> we selected several target meteorological variables that govern the key <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and examined the ability of the models to replicate their seasonal and annual means and trends by testing them against observations. We performed a similar evaluation with regard to extremes and statistics of the target variables. And lastly, we used the results of these analyses to select sets of models that demonstrate the best performance at selected focus <span class="hlt">regions</span> with regard to selected sets of target meteorological parameters. Ultimately, we ranked the models according to their skills, identified top-end models that "better than average" reproduce the behavior of climatic parameters, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14..969T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14..969T"><span>Air quality resolution for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment: influence of <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We evaluate how <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics of population and background pollution might <span class="hlt">impact</span> the selection of optimal air quality model resolution when calculating the human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a <span class="hlt">regional</span> chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefit mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emission reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution. This finding is especially strong in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any <span class="hlt">region</span>. Several <span class="hlt">regions</span> showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seen with ozone modeling), while some <span class="hlt">regions</span> showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased. In both cases, the dominant contribution was from secondary PM. Additionally, we found that the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> calculated using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012521','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012521"><span>Correlation of lunar far-side magnetized <span class="hlt">regions</span> with ringed <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anderson, K.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>By the method of electron reflection, we have identified seven well-defined magnetized <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the equatorial belt of the lunar far side sampled by the Apollo 16 Particles and Fields subsatellite. Most of these surface magnetic fields lie within one basin radius from the rim of a ringed <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin, where thick deposits of basin ejecta are observed or inferred. The strongest of the seven magnetic features is linear, at least 250 km long, and radial to the Freundlich-Sharonov basin. The apparent correlation with basin ejecta suggests some form of <span class="hlt">impact</span> origin for the observed permanently magnetized <span class="hlt">regions</span>. ?? 1979.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5641177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5641177"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> energy economics: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the price increases of the 1970s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A drop in real gross national product, a higher share of energy cost in the Consumer Price Index, and employment losses reflect the negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from oil price increases since 1973. State price variations depend on distance from energy sources, types of fuels used, and state and local taxes and rate structures. This review of energy price <span class="hlt">impacts</span> emphasizes the relationship between the price increases and national economic performance. The data also cover <span class="hlt">regional</span> economies, urban/rural price differences, and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on low-income groups. 26 references, 46 figures, 25 tables. (DCK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1314141T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1314141T"><span>Air quality resolution for health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessment: influence of <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We evaluate how <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics of weather, population, and background pollution might <span class="hlt">impact</span> the selection of optimal model resolution when calculating the human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a <span class="hlt">regional</span> chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefits mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emissions reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the Eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution, especially in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any <span class="hlt">regional</span> characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any <span class="hlt">region</span>. Several <span class="hlt">regions</span> showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seen with ozone modeling) due to a higher contribution of primary PM in those <span class="hlt">regions</span>, while some <span class="hlt">regions</span> showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased due to a higher contribution of secondary PM. Given that changes in PM2.5 dominate the human</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46...41E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46...41E"><span>Quantifying some of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dust and other aerosol on the Caspian Sea <span class="hlt">region</span> using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elguindi, N.; Solmon, F.; Turuncoglu, U.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Central Asian deserts are a major dust source <span class="hlt">region</span> that can potentially have a substantial <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Caspian Sea. Despite major advances in the modeling and prediction of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL) during recent years, no study to date has investigated the climatic effects of dust on the hydrological budget of the Sea. In this study, we utilize a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model coupled to an interactive emission and transport scheme to simulate the effects of dust and other aerosol in the Caspian <span class="hlt">region</span>. First, we present a validation of the model using a variety of AOD satellite observations as well as a climatology of dust storms. Compared to the range of satellite estimates, the model's AOD climatology is closer to the lower end of the observations, and exhibit a significant underestimation over the clay deserts found on the Ustyurt plateau and north of the Aral Sea. Nevertheless, we find encouraging results in that the model is able to reproduce the gradient of increasing AOD intensity from the middle to the southern part of the Sea. Spatially, the model reproduces reasonably well the observed climatological dust storm frequency maps which show that the most intense dust source <span class="hlt">regions</span> to be found in the Karakum desert in Turkmenistan and Kyzylkum desert in Uzbekistan east of the Aral Sea. In the second part of this study we explore some <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dust and other aerosol on the climatology of the <span class="hlt">region</span> and on the energy budget of the Sea. We find that the overall direct radiative effects of dust and other aerosol reduce the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface, dampen boundary layer turbulence and inhibit convection over the <span class="hlt">region</span>. We also show that by including dust and aerosol in our simulation, we are able to reduce the positive biases in sea surface temperatures by 1-2 °C. Evaporation is also considerably reduced, resulting in an average difference of approximately 10 mm year^{-1} in the Sea's hydrological budget which is substantial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.529..477S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.529..477S"><span>Allowable CO2 emissions based on <span class="hlt">regional</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related climate targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andy J.; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into <span class="hlt">regional</span>- and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in <span class="hlt">regional</span> extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789252"><span>Allowable CO2 emissions based on <span class="hlt">regional</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related climate targets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seneviratne, Sonia I; Donat, Markus G; Pitman, Andy J; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L</p> <p>2016-01-28</p> <p>Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into <span class="hlt">regional</span>- and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in <span class="hlt">regional</span> extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/239','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/239"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Recreation Travel from Limited Survey Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Donald B.K. English; Jean-Claude Thill</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of public recreation facilities are caused by purchases made by households during trip production. Purchases are made near home, en route, or near the recreation site. Locations where en route purchases are made are particularly ill-defined. Surveys that gather trip expenditure data usually only collect home and site locations and travel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116412&keyword=coral+AND+reef+AND+depletion&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116412&keyword=coral+AND+reef+AND+depletion&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON UV EXPOSURE IN COASTAL SHELF <span class="hlt">REGIONS</span> OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Global change has a variety of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on UV exposure in coastal shelf <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the southeastern United States. Changes in solar UV reaching the water surface have been caused by human alterations of atmospheric composition such as depletion of the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116412&keyword=Ozone+AND+layer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91078927&CFTOKEN=45828334','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116412&keyword=Ozone+AND+layer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91078927&CFTOKEN=45828334"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON UV EXPOSURE IN COASTAL SHELF <span class="hlt">REGIONS</span> OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Global change has a variety of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on UV exposure in coastal shelf <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the southeastern United States. Changes in solar UV reaching the water surface have been caused by human alterations of atmospheric composition such as depletion of the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27152','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27152"><span>Costs and <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of restoration thinning programs on the national forests in eastern Oregon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Darius M. Adams; Gregory S. Latta</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An intertemporal spatial equilibrium model of the eastern Oregon softwood log market was employed to estimate the market and economic welfare <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of restoration thinning programs established on national forests in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Programs treated only lands with sawtimber thinning volume and varied by the extent of public subsidies for costs, the types of costs that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPA43B2196S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPA43B2196S"><span>Experiences with collaborative climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessments for <span class="hlt">regional</span> governments in southwestern British Columbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobie, S. R.; Murdock, T. Q.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Infrastructure vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning have created demand for detailed information about climate change and extreme events from local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> governments. Individual communities often have distinct priorities regarding climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. While projections from climate models are available to investigate these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, they are not always applicable or easily interpreted by local agencies. We discuss a series of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessments for several <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local governments in southwestern British Columbia. Each of the assessments was conducted with input from the users on project definition from the start of the process and on interpretation of results throughout each project. To produce sufficient detail for the assessment <span class="hlt">regions</span>, we produce high-resolution (800m) simulations of precipitation and temperature using downscaled climate model projections. Sets of derived climate parameters tailored to each <span class="hlt">region</span> are calculated from both standard indices such as CLIMDEX and from an energy-balance snowpack model. Involving user groups from the beginning of the analysis helps to convey the meaning and confidence of each set of climate change parameters to users and also clarifies what projections are feasible or not for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments. We discuss the different levels of involvement and collaboration with each organization, and the resulting decisions implemented following each of the projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143744&keyword=nasa+AND+climate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90509359&CFTOKEN=22173635','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143744&keyword=nasa+AND+climate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90509359&CFTOKEN=22173635"><span>EXAMINING THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY OF <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The United States has established a series of standards for criteria and other air pollutants to safeguard air quality to protect human health and the environment. The Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality (CIRAQ) project, a collaborative research effort involving multiple Fede...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatAs...1E..31S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatAs...1E..31S"><span>The Charon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a source of Pluto's dark equatorial <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sekine, Yasuhito; Genda, Hidenori; Kamata, Shunichi; Funatsu, Taro</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Pluto exhibits complex <span class="hlt">regional</span> diversity in its surface materials 1,2 . One of the most striking features is the dark reddish material, possibly organic matter, along Pluto's equator coexisting with the H2O-rich crust 2 . Little is known, however, about the surface process responsible for the dark equatorial <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Here, we propose that Pluto's dark <span class="hlt">regions</span> were formed through reactions in elongated pools of liquid water near the equator, generated by the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> that formed Charon 3-5 . Our laboratory experiments show that dark reddish organic matter, comparable to Pluto's dark materials, is produced through polymerization of simple organic compounds 6,7 that would have been present in proto-Pluto (for example, formaldehyde) by prolonged heating at temperatures ≥50 °C. Through hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulations, we demonstrate that an impactor, one-third the mass of Pluto, colliding with proto-Pluto—with an interior potential temperature of 150-200 K—could have generated both a Charon-sized satellite and high-temperature <span class="hlt">regions</span> around Pluto's equator. We also propose that high-velocity giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> result in global or hemispherical darkening and reddening, suggesting that the colour variety of large Kuiper belt objects 8-12 could have been caused by frequent, stochastic giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in a massive outer protoplanetary disk in the early Solar System 13-16 .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143744&keyword=business+AND+model&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143744&keyword=business+AND+model&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EXAMINING THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY OF <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The United States has established a series of standards for criteria and other air pollutants to safeguard air quality to protect human health and the environment. The Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality (CIRAQ) project, a collaborative research effort involving multiple Fede...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376257.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376257.pdf"><span>The Education Reform Movement: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Hispanic Youth in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Valdivieso, Rafael</p> <p></p> <p>To understand why the general situation of young Hispanic Americans is critical it is necessary to consider some demographic characteristics of the Hispanic population and examine the need for reform in their educational experiences. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of some current initiatives in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span> are discussed, and some alternative reforms are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=321264','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=321264"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on freshwater wetland hydrology and vegetation cover cycling along a <span class="hlt">regional</span> aridity gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Global mean temperature may increase up to 6°C by the end of this century and together with precipitation change may steepen <span class="hlt">regional</span> aridity gradients, <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the hydrology, productivity, diversity, and ecosystem goods and services from freshwater wetlands, where the water balance is tightly cou...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35555','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35555"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on terrestrial ecosystems in metropolitan Chicago and its surrounding, multi-state <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jessica J. Hellmann; Knute J. Nadelhoffer; Louis R. Iverson; Lewis H. Ziska; Stephen N. Matthews; Philip Myers; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants, wildlife, invasive species, pests, and agricultural ecosystems across the multi-state <span class="hlt">region</span> centered on Chicago, Illinois. We examine a geographic area that captures much of Lake Michigan, including a complex mosaic of urbanization and agriculture surrounding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013exon.conf...35L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013exon.conf...35L"><span>Beta-Deacy Spectroscopy in the 100Sn <span class="hlt">Region</span>:. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Rp-Process Calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorusso, G.; Becerril, A.; Amthor, A.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Cyburt, R. H.; Crawford, H. L.; Estrade, A.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T.; Hausmann, C. M.; Mantica, P. F.; Matos, M.; Meharchand, R.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.; Stoker, J.; Stolz, A.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>-decay in the neighborhood of 100Sn was studied at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The new half-lives of 96,97Cd, along with several new -delayed proton emission branching ratio for nuclei in this <span class="hlt">region</span> have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the composition of type-I X-ray burst ashes predicted by network calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1231M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1231M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span>-related Events on Active Tectonic <span class="hlt">Regions</span> Defined by Its Age, Shocked Minerals and Compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miura, Y.; Hirota, A.; Gorton, M.; Kedves, M.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>New type of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related event is defined at active tectonic <span class="hlt">region</span> by using semi-circular structure, bulk XRF compositions with mixed data, shocked quartz grains with the PDFs texture, and Fe-Ni content. Example is discussed in Takamatsu MKT crater in Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.1911K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.1911K"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> disaster <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis: comparing input-output and computable general equilibrium models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koks, Elco E.; Carrera, Lorenzo; Jonkeren, Olaf; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Husby, Trond G.; Thissen, Mark; Standardi, Gabriele; Mysiak, Jaroslav</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of them in combination with noneconomic methods. While both IO and CGE models are widely used, they are mainly compared on theoretical grounds. Few studies have compared disaster <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different model types in a systematic way and for the same geographical area, using similar input data. Such a comparison is valuable from both a scientific and policy perspective as the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the estimated losses are born likely to vary with the chosen modelling approach (IO, CGE, or hybrid). Hence, <span class="hlt">regional</span> disaster <span class="hlt">impact</span> loss estimates resulting from a range of models facilitate better decisions and policy making. Therefore, this study analyses the economic consequences for a specific case study, using three <span class="hlt">regional</span> disaster <span class="hlt">impact</span> models: two hybrid IO models and a CGE model. The case study concerns two flood scenarios in the Po River basin in Italy. Modelling results indicate that the difference in estimated total (national) economic losses and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> distribution of those losses may vary by up to a factor of 7 between the three models, depending on the type of recovery path. Total economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>, comprising all Italian <span class="hlt">regions</span>, is negative in all models though.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5469G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5469G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garuma, Gemechu; Sushama, Laxmi; Gulilat, Diro; Francois, Roberge</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> are modeled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1 deg. C to 5 deg. C). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate over the same study domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B33H0707G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B33H0707G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garuma, G. F.; Sushama, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> are modelled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1oC to 5oC). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban <span class="hlt">regions</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate over the same study domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.366...34M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.366...34M"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> hydrological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change: implications for water management in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mondal, A.; Mujumdar, P. P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate change is most likely to introduce an additional stress to already stressed water systems in developing countries. Climate change is inherently linked with the hydrological cycle and is expected to cause significant alterations in <span class="hlt">regional</span> water resources systems necessitating measures for adaptation and mitigation. Increasing temperatures, for example, are likely to change precipitation patterns resulting in alterations of <span class="hlt">regional</span> water availability, evapotranspirative water demand of crops and vegetation, extremes of floods and droughts, and water quality. A comprehensive assessment of <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change is thus necessary. Global climate model simulations provide future projections of the climate system taking into consideration changes in external forcings, such as atmospheric carbon-dioxide and aerosols, especially those resulting from anthropogenic emissions. However, such simulations are typically run at a coarse scale, and are not equipped to reproduce <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrological processes. This paper summarizes recent research on the assessment of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology, addressing the scale and physical processes mismatch issues. Particular attention is given to changes in water availability, irrigation demands and water quality. This paper also includes description of the methodologies developed to address uncertainties in the projections resulting from incomplete knowledge about future evolution of the human-induced emissions and from using multiple climate models. Approaches for investigating possible causes of historically observed changes in <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrological variables are also discussed. Illustrations of all the above-mentioned methods are provided for Indian <span class="hlt">regions</span> with a view to specifically aiding water management in India.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222532"><span>Cost analysis of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Kuo-Jen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G; Amar, Praveen; He, Shan; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Climate change has been predicted to adversely <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality with resulting health effects. Here a <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality model and a technology analysis tool are used to assess the additional emission reductions required and associated costs to offset <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on air quality. Analysis is done for six <span class="hlt">regions</span> and five major cities in the continental United States. Future climate is taken from a global climate model simulation for 2049-2051 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario, and emission inventories are the same as current ones to assess <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change alone on air quality and control expenses. On the basis of the IPCC A1B emission scenario and current control technologies, least-cost sets of emission reductions for simultaneously offsetting <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on <span class="hlt">regionally</span> averaged 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average ozone and yearly averaged PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) for the six <span class="hlt">regions</span> examined are predicted to range from $36 million (1999$) yr(-1) in the Southeast to $5.5 billion yr(-1) in the Northeast. However, control costs to offset climate-related pollutant increases in urban areas can be greater than the <span class="hlt">regional</span> costs because of the locally exacerbated ozone levels. An annual cost of $4.1 billion is required for offsetting climate-induced air quality impairment in 2049-2051 in the five cities alone. Overall, an annual cost of $9.3 billion is estimated for offsetting climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on air quality for the six <span class="hlt">regions</span> and five cities examined. Much of the additional expense is to reduce increased levels of ozone. Additional control costs for offsetting the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> everywhere in the United States could be larger than the estimates in this study. This study shows that additional emission controls and associated costs for offsetting climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> could significantly increase currently estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912269G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912269G"><span>Pluto's elongated dark <span class="hlt">regions</span> formed by the Charon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genda, Hidenori; Sekine, Yusuhito; Kamata, Shunichi; Funatsu, Taro</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The New Horizons spacecraft has found elongated dark areas in the equatorial <span class="hlt">region</span> of Pluto, which were informally called "the Whale" or Cthulhu <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Stern et al. 2015). Here we examine the possibility that the dark areas on Pluto were formed by thermal alterations and polymerization of interstellar volatiles caused by a Charon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Pluto is one of the largest Kuiper belt objects, which is highly likely to contain various interstellar volatiles, including aldehyde and ammonia. The previous study (Cordy et al. 2011) shows that these interstellar volatiles are thermally polymerized in solutions at high temperatures, forming complex insoluble organic solids. Given the satellite-to-planet mass ratio, the Pluto-Charon system is suggested to be of a giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> origin (Canup 2005). <span class="hlt">Impact</span>-induced heating on Pluto could have converted these volatile into complex organic matter in solution near the surface, which may explain the presence of dark areas in the equatorial <span class="hlt">region</span> of Pluto. Here, we produce complex organic matter for various temperatures by thermal polymerization of formaldehyde and ammonia in solutions. By measuring the UV-VIS absorption spectra of the produced organic matter, we found that the color of the solution changes to be dark if the temerature is above 50 degree C for months or more. This duration corresponds to the cooling timescale of a water pond with 500-km thickness. By using SPH code (Genda et al. 2015), we carried out many simulations of a giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and we found that a molten hot pond with > 500-km thickness is formed around the equatorial <span class="hlt">region</span> of Pluto by a Charon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>, if the water/rock mixing mass ratio is less than 1 or if the pre-<span class="hlt">impact</span> interior temperature is 150 K. Both the dark equatorial <span class="hlt">region</span> and a Charon-sized moon are formed when the pre-<span class="hlt">impact</span> Pluto is undifferentiated. To keep a rock-rich Pluto undifferentiated at time of the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>, Pluto may have been formed >100 Myrs after CAIs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/research-grants/webinar-presentation-linking-regional-aerosol-emission-changes-multiple-impact','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/research-grants/webinar-presentation-linking-regional-aerosol-emission-changes-multiple-impact"><span>Webinar Presentation: Linking <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Aerosol Emission Changes with Multiple <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Measures through Direct and Cloud-Related Forcing Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This presentation, Linking <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Aerosol Emission Changes with Multiple <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Measures through Direct and Cloud-Related Forcing Estimates, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Accounting for <span class="hlt">Impact</span>, Emissions, and Uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993WRR....29.3069B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993WRR....29.3069B"><span>Economic and environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for <span class="hlt">regional</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation/chemical transport model, (2) a <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer groundwater flow model. The three submodels are linked and run recursively to simulate producer response to alternative water quality policies over a multiple-year time horizon. Model solutions provide projections of production practices employed on various resource situations across the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Economic evaluation of alternative policies may be based upon <span class="hlt">regional</span> agricultural income, crop production levels, input use, and changes in aquifer water levels over time. Measures of agricultural nonpoint source pollution provided by the model include nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide loadings in deep percolation and runoff water, as well as sediment losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26169752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26169752"><span>A Generalized Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regionalization</span> and Provider Learning on Patient Outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yun; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Gilleskie, Donna B; Sun, Yepeng; Padakandla, Arun; Jacobs, Bruce L; Montgomery, Jeffery S; Montie, James E; Wei, John T; Hollenbeck, Brent K</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present a generalized model to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> on patient care outcomes in the presence of heterogeneity in provider learning. The model characterizes best <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> policies as optimal allocations of patients across providers with heterogeneous learning abilities. We explore issues that arise when solving for best <span class="hlt">regionalization</span>, which depends on statistically estimated provider learning curves. We explain how to maintain the problem's tractability and reformulate it into a binary integer program problem to improve solvability. Using our model, best <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> solutions can be computed within reasonable time using current-day computers. We apply the model to minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and estimate that, in comparison to current care delivery, within-state <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> can shorten length of stay by at least 40.8%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6515B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6515B"><span>Aerosol Radiative Forcing and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> over Middle East and North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique <span class="hlt">region</span> due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA <span class="hlt">region</span> and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GPC....11..179C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GPC....11..179C"><span>Integrated <span class="hlt">regional</span> assessment of global climatic change: lessons from the Mackenzie Basin <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Study (MBIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, Stewart J.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>This paper outlines the potential role integrated <span class="hlt">regional</span> assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada—the Mackenzie Basin <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by incorporating a "family of integrators" into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing <span class="hlt">regional</span> or country studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.7053K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.7053K"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> disaster <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koks, E. E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Husby, T. G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A large variety of models has been developed to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are Input-Output (IO) and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing numbers of scholars has developed hybrid approaches; one that combines both or either of them in combination with non-economic methods. While both IO and CGE models are widely used, they are mainly compared on theoretical grounds. Few studies have compared disaster <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different model types in a systematic way and for the same geographical area, using similar input data. Such a comparison is valuable from both a scientific and policy perspective as the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the estimated losses are likely to vary with the chosen modelling approach (IO, CGE, or hybrid). Hence, <span class="hlt">regional</span> disaster <span class="hlt">impact</span> loss estimates resulting from a range of models facilitates better decisions and policy making. Therefore, in this study we analyze one specific case study, using three <span class="hlt">regional</span> models: two hybrid IO models and a <span class="hlt">regionally</span> calibrated version of a global CGE model. The case study concerns two flood scenarios in the Po-river basin in Italy. Modelling results indicate that the difference in estimated total (national) economic losses and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> distribution of those losses may vary by up to a factor of seven between the three models, depending on the type of recovery path. Total economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>, comprising all Italian <span class="hlt">regions</span>, is negative in all models though.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050139793','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050139793"><span>Major <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The present article discusses and analyses the major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important <span class="hlt">region</span> of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE <span class="hlt">region</span>. The trend of operating the classic <span class="hlt">regional</span> jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large <span class="hlt">regional</span> jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the <span class="hlt">region</span> studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE <span class="hlt">region</span>. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, <span class="hlt">Regional</span> development, <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.173E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.173E"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> aspects of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and related adaptation options in European agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eitzinger, J.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Through a change in climatic conditions and variability, for example, extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts, etc.) are likely to occur more frequently in different spatial and time scales in future. Since agriculture is one the man' activities more dependant on weather behaviour, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on risks of agricultural production is indeed one of the most important issues in climate change assessments. Therefore an early recognition of risks and implementation of adaptation strategies is crucial as anticipatory and precautionary adaptation is more effective and less costly than forced, last minute, emergency adaptation or retrofitting. Results of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> and adaptation studies often show considerable different results, depending on the spatial scale of regionalisation. However, for a decision maker, only a high spatial resolution of related study results are useful as it can represent local conditions and its spatial variablitiy much better. Therefore the ADAGIO project (adagio-eu.org) was designed to focus on <span class="hlt">regional</span> studies in order to uncover <span class="hlt">regional</span> specific problems. In this context a bottom-up approach is used beside the top-down approach of using scientifc studies, involving <span class="hlt">regional</span> experts and farmers in the evaluation of potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> vulnerabilites and adaptation options. Preliminary results of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> studies and gathered feedback from experts and farmers show in general that (increasing) drought and heat is the main factor having <span class="hlt">impact</span> on agricultural vulnerability not only in the mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span>, but also in the Central and Eastern European <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Another important aspect is that the increasing risk of pest and diseases may play a more important role for agricultural vulnerability than assumed before, however, till now this field is only rarely investigated in Europe. An important aspect is also that there are increasing <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in the crop production potential in Europe due to climate change and that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25803240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25803240"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> air quality management aspects of climate change: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate mitigation options on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudokas, Jason; Miller, Paul J; Trail, Marcus A; Russell, Armistead G</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>We investigate the projected <span class="hlt">impact</span> of six climate mitigation scenarios on U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX) associated with energy use in major sectors of the U.S. economy (commercial, residential, industrial, electricity generation, and transportation). We use the EPA U.S. 9-<span class="hlt">region</span> national database with the MARKet Allocation energy system model to project emissions changes over the 2005 to 2050 time frame. The modeled scenarios are two carbon tax, two low carbon transportation, and two biomass fuel choice scenarios. In the lower carbon tax and both biomass fuel choice scenarios, SO2 and NOX achieve reductions largely through pre-existing rules and policies, with only relatively modest additional changes occurring from the climate mitigation measures. The higher carbon tax scenario projects greater declines in CO2 and SO2 relative to the 2050 reference case, but electricity sector NOX increases. This is a result of reduced investments in power plant NOX controls in earlier years in anticipation of accelerated coal power plant retirements, energy penalties associated with carbon capture systems, and shifting of NOX emissions in later years from power plants subject to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> NOX cap to those in <span class="hlt">regions</span> not subject to the cap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016360&hterms=core+strength&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstrength','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016360&hterms=core+strength&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstrength"><span>Core formation by giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: Conditions for intact melt <span class="hlt">region</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Among the many effects of high-speed, giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is widescale melting that can potentially trigger catastrophic core formation. If the projectile is sufficiently large, the melt pools to form an intact melt <span class="hlt">region</span>. The dense phase then segregates from the melt, forming a density anomoly at the melt <span class="hlt">region</span>'s base. If the anomoly produces a differential stress larger than a certain minimum, it overcomes the mantle's long-term elastic strength and rapidly forms a core. It was previously shown that giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> effectively trigger core formation in silicate bodies by the time they grow to the mass of Mercury and in icy bodies by the time they grow larger than Triton. In order for this process to be viable, an intact melt <span class="hlt">region</span> must be formed. Conditions under which this occurs is examined in more detail than previously published.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040370','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040370"><span>Projecting Heat-Related Mortality <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Under a Changing Climate in the New York City <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knowlton, Kim; Lynn, Barry; Goldberg, Richard A.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Hogrefe, Christian; Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Kinney, Patrick L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We sought to project future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on summer heat-related premature deaths in the New York City metropolitan <span class="hlt">region</span>. Methods. Current and future climates were simulated over the northeastern United States with a global-to-<span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling system. Summer heat-related premature deaths in the 1990s and 2050s were estimated by using a range of scenarios and approaches to modeling acclimatization (e.g., increased use of air conditioning, gradual physiological adaptation). Results. Projected <span class="hlt">regional</span> increases in heat-related premature mortality by the 2050s ranged from 47% to 95%, with a mean 70% increase compared with the 1990s. Acclimatization effects reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> increases in summer heat-related premature mortality by about 25%. Local <span class="hlt">impacts</span> varied considerably across the <span class="hlt">region</span>, with urban counties showing greater numbers of deaths and smaller percentage increases than less-urbanized counties. Conclusions. Although considerable uncertainty exists in climate forecasts and future health vulnerability, the range of projections we developed suggests that by midcentury, acclimatization may not completely mitigate the effects of climate change in the New York City metropolitan <span class="hlt">region</span>, which would result in an overall net increase in heat-related premature mortality. PMID:17901433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684360"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ambulance and Patient Diversion on Crowdedness of Multiple Emergency Departments in a <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kao, Chung-Yao; Yang, Jhen-Ci; Lin, Chih-Hao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Emergency department (ED) overcrowding threatens healthcare quality. Ambulance diversion (AD) may relieve ED overcrowding; however, diverting patients from an overcrowded ED will load neighboring EDs with more patients and may result in <span class="hlt">regional</span> overcrowding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different diversion strategies on the crowdedness of multiple EDs in a <span class="hlt">region</span>. The importance of <span class="hlt">regional</span> coordination was also explored. A queuing model for patient flow was utilized to develop a computer program for simulating AD among EDs in a <span class="hlt">region</span>. Key parameters, including patient arrival rates, percentages of patients of different acuity levels, percentage of patients transported by ambulance, and total resources of EDs, were assigned based on real data. The crowdedness indices of each ED and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> crowdedness index were assessed to evaluate the effectiveness of various AD strategies. Diverting patients equally to all other EDs in a <span class="hlt">region</span> is better than diverting patients only to EDs with more resources. The effect of diverting all ambulance-transported patients is similar to that of diverting only low-acuity patients. To minimize <span class="hlt">regional</span> crowdedness, ambulatory patients should be sent to proper EDs when AD is initiated. Based on a queuing model with parameters calibrated by real data, patient flows of EDs in a <span class="hlt">region</span> were simulated by a computer program. From a <span class="hlt">regional</span> point of view, randomly diverting ambulatory patients provides almost no benefit. With regards to minimizing the crowdedness of the whole <span class="hlt">region</span>, the most promising strategy is to divert all patients equally to all other EDs that are not already crowded. This result implies that communication and coordination among <span class="hlt">regional</span> hospitals are crucial to relieve overall crowdedness. A <span class="hlt">regional</span> coordination center may prioritize AD strategies to optimize ED utility. PMID:26659589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1204083"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic <span class="hlt">impact</span> zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for <span class="hlt">regions</span> affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1612993H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1612993H"><span>The <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions, to evaluate the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban emission from central European cities on climate for present-day (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) periods, and for the future one only emission changes are considered. Short-lived non-CO2 emissions are considered and, for the future <span class="hlt">impact</span>, only the emission changes are accounted for (the climate is kept "fixed"). The urban <span class="hlt">impact</span> on climate is calculated with the annihilation approach in which two experiments are performed: one with all emissions included and one without urban emissions. The radiative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of non-CO2 primary and secondary formed pollutants are considered, namely ozone (O3), sulfates (PSO4), nitrates (PNO3), primary organic aerosol and primary elementary carbon (POA and PEC).The validation of the modelling system is limited to key climate parameters, near-surface temperature and precipitation. It shows that the model, in general, underestimates temperature and overestimates precipitation. We attribute this behaviour to an excess of cloudiness/water vapour present in the model atmosphere as a consequence of overpredicted evaporation from the surface.The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on climate is characterised by statistically significant cooling of up to -0.02 and -0.04 K in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), mainly over cities. We found that the main contributors to the cooling are the direct and indirect effects of the aerosols, while the ozone titration, calculated especially for DJF, plays rather a minor role. In accordance with the vertical extent of the urban-emission-induced aerosol perturbation, cooling dominates the first few model layers up to about 150 m in DJF and 1000 m in JJA. We found a clear diurnal cycle of the radiative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with maximum cooling just after noon (JJA) or later in afternoon (DJF). Furthermore, statistically significant decreases of surface radiation are modelled in accordance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3500246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3500246"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy on Education Supply in High Prevalence <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Risley, Claire L.; Drake, Lesley J.; Bundy, Donald A. P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background We set out to estimate, for the three geographical <span class="hlt">regions</span> with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> of East Asia), the human resource and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. Methodology/Principal Findings A costed mathematical model of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA) was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by <span class="hlt">region</span>. It was estimated that (1) The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2) In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3) The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4) If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the <span class="hlt">regions</span> studied. Conclusions/Significance The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest <span class="hlt">impact</span>. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support. PMID:23173030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173030"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Risley, Claire L; Drake, Lesley J; Bundy, Donald A P</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We set out to estimate, for the three geographical <span class="hlt">regions</span> with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> of East Asia), the human resource and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. A costed mathematical model of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA) was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by <span class="hlt">region</span>. It was estimated that (1) The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2) In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3) The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4) If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the <span class="hlt">regions</span> studied. The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest <span class="hlt">impact</span>. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51B0018G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51B0018G"><span>Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Emissions in Various <span class="hlt">Regions</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> due to emissions in various <span class="hlt">regions</span> in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven <span class="hlt">regions</span> in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in their local areas and other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, provinces, and cities in China. A <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of emissions in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...52a2097J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...52a2097J"><span>The research on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of energy-environment policy on <span class="hlt">regional</span> development—based on CGE model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Y. M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we will focus on study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of energy and environment regulatory on the inter-<span class="hlt">regional</span> coordinated development from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level. Making use of multi-<span class="hlt">regional</span> energy-economy-environmental computable general equilibrium(CGE) model, we will analysis the effect of <span class="hlt">regional</span> energy regulation in the future. We will research the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the carbon emissions trading and other environmental policy on <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic development and industrial structure. The results show that the regulation of energy and environment can promote <span class="hlt">regional</span> industry to upgrade and different policies of energy and environmental are needed to implement to mitigate the negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the economy of different <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In the paper, we expand the traditional <span class="hlt">regional</span> energy-environmental CGE model tools for providing new quantitative methods to study <span class="hlt">regional</span> energy and environmental problems in China.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=227685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=227685"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Pacific Southwest <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Medical Library Service on hospital library development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graham, E; Van Vuren, D D; Flack, V</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A study was designed to evaluate the progress of hospital libraries within <span class="hlt">Region</span> 7 since the Pacific Southwest <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Medical Library Services (PSRMLS) began in 1969. Library progress was defined as an increase in extent and types of services and resources offered. The study assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Medical Library programs on hospital libraries and compared resources and services reported in 1969, 1971, and 1984. The 1984 data were also measured against a set of core library services and resources that should be provided by a full-service hospital library. In addition to assessing the quality of PSRMLS programs and their effect on <span class="hlt">Region</span> 7 hospital libraries, the study documented extensive growth in staffing, collection size, and services. PSRMLS programs were highly rated by the respondents, who also indicated that participation in PSRMLS programs improved specific library resources and services. PMID:3676532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27753179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27753179"><span>Marine species in ambient low-oxygen <span class="hlt">regions</span> subject to double jeopardy <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stortini, Christine H; Chabot, Denis; Shackell, Nancy L</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We have learned much about the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined <span class="hlt">impact</span> of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species distribution models were used to predict the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species. Substantial changes are projected within 20-40 years. A eurythermal depleted species already limited to shallow, oxygen-rich refuge habitat (Atlantic cod) may be relatively uninfluenced by oxygen depletion but increase in density within refuge areas with warming. A more stenothermal, deep-dwelling species (Greenland halibut) is projected to lose ~55% of its high-density areas under the combined <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of warming and oxygen depletion. Another deep-dwelling, more eurythermal species (Northern shrimp) would lose ~4% of its high-density areas due to oxygen depletion alone, but these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> may be buffered by warming, which may increase density by 8% in less hypoxic areas, but decrease density by ~20% in the warmest parts of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Due to local climate variability and extreme events, and that our models cannot project changes in species sensitivity to hypoxia with warming, our results should be considered conservative. We present an approach to effectively evaluate the individual and cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multiple environmental stressors on a species-by-species basis at the scales most relevant to managers. Our study may provide a basis for work in other low-oxygen <span class="hlt">regions</span> and should contribute to a growing literature base in climate science, which will continue to be of support for resource managers as climate change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19785277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19785277"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The following work presents an analysis of these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Partnership <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Modeling Center for <span class="hlt">regional</span> haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this <span class="hlt">region</span> that are likely to be <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510421B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510421B"><span>Assessing climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water resources in remote mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>From a water resources perspective, remote mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span> are often considered as a basket case. They are often <span class="hlt">regions</span> where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they <span class="hlt">impact</span> local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor <span class="hlt">regions</span>, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span>. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span> often stand out as <span class="hlt">regions</span> of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234324"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urbanization on <span class="hlt">regional</span> net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta <span class="hlt">region</span> has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative <span class="hlt">region</span> within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urbanization on <span class="hlt">regional</span> net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8691E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8691E"><span>Wintertime Air Quality <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Operations in the Bakken Formation <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evanoski-Cole, Ashley; Sive, Barkley; Zhou, Yong; Prenni, Anthony; Schurman, Misha; Day, Derek; Sullivan, Amy; Li, Yi; Hand, Jenny; Gebhart, Kristi; Schichtel, Bret; Collett, Jeffrey</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Oil and natural gas extraction has dramatically increased in the last decade in the United States due to the increased use of unconventional drilling techniques which include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these drilling activities on local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality in oil and gas basins across the country are still relatively unknown, especially in recently developed basins such as the Bakken shale formation. This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive characterization of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality in the Bakken <span class="hlt">region</span>. The Bakken shale formation, part of the Williston basin, is located in North Dakota and Montana in the United States and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. Oil and gas drilling operations can <span class="hlt">impact</span> air quality in a variety of ways, including the generation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), hazardous air pollutants, ozone, and greenhouse gas emissions. During the winter especially, PM formation can be enhanced and meteorological conditions can favor increased concentrations of PM and other pollutants. In this study, ground-based measurements throughout the Bakken <span class="hlt">region</span> in North Dakota and Montana were collected over two consecutive winters to gain <span class="hlt">regional</span> trends of air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the oil and gas drilling activities. Additionally, one field site had a comprehensive suite of instrumentation operating at high time resolution to gain detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition. Measurements included organic carbon and black carbon concentrations in PM, the characterization of inorganic PM, inorganic gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precipitation and meteorology. These elevated PM episodes were further investigated using the local meteorological conditions and <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport patterns. Episodes of elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were also detected. The VOC concentrations were analyzed and specific VOCs that are known oil and gas tracers were used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129..229F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129..229F"><span>Changes in intensity of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> Hadley cell in Indian Ocean and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in the intensity of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span> are investigated during the period 1979-2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon-ENSO-Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...51F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...51F"><span>Changes in intensity of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> Hadley cell in Indian Ocean and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in the intensity of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span> are investigated during the period 1979-2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon-ENSO-Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905685"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> characterization of freshwater Use in LCA: modeling direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boulay, Anne-Marie; Bulle, Cécile; Bayart, Jean-Baptiste; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology that quantifies potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for comparative purposes in a decision-making context. While potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from pollutant emissions into water are characterized in LCA, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from water unavailability are not yet fully quantified. Water use can make the resource unavailable to other users by displacement or quality degradation. A reduction in water availability to human users can potentially affect human health. If financial resources are available, there can be adaptations that may, in turn, shift the environmental burdens to other life cycle stages and <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories. This paper proposes a model to evaluate these potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in an LCA context. It considers the water that is withdrawn and released, its quality and scarcity in order to evaluate the loss of functionality associated with water uses. <span class="hlt">Regionalized</span> results are presented for <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health for two modeling approaches regarding affected users, including or not domestic uses, and expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). A consumption and quality based scarcity indicator is also proposed as a midpoint. An illustrative example is presented for the production of corrugated board with different effluents, demonstrating the importance of considering quality, process effluents and the difference between the modeling approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5361A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5361A"><span>Inductive analysis about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate warming on <span class="hlt">regional</span> geomorphic evolution in arid area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anayit, Mattohti; Abulizi, Mailiya</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change on the surface of earth will produce a chain reaction among so many global natural environmental elements. Namely, all the issues will be affected by the climate change, just like the <span class="hlt">regional</span> water environment, formation and development of landscape, plants and animals living environment, the survival of microorganisms, the human economic environment and health, and the whole social environment changes at well. But because of slow frequency of climate change and it is volatility change, its influence on other factors and the overall environmental performance is not obvious, and its reflection performs slowly. Using <span class="hlt">regional</span> weather data, we calculated qualitatively and quantitatively and did analysis the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate warming on Xinjiang (a province of China) geomorphic evolution elements, including the ground weather, erosion rate, collapse change, landslide occurrences changes and <span class="hlt">impact</span> debris flow, combining the field survey and indoor test methods. Key words: climate change; the geomorphic induction; landscape change in river basin; Xinjiang</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714376"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change and biosecurity in the Asian Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sly, Peter D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Our climate is changing as a result of human activity, and such changes have the potential to have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health. The basic requirements for health--clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter--are all vulnerable to climate change. Low-income developing countries are especially vulnerable; no country, however, is totally immune. In Australia, we are already seeing evidence of the health effects of climate change with an increase in temperature-related food poisoning events and an increase in mosquito-borne infections, including Ross River virus and Dengue fever. In the Asian Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span> the issues identified as most pressing vary from country to country, but a common theme is a lack of public understanding and education and lack of capacity for implementing mitigation strategies. Strategies addressing the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change must incorporate the principles of social justice and equity within the <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......107H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......107H"><span>Biomass district heating in the Tug Hill, NY: Feasibility and <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Aaron</p> <p></p> <p>Biomass district heating (BDH) has the potential to stimulate rural economies in the Tug Hill <span class="hlt">region</span> of New York State by establishing a local industry and providing lower cost heat compared to the local alternative, #2 fuel oil. However, the competitiveness and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of BDH networks in rural villages is largely unknown. This study proposes a methodology to provide initial assessments of the feasibility of BDH in rural communities. BDH would deliver heat below the cost of the local alternative in eight of the ten study villages examined. Capital costs comprised over 80% of the project costs, illuminating the importance of reaching a sufficient heat density; however, specific building heat was a stronger determinant of a village's feasibility. An input-output analysis determined that BDH would generate $18.6 million in output and create 143 jobs throughout the three county <span class="hlt">region</span>, a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> if concentrated around the study villages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070789','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070789"><span>Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-<span class="hlt">Region</span> Model for HF Systems <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D <span class="hlt">region</span> model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-<span class="hlt">region</span> model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-<span class="hlt">region</span> ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-<span class="hlt">region</span>/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-<span class="hlt">region</span>/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for <span class="hlt">regional</span> improvement to the D-<span class="hlt">region</span>/HF absorption model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27859107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27859107"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> diversity reverses the negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of an alien predator on local species-poor communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Species diversity is often an implicit source of biological insurance for communities against the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of novel perturbations, such as the introduction of an invasive species. High environmental heterogeneity (e.g., a mountainous gradient) is expected to beget greater <span class="hlt">regional</span> species diversity and variation in functional traits related to environmental tolerances. Thus, heterogeneous metacommunities are expected to provide more tolerant colonists that buffer stressed local communities in the absence of dispersal limitation. We tested the hypothesis that importation of a <span class="hlt">regional</span> zooplankton pool assembled from a diverse array of lakes and ponds lessens the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a novel predator on local species-poor alpine communities by increasing response diversity (i.e., diversity of tolerances to environmental change) as mediated by variation in functional traits related to predator evasion. We also tested whether <span class="hlt">impacts</span> varied with temperature, as warming may modify (e.g., dampen or amplify) invasion effects. An eight-week factorial experiment ([fishless vs. introduced Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)] × [ambient temperature vs. heated] × [local vs. local + <span class="hlt">regional</span> species pool]) was conducted using 32 1,000-L mesocosms. Associations between experimental treatments and species functional traits were tested by R-mode linked to Q-mode (RLQ) and fourth-corner analyses. Although the introduced predator suppressed local species richness and community biomass, colonization by several montane zooplankters reversed these negative effects, resulting in increased species diversity and production. Invasion resistance was unaffected by higher temperatures, which failed to elicit any significance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the community. We discovered that the smaller body sizes of imported species drove functional overcompensation (i.e., increased production) in invaded communities. The observed ecological surprise showed how <span class="hlt">regionally</span> sourced biodiversity from a highly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712207K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712207K"><span>Collaborative experiment on intercomparison of <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale hydrological models for climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krysanova, Valentina; Hattermann, Fred</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Inter-Sectoral <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) is a community-driven modelling effort bringing together <span class="hlt">impact</span> modellers across sectors and scales to create more consistent and comprehensive projections of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. This project is aimed in establishing a long-term, systematic, cross-sectoral <span class="hlt">impact</span> model intercomparison process, including comparison of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for multiple sectors using ensemble of climate scenarios and applying global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> models. The project is coordinated by the Potsdam Institute for Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research. An overview of this project and collaborative experiment related to the <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale water sector model intercomparison in ISI-MIP will be presented. The <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale water sector modelling includes eleven models applied to eleven large-scale river basins worldwide (not every model is applied to every of eleven basins). In total, 60-65 model applications will be done by several collaborating groups from different Institutions. The modelling tools include: ECOMAG, HBV, HBV-light, HYPE, LASCAM, LISFLOOD, mHM, SWAT, SWIM, VIC and WaterGAP. Eleven river basins chosen for the model application and intercomparison are: the Rhine and Tagus in Europe, the Niger and Blue Nile in Africa, the Ganges, Lena, Upper Yellow and Upper Yangtze in Asia, the Upper Mississippi and Upper Amazon in America, and the Murray-Darling in Australia. Their drainage areas range between 67,490 km2 (Tagus) to 2,460,000 km2 (Lena). Data from global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> datasets are used for the model setup and calibration. The model calibration and validation was done using the WATCH climate data for all cases, also checking the representation of high and low percentiles of river discharge. For most of the basins, also intermediate gauge stations were included in the calibration. The calibration and validation results, evaluated with the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and percent bias (PBIAS), are mostly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0086L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0086L"><span>Ensemble simulations to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of land use change of Atlanta to <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, P.; Hu, Y.; Stone, B.; Vargo, J.; Nenes, A.; Russell, A.; Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Studies show that urban areas may be the "first responders" to climate change (Rosenzweig et al., 2010). Of particular interest is the potential increased temperatures in urban areas, due to use of structures and surfaces that increase local heating, and how that may <span class="hlt">impact</span> health, air quality and other environmental factors. In response, interest has grown as to how the modification of land use in urban areas, in order to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization can serve to reduce local temperatures, and how climate is <span class="hlt">impacted</span> more <span class="hlt">regionally</span>. Studies have been conducted to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of land use change on local or <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate by dynamic downscaling using <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models (RCMs), the boundary conditions (BCs) and initial conditions (ICs) of which result from coarser-resolution reanalysis data or general circulation models (GCMs). However, few studies have focused on demonstrating whether the land use change in local areas significantly <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the climate of the larger <span class="hlt">region</span> of the domain, and the spatial scale of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> from urban-scale changes. This work investigated the significance of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of land use change in the Atlanta city area on different scales, using a range of modeling resolutions, including the contiguous US (with 36km resolution), the southeastern US (with 12km resolution) and the state of Georgia (with 4km resolution). We used WRF version 3.1.1 with and ran continuous from June to August of a simulated year 2050, driven by GISS ModelE with inputs corresponding to RCP4.5. During the simulation, spectral nudging is used in the 36km resolution domain to maintain the climate patterns with scales larger than 2000km. Two-way nesting is also used in order to take into account the feedback of nesting domains across model domains. Two land use cases over the Atlanta city are chosen. For the base case, most of the urban area of Atlanta is covered with forest; while for the second, "impervious" case, all the urban</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-13/pdf/2010-11505.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-13/pdf/2010-11505.pdf"><span>75 FR 27056 - Record of Decision for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement: New Bedford <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, New Bedford, MA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-05-13</p> <p>...), resulting from an Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (EIS) has been prepared for a New Bedford <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport... Federal Aviation Administration Record of Decision for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement: New Bedford <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, New Bedford, MA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111592N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111592N"><span><span class="hlt">Regionalization</span> and Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change on Mexican Coasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nava-Sanchez, E. H.; Murillo-Jimenez, J. M.; Godinez-Orta, L.; Morales-Perez, R. A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Mexican coasts exhibit a high variety of geoforms and processes, and consequently, are exposed to a variability of types and <span class="hlt">impact</span> levels of geological hazards. Tropical cyclones are the most devastating hazards for the Mexican coast, although, <span class="hlt">impact</span> levels are higher on the southern coast of both Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The second dangerous geo-hazards are earthquakes and tsunamis, which affect all Pacific coast, causing more damage the earthquakes generated in the Cocos Trench. For seismic hazards, there is a <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> of the Mexican territory, however, even though the high levels of damages caused by other natural hazards, there is a lack of initiatives for performing atlas of natural hazards or coastal management plans. Exceptions are the local scale atlas of natural hazards by the Mexican Geological Survey or some other local scale atlas made with several errors by non experience private consultant companies. Our work shows results of analyses of coastal geological hazards associated to global warming such as the sea level rise, and the increase in strength of some coastal processes. Initially, due to the high diversity in coastal environments for the Mexican coast, it was considered that, a <span class="hlt">regional</span> characterization of the coastal zone, and the gathering of environmental data for determining levels of <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the various coastal hazards, as an evaluation of coastal vulnerability. Thus, the basic criteria for defining Coastal <span class="hlt">Regions</span>, in order of importance, were the following: geomorphology, climate, geology, tectonics, and oceanography. Also, some anthropogenic factors were taken in account for the coastal <span class="hlt">regionalization</span>, such as civil construction along the coastline, land used and modification of the fluvial system. The analysis of such criteria, allows us to classify the Mexican coasts in 10 Coastal <span class="hlt">Regions</span>. On the Pacific coast <span class="hlt">regions</span> are: (I) Pacific Coast of Baja California, (II) Gulf Coast of Baja California, (III) Coastal Plain of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615212A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615212A"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of external industrial sources on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local air quality of Mexico Megacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome; Sosa, Gustavo</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca <span class="hlt">region</span>, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 hours. The estimated emission rate is high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of 'overlooked' emission sources in Tizayuca <span class="hlt">region</span> that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and the State of Mexico. We found that they can also contribute SO2 in the NE <span class="hlt">region</span> of the basin, at the suburban supersite and that at some monitoring stations; their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of TIC to <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone levels is also estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA and slightly higher contribution at the suburban and rural supersites. However, the contribution could be high in the upper northwest <span class="hlt">region</span> of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone levels is presented. Results suggest that part of the total <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone from TIC-generated precursors could be related to flaring activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B21B0724R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B21B0724R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p> examined. Previous modeling work has shown that in this <span class="hlt">region</span> the lowlands and highlands are highly coupled. Preliminary results from numerical modeling studies illustrating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of deforestation on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate will also be presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10e4010M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10e4010M"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality and climate. Mitigating these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the <span class="hlt">region</span> than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian <span class="hlt">region</span>, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016953&hterms=china+pollutants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchina%2Bpollutants','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016953&hterms=china+pollutants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchina%2Bpollutants"><span>East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120016953'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120016953_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120016953_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120016953_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120016953_hide"></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>As the most populated <span class="hlt">region</span> of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large <span class="hlt">impact</span> over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol <span class="hlt">impact</span> on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016953&hterms=regional+climate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016953&hterms=regional+climate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate"><span>East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>As the most populated <span class="hlt">region</span> of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large <span class="hlt">impact</span> over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol <span class="hlt">impact</span> on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.6710O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.6710O"><span><span class="hlt">Regionalization</span> of land-use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on streamflow using a network of paired catchments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ochoa-Tocachi, Boris F.; Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of land use and cover (LUC) change on catchment hydrological response is essential for land-use planning and management. Yet hydrologists are often not able to present consistent and reliable evidence to support such decision-making. The issue tends to be twofold: a scarcity of relevant observations, and the difficulty of <span class="hlt">regionalizing</span> any existing observations. This study explores the potential of a paired catchment monitoring network to provide statistically robust, <span class="hlt">regionalized</span> predictions of LUC change <span class="hlt">impact</span> in an environment of high hydrological variability. We test the importance of LUC variables to explain hydrological responses and to improve <span class="hlt">regionalized</span> predictions using 24 catchments distributed along the Tropical Andes. For this, we calculate first 50 physical catchment properties, and then select a subset based on correlation analysis. The reduced set is subsequently used to <span class="hlt">regionalize</span> a selection of hydrological indices using multiple linear regression. Contrary to earlier studies, we find that incorporating LUC variables in the <span class="hlt">regional</span> model structures increases significantly regression performance and predictive capacity for 66% of the indices. For the runoff ratio, baseflow index, and slope of the flow duration curve, the mean absolute error reduces by 53% and the variance of the residuals by 79%, on average. We attribute the explanatory capacity of LUC in the <span class="hlt">regional</span> model to the pairwise monitoring setup, which increases the contrast of the land-use signal in the data set. As such, it may be a useful strategy to optimize data collection to support watershed management practices and improve decision-making in data-scarce <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004290"><span>Electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> polarization expected in solar EUV lines from flaring chromospheres/transition <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fineschi, S.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Macneice, P.; Ljepojevic, N. N.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>We have evaluated lower bounds on the degree of <span class="hlt">impact</span> Extreme Ultraviolet/Ultraviolet (EUV/UV) line polarization expected during solar flares. This polarization arises from collisional excitation by energetic electrons with non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. Linear polarization was observed in the S I 1437 A line by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter/Solar Maximum Mission (UVSP/SMM) during a flare on 15 July 1980. An early interpretation suggested that <span class="hlt">impact</span> excitation by electrons propagating through the steep temperature gradient of the flaring transition <span class="hlt">region</span>/high chromosphere produced this polarization. Our calculations show that the observed polarization in this UV line cannot be due to this effect. We find instead that, in some flare models, the energetic electrons can produce an <span class="hlt">impact</span> polarization of a few percent in EUV neutral helium lines (i.e., lambda lambda 522, 537, and 584 A).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.1002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.1002S"><span>Release of <span class="hlt">Impact</span>-debris in Perturbed Ring <span class="hlt">Regions</span>: Dynamical and Photometric Simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salo, Heikki J.; Schmidt, J.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The typical <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities in Saturn's rings are of the order of a few mm/sec. In such a small velocity regime the larger ring particles are likely to be covered by a regolith of smaller particles (see Albers & Spahn 2005). However, in the perturbed ring <span class="hlt">regions</span> (e.g. due to satellite density waves, strong self-gravity wakes, viscous overstabilities) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities may be sufficiently enhanced to lead to a significant release of free regolith debris. We explore this possibility via local N-body simulations, keeping track of the distribution of debris-producing fast <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The potential photometric consequences of such free debris are checked with Monte Carlo simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168667','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168667"><span>Disturbance to desert soil ecosystems contributes to dust-mediated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pointing, Stephen B.; Belnap, Jayne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This review considers the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> arising from disturbance to desert soil ecosystems. Deserts occupy over one-third of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, and biological soil covers are critical to stabilization of desert soils. Disturbance to these can contribute to massive destabilization and mobilization of dust. This results in dust storms that are transported across inter-continental distances where they have profound negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Dust deposition at high altitudes causes radiative forcing of snowpack that leads directly to altered hydrological regimes and changes to freshwater biogeochemistry. In marine environments dust deposition <span class="hlt">impacts</span> phytoplankton diazotrophy, and causes coral reef senescence. Increasingly dust is also recognized as a threat to human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7021777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7021777"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the PACOM <span class="hlt">regional</span> command strategy of the evolving national security strategy. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riddle, M.H.</p> <p>1994-02-08</p> <p>This paper deals with the conclusions and recommendations of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> the evolving United States national security strategy may have on the PACOM <span class="hlt">regional</span> command strategy. The conclusions and recommendations are based on a survey of the January 1993 National Security Strategy of the United States presented by the outgoing Administration and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that the evolving strategy of the Clinton Administration is having. These conclusions and recommendations are also influenced by current events surrounding the activities and policy debate centered on the Peoples Democratic Republic of Korea. The conclusions drawn are that the objectives of national security are timeless and consistent from Administration to Administration, even when the party changes. The divergence occurs in emphasis and priority. Several <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the PACOM <span class="hlt">regional</span> command strategy are identified as a result. To break the reliance on the strategy of deterrence requires refocusing of the priority from the global-international level to the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level. The recommendation is made that the Administration should de-link the military considerations on the Korean peninsula from the international debate over the DPRK nuclear program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3196V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3196V"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate model simulations indicate limited climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by operational and planned European wind farms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; Tobin, Isabelle; Bréon, François-Marie; de Lavergne, Jean-Guy Devezeaux; Colette, Augustin; Yiou, Pascal; Ruti, Paolo Michele</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The rapid development of wind energy has raised concerns about environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Temperature changes are found in the vicinity of wind farms and previous simulations have suggested that large-scale wind farms could alter <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate. However, assessments of the effects of realistic wind power development scenarios at the scale of a continent are missing. Here we simulate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of current and near-future wind energy production according to European Union energy and climate policies. We use a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model describing the interactions between turbines and the atmosphere, and find limited <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A statistically significant signal is only found in winter, with changes within ±0.3 °C and within 0-5% for precipitation. It results from the combination of local wind farm effects and changes due to a weak, but robust, anticyclonic-induced circulation over Europe. However, the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> remain much weaker than the natural climate interannual variability and changes expected from greenhouse gas emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443610"><span>A statistical study of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation on climate in the LMD GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polcher, J.; Laval, K.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The present study uses the general circulation model of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD-GCM) coupled to the land-surface, vegetation model SECHIBA. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation on climate is discussed. Replacing tropical forests by degraded pastures changes albedo, the roughness length and the hydrological properties of the surface. The experiment was carried out over eleven years using the observed sea surface temperature from 1978 to 1988, which includes two major El Nino events. The discussion of the results in this study is limited to the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation. The changes found for the surface fluxes in Amazonia, Africa, and Indonesia are examined in detail and compared in order to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on temperature. Special attention is paid to feedback mechanisms which compensate for the surface changes and to the statistical significant of these results within athe tropical variability of climate. It is shown that the relatively small <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation in this study is statistically significant and largely independent of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. 27 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31E2097E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31E2097E"><span>Solar Wind Interaction with Comet 67P/C-G: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Corotating Interaction <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Odelstad, E.; Vigren, E.; Burch, J. L.; Carr, C.; Cupido, E.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Goldstein, R.; Halekas, J. S.; Pierre, H.; Lebreton, J. P.; Mandt, K.; Mokashi, P.; Nemeth, Z.; Nilsson, H.; Ramstad, R.; Richter, I.; Stenberg Wieser, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present observations from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of corotating interaction <span class="hlt">regions</span> (CIRs) on comet 67P. Corotating interaction <span class="hlt">regions</span> build up in the solar wind when slow flow is caught up by faster flow. A pressure pulse is then formed, which propagates outward in interplanetary space and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on e.g. planets, moons and comet in its path. In the interval October to December 2014 four such CIRs are traced from Earth (using ACE) to Mars (using Mars Express and MAVEN) and to comet 67P (using Rosetta). As the CIRs <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the cometary coma the ionospheric low-energy plasma density in the ionosphere increases by roughly one order of magnitude in the first three events. The increased density is possibly caused by sweeping up of more upstream plasma in combination with increased <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization and charge exchange processes. Increased fluxes of ~100 eV electrons are observed concurrently and the magnetic field strength typically doubles as more interplanetary magnetic field piles up around of the comet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51D1106S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51D1106S"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Variability on Crop Yield over the Terai <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Subedi, S.; Acharya, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Agricultural sector in Nepal which alone contributes about 42 % of the total GDP have a huge influence on national economy. This sector is very much susceptible to climate change. This study is emphasized on Terai <span class="hlt">region</span> (situated at an altitude of 60m to 300m) of Nepal which investigates the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability on various stages of cropping (paddy) periods such as transplant, maturity and harvest. The climate variables namely temperature and rainfall are used to explore the relationship between climate and paddy yields based on 30 years of historical observed data. Observed monthly rainfall and temperature data are collected from the department of hydrology and meteorology, and paddy yield data are collected from the Ministry of Agricultural Development. A correlation analysis will be carried out between the backward difference filtered climate parameters and the backward difference filtered rice yield. This study will also analyze average monthly and annual rainfall, and, min, max and mean temperature during the period of 1981-2010 based on 15 synoptic stations of Nepal. This study will visualize rainfall and temperature distribution over Nepal, and also evaluate the effect of change in rainfall and temperature in the paddy yield. While evaluating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate on crop yield, this study will not consider the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of irrigation in crop yield. The major results, climate distribution and its local/<span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on agriculture, could be utilized by planners, decision makers, and climate and agricultural scientists as a basis in formulating/implementing future plans, policies and projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518587"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate model simulations indicate limited climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by operational and planned European wind farms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; Tobin, Isabelle; Bréon, François-Marie; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Colette, Augustin; Yiou, Pascal; Ruti, Paolo Michele</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The rapid development of wind energy has raised concerns about environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Temperature changes are found in the vicinity of wind farms and previous simulations have suggested that large-scale wind farms could alter <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate. However, assessments of the effects of realistic wind power development scenarios at the scale of a continent are missing. Here we simulate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of current and near-future wind energy production according to European Union energy and climate policies. We use a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model describing the interactions between turbines and the atmosphere, and find limited <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A statistically significant signal is only found in winter, with changes within ±0.3 °C and within 0-5% for precipitation. It results from the combination of local wind farm effects and changes due to a weak, but robust, anticyclonic-induced circulation over Europe. However, the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> remain much weaker than the natural climate interannual variability and changes expected from greenhouse gas emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23828481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23828481"><span>Baseline <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion <span class="hlt">impacts</span> exercise response to endobronchial valve therapy in advanced pulmonary emphysema.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argula, Rahul G; Strange, Charlie; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Goldin, Jonathan</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Advanced heterogeneous emphysema with hyperinflation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> exercise tolerance in COPD. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using Zephyr endobronchial valves (EBVs) has been shown to improve lung function in patients with heterogeneous emphysema. It is unclear whether the target lobe perfusion of patients receiving EBV therapy <span class="hlt">impacts</span> exercise tolerance as measured by the 6-min walk test distance (6MWTD). We performed a retrospective analysis on the treatment group of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT) to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of perfusion, measured by 99mTc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy, on the 6-month improvement in 6MWTD. A mixed-model analysis was performed for the treatment outcome, adjusting for other variables such as age, target lobe position, fissure integrity, BMI, sex, destruction score, and lobar exclusion. Dichotomized at the median, of the 169 patients who received EBV therapy, 88 had a low target lobe <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion and 81 had high target lobe <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion at baseline. Patients with a low target lobe <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion had a significant improvement in 6MWTD when compared with those with a high baseline target lobe <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion (30.24 m vs 3.72 m, P = .03). Shifts in perfusion after EBV therapy occurred only in patients with high baseline perfusion and did not correlate with improved 6MWTD. Patients having heterogeneous emphysema with a low baseline target lobe <span class="hlt">regional</span> perfusion benefit from EBV therapy, independent of the degree of target lobe destruction. This effect is attenuated if the EBV therapy is not occlusive. Characterization of baseline perfusion may enhance clinical results of patients with emphysema undergoing EBV therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00000606; URL: www.clincialtrials.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED368437.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED368437.pdf"><span>The Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Piedmont Virginia Community College upon Its Service <span class="hlt">Region</span>. Research Report Number 2-94.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Head, Ronald B.</p> <p></p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) on its service area for fiscal year 1992-93. Three models of economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used in the study: the "short cut" method (SCM) calculating <span class="hlt">impact</span> based on data on college, employee, and student expenditures in the service <span class="hlt">region</span>; the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714955O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714955O"><span>Assessments of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Northern Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Reckermann, Marcus; Quante, Markus</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate change assessments are urgently needed to complement the big picture with <span class="hlt">regional</span> results and scenarios of higher resolution and with relevance for local decision makers and stakeholders. A new type of assessment report originated in the original BACC report of 2008 (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>) which has served as role model for other assessments published or in preparation. It represents an approach to assessing and making available current knowledge on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change and its <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the physical, biogeochemical and biological environment (ecosystems, socio-economic sphere). Reports of this type which are available or underway are the original BACC book (2008), the second BACC book (2015), the climate report for the greater Hamburg area (2011), and the NOSCCA report (North Sea Climate Change Assessment) which is expected to be published in 2016. The assessments are produced by teams of scientists from the <span class="hlt">region</span>, led by lead authors who recruit experts from relevant topics to contribute. The process is not externally funded and completely based on published scientific evidence, and not biased by political or economic interest groups. The BACC-type reports aim to bring together consolidated knowledge that has broad consensus in the scientific community, but also acknowledging issues for which contradicting opinions are found in the literature, so that no consensus can be reached ("consensus on dissensus"). An international steering committee is responsible for overlooking the process, and all manuscripts are anonymously peer-reviewed by independent international experts. An outstanding outreach aspect of these reports is the close collaboration with <span class="hlt">regional</span> stakeholders (for the BACC reports: HELCOM, the intergovernmental Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission and the major <span class="hlt">regional</span> science-policy interface in the Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>; for the Hamburg climate report: the Hamburg city</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63411&keyword=earth+AND+space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63411&keyword=earth+AND+space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> WATER. A REPORT OF THE NEW ENGLAND <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> ASSESSMENT GROUP FOR THE US GLOBAL CHANGE RESEACH PROGRAM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The New England <span class="hlt">Region</span> is not considered limited by water availability. While the <span class="hlt">region</span> was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by a serious drought during the mid-1960s, overall, images of a vast network of lush green forests and inviting waterways, extensive shorelines, and a landscape of mountain strea...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63411&keyword=lobster&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90687395&CFTOKEN=50603551','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63411&keyword=lobster&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90687395&CFTOKEN=50603551"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> WATER. A REPORT OF THE NEW ENGLAND <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> ASSESSMENT GROUP FOR THE US GLOBAL CHANGE RESEACH PROGRAM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The New England <span class="hlt">Region</span> is not considered limited by water availability. While the <span class="hlt">region</span> was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by a serious drought during the mid-1960s, overall, images of a vast network of lush green forests and inviting waterways, extensive shorelines, and a landscape of mountain strea...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2a..64G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2a..64G"><span>Arctic Oscillation <span class="hlt">impact</span> on thermal regime of the Baltic <span class="hlt">region</span> Eastern part</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) <span class="hlt">impact</span> on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic <span class="hlt">region</span> are presented. The <span class="hlt">region</span> is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the <span class="hlt">region</span> of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21G1136S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21G1136S"><span>Climate change trend in the tropical and Caribbean <span class="hlt">regions</span> and its hydrological <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Climate variability and climate change pose significant economic and environmental risks worldwide. There are limited studies in the Caribbean islands in terms of trends in climate change and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrology and environmental problems. The study focused in Caribbean watersheds of Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Jamaica and south Florida. Drought, heavy rainfall, high winds, and flooding cause losses to the agricultural and natural resources sectors locally in Florida and in the Caribbean islands. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the <span class="hlt">regions</span> for three seasons (2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100) were analyzed using outputs from fifteen global climate models (GCMs). Comparison of projected changes in precipitation and temperature across different models for the three future seasons was carried out to get an indication of the consistency of the projected changes in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Different downscaling methods were used to downscale the large scale GCM into watershed level climate data. We interpret the different aspects of the hydrological response to imply that changes in runoff and other hydrological variables in the <span class="hlt">region</span> could be significant, even though the GCMs do not agree on the direction of the change. This implies that climate change may well <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the surface and ground water resources of the <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15113453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15113453"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, William; Mwabu, Germano M</p> <p>2004-03-15</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. METHODS: The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. RESULTS: The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to <span class="hlt">impact</span> negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23843729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23843729"><span>Analyzing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature indicators on transformer life in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Chinese mainland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six <span class="hlt">regions</span> so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a <span class="hlt">regional</span> context. For each <span class="hlt">region</span>, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every <span class="hlt">region</span>. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697416"><span>Analyzing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ambient Temperature Indicators on Transformer Life in Different <span class="hlt">Regions</span> of Chinese Mainland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six <span class="hlt">regions</span> so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a <span class="hlt">regional</span> context. For each <span class="hlt">region</span>, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every <span class="hlt">region</span>. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known. PMID:23843729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=400735','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=400735"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, William; Mwabu, Germano M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. Methods The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to <span class="hlt">impact</span> negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns. PMID:15113453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2a..89G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2a..89G"><span>Arctic Oscillation <span class="hlt">impact</span> on thermal regime of the Baltic <span class="hlt">region</span> Eastern part</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) <span class="hlt">impact</span> on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic <span class="hlt">region</span> are presented. The <span class="hlt">region</span> is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the <span class="hlt">region</span> of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894858"><span>Life cycle assessment based evaluation of <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie</p> <p>2012-09-18</p> <p>Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish <span class="hlt">regionalized</span> life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a <span class="hlt">regional</span> evaluation of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of <span class="hlt">regionalized</span> life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28711008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28711008"><span>Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of <span class="hlt">regional</span> consumptive and degradative water use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te</p> <p>2017-12-31</p> <p>Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to <span class="hlt">regional</span> water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of <span class="hlt">regional</span> water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both <span class="hlt">regional</span> or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5600K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5600K"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of boundary condition changes on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate projections over West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jee Hee; Kim, Yeonjoo; Wang, Guiling</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Future projections using <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models (RCMs) are driven with boundary conditions (BCs) typically derived from global climate models. Understanding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the various BCs on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate projections is critical for characterizing their robustness and uncertainties. In this study, the International Center for Theoretical Physics <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model Version 4 (RegCM4) is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different aspects of boundary conditions, including lateral BCs and sea surface temperature (SST), on projected future changes of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate in West Africa, and BCs from the coupled European Community-Hamburg Atmospheric Model 5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model are used as an example. Historical, future, and several sensitivity experiments are conducted with various combinations of BCs and CO2 concentration, and differences among the experiments are compared to identify the most important drivers for RCMs. When driven by changes in all factors, the RegCM4-produced future climate changes include significantly drier conditions in Sahel and wetter conditions along the Guinean coast. Changes in CO2 concentration within the RCM domain alone or changes in wind vectors at the domain boundaries alone have minor <span class="hlt">impact</span> on projected future climate changes. Changes in the atmospheric humidity alone at the domain boundaries lead to a wetter Sahel due to the northward migration of rain belts during summer. This <span class="hlt">impact</span>, although significant, is offset and dominated by changes of other BC factors (primarily temperature) that cause a drying signal. Future changes of atmospheric temperature at the domain boundaries combined with SST changes over oceans are sufficient to cause a future climate that closely resembles the projection that accounts for all factors combined. Therefore, climate variability and changes simulated by RCMs depend primarily on the variability and change of temperature aspects of the RCM BCs. Moreover, it is found that the response</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.637A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.637A"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Modeling at ZAMG and climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment for European ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, I.; Zuvela-Aloise, M.; Matulla, C.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The Austrian society, policy, economy and environment request information on changes in the climate during the last years and especially for the near and remote future. Floodings, landslides, snow avalanches and storms belong to the natural hazards that highly <span class="hlt">impact</span> Austria's socio-economic and environmental systems. In addition to already applied empirical <span class="hlt">regional</span> modeling at ZAMG there was started dynamical <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling (RCM) with the COSMOS-CLM (CCLM, http://www.clm-community.eu/) at ZAMG in 2009. The main objective of the Austrian national project "reclip:century" (in cooperation with other Austrian Institutes) is to provide high resolved data sets of climate simulations for the GAR. A one-way double nesting approach is used. The domain used in the first step is Europe with a spatial resolution of 0.44° (50km). Within this simulation the GAR domain is nested having a resolution of 0.09° (10km). The output of these simulations will be evaluated within the project EVACLIM. This is to be done by comparing the output with a variety of <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale observational datasets. The results of the simulations will be made available to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> community. Within the international based project HABIT-CHANGE 10km-resolution climate scenarios will be generated. The data sets produced for two different <span class="hlt">regions</span> the GAR and the Danube Delta - shall be used as a basis for the work of hydrology modelers and for the development of strategies for adaptation and mitigation Based on the CCLM simulations at ZAMG of about 0.03° (4km) spatial resolution for the Northeast of Austria, the project DISTURBANCE aims to develop integrated models for temperate Alpine forest ecosystems. Important tasks for the forest modeling are not only the assessment of changes in temperature, drought and windstorms but also the interactions between wind damages and bark beetle development which might <span class="hlt">impact</span> the forest structure and its composition of species. In the project DATAPHEN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994114"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a model-based clinical <span class="hlt">regional</span> registry for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zanetti, Michele; Cartabia, Massimo; Didoni, Anna; Fortinguerra, Filomena; Reale, Laura; Mondini, Matteo; Bonati, Maurizio</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>This article describes the development and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Italian <span class="hlt">Regional</span> ADHD Registry, aimed at collecting and monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of care for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children and adolescents, launched by the Italian Lombardy <span class="hlt">Region</span> in June 2011. In particular, the model-based software used to run the registry and manage clinical care data acquisition and monitoring, is described. This software was developed using the PROSAFE programme, which is already used for data collection in many Italian intensive care units, as a stand-alone interface case report form. The use of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder <span class="hlt">regional</span> registry led to an increase in the appropriateness of the clinical management of all patients included in the registry, proving to be an important instrument in ensuring an appropriate healthcare strategy for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33C1308P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33C1308P"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of irrigation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> water resources in the coupled climate system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puma, M. J.; Krakauer, N.; Cook, B.; Gentine, P.; Nazarenko, L.; Kelley, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Widespread irrigation alters <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate through changes to the energy and water budgets of the land surface. Within general circulation models (GCMs), simulation studies have revealed <span class="hlt">regionally</span> significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. These irrigation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are especially notable in key water stressed <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Asia, western North America, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. Here we investigate the feedbacks of irrigation with a focus on <span class="hlt">regional</span> water availability in model simulations. We use two GCM configurations, with and without irrigation, to understand irrigation-induced changes in <span class="hlt">regional</span> water balances. Importantly, while most other GCM irrigation analyses have focused on monthly changes, we explore changes in daily climate variables. Our simulations reveal shifts in runoff that vary dramatically by <span class="hlt">region</span>. For example, California's Central Valley experiences substantial shifts in daily runoff, while runoff is relatively insensitive to irrigation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. It is important to understand such feedbacks, as we face a future with great uncertainty in water-resource availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19665227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19665227"><span>Territorial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment for European <span class="hlt">regions</span>: A methodological proposal and an application to EU transport policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camagni, Roberto</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The need to engage European research and institutions in the new field of Territorial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment, from both a methodological and a procedural perspective, was stated some years ago by the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). The necessity of multidimensional evaluation of the likely <span class="hlt">impact</span> of policies and programmes on the territory - understood as the dimension on which all the other relevant dimensions (economic, social, environmental and cultural) converge and with which they integrate - emerged as a natural consequence of the importance of spatial aspects in the future development of the Union and of widespread preoccupations about certain emerging spatial trends. A proposal for a TIA methodology combining logical consistency vis-à-vis the Union's present institutional and policy guidelines with operational viability is being developed and applied to Trans-European Networks policy of the EU. Territorial <span class="hlt">impact</span> is linked to an innovative definition of the objective of "territorial cohesion" of the Treaties in terms of territorial efficiency, quality and identity. Utilising sectoral <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies developed inside the ESPON programme and developing territorial indicators for <span class="hlt">impact</span>, vulnerability and desirability (territorial utility functions), a multicriteria model (TEQUILA) is implemented on priority projects as defined by the Commission, and results mapped and described for the 1360 NUTS-3 <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10485132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10485132"><span>Climate change and its potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tchounwou, P B</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States abuts five states, including Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. In general, the Gulf of Mexico has a surface area of 1.63 million square kilometers (630,000 square miles) and a watershed area of 4.69 million square kilometers (1.81 million square miles) in the United States. This <span class="hlt">region</span> is one of the nation's largest ecological systems and is closely linked to a significant portion of the nation's economy. In the Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span>, energy, fisheries, agriculture, and tourism rank among the most significant sectors of the economy. The Gulf has five of the top ten fishing ports in the United States, and commercial fisheries in the Gulf annually produce nearly 2 billion tons of fish, oysters, shrimps, and crabs. Gulf ports handle one-half of the nation's import-export tonnage. Petroleum produced in the Gulf represents about 80% of the nation's offshore production. The Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> largely relies on many natural resources to fuel many important sectors of its economy. But nevertheless, the health and vitality of the Gulf have declined in recent years, caused in part by increasing populations along its coast and the growing demand upon its resources and in part by the accumulation of years of careless depletion, abuse, and neglect of the environment. Equally important are the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of natural and human-induced climate change on the economy and on the quality of life for millions of people living in the Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span>. The results have generated alarming increases in damage to and destruction of the ecosystems and habitats of the Gulf. This paper reviews the nature of global environmental change and addresses the potential health and environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that may occur in the Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States as a consequence of various environmental alterations resulting from global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE..50C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE..50C"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Scenarios for Mexico and Potential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Rainfed Maize Agriculture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conde, C.; Estrada, F.; Martínez, B.; Sánchez, O.; Monterroso, A.; Rosales, G.; Gay, C.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate change scenarios that were used to assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on different sectors in Mexico are presented, with an application of those scenarios for the agricultural sector. The results of that research were delivered to the Mexican government for the development of the Mexican Fourth National Communication, which will be presented to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). To generate <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change scenarios the models and criteria suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Fourth Assessment Report (4AR) were applied. Those criteria are: Consistency with global projections, Physical plausibility, Applicability in <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments, Representative of the potential range of changes in the future, Accessibility for the users of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessments. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> scenarios that were generated focus mainly on the applicability and accessibility criteria. A kick-off meeting was held at the beginning of the research work for the Fourth National Communication, to ensure that those criteria were fulfilled. Specifically, a set of climate change scenarios was generated using the outputs for temperature and precipitation of three General Circulation Models (GCMs): ECHAM5, HADGEM1 y GFDL CM2.0, for the horizons 2030 and 2050, and for the emission scenarios A1B, A2, B2 y B1. Those scenarios can be found in our web page in a low spatial resolution (2.5 º x 2.5º), and with high resolution (5’ x 5’). To assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on rainfed maize agriculture, the changes of the suitability of different <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the country were evaluated, considering maize temperature and precipitation requirements at its different stages of development. Four categories of suitability (high, moderated, marginal, and no suitable) were characterized for current and future climatic conditions. Using the A2 and B2 emission scenarios, the three GCMs and the horizon 2050, results showed that around 67% of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7789P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7789P"><span>Investigating Sustainability <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Bioenergy Usage Within the Eisenwurzen <span class="hlt">Region</span> in Austria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Putzhuber, F.; Hasenauer, H.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Within the past few years sustainability and bioenergy usage become a key term in emphasizing the relationship between economic progress and the protection of the environment. One key difficulty is the definition of criteria and indicators for assessing sustainability issues and their change over time. This work introduces methods to create linear parametric models of the sustainable <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues relevant in the establishment of new bio-energetic heating systems. Our application example is the Eisenwurzen <span class="hlt">region</span> in Austria. The total area covers 5743 km km² and includes 99 municipalities. A total of 11 <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues covering the economic, social and environmental areas are proposed for developing the linear parametric models. The indicator selection for deriving the <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues is based on public official data from 68 indicators, as well as stakeholder interviews and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment framework. In total we obtained 415 variables from the 99 municipalities to create the 68 indicators for the Local Administration Unit 2 (LAU2) over the last (if available) 25 years. The 68 indicators are on a relative scale to address the size differences of the municipalities. The idea of the analysis is to create linear models which derive 11 defined <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues related to the establishment of new bio-energetic heating systems. Each analysis follows a strict statistical procedure based on (i) independent indicator selection, (ii) remove indicators with higher VIF value grater then 6, (iii) remove indicators with α higher than 0,05, (iv) possible linear transformation, (v) remove the non-significant indicators (p-value >0,05), (vi) model valuation, (vii) remove the out-lines plots and (viii) test of the normality distribution of the residual with a Kolmogorov- Smirnov test. The results suggest that for the 11 sustainable <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues 21 of the 68 indicators are significant drives. The models revealed that it is possible to create tools for assessing <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.3853S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.3853S"><span>Isoprene and monoterpenes biogenic emissions in France: modeling and <span class="hlt">impact</span> during a <span class="hlt">regional</span> pollution episode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solmon, Fabien; Sarrat, Claire; Serça, Dominique; Tulet, Pierre; Rosset, Robert</p> <p></p> <p>Biogenic emission of isoprene and monoterpenes are modeled in order to study their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric chemistry and pollution in France. First, an emission potential inventory is developed using a fine scale landuse database, forest composition statistics, biometric data and species emission factors. Considering the main emission patterns, the results show consistency with previously published European and global inventories. When downscaling to sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> of France, this database is likely to provide refined sources distribution, an important issue for <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric chemistry studies. The temporal evolution of biogenic fluxes with meteorological conditions is calculated on line in the MesoNH-C meso-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Leaf-level algorithms are integrated at the ecosystem scale using sub-grid prognostic surface temperature and canopy shading effects. Finally, ecosystem to landscape integration is performed by aggregating biogenic fluxes at the model grid cell scale. Uncertainties associated with these estimations are discussed with respect to different spatial scales. In the second part of the paper, these developments are used to study biogenic emission <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone formation. We focus on a summer pollution event over Paris and northern France, documented during the ESQUIF experiment. The introduction of biogenic fluxes led to an increase in simulated surface ozone concentrations, reaching 18-30% in the Paris plume and about 20-30% in some rural areas. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> was mainly due to large biogenic fluxes as well as to the chemical conditions prevailing in the anthropogenic plumes reaching biogenic sources. In this situation, some comparisons with air quality measurements pointed out an improvement of simulated ozone concentrations when accounting for biogenic fluxes, both in urban plumes and over rural areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43E1496P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43E1496P"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate change on hydrologic processes in the upstream <span class="hlt">region</span> of Nu-Salween River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, X.; Lu, H.; Wang, W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The upstream <span class="hlt">region</span> of Nu-Salween River (Nu River in China) is vulnerable to climate change, which put more pressure to the weak ecosystem in this mountainous area. Thus it is important to quantitatively assess the hydrologic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model, together with the climate projections provided by the Inter-Sectoral <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), was used to simulate hydrologic processes in various scenarios. Firstly, we built a distributed hydrological model, namely Geomorphology Based Hydrological Model (GBHM), for Nu river basin. With the hydrologic model well-calibrated, the model was driven by the climate projection data of four GCMs under four scenarios, to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on the hydrologic cycle and water resource in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Results show that the average temperature and rainfall in the study <span class="hlt">region</span> would increase in the future. All four GCMs show a similar increasing trend for annual average temperature, while MIROC ESM-CHEM and IPSL-CM5a-LR increase rapider than the others. On the contrary, the spatial distribution of precipitation trends differ largely. In GFDL-ESM2M rcp6.0, HadGEM2-ES rcp8.5, and IPSL-CM5a-LR rcp2.6, rcp4.5, rcp8.5 scenarios, precipitation increase in the upper basin of Nu River, and decrease in the lower basin. In other scenarios, precipitation decrease in the whole basin, though with different rate. For runoff, its trend and spatial pattern are similar with precipitation. Inter-annual runoff will rise, and projection for MIROC-ESM-CHEM is higher than other GCMs. Runoff in rainy seasons is more sensitive to climate change scenarios. Our results demonstrate that, although we can get some general ideas from different GCMs, but great uncertainties still exist in the projection of precipitation, which will bring uncertainties into streamflow simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054567"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> and management of dual relationships in metropolitan, <span class="hlt">regional</span> and rural mental health practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Endacott, Ruth; Wood, Anita; Judd, Fiona; Hulbert, Carol; Thomas, Ben; Grigg, Margaret</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>To explore the extent and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of professional boundary crossings in metropolitan, <span class="hlt">regional</span> and rural mental health practice in Victoria and identify strategies mental health clinicians use to manage dual relationships. Nine geographically located focus groups consisting of mental health clinicians: four focus groups in rural settings; three in a <span class="hlt">regional</span> city and two in a metropolitan mental health service. A total of 52 participants were interviewed. Data revealed that professional boundaries were frequently breached in <span class="hlt">regional</span> and rural settings and on occasions these breaches had a significantly negative <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Factors influencing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> were: longevity of the clinician's relationship with the community, expectations of the community, exposure to community 'gossip' and size of the community. Participants reported greater stress when the boundary crossing affected their partner and/or children. Clinicians used a range of proactive and reactive strategies, such as private telephone number, avoidance of social community activities, when faced with a potential boundary crossing. The feasibility of reactive strategies depended on the service configuration: availability of an alternative case manager, requirement for either patient or clinician to travel. The greater challenges faced by rural and <span class="hlt">regional</span> clinicians were validated by metropolitan participants with rural experience and rural participants with metropolitan experience. No single strategy is used or appropriate for managing dual relationships in rural settings. Employers and professional bodies should provide clearer guidance for clinicians both in the management of dual relationships and the distinction between boundary crossings and boundary violation. Clinicians are clearly seeking to represent and protect the patients' interests; consideration should be given by consumer groups to steps that can be taken by patients to reciprocate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3677P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3677P"><span>Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> to <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landslide Hazards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK <span class="hlt">regional</span> road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of <span class="hlt">regional</span> homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure <span class="hlt">impact</span> road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from climate driven slope hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0266D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0266D"><span>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of land use, radiative forcing, and biological changes on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dairaku, K.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Because <span class="hlt">regional</span> responses of surface hydrological and biogeochemical changes are particularly complex, it is necessary to develop assessment tools for <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale adaptation to climate. We developed a dynamical downscaling method using the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model (NIED-RAMS) over Japan. The NIED-RAMS model includes a plant model that considers biological processes, the General Energy and Mass Transfer Model (GEMTM) which adds spatial resolution to accurately assess critical interactions within the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate system for vulnerability assessments to climate change. We digitalized a potential vegetation map that formerly existed only on paper into Geographic Information System data. It quantified information on the reduction of green spaces and the expansion of urban and agricultural areas in Japan. We conducted <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate sensitivity experiments of land use and land cover (LULC) change, radiative forcing, and biological effects by using the NIED-RAMS with horizontal grid spacing of 20 km. We investigated <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate responses in Japan for three experimental scenarios: 1. land use and land cover is changed from current to potential vegetation; 2. radiative forcing is changed from 1 x CO2 to 2 x CO2; and 3. biological CO2 partial pressures in plants are doubled. The experiments show good accuracy in reproducing the surface air temperature and precipitation. The experiments indicate the distinct change of hydrological cycles in various aspects due to anthropogenic LULC change, radiative forcing, and biological effects. The relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of those changes are discussed and compared. Acknowledgments This study was conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo <span class="hlt">Region</span>' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA), and was supported by the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21901','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21901"><span>The potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change and variability on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Mary McKenney-Easterling; David R. DeWalle; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Anthony R. Buda; Anthony R. Buda</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>As part of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Assessment, an evaluation is being made of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and potential future climate change on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of forests in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, and then focuses on 2 components of this evaluation: (1) modeling of the potential...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2702693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2702693"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Interacting Functional Variants in COMT on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gray Matter Volume in Human Brain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Honea, Robyn; Verchinski, Beth A.; Pezawas, Lukas; Kolachana, Bhaskar S.; Callicott, Joseph H.; Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Functional variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene have been shown to <span class="hlt">impact</span> cognitive function, cortical physiology and risk for schizophrenia. A recent study showed that previously reported effects of the functional val158met SNP (rs4680) on brain function are modified by other functional SNPs and haplotypes in the gene, though it was unknown if these effects are also seen in brain structure. Methods We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of multiple functional variants in COMT on gray matter volume in a large group of 151 healthy volunteers from the CBDB/NIMH Genetic Study of Schizophrenia. Results We found that the previously described rs4680 val risk variant affects hippocampal and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) gray matter volume. In addition, we found that this SNP interacts with a variant in the P2 promoter <span class="hlt">region</span> (rs2097603) in predicting changes in hippocampal gray matter volume consistent with a nonlinear effect of extracellular dopamine. Conclusions We report evidence that interacting functional variants in COMT affect gray matter <span class="hlt">regional</span> volume in hippocampus and DLPFC, providing further in vivo validation of the biological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of complex genetic variation in COMT on neural systems relevant for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and extending observations of nonlinear dependence of prefrontal neurons on extracellular dopamine to the domain of human brain structure. PMID:19071221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A42B..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A42B..01M"><span>Black Carbon Emissions and <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on the South American Glacial <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molina, L. T.; Gallardo, L.; Schmitt, C. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Black carbon is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants, which is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of climate change and air quality improvement. In this presentation we will examine the emissions and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of black carbon and co-pollutants on the South American glacial <span class="hlt">region</span> and describe some recent measurements associated with the PISAC (Pollution and its <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on the South American Cryosphere) Initiative. The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world, extending about 7000 km along western South America through seven countries with complex topography and covering several climate zones, diversity of ecosystems and communities. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas in the <span class="hlt">region</span> and is a serious public health concern. Scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere is changing rapidly as snow fields and glaciers generally recede, leading to changes in stream flow and water quality along the Andes. The challenge is to identify the principal causes of the observed changes so that action can be taken to mitigate this negative trend. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few modeling and observational studies have indicated the presence of black carbon in the high Andes, with potentially significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Andean cryosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26745299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26745299"><span>Elucidating hydraulic fracturing <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on groundwater quality using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> geospatial statistical modeling approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale <span class="hlt">region</span> was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if <span class="hlt">regional</span> variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in <span class="hlt">regional</span> water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682220"><span>Progress and prospects of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on hydrology in the arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of northwest China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid <span class="hlt">region</span>, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid <span class="hlt">region</span> is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid <span class="hlt">region</span> have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975376"><span>Numerical investigation for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CO2 geologic sequestration on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, K.; Karasaki, K.; Marui, A.; Uehara, H.; Nishikawa, N.</p> <p>2009-04-15</p> <p>Large-scale storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers may cause considerable pressure perturbation and brine migration in deep rock formations, which may have a significant influence on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater system. With the help of parallel computing techniques, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale numerical simulation of CO{sub 2} geologic storage that predicts not only CO{sub 2} migration, but also its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater flow. As a case study, a hypothetical industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection in Tokyo Bay, which is surrounded by the most heavily industrialized area in Japan, was considered, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CO{sub 2} injection on near-surface aquifers was investigated, assuming relatively high seal-layer permeability (higher than 10 microdarcy). A <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrogeological model with an area of about 60 km x 70 km around Tokyo Bay was discretized into about 10 million gridblocks. To solve the high-resolution model efficiently, we used a parallelized multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N on a world-class high performance supercomputer in Japan, the Earth Simulator. In this simulation, CO{sub 2} was injected into a storage aquifer at about 1 km depth under Tokyo Bay from 10 wells, at a total rate of 10 million tons/year for 100 years. Through the model, we can examine <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater pressure buildup and groundwater migration to the land surface. The results suggest that even if containment of CO{sub 2} plume is ensured, pressure buildup on the order of a few bars can occur in the shallow confined aquifers over extensive <span class="hlt">regions</span>, including urban inlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004198','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004198"><span>An analysis of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global climate and emissions changes on <span class="hlt">regional</span> tropospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>John, Kuruvilla; Crist, Kevin C.; Carmichael, Gregory R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Many of the synergistic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> resulting from future changes in emissions as well as changes in ambient temperature, moisture, and UV flux have not been quantified. A three-dimensional <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale photo-chemical model (STEM-2) is used in this study to evaluate these perturbations to trace gas cycles over the eastern half of the United States of America. The model was successfully used to simulate a <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale ozone episode (base case - June 1984) and four perturbations scenarios - viz., perturbed emissions, temperature, water vapor column, and incoming UV flux cases, and a future scenario (for the year 2034). The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these perturbation scenarios on the distribution of ozone and other major pollutants such as SO2 and sulfates were analyzed in detail. The spatial distribution and the concentration of ozone at the surface increased by about 5-15 percent for most cases except for the perturbed water vapor case. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale surface ozone concentration distribution for the year 2034 (future scenario) showed an increase of non-attainment areas. The rural areas of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Georgia showed the largest change in the surface ozone field for the futuristic scenario when compared to the base case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.504L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.504L"><span>Assessment of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on phenology dynamic in Vojvodina <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lalic, B.; Mihailovic, D. T.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Global climate change is a continuous process that needs to be taken seriously, even though there are large uncertainties in its spatial and temporal distribution. One important bio tracer of climate change presence and magnitude is plant phenology dynamic. However, response of different plant communities to changing climate will vary across the <span class="hlt">regions</span> and ecosystems but it will never fail. Therefore, on <span class="hlt">regional</span> or farm level, observed phenology dynamic can be exploited as a measure of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span>, or expected climate change can be used in order to assess possible changes in plant growth dynamic. Nevertheless, phenology doesn't provide only date of flowering or emergence but also implies timing of farm operations as well as pest and disease dynamic. As an element of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> study for Northern Serbia <span class="hlt">region</span> in the framework of ADAGIO project, trend of plant phenology dynamic has been calculated. Climate data series of further climate were obtained using HadCM3, ECHAM5 and NCAR-PCM climate models. Statistical downscaling to smaller temporal scale was provided using Met&Roll weather generator. Time of phenological stages appearance was calculated for wheat and selected fruit varieties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31D..07T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31D..07T"><span>Improving plot- and <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale crop models for simulating <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, F.; Rötter, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale models in simulating <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and <span class="hlt">impact</span> functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale models for simulating <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and extremes, as needed for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1326579A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1326579A"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of external industrial sources on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local air quality of Mexico Megacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca <span class="hlt">region</span>, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this <span class="hlt">region</span> that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE <span class="hlt">region</span> of the basin (about 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest <span class="hlt">region</span> of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast <span class="hlt">regions</span> of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels from technological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31B1031P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31B1031P"><span>Examining <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Global warming on the summer monsoon system using <span class="hlt">regional</span> Climate Model (PRECIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patwardhan, S. K.; Kundeti, K.; Krishna Kumar, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Every year, southwest monsoon arrives over Indian <span class="hlt">region</span> with remarkable regularity. It hits the southern state of Kerala first by the end of May or the early June. More than 70% of the annual precipitation is received during the four monsoon months viz. June to September. This monsoon rainfall is vital for the agriculture as well as for the yearly needs of Indian population. The performance of the monsoon depends on the timely onset over southern tip of India and its progress along the entire country. This northward progression of monsoon to cover the entire Indian landmass, many times, is associated with the formation of synoptic scale system in the Bay of Bengal <span class="hlt">region</span> and their movement along the monsoon trough <span class="hlt">region</span>. The analysis of the observed cyclonic disturbances show that their frequency has reduced in recent decades. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the effect of global warming on the monsoon climate of India. A state-of-art <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modelling system, known as PRECIS (Providing <span class="hlt">REgional</span> Climates for <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Studies) developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, U.K. is applied over the South Asian domain to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of global warming on the cyclonic disturbances. The PRECIS simulations at 50 km x 50 km horizontal resolution are made for two time slices, present (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100), for two socio-economic scenarios A2 and B2. The model skills are evaluated using observed precipitation and surface air temperature. The model has shown reasonably good skill in simulating seasonal monsoon rainfall, whereas cold bias is seen in surface air temperature especially in post-monsoon months. The typical monsoon features like monsoon trough, precipitation maxima over west coast and northeast India are well simulated by the model. The model simulations under the scenarios of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and sulphate aerosols are analysed to study the likely changes in the quasi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23F..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23F..07P"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change on Grain Sorghum Yield in the Ogallala Aquifer <span class="hlt">Region</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, G.; Anandhi, A.; Prasad, P.; Staggenborg, S. A.; Gowda, P. H.; Rice, C. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Ogallala aquifer <span class="hlt">region</span> consists of 232 counties spread over 8 states of United States is facing declining water levels and deteriorating water quality which in turn affects the crop production in these counties. Coupled with the water stress, the changing climatic conditions also has adverse effects on crop production. The objectives of this study was to generate the future scenarios of grain sorghum production in the Ogallala <span class="hlt">region</span> for plausible future climates. Three RCM's participating in the North American <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), used in this study are Canadian RCM (CRCM), <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model (RegCM3) and the Hadley <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Model (HRM3). The RCMs were nested within the AOGCMs for the current period 1971-2000 and for the future period 2041-2070 for A2 emission scenario. Grain sorghum yield were simulated across the study <span class="hlt">region</span> using the CERES-Sorghum model program available in the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) crop simulation model suite. Daily data on rainfall, solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature generated from the RCM were used as meteorological inputs in the current analysis. Grain sorghum hybrid 'Pioneer 8333' planting date and density were set at 5 June and 160,000 plants per hectare respectively. Simulation results show a decrease in the yield of grain sorghum for A2 emission scenario without considering effects of elevated carbon dioxide and changes in genetics. Results of the study provide critical information needed to help decision/policy makers to device long-term strategies to cope with <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change and variability on water use and crop production for the Ogallala aquifer <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013P%26SS...84....5G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013P%26SS...84....5G"><span>Fugitives from the Hungaria <span class="hlt">region</span>: Close encounters and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with terrestrial planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galiazzo, M. A.; Bazsó, Á.; Dvorak, R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Hungaria asteroids, whose orbits occupy the <span class="hlt">region</span> in element space between 1.78<a<2.03AU, e<0.19, 12°<i<31°, are a possible source of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Named after (434) Hungaria these asteroids are relatively small, since the largest member of the group has a diameter of just about 11 km. They are mainly perturbed by Jupiter and Mars, possibly becoming Mars-crossers and, later, they may even cross the orbits of Earth and Venus. In this paper we analyze the close encounters and possible <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of escaped Hungarias with the terrestrial planets. Out of about 8000 known Hungarias we selected 200 objects which are on the edge of the group. We integrated their orbits over 100 million years in a simplified model of the planetary system (Mars to Saturn) subject only to gravitational forces. We picked out a sample of 11 objects (each with 50 clones) with large variations in semi-major axis and restarted the numerical integration in a gravitational model including the planets from Venus to Saturn. Due to close encounters, some of them achieve high inclinations and eccentricities which, in turn, lead to relatively high velocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Venus, Earth, and Mars. We statistically analyze all close encounters and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with the terrestrial planets and determine the encounter and <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities of these fictitious Hungarias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..234...95M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..234...95M"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on water resources quantity and quality indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mimikou, M. A.; Baltas, E.; Varanou, E.; Pantazis, K.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on water resources (surface runoff) and on water quality. Two GCM-based climate change scenarios are considered: transient (HadCM2) and equilibrium (UKHI). A conceptual, physically based hydrological model (WBUDG) is applied on a catchment in central Greece, simulating the effect of the two climate scenarios on average monthly runoff. A newly developed in the stream model (R-Qual) is applied in order to simulate water quality downstream of a point source under current and climatically changed conditions. Simulated parameters include monthly concentrations of BOD, DO and NH 4+. Both scenarios suggest increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation in the study <span class="hlt">region</span>. Those changes result in a significant decrease of mean monthly runoff for almost all months with a considerable negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> on summer drought. Moreover, quality simulations under future climatic conditions entail significant water quality impairments because of decreased stream flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43J..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43J..03M"><span>Local and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scale <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Arctic Shipping Emissions Off the Coast of Northern Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Raut, J. C.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decreased sea ice extent due to warming has already resulted in the use of new shipping routes through the Arctic. Marine traffic is a source of air pollutants, including NOx, SO2, and aerosols, and is predicted to be an increasingly significant source of Arctic pollution in the future. Currently there are large uncertainties in both global and Arctic shipping emissions, leading to uncertainties in diagnosing current and future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of marine traffic on Arctic air quality and climate. This study focuses on the local scale, examining chemical/aerosol transformations occurring in individual ship plumes. Measurements of ship pollution in the Arctic taken during the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) in July 2012 are used to quantify the amount of pollution emitted from different ship types. This is combined with <span class="hlt">regional</span> model (WRF-Chem) simulations to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of shipping in northern Norway in summer 2012. The model is run at high resolution (2x2 km) combined with STEAMv2 (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model version 2) emissions (1x1 km, 15 minute resolution) produced for shipping activity during the measurement period. WRF-Chem model results are compared with 3 ship plumes sampled during ACCESS. The model shows that both the location and total amount of pollution in individual ship plumes are correctly represented. Given this, the model is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">regional</span> influence of ship pollution off the coast of Norway on a weekly time scale during July 2012, focusing on ozone photochemistry in ship plumes, the evolution of aerosols, and investigating the fate of black carbon emitted from ships. We compare <span class="hlt">regional</span> modeling results obtained using 15 minute resolution STEAMv2 emissions with results using weekly averaged emissions, which are more representative of emissions typically used by global models to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of shipping on air quality and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnMan..43..936T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnMan..43..936T"><span>Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Road Construction Projects for Advanced <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and <span class="hlt">regional</span> mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of <span class="hlt">regional</span> planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19219490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19219490"><span>Evaluating aggregate terrestrial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of road construction projects for advanced <span class="hlt">regional</span> mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorne, James H; Girvetz, Evan H; McCoy, Michael C</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and <span class="hlt">regional</span> mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of <span class="hlt">regional</span> planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4287B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4287B"><span>Considerations about gust wind thresholds related to social <span class="hlt">impact</span>: study of different <span class="hlt">regions</span> in Catalonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barberia, Laura; Amaro, Jéssica; Aran, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria del Carmen</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Severe weather events can cause several damages on a territory and its population, affecting urban infrastructure and housing, among others. In particular, wind is one of the most important phenomena which cause remarkable economic losses. Since 2008, different studies conducted by the Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Group, in the frame of HYMEX project, determined that requests related to damage claims which are received in Meteorological Services are a good proxy indicator of social <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, the strong wind studies took into account a unique threshold, which proved to be insufficient. It was found that it was necessary to define a threshold for each area, according to its vulnerability and exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define, for each county in Catalonia, thresholds of gust wind speed for which a remarkable social <span class="hlt">impact</span> is observed. To accomplish this, the database of requests received in the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) between 2011 and 2015 has been used. For each request, the most representative automatic weather stations are associated. Statistical treatments of the gust wind data recorded by these stations have been carried out in order to determine which values are related to social <span class="hlt">impact</span>. As an example, one of the first results shows that in a populated area like Barcelona, the average gust is approximately 70 km/h. On the contrary, in other less populated counties and usually more exposed to strong winds, the mean is over 85 km/h. Besides, the relation between gusts and requests has been analyzed to detect significant slope changes. In general, it has been detected an increase of requests at certain gust wind values. These results, which vary depending on the <span class="hlt">region</span>'s vulnerability and exposure, could be used to establish new thresholds for Civil Protection alarms. Therefore, a higher accuracy by <span class="hlt">region</span> will be reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC42C..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC42C..01I"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> assessment of Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iglesias, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The CIRCE project has developed for the first time an assessment of the climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the Mediterranean area. The objectives of the project are: to predict and to quantify physical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change in the Mediterranean area; to evaluate the consequences of climate change for the society and the economy of the populations located in the Mediterranean area; to develop an integrated approach to understand combined effects of climate change; and to identify adaptation and mitigation strategies in collaboration with <span class="hlt">regional</span> stakeholders. The CIRCE Project, coordinated by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia, started on 1st April 2007 and ended in a policy conference in Rome on June 2011. CIRCE involves 64 partners from Europe, Middle East and North Africa working together to evaluate the best strategies of adaptation to the climate change in the Mediterranean basin. CIRCE wants to understand and to explain how climate will change in the Mediterranean area bringing together the natural sciences community and social community in a new integrated and comprehensive way. The project has investigated how global and Mediterranean climates interact, how the radiative properties of the atmosphere and the radiative fluxes vary, the interaction between cloudiness and aerosol, the modifications in the water cycle. Recent observed modifications in the climate variables and detected trends will be compared. The economic and social consequences of climate change are evaluated by analysing direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on migration, tourism and energy markets together with indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the economic system. CIRCE has produced results about the consequences on agriculture, forests and ecosystems, human health and air quality. The variability of extreme events in the future scenario and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is also assessed. A rigorous common framework, including a set of quantitative indicators developed specifically for the Mediterranean environment was be developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116070&hterms=Relative+perspective&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRelative%2Bperspective','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116070&hterms=Relative+perspective&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRelative%2Bperspective"><span>Martian Polar <span class="hlt">Region</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Craters: Topographical Perspectives from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.; Matias, A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) has acquired over 100 topographic cross-sections of <span class="hlt">impact</span> landforms in the polar <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Mars as part of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Science Phasing Orbit observations during the period from April to July, 1998. These MOLA topographic profiles offer the first three-dimensional perspectives of high latitude craters on Mars yet available, and provide evidence of landform geometries not previously recognized. Indeed, the relatively poor quality of Viking Orbiter images of many high northern latitude <span class="hlt">regions</span> has allowed the MOLA data to provide insights into the cavities and ejecta topologies of non-degraded <span class="hlt">impact</span> landforms that have clearly experienced interactions with condensates, either as part of their formation, or as a post-modification stage effect. Here we report a preliminary summary of the results associated with topographic measurements for a statistically significant population of <span class="hlt">impact</span> features all of which lie north of 60N latitude. MOLA sampled four <span class="hlt">impact</span> features with frost-related interior deposits, including the 81 km (diameter) Korolev feature. In several cases, there is evidence from near-centerline MOLA cross-sections of crater interior features (i.e., central peak or ice-dust deposits) that are anomalously large relative to the crater cavity. Central structures that make up more than 50% of the volume of a crater cavity are observed, suggesting that either substantial accumulation of mantling materials has occurred, or that crater excavation triggered production of volume-enhancing materials (ice?). Pedestal craters sampled by MOLA also attest to enhanced production of ejecta materials in high latitude terrains. For example, many of the pedestal craters suggest a volume of ejecta (Ve) to volume of cavity (Vc) ratio far in excess of 1.0 (i.e., over 3.0), even in cases where the floor of the cavity appears unfilled. Finally, the well-defined transitions between simple and complex craters observed in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615254G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615254G"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gobin, Anne</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that <span class="hlt">impact</span> on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21B1069L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21B1069L"><span>Quantifying the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Tropospheric Ozone on Crops Productivity at <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale using JULES-crop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leung, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Tropospheric ozone (O3) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is causing significant crop production losses. Currently, O3 concentrations are projected to increase globally, which could have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on food security. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator modified to include crops (JULES-crop) is used here to quantify the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tropospheric O3 on crop production at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale until 2100. We evaluate JULES-crop against the Soybean Free-Air-Concentration-Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Experimental data from SoyFACE and various literature sources is used to calibrate the parameters for soybean and ozone damage parameters in soybean in JULES-crop. The calibrated model is then applied for a transient factorial set of JULES-crop simulations over 1960-2005. Simulated yield changes are attributed to individual environmental drivers, CO2, O3 and climate change, across <span class="hlt">regions</span> and for different crops. A mixed scenario of RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 climatology and ozone are simulated to explore the implication of policy. The overall findings are that <span class="hlt">regions</span> with high ozone concentration such as China and India suffer the most from ozone damage, soybean is more sensitive to O3 than other crops. JULES-crop predicts CO2 fertilisation would increase the productivity of vegetation. This effect, however, is masked by the negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tropospheric O3. Using data from FAO and JULES-crop estimated that ozone damage cost around 55.4 Billion USD per year on soybean. Irrigation improves the simulation of rice only, and it increases the relative ozone damage because drought can reduce the ozone from entering the plant stomata. RCP 8.5 scenario results in a high yield for all crops mainly due to the CO2 fertilisation effect. Mixed climate scenarios simulations suggest that RCP 8.5 CO2 concentration and RCP 2.6 O3 concentration result in the highest yield. Further works such as more crop FACE-O3 experiments and more Crop</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909650"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> analysis of drought and heat <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on forests: current and future science directions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Law, Beverly E</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales. Predicting future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent climate sensitivity, such as risk of hydraulic failure from drought. This emphasizes the need for more coordinated in situ and remote sensing observations to track changes in ecosystem function, and to improve model inputs, spatio-temporal diagnosis, and predictions of future conditions, including implications of actions to mitigate climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10267891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10267891"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of newspaper advertising on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> antenatal health campaign.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berry, J M</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In 1981 the West Midlands Health services undertook a publicity campaign aimed at helping women to understand more about keeping healthy during pregnancy and encouraging them to seek early ante-natal care. A series of full page advertisements on ante-natal care were placed in local newspapers in the <span class="hlt">Region</span>. Set out here are the findings of two studies of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the publicity campaign. The first shows how far people's knowledge of what to do during pregnancy was altered by the publicity, and the second shows what people thought of the advertisements themselves and the further information sent to them on request.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8857W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8857W"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from a 0.5C Increase in Global Mean Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, Scott</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Global temperature targets have become the linchpin for global climate science and policy discussions. Given the mandate in the Paris accord to limit the rise in global temperature to well below 2.0oC above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts toward the more ambitious 1.5oC goal, there is increasing focus in the climate science community on what the relative climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> realities may be for these two scenarios. Despite major climate modeling efforts (e.g., CMIP) which successfully target climate outcomes as the result of various future GHG projection scenarios, there is still a significant information gap as to the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and seasonal climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> due to a 0.5 oC increase in global mean temperature. According to the IPCC AR5 the 1983-2012 period is likely the warmest 30-year epoch of the last 1400 years and includes an approximate 0.5 oC global mean temperature increase. As such, it can be used as a testbed to evaluate characteristic changes in <span class="hlt">regional</span> and seasonal climate parameters for a one half degree global temperature change. Global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperature and precipitation changes are probed from the perspective of over 1000 climate realizations afforded by the availability of reforecast climate model runs from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 over the 1983-2012 period. This unique approach allows for isolation of the GHG forced changes in an extremely high number of ensemble members, facilitating the analysis of <span class="hlt">regional</span>, spatial, and seasonal climate statistics as the result of a recently observed 0.5 oC shift in global mean temperature. Additionally, new climate modeling experiments from the Half a Degree of Additional Warming, Projections, Prognosis, and <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Model Intercomparison Project (HAPPI-MIP) will be analyzed to understand relative climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a 1.5 oC and 2.0 oC world, which given nonlinearities, may not be similar to that of the recently observed 0.5oC temperature change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......106H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......106H"><span>An observational and modeling study of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Radley M.</p> <p></p> <p>Climate variability has large <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---<span class="hlt">regional</span> planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales. The question is important, since high-quality <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate projections could assist farmers and <span class="hlt">regional</span> planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25789926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25789926"><span>Swedish public health policy: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local public health practice and priorities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on public health priorities and practice at <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/<span class="hlt">regions</span> (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17190050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17190050"><span>[<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of drinking water calcium and magnesium levels on morbidity in the Omsk <span class="hlt">Region</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erofeev, Iu V; Neskin, T A; Turchaninov, D V</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Drinking water calcium and magnesium levels were examined for <span class="hlt">impact</span> on morbidity in a model rural area of a West Siberian <span class="hlt">region</span>. It was ascertained that there were negative correlations between the water levels of the above elements and the incidence of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and locomotor diseases and positive correlations between the concentrations of calcium and magnesium and the incidence of nervous, urogenital, and eye diseases. It is concluded that by adjusting the findings, the medical care availability factor should be taken into account in the investigations using the health indices calculated on the data from official medical accounts. This investigation has shown the estimation of the drinking water levels of calcium and magnesium as a significant hygienic problem for a model <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780030168&hterms=H2S&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DH2S','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780030168&hterms=H2S&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DH2S"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of H2S emissions on future geothermal power generation - The Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leibowitz, L. P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The future potential for geothermal power generation in the Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span> of California is as much as 10 times the current 502 MW(e) capacity. However, environmental factors such as H2S emissions and institutional considerations may play the primary role in determining the rate and ultimate level of development. In this paper a scenario of future geothermal generation capacity and H2S emissions in the Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span> is presented. Problem areas associated with H2S emissions, H2S abatement processes, plant operations, and government agency resources are described. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of H2S emissions on future development and the views of effected organizations are discussed. Potential actions needed to remove these constraints are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780030168&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dieee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780030168&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dieee"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of H2S emissions on future geothermal power generation - The Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leibowitz, L. P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The future potential for geothermal power generation in the Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span> of California is as much as 10 times the current 502 MW(e) capacity. However, environmental factors such as H2S emissions and institutional considerations may play the primary role in determining the rate and ultimate level of development. In this paper a scenario of future geothermal generation capacity and H2S emissions in the Geysers <span class="hlt">region</span> is presented. Problem areas associated with H2S emissions, H2S abatement processes, plant operations, and government agency resources are described. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of H2S emissions on future development and the views of effected organizations are discussed. Potential actions needed to remove these constraints are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI41A2612U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI41A2612U"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> variation in the shape of Moho uplift beneath lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uchida, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Hiramatsu, Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> basins, large-scale structures on the surface of the Moon, are formed by giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the past and are considered to affect the evolution of not only the surface but also the internal structure of the Moon. In this study, we estimate the density boundary (i.e., Moho) depths beneath <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins using the latest selenodetic data and discuss their <span class="hlt">regional</span> variation. Bouguer anomaly is calculated from the LRO_LTM01_PA_1080 topographic model (Neumann, 2013) and the GRGM900C gravitational potential model (Lemoine et al., 2014) and is expanded up to degree and order of 600 (wavelength 9km). We first estimate the depth of the lunar Moho roughly by using a global gravity inversion method by Wieczorek and Phillips (1998), and then estimate high-resolution local Moho reliefs underneath 22 <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins using a gravity inversion method by Rama Rao et al. (1999). We classify the shapes of these Moho reliefs into two types: a truncated cone and a rounded cone. The former can be found for large <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins on a thin crust while the latter can be found for small basins on a thick crust. These results are concordant with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulation study by Miljkovi et al. (2015). We also found that the distribution of basin Moho relief classes corresponds to that of radioactive elements on the surface (e.g., Yamashita et al., 2010; Kobayashi et al., 2012) and the thermal state at the time of basin formation (Kamata et al., 2013). This result may imply that the shape of Moho relief is controlled by viscous relaxation. We examine how long-term viscoelastic relaxation affects Moho relief beneath the basins by using the calculation scheme by Kamata et al. (2012) and found that the Moho relief structure is independent of the viscosity. We suggest that the shape of a mantle uplift is not controlled by long-term viscoelastic relaxation; the shape of Moho relief beneath an <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin is determined during or only shortly after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499695','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499695"><span>Assessing the health equity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> land-use plan making: An equity focussed health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Plan, Australia (Short report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within <span class="hlt">regional</span> land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing <span class="hlt">regional</span> planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC22D..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC22D..07A"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Agricultural Land Use in West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.; You, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Agriculture is a key element of the human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) that is influenced by climate and can potentially influence <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate. Temperature and precipitation directly <span class="hlt">impact</span> the crop yield (by controlling photosynthesis, respiration and other physiological processes) that then affects agricultural land use pattern. In feedback, the resulting changes in land use and land cover play an important role to determine the direction and magnitude of global, <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. The assessment of future agricultural land use is, therefore, of great importance in climate change study. In this study, we develop a prototype land use projection model and, using this model, project the changes to land use pattern and future land cover map accounting for climate-induced yield changes for major crops in West Africa. Among the inputs to the land use projection model are crop yield changes simulated by the crop model DSSAT, driven with the climate forcing data from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5, which features a projected decrease of future mean crop yield and increase of inter-annual variability. Another input to the land use projection model is the projected changes of food demand in the future. In a so-called "dumb-farmer scenario" without any adaptation, the combined effect of decrease in crop yield and increase in food demand will lead to a significant increase in agricultural land use in future years accompanied by a decrease in forest and grass area. Human adaptation through land use optimization in an effort to minimize agricultural expansion is found to have little <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the overall areas of agricultural land use. While the choice of the General Circulation Model (GCM) to derive initial and boundary conditions for the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model can be a source of uncertainty in projecting the future LULCC, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...46R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...46R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorology on ozone levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayne, Sandra; Gertler, Alan; Zielinska, Barbara; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Burley, Joel; Kaplan, Michael</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone (O3) exceeding the California Air Resources Board ambient air quality standard (8-h average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation and long-range transport from out-of-basin sources are important in contributing to O3 exceedances, but little is known about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorology on O3 source <span class="hlt">regions</span>. To develop a better understanding of the factors affecting O3 levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, a comprehensive field study was performed in the summer of 2010. Included in this effort was a meteorological analysis addressing potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorological influences leading to periods of elevated levels of O3. Three approaches were used to conduct the analysis: (1) <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric pressure difference (i.e., the Washoe Zephyr) to access potential transport, (2) back trajectory modeling using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine where the air masses originated and, (3) composite soundings to evaluate in-Basin atmospheric influences. These analyses indicate the Washoe Zephyr did not strongly <span class="hlt">impact</span> O3 levels; however, higher O3 levels were found to correspond with both a more southerly wind component and a dip in dew point temperature around 400 hPa. The results also indicate that if transport does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley and move to the southern part of the Basin, rather than originating in the large cities to the west (i.e., Sacramento and San Francisco).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129..297R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129..297R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorology on ozone levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayne, Sandra; Gertler, Alan; Zielinska, Barbara; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Burley, Joel; Kaplan, Michael</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone (O3) exceeding the California Air Resources Board ambient air quality standard (8-h average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation and long-range transport from out-of-basin sources are important in contributing to O3 exceedances, but little is known about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorology on O3 source <span class="hlt">regions</span>. To develop a better understanding of the factors affecting O3 levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, a comprehensive field study was performed in the summer of 2010. Included in this effort was a meteorological analysis addressing potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> meteorological influences leading to periods of elevated levels of O3. Three approaches were used to conduct the analysis: (1) <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric pressure difference (i.e., the Washoe Zephyr) to access potential transport, (2) back trajectory modeling using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine where the air masses originated and, (3) composite soundings to evaluate in-Basin atmospheric influences. These analyses indicate the Washoe Zephyr did not strongly <span class="hlt">impact</span> O3 levels; however, higher O3 levels were found to correspond with both a more southerly wind component and a dip in dew point temperature around 400 hPa. The results also indicate that if transport does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley and move to the southern part of the Basin, rather than originating in the large cities to the west (i.e., Sacramento and San Francisco).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41I..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41I..02W"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of urbanization on nitrogen deposition in the Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, X.; Fan, Q.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> is one of the most advanced economic districts in China, which has experienced remarkable economic development and urbanization in the past two decades. Accompanied with the rapid economy development and urbanization, the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span> encountered both severe nitrogen pollution and deposition. In this study, the characteristics of nitrogen deposition and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urbanization on nitrogen deposition in the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span> were investigated by combining the methods of field study and numerical model. According to the field measurements, the total dry and wet atmospheric deposition of reactive N at a urban site (SYSU) was up to 55.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 in 2010, slightly lower than the results at a rural forest site (DHS) (57.6 kg ha-1 yr-1). Wet deposition was the main form of the total deposition (64-76%). Organic nitrogen (ON) was found to be dominant in the total N deposition, with a contribution of 53% at DHS and 42% at SYSU. NH4+-N and NO3--N accounted for a similar portion of the total N deposition (23-29%). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition was further simulated by using the improved WRF-Chem model. The simulated N deposition flux was high in the north of PRD (i.e., Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing) and relative low in the east (Huizhou) and south (Zhuhai), with an average N deposition flux of about 24 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the whole PRD. The distribution of N dry deposition was mainly controlled by the concentration of reactive N compounds and precipitation governed the wet deposition distribution. The modeling results also indicate that the PRD area is the source <span class="hlt">region</span> in which the emissions exceed the deposition while the outside area of the PRD is the receptor <span class="hlt">region</span> in which the deposition exceeds emissions. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of emission change and land use change due to urbanization was also investigated using the WRF-Chem model. The results showed that atmospheric N deposition exhibits a direct response to emission change while the land use change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51H1591Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51H1591Y"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of irrigation over the California Central Valley on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Z.; Dominguez, F.; Zeng, X.; Hu, H.; Gupta, H. V.; Yang, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Irrigation, while being an important anthropogenic factor affecting the local to <span class="hlt">regional</span> water cycle, is not typically represented in <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models. We incorporated an irrigation scheme into the Noah land surface scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that has a calibrated convective parameterization, and used a tracer package to tag and track water vapor. To assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of irrigation over the California Central Valley (CCV) on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate of the U.S. Southwest, we ran simulations (for 3 dry and 3 wet years) both with, and without, the irrigation scheme. Incorporation of the irrigation scheme resulted in simulated surface air temperature and humidity that were closer to observations, decreased the depth of the planetary boundary layer over the CCV, and increased the convective available potential energy. The result was an overall increase in precipitation over most of the model domain. Water vapor rising from the irrigated <span class="hlt">region</span> mainly moved northeastward and contributed to precipitation in Nevada and Idaho. Specifically, the results indicate increased precipitation on the windward side of the Sierra Nevada Range and over the Colorado River Basin. The former is possibly linked to a sea-breeze type circulation near the CCV, while the latter is likely associated with a wave pattern related to latent heat release over the moisture transport belt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003726"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality and Climate: What Satellites Can Help</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a <span class="hlt">region</span> could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind <span class="hlt">regions</span> and continents. Current assessment of these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, <span class="hlt">regional</span>, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177239"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of marine emissions in Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, H K; Tsang, H; Chau, J; Lee, C H; McGhee, S M; Hedley, A J; Wong, C M</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Global marine vessels emissions are adversely affecting human health particularly in southeast Asia. But health burdens from both ocean- and river-going vessels in Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">regions</span> are not quantified. We estimated the potential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using pooled relative risks of mortality and hospital admissions in China, and the model derived concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particulate matter (PM₁₀), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and ozone (O₃) due to vessels emissions. SO₂ concentrations due to marine emissions in Hong Kong were 13.6 μg m⁻³ compared with 0.7 μg m⁻³ in PRD <span class="hlt">regions</span> that were far from the marine vessels. In PRD <span class="hlt">regions</span>, the estimated annual numbers (per million people) of excess deaths from all natural causes and hospital admissions from cardiorespiratory causes attributable to SO₂, NO₂, O₃ and PM₁₀ combined from marine emissions were 45 and 265 respectively. Marine emission control measures could contribute a large reduction in mortality and hospital admissions in PRD <span class="hlt">regions</span> especially in Hong Kong.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31B1182L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31B1182L"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River <span class="hlt">Region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Urbanization and industrial development have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on <span class="hlt">regional</span> land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial <span class="hlt">region</span> is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on <span class="hlt">regional</span> surface temperature.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..566R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..566R"><span>Soil modern evolution <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the C fluxes in Chernozems at the Middle Volga <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramazanov, Sabir; Yashin, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz; Vasenev, Ivan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>There are results of long-term stationary field research on the aridization <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the carbon fluxes in the topsoil of Chernozemic soils in the representative agricultural and native forest-steppe landscapes in conditions of the Middle Volga <span class="hlt">region</span> of Russia (educational-experimental farm "Mummovskoe", Saratov <span class="hlt">region</span>). Especial attention is dedicated to the water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) which are better available for soil microorganisms that utilize them, enhancing CO2 emission. Dominated in the Middle-Volga natural and agro-landscapes soil conditions are unfavorable for mobile humic acid production and accumulation: organic acids and polyphenols gradually mobilized into solution from root excretions and crop residues or woody plant litter are quickly neutralized by calcium, magnesium or sodium ions in topsoil. Most arable Chernozems of the Middle-Volga <span class="hlt">region</span> are actively degraded due to both topsoil CO2 emission and water-soluble organic substances fluxes in form of sodium and calcium humates and fulvates, as evidenced by sorption lysimetry data on the WSOS fluxes in 15-21 g/m2 over the vegetation period. Additional researches are necessary to evaluate the ratio between soil organic carbon losses through soil erosion processes, topsoil CO2 emission and WSOS profile and lateral fluxes in conditions of different land-use practice and climate conditions to develop the modern climate-smart farming systems in the Middle-Volga <span class="hlt">region</span> agrolandscapes with potentially very prolific Chernozemic soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/258716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/258716"><span>Industrial emission in a coastal <span class="hlt">region</span> of India: Prediction of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on air environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gargava, P.; Aggarwal, A.L.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Industrial air pollution has assumed a menacing proportion in the developing countries, including India. Its control should not be delayed any more. The economic reforms and subsequent industrial development and growing urbanization will aggregate the problem in coming years. Poor land use planning for industrial development often results in the high concentrations of air pollutants in urban centers. This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial activities on the air environment in a coastal <span class="hlt">region</span> of India, as a case study. A Gaussian-Plume atmospheric dispersion algorithm has been used to predict the ground level concentration of major pollutants released into the atmosphere due to industrial activities in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Typical diurnal variation of Pasquill`s stability and mixing height over the Cochin <span class="hlt">Region</span> were used. Ground level concentrations (CLC) of major pollutants were predicted from as many as 108 point sources from 15 industries located in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. A roll-back approach was then applied to compute the degree of emission control required to keep pollution level within the permissible limits of ambient air quality. 10 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912711A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912711A"><span>Continuously on-­going <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate hindcast simulations for <span class="hlt">impact</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, Ivonne; Piringer, Martin; Kaufmann, Hildegard; Knauder, Werner; Resch, Gernot; Andre, Konrad</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Observational data for e.g. temperature, precipitation, radiation, or wind are often used as meteorological forcing for different <span class="hlt">impact</span> models, like e.g. crop models, urban models, economic models and energy system models. To assess a climate signal, the time period covered by the observation is often too short, they have gaps in between, and are inhomogeneous over time, due to changes in the measurements itself or in the near surrounding. Thus output from global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models can close the gap and provide homogeneous and physically consistent time series of meteorological parameters. CORDEX evaluation runs performed for the IPCC-AR5 provide a good base for the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. However, with respect to climate services, continuously on-going hindcast simulations are required for regularly updated applications. The Climate Research group at the national Austrian weather service, ZAMG, is focusing on high mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span> and, especially on the Alps. The hindcast-simulation performed with the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model COSMO-CLM is forced by ERAinterim and optimized for the Alpine <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The simulation available for the period of 1979-2015 in a spatial resolution of about 10km is prolonged ongoing and fullfils the customer's needs with respect of output variables, levels, intervals and statistical measures. One of the main tasks is to capture strong precipitation events which often occur during summer when low pressure systems develop over the Golf of Genoa, moving to the Northeast. This leads to floods and landslide events in Austria, Czech Republic and Germany. Such events are not sufficiently represented in the CORDEX-evaluation runs. ZAMG use high quality gridded precipitation and temperature data for the Alpine <span class="hlt">Region</span> (1-6km) to evaluate the model performance. Data is provided e.g. to hydrological modellers (high water, low water), but also to assess icing capability of infrastructure or the calculation the separation distances between livestock</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..175W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..175W"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of East Asian summer monsoon circulation on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol distribution in observations and models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongli; Xie, Xiaoning; Yan, Libin; Liu, Xiaodong</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can change the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosols by influencing the aerosol horizontal and vertical transports and the wet deposition of aerosols over East Asia. In this paper, we examined the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during summer together with the intensity of the EASM based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer products on board the Terra satellite and the modeling results from the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model 5.1 in the mid-latitude monsoonal East Asia (20-45° N, 105-130° E). Our results from both observations and simulations show positive correlations of AOD with the monsoon intensity over the Northeast Asia sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> (32.5-45° N, 105-130° E), and negative correlations with that over the southeast Asia sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> (20-32.5° N, 105-130° E). The observed and simulated AODs were much larger over the northern sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> and much smaller over the southern sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> in the strongest monsoon years compared with those in the weakest monsoon years. The model results suggest that the mechanism responsible for the north-south difference in the aerosol distribution was mainly caused by lower-tropospheric meridional wind anomalies related to EASM. Compared with the weakest monsoon years, the strongest monsoon years experienced southerly wind anomalies, which enabled more aerosols to be transported northward and resulted in a convergence of aerosols over the northern sub-<span class="hlt">region</span>. In addition, the wet deposition of aerosols reduced (enhanced) the aerosol concentrations in the northern (southern) sub-<span class="hlt">region</span> during the strongest monsoon years compared with the weakest monsoon years, which partly offset the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the lower southerly winds on the aerosol distribution over East Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7167T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7167T"><span>The Climaware project: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate change on water resources management - <span class="hlt">regional</span> strategies and European view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and <span class="hlt">regional</span> perspectives, to get</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43L..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43L..04B"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Legacy and Current Uranium Mining in the Grand Canyon <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Northern Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bills, D. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Grand Canyon <span class="hlt">region</span> in Northern Arizona contains high grade uranium resources hosted in geologic features called breccia pipes that represent an important component of the Nation's energy resource base. The exploration and extraction of uranium ore from these deposits poses potential risks to humans and biota of the Grand Canyon watershed. These issues led the Secretary of the Interior to a Record of Decision in January 2012 to withdraw over a million acres of federal lands in the <span class="hlt">region</span> from mineral entry for the next 20 years. Dissolved uranium and other major ions and trace elements occur naturally in surface water and in groundwater as a result of precipitation infiltrating from the surface to perched water-bearing zones in contact with mineralized breccia pipes or in contact with sandstones with high trace element content, and to underlying <span class="hlt">regional</span> aquifers. Discharge from these water-bearing zones and aquifers occur as seeps and springs throughout the <span class="hlt">region</span> and provide valuable habitat and water sources for plants and animals. Runoff and groundwater flow in the Grand Canyon <span class="hlt">region</span> is also a component of the water supply for over 25 million people in the Southwestern United States. Soil and sediment in the <span class="hlt">region</span> can naturally contain as much a 5.6 micrograms per gram of uranium and naturally occurring dissolved uranium in groundwater is about 5.0 μg/L or less, except in proximity to uranium ore bodies where it tends to be greater. The current discharge of dissolved uranium from the Grand Canyon <span class="hlt">region</span> to Lake Mead have concentrations of 4.0 μg/L or less resulting in a total annual load of uranium delivered to Lake Mead of about 60 tons per year. Increased amounts of radioactive materials and trace metals on the surface and in groundwater are related to uranium mining activity in the watershed in the 1970s and 1980s. Monitoring and data collection from 2010 to 2012 confirm this legacy <span class="hlt">impact</span> in some parts of the Grand Canyon watershed, but have yet to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081261&hterms=arrhenius&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darrhenius','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081261&hterms=arrhenius&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darrhenius"><span>Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Data to Assess <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater Modification in the Arrhenius <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garvin, J. B.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This study combines MOLA altimetry with photographic imagery to begin assessing the extent to which sedimentary and volcanic processes have affected <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater morphology in the Arrhenius <span class="hlt">region</span> of Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......130A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......130A"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Chihuahua Desert Aerosol Intrusions on Convective Clouds and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Apodaca, Karina</p> <p></p> <p>Growing up in a desert <span class="hlt">region</span> influenced by a monsoon system and experiencing, first-hand, dust storms produced by convective thunderstorms stimulated my interest in the study of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols on clouds. Contrary to other studies which focus more on anthropogenic aerosols, I chose to investigate the role of natural aerosols in the deserts of North America. Moreover, the role played by aerosols in desert <span class="hlt">regions</span> within the North American Monsoon domain has not received as much attention as in other monsoon <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the world. This dissertation describes my investigation of the connection between mineral aerosols (dust storms) and monsoon rainfall in the deserts of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. To develop the context for the study of the role of mineral dust in summer-time convection on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, large-scale dynamical processes and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the inter-annual variability of monsoon rainfall were analyzed. I developed the climatology of monsoonal rainfall and dust storms using surface observations to determine which mesoscale features influence North American Monsoon rainfall in the Paso Del Norte <span class="hlt">region</span>. The strongest correlations were found between sea surface temperatures over the Gulf of California, Gulf of California moisture surges and monsoon rainfall in the Paso Del Norte <span class="hlt">region</span>. A connection to ENSO could not be clearly established despite analyzing twenty-one years of data. However, by breaking the data into segments, a strong correlation was found for periods of intense rainfall. Twenty-one case studies were identified in which dust storms were produced in conjunction with thunderstorms during the 2005 - 2007 monsoon seasons. However, in some cases all the conditions were there for rainfall to occur but it did not precipitate. I concluded that strong thunderstorm outflow was triggering dust storms. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem V3.1.1) was used to evaluate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8..193P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8..193P"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Varying Statutory Arrangements on Spatial Data Sharing and Access in <span class="hlt">Regional</span> NRM Bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Spatial information plays an important role in many social, environmental and economic decisions and increasingly acknowledged as a national resource essential for wider societal and environmental benefits. Natural Resource Management is one area where spatial information can be used for improved planning and decision making processes. In Australia, state government organisations are the custodians of spatial information necessary for natural resource management and <span class="hlt">regional</span> NRM bodies are responsible to <span class="hlt">regional</span> delivery of NRM activities. The access and sharing of spatial information between government agencies and <span class="hlt">regional</span> NRM bodies is therefore as an important issue for improving natural resource management outcomes. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of spatial information access, sharing and use with varying statutory arrangements and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in catchment management sector in Australia. Further, it critically examined whether any trends and significant variations exist due to different institutional arrangements (statutory versus non-statutory) or not. A survey method was used to collect primary data from 56 <span class="hlt">regional</span> natural resource management (NRM) bodies responsible for catchment management in Australia. Descriptive statistics method was used to show the similarities and differences between statutory and non-statutory arrangements. The key factors which influence sharing and access to spatial information are also explored. The results show the current statutory and administrative arrangements and <span class="hlt">regional</span> focus for natural resource management is reasonable from a spatial information management perspective and provides an opportunity for building SDI at the catchment scale. However, effective institutional arrangements should align catchment SDI development activities with sub-national and national SDI development activities to address catchment management issues. We found minor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17298143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17298143"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of HIV/AIDS on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the WHO Africa <span class="hlt">Region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Mwabu, Germano M</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>HIV/AIDS is hypothesized to have substantive negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of HIV/AIDS on GDP in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span> using a production function approach. The economic burden analysis was done using a double-log econometric model and a cross-sectional data on 45 to 46 countries in the WHO African <span class="hlt">Region</span>. The data were obtained from WHO, UNAIDS, ECA, UNDP and the World Bank publications. The coefficient for Capital (K), Education (EN), Export (X) and Imports (M) were found to be statistically significant determinants of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at 5% level of significance (using a one-sided t-distribution test). Unfortunately, HIV/AIDS morbidity (V) and HIV/AIDS deaths (VD), at the same level of significance, were found to have statistically insignificant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on GDP. However, the coefficients of these variables had negative signs as expected. In all African countries, there is need for more detailed research on the total economic cost of HIV/AIDS (probably estimated using micro-level costing and willingness-to-pay methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion programmes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4025P"><span>Scale dependence of the simulated <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Amazonian deforestation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Using a global climate model, Amazonian deforestation experiments are conducted perturbing 1, 9, 25, 81 and 121 grid points, each with 5 ensemble members. All experiments show warming and drying over Amazonia. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation on temperature, averaged either over the affected area or a wider area, decreases by a factor of two as the scale of the perturbation increases from 1 to 121 grid points. This is associated with changes in the surface energy balance and consequential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the atmosphere above the <span class="hlt">regions</span> deforested. For precipitation, as the scale of deforestation increases from 9 to 121 grid points, the reduction in rainfall over the perturbed area decreases from ˜1.5 to ˜1 mm d-1. However, if the surrounding area is considered and large deforestation perturbations made, compensatory increases in precipitation occur such that there is little net change. This is largely associated with changes in horizontal advection of moisture. Disagreements between climate model experiments on how Amazonian deforestation affects precipitation and temperature are, at least in part, due to the spatial scale of the <span class="hlt">region</span> deforested, differences in the areas used to calculate averages and whether areas surrounding deforestation are included in the overall averages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1585R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1585R"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">regional</span> and gender <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2003 summer heatwave in excessive mortality in Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Nogueira, Paulo J.; Santos, Filipe D.; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Gouveia, Célia; Santo, Fátima E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This work evaluates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2003 European heatwave on excessive human mortality in Portugal, a country that presents a relatively high level of exposure to heatwave events. To estimate the fortnight expected mortality per district between 30 July and 15 August we have used five distinct baseline periods of mortality. We have opted to use the period that spans between 2000 and 2004, as it corresponds to a good compromise between a relatively long period (to guarantee some stability) and a sufficiently short period (to guarantee the similarity of the underlying population structure). Our findings show a total of 2399 excessive deaths are estimated in continental Portugal, which implies an increase of 58% over the expected deaths for those two weeks. When these values are split by gender, it is seen that women increase (79%), was considerably higher than that recorded for men (41%). The increment of mortality due to this heatwave was detected for all the 18 districts of the country, but its magnitude was significantly higher in the inner districts close to the Spanish border. When we split the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> by gender all districts reveal significant mortality increments for women, while the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in men's excess deaths is not significant over 3 districts. Several temperature derived indices were used and evaluated in their capacity to explain, at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level, the excessive mortality (ratio between observed and expected deaths) by gender. The best relationship was found for the total exceedance of extreme days, an index combining the length of the heatwave and its intensity. Both variables hold a linear relationship with r = 0.79 for women and a poorer adjustment (r = 0.50) for men. Additionally, availability of mortality data split by age also allowed obtaining detailed information on the structure of the population in risk, namely by showing that statistically significant increments are concentrated in the last three age classes (45-64, 65-74 and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U22A..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U22A..04C"><span>Uncertainty and Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Modeling at <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are inherently <span class="hlt">regional</span> in scale, the incorporation of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical <span class="hlt">regions</span>. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..949S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..949S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Urbanization on the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The anthropogenic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that <span class="hlt">impact</span> the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial <span class="hlt">impact</span> on both the <span class="hlt">regional</span> airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient <span class="hlt">regional</span> airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on <span class="hlt">regional</span> flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364585"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of mountain tourism in developing <span class="hlt">regions</span>: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geneletti, Davide; Dawa, Dorje</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the <span class="hlt">region</span>. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite <span class="hlt">impact</span> maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..215Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..215Z"><span>Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">impact</span> of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor</p> <p></p> <p>A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar <span class="hlt">Regions</span>, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1177296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1177296"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target <span class="hlt">region</span>, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27979621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27979621"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate cooling on the Antarctic Peninsula and associated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the cryosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliva, M; Navarro, F; Hrbáček, F; Hernández, A; Nývlt, D; Pereira, P; Ruiz-Fernández, J; Trigo, R</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is often described as a <span class="hlt">region</span> with one of the largest warming trends on Earth since the 1950s, based on the temperature trend of 0.54°C/decade during 1951-2011 recorded at Faraday/Vernadsky station. Accordingly, most works describing the evolution of the natural systems in the AP <span class="hlt">region</span> cite this extreme trend as the underlying cause of their observed changes. However, a recent analysis (Turner et al., 2016) has shown that the <span class="hlt">regionally</span> stacked temperature record for the last three decades has shifted from a warming trend of 0.32°C/decade during 1979-1997 to a cooling trend of -0.47°C/decade during 1999-2014. While that study focuses on the period 1979-2014, averaging the data over the entire AP <span class="hlt">region</span>, we here update and re-assess the spatially-distributed temperature trends and inter-decadal variability from 1950 to 2015, using data from ten stations distributed across the AP <span class="hlt">region</span>. We show that Faraday/Vernadsky warming trend is an extreme case, circa twice those of the long-term records from other parts of the northern AP. Our results also indicate that the cooling initiated in 1998/1999 has been most significant in the N and NE of the AP and the South Shetland Islands (>0.5°C between the two last decades), modest in the Orkney Islands, and absent in the SW of the AP. This recent cooling has already <span class="hlt">impacted</span> the cryosphere in the northern AP, including slow-down of glacier recession, a shift to surface mass gains of the peripheral glacier and a thinning of the active layer of permafrost in northern AP islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23090700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23090700"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> copayment policy on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) consumption and expenditure in Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Damiani, Gianfranco; Federico, Bruno; Silvestrini, Giulia; Bianchi, Caterina Bianca Neve Aurora; Anselmi, Angela; Iodice, Lanfranco; Ronconi, Alessandra; Navarra, Pierluigi; Da Cas, Roberto; Raschetti, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The continuous growth of antidepressant consumption and expenditure, especially for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has led to the adoption of several policy measures directed toward cost control in Western countries. In Italy, copayment policies have been heterogeneously introduced at a <span class="hlt">regional</span> level as part of a strategy designed to reduce drug consumption. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether <span class="hlt">regional</span> copayment policies have affected trends in the consumption of and expenditure for SSRIs from 2001 to 2007. The consumption of SSRIs was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants (DDD/1000) per day from May 2001 to December 2007. Time trends in consumption and expenditure before and after the introduction of copayment policies were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. The study was conducted for 17 <span class="hlt">regions</span>, nine of which had implemented a copayment policy. The overall consumption of SSRIs in Italy increased during the study period, from a monthly consumption of 12.85 DDD/1000 per day in May 2001 to 23.40 DDD/1000 per day in December 2007. The average monthly increase in SSRI use was 0.82 % in <span class="hlt">regions</span> with a copayment policy versus 0.77 % in <span class="hlt">regions</span> without a copayment policy (P = 0.329). According to the multivariable analysis, copayment was associated with a 1 % reduction in the monthly growth rate of SSRI consumption (P  = 0.01). The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of copayment on expenditure was statistically significant (P  < 0.005) on both the level and the trend, even though the estimate of the effect was negligible. The implementation of copayment policies in Italy affected both the use and expenditure of SSRIs between 2001 and 2007 to only to a minor extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026420&hterms=Thermodynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThermodynamics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026420&hterms=Thermodynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThermodynamics"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Precipitation Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In data sparse <span class="hlt">regions</span>, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span> with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a <span class="hlt">regional</span> configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of <span class="hlt">impact</span> the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214405"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gobiet, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio‐temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan‐European data sets and a set that combines eight very high‐resolution station‐based <span class="hlt">regional</span> data sets. Furthermore, we investigate seven widely used, larger scale global data sets. Our results demonstrate that the differences between these data sets have the same magnitude as precipitation errors found in <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models. Therefore, including observational uncertainties is essential for climate studies, climate model evaluation, and statistical post‐processing. Following our results, we suggest the following guidelines for <span class="hlt">regional</span> precipitation assessments. (1) Include multiple observational data sets from different sources (e.g. station, satellite, reanalysis based) to estimate observational uncertainties. (2) Use data sets with high station densities to minimize the effect of precipitation undersampling (may induce about 60% error in data sparse <span class="hlt">regions</span>). The information content of a gridded data set is mainly related to its underlying station density and not to its grid spacing. (3) Consider undercatch errors of up to 80% in high latitudes and mountainous <span class="hlt">regions</span>. (4) Analyses of small‐scale features and extremes are especially uncertain in gridded data sets. For higher confidence, use climate‐mean and larger scale statistics. In conclusion, neglecting observational uncertainties potentially misguides climate model development and can severely affect the results of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments. PMID:28111497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026420&hterms=Thermodynamic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThermodynamic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026420&hterms=Thermodynamic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThermodynamic"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Precipitation Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In data sparse <span class="hlt">regions</span>, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span> with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a <span class="hlt">regional</span> configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of <span class="hlt">impact</span> the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9786E..1KG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9786E..1KG"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">region</span> contouring variability on image-based focal therapy evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibson, Eli; Donaldson, Ian A.; Shah, Taimur T.; Hu, Yipeng; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Barratt, Dean C.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Motivation: Focal therapy is an emerging low-morbidity treatment option for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer; however, challenges remain in accurately delivering treatment to specified targets and determining treatment success. Registered multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) acquired before and after treatment can support focal therapy evaluation and optimization; however, contouring variability, when defining the prostate, the clinical target volume (CTV) and the ablation <span class="hlt">region</span> in images, reduces the precision of quantitative image-based focal therapy evaluation metrics. To inform the interpretation and clarify the limitations of such metrics, we investigated inter-observer contouring variability and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on four metrics. Methods: Pre-therapy and 2-week-post-therapy standard-of-care MPMRI were acquired from 5 focal cryotherapy patients. Two clinicians independently contoured, on each slice, the prostate (pre- and post-treatment) and the dominant index lesion CTV (pre-treatment) in the T2-weighted MRI, and the ablated <span class="hlt">region</span> (post-treatment) in the dynamic-contrast- enhanced MRI. For each combination of clinician contours, post-treatment images were registered to pre-treatment images using a 3D biomechanical-model-based registration of prostate surfaces, and four metrics were computed: the proportion of the target tissue <span class="hlt">region</span> that was ablated and the target:ablated <span class="hlt">region</span> volume ratio for each of two targets (the CTV and an expanded planning target volume). Variance components analysis was used to measure the contribution of each type of contour to the variance in the therapy evaluation metrics. Conclusions: 14-23% of evaluation metric variance was attributable to contouring variability (including 6-12% from ablation <span class="hlt">region</span> contouring); reducing this variability could improve the precision of focal therapy evaluation metrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28111497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28111497"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prein, Andreas F; Gobiet, Andreas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution station-based <span class="hlt">regional</span> data sets. Furthermore, we investigate seven widely used, larger scale global data sets. Our results demonstrate that the differences between these data sets have the same magnitude as precipitation errors found in <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models. Therefore, including observational uncertainties is essential for climate studies, climate model evaluation, and statistical post-processing. Following our results, we suggest the following guidelines for <span class="hlt">regional</span> precipitation assessments. (1) Include multiple observational data sets from different sources (e.g. station, satellite, reanalysis based) to estimate observational uncertainties. (2) Use data sets with high station densities to minimize the effect of precipitation undersampling (may induce about 60% error in data sparse <span class="hlt">regions</span>). The information content of a gridded data set is mainly related to its underlying station density and not to its grid spacing. (3) Consider undercatch errors of up to 80% in high latitudes and mountainous <span class="hlt">regions</span>. (4) Analyses of small-scale features and extremes are especially uncertain in gridded data sets. For higher confidence, use climate-mean and larger scale statistics. In conclusion, neglecting observational uncertainties potentially misguides climate model development and can severely affect the results of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=snell&pg=4&id=EJ1150125','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=snell&pg=4&id=EJ1150125"><span>To What Extent Does a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Dialect and Accent <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Development of Reading and Writing Skills?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Snell, Julia; Andrews, Richard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The issue of whether a <span class="hlt">regional</span> accent and/or dialect <span class="hlt">impact(s</span>) on the development of literacy skills remains current in the UK. For decades the issue has dogged debate concerning education outcomes, portable skills and employability. This article summarises research on the topic using systematic review methodology. A scoping review was undertaken…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70134555','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70134555"><span>Shifts in plant functional types have time-dependent and <span class="hlt">regionally</span> variable <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on dryland ecosystem water balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Burke, Ingrid C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>5. Synthesis. This study provides a novel, <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale assessment of how plant functional type transitions may <span class="hlt">impact</span> ecosystem water balance in sagebrush-dominated ecosystems of North America. Results illustrate that the ecohydrological consequences of changing vegetation depend strongly on climate and suggest that decreasing woody plant abundance may have only limited <span class="hlt">impact</span> on evapotranspiration and water yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15735.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15735.pdf"><span>77 FR 38375 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (FEIS) for the Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-27</p> <p>... Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement. Location: The Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport (SKX) is located in north Taos County, New... airport access road; and, extension of an on-airport access road. The FAA published a Draft Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33288','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33288"><span>Monitoring and assessment of <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from nonnative invasive plants in forests of the Pacific Coast, United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Andrew Gray</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Invasions of nonnative plants into new <span class="hlt">regions</span> have a tremendous <span class="hlt">impact</span> on many natural and managed ecosystems affecting their composition and function. Nonnative invasive species have a large economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> through lost or degraded land costs, and are a primary cause of extinction of native species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..657O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..657O"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of currents on surface flux computations and their feedback on dynamics at <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olita, A.; Iermano, I.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.; Tedesco, C.; Pessini, F.; Sorgente, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas around the island of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean) to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, at <span class="hlt">regional</span> and coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e., taking into account ocean surface currents) in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through standard (Fairall et al., 2003) bulk formulas. The <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) was implemented at 3 km resolution in order to well resolve mesoscale processes, which are known to have a large influence in the dynamics of the area. Small changes (few percent points) in terms of spatially averaged fluxes correspond to quite large differences of such quantities (about 15 %) in spatial terms and in terms of kinetics (more than 20 %). As a consequence, wind power input P is also reduced by ~ 14 % on average. Quantitative validation with satellite SST suggests that such a modification of the fluxes improves the model solution especially in the western side of the domain, where mesoscale activity (as suggested by eddy kinetic energy) is stronger. Surface currents change both in their stable and fluctuating part. In particular, the path and intensity of the Algerian Current and of the Western Sardinia Current (WSC) are <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by the modification in fluxes. Both total and eddy kinetic energies of the surface current field are reduced in the experiment where fluxes took into account the surface currents. The main dynamical correction is observed in the SW area, where the different location and strength of the eddies influence the path and intensity of the WSC. Our results suggest that, even at local scales and in temperate <span class="hlt">regions</span>, it would be preferable to take into account such a contribution in flux computations. The modification of the original code, substantially cost-less in terms of numerical computation, improves the model response in terms of surface fluxes (SST validated) and it also likely improves the dynamics as suggested by qualitative comparison with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25336089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25336089"><span>Invited review: climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in polar <span class="hlt">regions</span>: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal <span class="hlt">regions</span>, areas which are experiencing rapid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic <span class="hlt">regions</span>, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21H0180T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21H0180T"><span>Vertical Profiles of Ammonia in the Colorado Front Range: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Source <span class="hlt">Region</span> and Meteorology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tevlin, A.; Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Brophy, P.; Kirkland, J.; Link, M. F.; Farmer, D. K.; Wolfe, D. E.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Brown, S. S.; Zaragoza, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Murphy, J. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric ammonia plays an important role in aerosol particle formation and growth, as well as in nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems. However, significant uncertainties are associated with the distribution and strength of emission sources, and many of the processes that control its atmospheric fate are not fully understood. The high density of agricultural and urban sources located in close proximity to more pristine mountainous areas to the west make the Colorado Front Range a unique area for studying atmospheric ammonia. The meteorology of the <span class="hlt">region</span>, where heavy monsoon rains can be followed by rapid evaporation, can also <span class="hlt">impact</span> surface-atmosphere partitioning of ammonia. As part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ), vertical profiles of ammonia were measured throughout the boundary layer aboard a moveable platform on the 300 m Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower. Changes in ammonia concentration and its vertical structure were driven not only by changes in wind direction and estimated source <span class="hlt">region</span>, but also by fluctuations in surface and atmosphere water content. For example, large increases in atmospheric ammonia mixing ratios were observed following rain events. This may be explained by surface-atmosphere exchange of wet-deposited ammonia associated with rapid evaporation following the event, and likely <span class="hlt">impacts</span> particle formation. This may also play a role in transport from ammonia-rich agricultural areas towards the mountainous <span class="hlt">regions</span> to the west during periods of upslope flow. The vertical ammonia concentration gradients observed throughout the structured early morning boundary layer also provide insight into the possible causes of early morning spikes in ammonia - a phenomenon that has been well-documented in many other locations. A box model was used to assess the relative importance of surface emissions due to the evaporation of morning dew versus entrainment of ammonia-rich air from above the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8812S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8812S"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the <span class="hlt">regional</span> version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production <span class="hlt">region</span> in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale model runs. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9298G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9298G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of climate change on surface wind regime over the Peru-Chile upwelling <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goubanova, K.; Echevin, V.; Dewitte, B.; Garreaud, R.; Terray, P.; Vrac, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The ocean <span class="hlt">region</span> off the Chile-Peru coast is characterized by upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich waters, which drives an exceptionally high biological productivity. This upwelling is induced by the persistent southerly winds along the coast that exhibit a coastal jet structure at intraseasonal scales. Recent climate change studies based on the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) show a strengthening of the large-scale southerlies along the subtropical coast that could lead to an increase in coastal upwelling. However the coastal jet events which represent a considerable source of the synoptic variability of the alongshore winds are characterized by horizontal scale comparable to a AOGCM grid cell size, and cannot be therefore explicitly resolved by the AOGCMs. In order to provide a <span class="hlt">regional</span> estimate of the winds as predicted by the coarse-resolution AOGCMs, a statistical downscaling method based on multiple linear regression is proposed. Large-scale wind at 10 m and sea level pressure are chosen as the predictor variables for <span class="hlt">regional</span> 10 m wind. The validation is performed in two steps. First, QuikSCAT and ERS satellite products and NCEP reanalysis for the period 1992-2006 are used to build and validate the statistical model for the present climate. Second, the model is validated under a warmer climate: it is applied to large-scale predictors extracted from HadCM3 AOGCM simulations for the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios (2071-2100); the downscaled wind is then compared with outputs of the PRECIS <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, forced at its boundaries by the same HadCM3 scenarios. To assess climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the along-shore wind, the statistical downscaling is applied to two contrasted SRES scenarios, namely the so-called preindustrial and CO2 quadrupling. The outputs of the IPSL-CM4 AOGCM are used as predictors. Evolution of the along-shore wind regime with a focus on the change of the coastal jet characteristics is discussed. For this particular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.150..264B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.150..264B"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of anomalous forest fire on aerosol radiative forcing and snow cover over Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bali, Kunal; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Forest fires are very common in tropical <span class="hlt">region</span> during February-May months and are known to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ecosystem dynamics. Moreover, aerosols emitted from these burning activities significantly modulate the Earth's radiation budget. In present study, we investigated the anomalous forest fire events and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on atmospheric radiation budget and glaciated snow cover over the Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span>. We used multiple dataset derived from satellites [Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] and reanalysis models [Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), Second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA-2) and ERA-interim] to evaluate the effect of biomass burning aerosols on radiation budget. April 2016 is associated with anomalous fire activities over lower Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span> in the last fourteen years (2003-2016). The model estimated organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) emission reaches up to ∼3 × 104 and ∼2 × 103 μg/m2/day, respectively during the biomass burning period of April 2016. The meteorological data analysis accompanied with CALIOP aerosol vertical profile shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could reach up to ∼5-7 km altitude and could be transported towards glaciated <span class="hlt">region</span> of upper Himalayas. The large amount of BC/OC from biomass burning significantly modulates the atmospheric radiation budget. The estimated columnar heating rate shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could heat up the atmosphere by ∼0.04-0.06 K/day in April-2016 with respect to non-burning period (2015). The glaciated snow cover fractions are found to be decreasing by ∼5-20% in 2016 as compared to long term mean (2003-2016). The combined analyses of various climatic factors, fires and associated BC emissions show that the observed snow cover decrease could be results of increased surface/atmospheric temperature due to combined effect of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210838A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210838A"><span>Modeling land-atmosphere interactions: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of deforestation in tropical Africa on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akkermans, Tom; Lauwaet, Dirk; van Lipzig, Nicole</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Deforestation is generally seen as an alarming trend, especially in third world countries. This research focuses on the climatological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of anthropogenic forest degradation in tropical Africa, a study area which has received relatively few attention. Building on previous studies, additional and new research methods are applied. A <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model (COSMO-CLM) will be used and coupled to a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer component (the Community Land Model). As this research just started, the poster presentation will give an overview of the project, which is described below. Firstly, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of overall deforestation estimates will be quantified by applying a spatial algorithm for different deforestation amounts, constrained by allocation rules. Secondly, this algorithm will also be used to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatial deforestation patterns, e.g. concentrated versus dispersed logging. Thirdly, climate-vegetation feedbacks will be included in the model runs. Physiological effects of increased greenhouse gases on vegetation (e.g. reduction of stomatal conductance, hence decrease in transpiration) and dynamical vegetation cycles (e.g. reaction of leaf area index on dry spells and heat stress) are the focus of interest. Finally, the effect of land cover change on detailed atmospheric processes such as convective activity will be studied. The second as well as the fourth goal requires a substantial increase in spatial detail compared to current studies, which will be obtained by increasing the horizontal resolution (for the atmospheric model and for the land cover data) and making use of sub-grid flux calculations for energy and moisture. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the above-mentioned elements will be quantified by comparing different model simulations. The overall climate forcing from land cover change will be compared with the forcing from greenhouse gases, which allows for quantifying their relative importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1310961L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1310961L"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of transport model errors on the global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Fortems-Cheney, A.; Szopa, S.; Saunois, M.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Gloor, E.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Krol, M.; Patra, P. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Rigby, M.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transport model errors on the methane emissions estimated by an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, given by 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS inverse system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same set-up has been used to produce the synthetic observations and to compute flux estimates by inverse modelling, which means that only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg CH4 per year at the global scale, representing 5% of the total methane emissions. At continental and yearly scales, transport model errors have bigger <span class="hlt">impacts</span> depending on the <span class="hlt">region</span>, ranging from 36 Tg CH4 in north America to 7 Tg CH4 in Boreal Eurasian (from 23% to 48%). At the model gridbox scale, the spread of inverse estimates can even reach 150% of the prior flux. Thus, transport model errors contribute to significant uncertainties on the methane estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are invoked. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the measurement network and the advantage of higher resolution models. The analysis of methane estimated fluxes in these different configurations questions the consistency of transport model errors in current inverse systems. For future methane inversions, an improvement in the modelling of the atmospheric transport would make the estimations more accurate. Likewise, errors of the observation covariance matrix should be more consistently prescribed in future inversions in order to limit the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transport model errors on estimated methane fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..227..173L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..227..173L"><span>Climate-change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in a <span class="hlt">regional</span> karst aquifer, Texas, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loáiciga, H. A.; Maidment, D. R.; Valdes, J. B.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Climate-change scenarios were created from scaling factors derived from several general circulation models to assess the likely <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aquifer pumping on the water resources of the Edwards Balcones Fault Zone (BFZ) aquifer, Texas, one of the largest aquifer systems in the United States. Historical climatic time series in periods of extreme water shortage (1947-1959), near-average recharge (1978-1989), and above-average recharge (1975-1990) were scaled to 2×CO2 conditions to create aquifer recharge scenarios in a warmer climate. Several pumping scenarios were combined with 2×CO2 climate scenarios to assess the sensitivity of water resources <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to human-induced stresses on the Edwards BFZ aquifer. The 2×CO2 climate-change scenarios were linked to surface hydrology and used to drive aquifer dynamics with alternative numerical simulation models calibrated to the Edwards BFZ aquifer. Aquifer simulations indicate that, given the predicted growth and water demand in the Edwards BFZ aquifer <span class="hlt">region</span>, the aquifer's ground water resources appear threatened under 2×CO2 climate scenarios. Our simulations indicate that 2×CO2 climatic conditions could exacerbate negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and water shortages in the Edwards BFZ aquifer even if pumping does not increase above its present average level. The historical evidence and the results of this article indicate that without proper consideration to variations in aquifer recharge and sound pumping strategies, the water resources of the Edwards BFZ aquifer could be severely <span class="hlt">impacted</span> under a warmer climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121..949E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121..949E"><span>Solar wind interaction with comet 67P: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of corotating interaction <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Odelstad, E.; Vigren, E.; Andrews, D. J.; Johansson, F.; Burch, J. L.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Goldstein, R.; Halekas, J. S.; Henri, P.; Koenders, C.; Mandt, K.; Mokashi, P.; Nemeth, Z.; Nilsson, H.; Ramstad, R.; Richter, I.; Wieser, G. Stenberg</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We present observations from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium of the effects of stormy solar wind on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Four corotating interaction <span class="hlt">regions</span> (CIRs), where the first event has possibly merged with a coronal mass ejection, are traced from Earth via Mars (using Mars Express and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission) to comet 67P from October to December 2014. When the comet is 3.1-2.7 AU from the Sun and the neutral outgassing rate ˜1025-1026 s-1, the CIRs significantly influence the cometary plasma environment at altitudes down to 10-30 km. The ionospheric low-energy (˜5 eV) plasma density increases significantly in all events, by a factor of >2 in events 1 and 2 but less in events 3 and 4. The spacecraft potential drops below -20 V upon <span class="hlt">impact</span> when the flux of electrons increases. The increased density is likely caused by compression of the plasma environment, increased particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization, and possibly charge exchange processes and acceleration of mass-loaded plasma back to the comet ionosphere. During all events, the fluxes of suprathermal (˜10-100 eV) electrons increase significantly, suggesting that the heating mechanism of these electrons is coupled to the solar wind energy input. At <span class="hlt">impact</span> the magnetic field strength in the coma increases by a factor of 2-5 as more interplanetary magnetic field piles up around the comet. During two CIR <span class="hlt">impact</span> events, we observe possible plasma boundaries forming, or moving past Rosetta, as the strong solar wind compresses the cometary plasma environment. We also discuss the possibility of seeing some signatures of the ionospheric response to tail disconnection events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.138..417F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.138..417F"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of End-of-Life manoeuvres on the collision risk in protected <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frey, Stefan; Lemmens, Stijn; Bastida Virgili, Benjamin; Flohrer, Tim; Gass, Volker</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, issued in 2002 and revised in 2007, address the post mission disposal of objects in orbit. After their mission, objects crossing the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should have a remaining lifetime in orbit not exceeding 25 years. Objects near the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) <span class="hlt">region</span> should be placed in an orbit that remains outside of the GEO protected <span class="hlt">region</span>. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of satellites and rocket bodies performing End-of-Life (EOL) orbital manoeuvres on the collision risk in the LEO and GEO protected <span class="hlt">regions</span> is investigated. The cases of full or partial compliance with the IADC post mission disposal guideline are studied. ESA's Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference (MASTER) model is used to compare the space debris flux rate of the object during the remaining lifetime estimated for the pre-EOL-manoeuvre and for the post-EOL-manoeuvre orbit. The study shows that, on average, the probability of collision can be significantly decreased by performing an EOL-manoeuver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015312"><span>HIMALA: Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20110015312'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20110015312_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20110015312_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20110015312_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20110015312_hide"></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span> in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043154','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043154"><span>HIMALA: climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on glaciers, snow, and hydrology in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Racoviteanu, Adina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world's population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan <span class="hlt">region</span> in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0017W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0017W"><span>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of precipitation on land- atmosphere interaction over the semi-arid Loess Plateau <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>WANG, G.; Huang, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To understand the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of precipitation on land-atmosphere interactions over semi-arid <span class="hlt">regions</span>, 6-year continuous measurements data in situ were analyzed to investigate the influence of precipitation on soil moisture, evapotranspiration, energy partitioning and plant growing over Loess Plateau in northwest China. Results show that annual precipitation had obvious inter-annual variability, and the variation of soil moisture; evaporation and CO2 flux were very consistently with the annual cycle and intensity of precipitation. Soil moisture is the key participant in land-atmosphere interaction. However, as the water shortage and disconnected from water table over the semi-arid <span class="hlt">region</span>, it is much more sensitive with precipitation compensation and evaporation feedbacks. Soil water can cooling the near surface air temperature by evaporation (latent heat flux), and also as the main energy partitioning consumer of net radiation in humid area or pluvial period in arid area, yet it was water limited in arid and semi-arid <span class="hlt">region</span>, sensible heat flux predominated net radiation for enhancing the surface air temperature. We also found that soil moisture profile significantly affected the plant physiology, which was also consistent with the annual cycle and intensity of precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233904&keyword=academic+AND+performance&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=86042287&CFTOKEN=61233484','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233904&keyword=academic+AND+performance&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=86042287&CFTOKEN=61233484"><span>Examining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Nitrous Acid Chemistry on Ozone and PM over the Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of nitrous acid (HONO) chemistry on <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone and particulate matter in Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span> was investigated using the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system and the CB05 mechanism. Model simulations were conducted for a ten-day period in Oct...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233904&keyword=science+AND+direct+AND+journals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233904&keyword=science+AND+direct+AND+journals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Examining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Nitrous Acid Chemistry on Ozone and PM over the Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of nitrous acid (HONO) chemistry on <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone and particulate matter in Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span> was investigated using the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system and the CB05 mechanism. Model simulations were conducted for a ten-day period in Oct...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=327412','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=327412"><span>Farm gate environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of beef production in the Northern Plains and Midwest <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cradle-to-farm gate environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of beef production in two cattle producing <span class="hlt">regions</span> were assessed as part of an on-going national sustainability study of the U.S. beef value chain launched by the Beef Checkoff. <span class="hlt">Region</span>-specific data on common ranch and feedlot management practices were chara...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chang&pg=2&id=EJ1119469','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chang&pg=2&id=EJ1119469"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Differences within State on the Factors Influencing Youth Entrepreneurship--A Case of Garhwal and Kumaun <span class="hlt">Regions</span> of Uttarakhand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sharma, Lalit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lee, Chang & Lim (2005) state that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of entrepreneurship education in each country is different because of each country's unique culture with regard to entrepreneurship. Going by the above argument, this research paper intends to make a formal enquiry on whether the above effect holds true for different <span class="hlt">regions</span> within a particular…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chang&pg=3&id=EJ1119469','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chang&pg=3&id=EJ1119469"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Differences within State on the Factors Influencing Youth Entrepreneurship--A Case of Garhwal and Kumaun <span class="hlt">Regions</span> of Uttarakhand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sharma, Lalit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lee, Chang & Lim (2005) state that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of entrepreneurship education in each country is different because of each country's unique culture with regard to entrepreneurship. Going by the above argument, this research paper intends to make a formal enquiry on whether the above effect holds true for different <span class="hlt">regions</span> within a particular…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC34B1176S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC34B1176S"><span>Investigating the environmental and socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of sea level rise in the Galveston Bay, Texas <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Subedee, M.; Dotson, M.; Gibeaut, J. C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic effects throughout the twenty-first century, particularly greenhouse gas emissions, have contributed to global climatic and environmental changes. Sea level rise (SLR) is one of these changes which is occurring along the Texas Coast and is amplified by land subsidence. SLR along the northern Texas coast is <span class="hlt">impacting</span> sensitive coastal environments as well as human populations, and industries and infrastructure supporting those populations. Sea level data from the NOAA gauge at Galveston Pier 21 has shown an increase of 2.08 feet in relative sea level in 100 years. Given an expected increase in the rate of sea level rise in the next decades, the purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth assessment on the effects of relative sea level rise on the habitat distribution of highly valuable coastal wetlands in the Galveston Bay <span class="hlt">region</span>. This study also focuses on projecting the potential socioeconomic losses due to coastal flooding that is amplified by SLR in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. In this study, three SLR scenarios are modeled: a scenario based on a linear extrapolation of satellite altimetry data (0.21 m by 2100); the IPCC's RCP8.5 mean scenario (0.74 m by 2100); and a high-end scenario (1.8 m by 2100) as proposed by Jevrejeva et al. (2014). A land subsidence rate calculated by developing a subsidence grid using GPS-measured subsidence monitoring and releveling data is added to all these scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) is used to predict wetland conversion due to long-term SLR incorporating the processes of inundation, erosion, accretion, overwash, and saturation. Similarly, HAZUS-MH is used to evaluate the property damage to building stocks and the direct business interruption losses due to flooding caused by 100-year flood event scenario with three SLR scenarios. This coordinated research effort to assess the physical, environmental and policy <span class="hlt">impacts</span> due to SLR is intended to enable policy-makers, managers, and the general public to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100648','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100648"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) <span class="hlt">region</span> in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale <span class="hlt">impact</span>, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little <span class="hlt">impact</span>. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC <span class="hlt">region</span> (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC <span class="hlt">region</span> at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H12B0986I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H12B0986I"><span>Composition of Rainwater and its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Hydrologic Processes in the Midwestern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iqbal, M. Z.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>This study was conducted in the Midwestern United States to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of rain composition on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrologic processes. It was hypothesized that a considerable amount of atmospheric aerosols in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are derived from agricultural soil. These suspended soil particles include farm chemicals that contain nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur compounds, which can dissolve in raindrops during condensation and change the rain composition leading to increased levels of acidity and nutrients to the surface water. In order to conduct this study, the predominant source of atmospheric moisture was determined by analyzing the isotope (oxygen and deuterium) composition of rainwater and surface water in the area. The observed ranges of Oxygen and Deuterium isotope values (in parts per thousands) are for Ames, delta-O: -30.1 to +1.3, delta-D: -233.0 to +10.1; for Cedar Falls, delta-O: -31.8 to -0.5, delta-D: -245 to -4.0; and for Iowa City, delta-O: -17.5 to -0.6, delta-D: -132.0 to +2.0. It was observed in this study that the isotopic relationships between delta-O and delta-D are generally well correlated with the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) suggested by Craig (1964) in all three sampling locations of the study area. On the contrary, approximately 50% of the samples in Ames, 61% in Cedar Falls, and 44% in Iowa City have d-excess values that are higher than +10 parts per thousand. Although the d-excess averages suggest a predominantly oceanic source of moisture (d-excess = +10 ppt), many condensation events were <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by recycled (subjected to evaporation, transpiration, etc.) water from terrestrial sources. The results of chemical analysis of rainwater shows that the particulate materials from land sources, especially the agricultural chemicals considerably <span class="hlt">impacted</span> the general composition of atmospheric moisture. The concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, respectively are 3.0, 4.9, and 5.2 mg/L in Cedar Falls, and 4.0, 6.9, and 5.3 mg/L in Ames</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46..637S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46..637S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of land cover characterization on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling over West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Pal, Jeremy S.; Wang, Guiling L.; Lawrence, Peter J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of high resolution modern vegetation cover on the West African climate is examined using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model implementing the NCAR Community Land Model. Two high resolution 25 km long-term simulations driven by the output from a coarser 50-km resolution simulation are performed for the period 1998-2010. One high resolution simulation uses an earlier and coarser-resolution version of plant functional type distribution and leaf area index, while the other uses a more recent, higher-quality, and finer-resolution version of the data. The results indicate that the new land cover distribution substantially alters the distribution of temperature with warming in Central Nigeria, northern Gulf of Guinea and part of the Sahel due to the replacement of C4 grass with corn; and cooling along the coastlines of the Gulf of Guinea and in Central Africa due to the replacement of C4 grass with tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these temperature changes with a net decrease (increase) in <span class="hlt">regions</span> of warming (cooling). The improved land cover distribution also results in a wetter monsoon season. The presence of corn tends to favor larger precipitation amounts via more intense events, while the presence of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees tends to favor the occurrence of both more intense and more frequent events. The wetter conditions appear to be sustained via (1) an enhanced soil moisture feedback; and (2) elevated moisture transport due to increased low-level convergence in <span class="hlt">regions</span> south of 10N where the most substantial land cover differences are present. Overall the changes induced by the improved vegetation cover improve, to some extent, the performance of the high resolution <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model in simulating the main West African summer monsoon features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919141S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919141S"><span>Wave resource variability: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on wave power supply over <span class="hlt">regional</span> to international scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Helen; Fairley, Iain; Robertson, Bryson; Abusara, Mohammad; Masters, Ian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The intermittent, irregular and variable nature of the wave energy resource has implications for the supply of wave-generated electricity into the grid. Intermittency of renewable power may lead to frequency and voltage fluctuations in the transmission and distribution networks. A matching supply of electricity must be planned to meet the predicted demand, leading to a need for gas-fired and back-up generating plants to supplement intermittent supplies, and potentially limiting the integration of intermittent power into the grid. Issues relating to resource intermittency and their mitigation through the development of spatially separated sites have been widely researched in the wind industry, but have received little attention to date in the less mature wave industry. This study analyses the wave resource over three different spatial scales to investigate the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the temporal and spatial resource variability on the grid supply. The primary focus is the Southwest UK, a <span class="hlt">region</span> already home to multiple existing and proposed wave energy test sites. Concurrent wave buoy data from six locations, supported by SWAN wave model hindcast data, are analysed to assess the correlation of the resource across the <span class="hlt">region</span> and the variation in wave power with direction. Power matrices for theoretical nearshore and offshore devices are used to calculate the maximum step change in generated power across the <span class="hlt">region</span> as the number of deployment sites is increased. The step change analysis is also applied across national and international spatial scales using output from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) ERA-Interim hindcast model. It is found that the deployment of multiple wave energy sites, whether on a <span class="hlt">regional</span>, national or international scale, results in both a reduction in step changes in power and reduced times of zero generation, leading to an overall smoothing of the wave-generated electrical power. This has implications for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861016"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Agricultural Practice on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate in a CoupledLand Surface Mesoscale Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The land surface has been shown to form strong feedbacks with climate due to linkages between atmospheric conditions and terrestrial ecosystem exchanges of energy, momentum, water, and trace gases. Although often ignored in modeling studies, land management itself may form significant feedbacks. Because crops are harvested earlier under drier conditions, <span class="hlt">regional</span> air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture, for example, affect harvest timing, particularly of rain-fed crops. This removal of vegetation alters the land surface characteristics and may, in turn, affect <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate. We applied a coupled climate(MM5) and land-surface (LSM1) model to examine the effects of early and late winter wheat harvest on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate in the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains, where winter wheat accounts for 20 percent of the land area. Within the winter wheat <span class="hlt">region</span>, simulated 2 m air temperature was 1.3 C warmer in the Early Harvest scenario at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Soils in the harvested area were drier and warmer in the top 10 cm and wetter in the 10-20 cm layer. Midday soils were 2.5 C warmer in the harvested area at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Harvest also dramatically altered latent and sensible heat fluxes. Although differences between scenarios diminished once both scenarios were harvested, the short-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of land management on climate were comparable to those from land cover change demonstrated in other studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12503500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12503500"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> would not strengthen the case for an outlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..596G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..596G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> on precipitation biases and teleconnections over West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómara, Iñigo; Mohino, Elsa; Losada, Teresa; Domínguez, Marta; Suárez-Moreno, Roberto; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>West African societies are highly dependent on the West African Monsoon (WAM). Thus, a correct representation of the WAM in climate models is of paramount importance. In this article, the ability of 8 CMIP5 historical General Circulation Models (GCMs) and 4 CORDEX-Africa <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Models (RCMs) to characterize the WAM dynamics and variability is assessed for the period July-August-September 1979-2004. Simulations are compared with observations. Uncertainties in RCM performance and lateral boundary conditions are assessed individually. Results show that both GCMs and RCMs have trouble to simulate the northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in boreal summer. The greatest bias improvements are obtained after <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> of the most inaccurate GCM simulations. To assess WAM variability, a Maximum Covariance Analysis is performed between Sea Surface Temperature and precipitation anomalies in observations, GCM and RCM simulations. The assessed variability patterns are: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the eastern Mediterranean (MED); and the Atlantic Equatorial Mode (EM). Evidence is given that <span class="hlt">regionalization</span> of the ENSO-WAM teleconnection does not provide any added value. Unlike GCMs, RCMs are unable to precisely represent the ENSO <span class="hlt">impact</span> on air subsidence over West Africa. Contrastingly, the simulation of the MED-WAM teleconnection is improved after <span class="hlt">regionalization</span>. Humidity advection and convergence over the Sahel area are better simulated by RCMs. Finally, no robust conclusions can be determined for the EM-WAM teleconnection, which cannot be isolated for the 1979-2004 period. The novel results in this article will help to select the most appropriate RCM simulations to study WAM teleconnections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416171"><span>Do age and sex <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the absolute cell numbers of human brain <span class="hlt">regions</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliveira-Pinto, Ana V; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos H; Oliveira, Lays M; Parente-Bruno, Danielle R; Santos, Raquel M; Coutinho, Renan A; Alho, Ana T L; Leite, Renata E P; Suemoto, Claudia K; Grinberg, Lea T; Pasqualucci, Carlos A; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Lent, Roberto</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>What is the influence of sex and age on the quantitative cell composition of the human brain? By using the isotropic fractionator to estimate absolute cell numbers in selected brain <span class="hlt">regions</span>, we looked for sex- and age-related differences in 32 medial temporal lobes (comprised basically by the hippocampal formation, amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus), sixteen male (29-92 years) and sixteen female (25-82); and 31 cerebella, seventeen male (29-92 years) and fourteen female (25-82). These <span class="hlt">regions</span> were dissected from the brain, fixed and homogenized, and then labeled with a DNA-marker (to count all nuclei) and with a neuron-specific nuclear marker (to estimate neuron number). Total number of cells in the medial temporal lobe was found to be 1.91 billion in men, and 1.47 billion in women, a difference of 23 %. This <span class="hlt">region</span> showed 34 % more neurons in men than in women: 525.1 million against 347.4 million. In contrast, no sex differences were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the influence of age, a quadratic correlation was found between neuronal numbers and age in the female medial temporal lobe, suggesting an early increase followed by slight decline after age 50. The cerebellum showed numerical stability along aging for both neurons and non-neuronal cells. In sum, results indicate a sex-related <span class="hlt">regional</span> difference in total and neuronal cell numbers in the medial temporal lobe, but not in the cerebellum. On the other hand, aging was found to <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cell numbers in the medial temporal lobe, while the cerebellum proved resilient to neuronal losses in the course of life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913388T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913388T"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Future Carbon Mitigation Policies and Climate on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Qaulity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turnock, Steven; O'Connor, Fiona; Smith, Steven</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Air pollutants (ozone and particulate matter) can affect both climate and air quality. Future reductions in the anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and their precursors will improve air quality. However, it is uncertain the extent to which the choice of carbon mitigation policies could influence future <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality via changes to the co-emission of air pollutants from carbon sources. In addition, it is still uncertain how future changes in climate could influence air pollutants and future air quality may change through climate mitigation itself. Two consistent future scenarios, developed by the same integrated assessment model, are used within this study: one is a reference scenario of future economic development and population growth, whilst the other (RCP4.5) assumes the same development but applies mitigation measures to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations and stabilise anthropogenic radiative forcing at 4.5 W m-2. Here we have applied these two emission scenarios to a coupled composition-climate model (HadGEM3-UKCA) to ascertain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such carbon mitigation measures on future air quality, both globally and over specific <span class="hlt">regions</span>, such as Europe and Asia. A comparison of the emission scenarios shows that the implementation of carbon mitigation measures reduces global air pollutant emissions by between 15-30% and by larger amounts over other <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Additional simulations have also been undertaken to attribute the future air quality changes to either reductions in emissions or changes in climate. An evaluation of the model using air quality observations has also been undertaken for the year 2000. This study demonstrates that carbon mitigation policies to mitigate climate change have added co-benefits for global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/176781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/176781"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>This technical memorandum describes an analysis of <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). <span class="hlt">Regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic variables: population, gross <span class="hlt">regional</span> product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (<span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (<span class="hlt">Impact</span> Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010111','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010111"><span>Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span>. By doing this with <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale models individual synoptic features (and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of 6 weeks of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span> and short-term forecast <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1043G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1043G"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of iron-light colimitation in a global biogeochemical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; Hiscock, M. R.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Laboratory and field studies have revealed that iron has multiple roles in phytoplankton physiology, with particular importance for light-harvesting cellular machinery. However, although iron-limitation is explicitly included in numerous biogeochemical/ecosystem models, its implementation varies, and its effect on the efficiency of light harvesting is often ignored. Given the complexity of the ocean environment, it is difficult to predict the consequences of applying different iron limitation schemes. Here we explore the interaction of iron and nutrient cycles in an ocean general circulation model using a new, streamlined model of ocean biogeochemistry. Building on previously published parameterizations of photoadaptation and export production, the Biogeochemistry with Light Iron Nutrients and Gasses (BLING) model is constructed with only four explicit tracers but including macronutrient and micronutrient limitation, light limitation, and an implicit treatment of community structure. The structural simplicity of this computationally-inexpensive model allows us to clearly isolate the global effect that iron availability has on maximum light-saturated photosynthesis rates vs. the effect iron has on photosynthetic efficiency. We find that the effect on light-saturated photosynthesis rates is dominant, negating the importance of photosynthetic efficiency in most <span class="hlt">regions</span>, especially the cold waters of the Southern Ocean. The primary exceptions to this occur in iron-rich <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Northern Hemisphere, where high light-saturated photosynthesis rates allow photosynthetic efficiency to play a more important role. In other words, the ability to efficiently harvest photons has little effect in <span class="hlt">regions</span> where light-saturated growth rates are low. Additionally, we speculate that the phytoplankton cells dominating iron-limited <span class="hlt">regions</span> tend to have relatively high photosynthetic efficiency, due to reduced packaging effects. If this speculation is correct, it would imply that</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23C0244A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23C0244A"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of CYGNSS Data on Tropical Cyclone Analyses and Forecasts in a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> OSSE Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Annane, B.; McNoldy, B. D.; Leidner, S. M.; Atlas, R. M.; Hoffman, R.; Majumdar, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS, is a planned constellation of micro-satellites that will utilize reflected Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signals to retrieve ocean surface wind speed along the satellites' ground tracks. The orbits are designed so that there is excellent coverage of the tropics and subtropics, resulting in more thorough spatial sampling and improved sampling intervals over tropical cyclones than is possible with current spaceborne scatterometer and passive microwave sensor platforms. Furthermore, CYGNSS will be able to retrieve winds under all precipitating conditions, and over a large range of wind speeds.A <span class="hlt">regional</span> Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) framework was developed at NOAA/AOML and University of Miami that features a high-resolution <span class="hlt">regional</span> nature run (27-km <span class="hlt">regional</span> domain with 9/3/1 km storm-following nests; Nolan et al., 2013) embedded within a lower-resolution global nature run . Simulated observations are generated by sampling from the nature run and are provided to a data assimilation scheme, which produces analyses for a high-resolution <span class="hlt">regional</span> forecast model, the 2014 operational Hurricane-WRF model. For data assimilation, NOAA's GSI and EnKF systems are used. Analyses are performed on the parent domain at 9-km resolution. The forecast model uses a single storm-following 3-km resolution nest. Synthetic CYGNSS wind speed data have also been created, and the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the assimilation of these data on the forecasts of tropical cyclone track and intensity will be discussed.In addition to the choice of assimilation scheme, we have also examined a number of other factors/parameters that effect the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of simulated CYGNSS observations, including frequency of data assimilation cycling (e.g., hourly, 3-hourly and 6-hourly) and the assimilation of scalar versus vector synthetic CYGNSS winds.We have found sensitivity to all of the factors tested and will summarize the methods used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H33G1627M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H33G1627M"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Modeling and Remote Sensing to Characterize <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Civil War Driven Land Use Change on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Hydrology and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maksimowicz, M.; Masarik, M. T.; Brandt, J.; Flores, A. N.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Land use/land cover (LULC) change directly <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the partitioning of surface mass and energy fluxes. <span class="hlt">Regional</span>-scale weather and climate are potentially altered by LULC if the resultant changes in partitioning of surface energy fluxes are extensive enough. Dynamics of land use, particularly those related to the social dimensions of the Earth System, are often simplified or not represented in <span class="hlt">regional</span> land-atmosphere models. This study explores the role of LULC change on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydroclimate system, focusing on potential hydroclimate changes arising from an extended civil conflict in Mozambique. Civil war from 1977-1992 in Mozambique led to land use change at a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale as a result of the collapse of large herbivore populations due to poaching. Since the war ended, farming has increased, poaching was curtailed, and animal populations were reintroduced. In this study LULC in a <span class="hlt">region</span> encompassing Gorongosa is classified at three instances between 1977 to 2015 using Landsat imagery. We use these derived LULC datasets to inform lower boundary conditions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To quantify potential hydrometeorological changes arising from conflict-driven land use change, we performed a factorial-like experiment by mixing input LULC maps and atmospheric forcing data from before, during, and after the civil war. Analysis of the Landsat data shows measurable land cover change from 1977-present as tree cover encroached into grasslands. Initial tests show corresponding sensitivities to different LULC schemes within the WRF model. Preliminary results suggest that the war did indeed <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydroclimate in a significant way via its direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on land-atmosphere interactions. Results of this study suggest that LULC change arising from <span class="hlt">regional</span> conflicts are a potentially understudied, yet important human process to capture in both <span class="hlt">regional</span> reanalyses and climate change projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.248..228T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.248..228T"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other <span class="hlt">regional</span> curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, <span class="hlt">regional</span> curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p < 0.05). The <span class="hlt">regional</span> curves for urban channels (I% > 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw < 10 km2) were enlarged. Enlargement of channels in small watersheds disrupted the correlation between Aw and bankfull dimensions, and I% was the only significant predictor of channel geometry in urban watersheds. Channel response differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27317266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27317266"><span>Hypervariable antigenic <span class="hlt">region</span> 1 of classical swine fever virus E2 protein <span class="hlt">impacts</span> antibody neutralization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Xun; Wang, Zuohuan; Cao, Tong; Tong, Chao; Geng, Shichao; Gu, Yuanxing; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan</p> <p>2016-07-19</p> <p>Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. There are three hypervariable antigenic <span class="hlt">regions</span> (HAR1, HAR2 and HAR3) of E2 that are different between the group 1 vaccine C-strain and group 2 clinical isolates. This study was aimed to characterize the antigenic epitope <span class="hlt">region</span> recognized by monoclonal antibody 4F4 (mAb-4F4) that is present in the group 2 field isolate HZ1-08, but not in the C-strain, and examine its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on neutralization titers when antisera from different recombinant viruses were cross-examined. Indirect ELISA with C-strain E2-based chimeric proteins carrying the three HAR <span class="hlt">regions</span> showed that the mAb-4F4 bound to HAR1 from HZ1-08 E2, but not to HAR2 or HAR3, indicating that the specific epitope is located in the HAR1 <span class="hlt">region</span>. Of the 6 major residues differences between C-strain and field isolates, Glu713 in the HAR1 <span class="hlt">region</span> of strain HZ1-08 is critical for mAb-4F4 binding either at the recombinant protein level or using intact recombinant viruses carrying single mutations. C-strain-based recombinant viruses carrying the most antigenic part of E2 or HAR1 from strain HZ1-08 remained non-pathogenic to pigs and induced good antibody responses. By cross-neutralization assay, we observed that the anti-C-strain serum lost most of its neutralization capacity to RecC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 (subgroup 2.1d field isolate in 2014), and vice versa. More importantly, the RecC-HAR1 virus remained competent in neutralizing ReC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 strains without compromising the neutralization capability to the recombinant C-strain. Thus, we propose that chimeric C-strain carrying the HAR1 <span class="hlt">region</span> of field isolates is a good vaccine candidate for classical swine fever.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2403O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2403O"><span>Simulating Dust <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Dust is one of the most abundant aerosols, however, currently only a few <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate downscalings account for dust. This study focuses on the Middle East and the Red Sea <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate response to the dust aerosol radiative forcing. The Red Sea is located between North Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which are first and third largest source <span class="hlt">regions</span> of dust, respectively. MODIS and SEVIRI satellite observations show extremely high dust optical depths in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, especially over the southern Red Sea during the summer season. The significant north-to-south gradient of the dust optical depth over the Red Sea persists throughout the entire year. Modeled atmospheric radiative forcing at the surface, top of the atmosphere and absorption in the atmospheric column indicate that dust significantly perturbs radiative balance. Top of the atmosphere modeled forcing is validated against independently derived GERB satellite product. Due to strong radiative forcing at the sea surface (daily mean forcing during summer reaches -32 Wm-2 and 10 Wm-2 in SW and LW, respectively), using uncoupled ocean model with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions would result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, here we employ the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dust on the Red Sea thermal regime and circulation. The WRF was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of dust. Daily spectral optical properties of dust are computed using Mie, T-matrix, and geometric optics approaches, and are based on the SEVIRI climatological optical depth. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) <span class="hlt">region</span> and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust causes 0.3-0.5 K cooling of the Red Sea surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20541226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20541226"><span>On the potential for climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on marine anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karcher, Michael; Harms, Ingo; Standring, William J F; Dowdall, Mark; Strand, Per</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Current predictions as to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change in general and Arctic climate change in particular are such that a wide range of processes relevant to Arctic contaminants are potentially vulnerable. Of these, radioactive contaminants and the processes that govern their transport and fate may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a changing Arctic climate. This paper explores the potential changes in the physical system of the Arctic climate system as they are deducible from present day knowledge and model projections. As a contribution to a better preparedness regarding Arctic marine contamination with radioactivity we present and discuss how a changing marine physical environment may play a role in altering the current understanding pertaining to behavior of contaminant radionuclides in the marine environment of the Arctic <span class="hlt">region</span>. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045712"><span>Hydrologic variability in dryland <span class="hlt">regions</span>: <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecosystem dynamics and food security.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash</p> <p>2012-11-19</p> <p>Research on ecosystem and societal response to global environmental change typically considers the effects of shifts in mean climate conditions. There is, however, some evidence of ongoing changes also in the variance of hydrologic and climate fluctuations. A relatively high interannual variability is a distinctive feature of the hydrologic regime of dryland <span class="hlt">regions</span>, particularly at the desert margins. Hydrologic variability has an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ecosystem dynamics, food security and societal reliance on ecosystem services in water-limited environments. Here, we investigate some of the current patterns of hydrologic variability in drylands around the world and review the major effects of hydrologic fluctuations on ecosystem resilience, maintenance of biodiversity and food security. We show that random hydrologic fluctuations may enhance the resilience of dryland ecosystems by obliterating bistable deterministic behaviours and threshold-like responses to external drivers. Moreover, by increasing biodiversity and the associated ecosystem redundancy, hydrologic variability can indirectly enhance post-disturbance recovery, i.e. ecosystem resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1001T"><span>Dominance of pollutant aerosols over an urban <span class="hlt">region</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on boundary layer temperature profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Collocated measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon at different wavelengths over Kolkata, an urban <span class="hlt">region</span> in eastern India, have been used to calculate aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). The wavelength dependence of SSA and AOD has been presented to discriminate the aerosol types over this highly populated metropolitan area. The spectral pattern shows that SSA decreases with wavelength for most of the time in a year and corresponding Ångström coefficient is greater than unity. These optical properties indicate the dominance of fine-mode pollutant particles over the city. The temperature lapse rate profile within the surface boundary layer has been found to be significantly influenced by the heating effect of fine-mode pollutants, and consequently, the growth of the convective processes in the lower troposphere is notably affected. In addition, a back trajectory analysis has also been presented to indicate that transported air masses can have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on spectral pattern of SSA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.3384L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.3384L"><span>Assessing extratropical <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the tropical bias in coupled climate model with <span class="hlt">regional</span> coupled data assimilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, F.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S.; Jacob, R.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The tropical bias of double-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) has been a persistent feature in global climate models. It remains unclear how much of it is attributed to local and remote processes, respectively. Here we assess the extratropical influence on the tropical bias in a coupled general circulation model dynamically, systematically, and quantitatively using the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Coupled Data Assimilation (RCDA) method. RCDA experiments show that the model's double-ITCZ bias is improved systematically when sea surface temperature, air temperature, and wind are corrected toward real-world data from the extratropics into the tropics progressively. Quantitatively, the tropical asymmetry bias in precipitation and surface temperature is reduced by 40% due to extratropical <span class="hlt">impact</span> from outside of 25°. Coupled dynamics, as well as atmospheric and oceanic processes, play important roles in this extratropical-to-tropical teleconnection. Energetic analysis of cross-equatorial atmospheric energy transport and equatorial net energy input are used to explain the changes in the precipitation bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..28P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..28P"><span>Last giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Uranus. Constraints on oligarchic masses in the trans-Saturnian <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parisi, M. G.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Context. Modern models of the formation of ice giants attempt to account for the formation of Uranus and Neptune within the protoplanetary disk lifetime. These models assume a higher initial surface density well above that of the minimum mass solar nebula model and/or the formation of all giant planets in an inner compact configuration. Other effects include planetesimals migration due to gas drag and the small size of the accreted planetesimals, which accelerates the accretion rate. However, at present, none of these models account for the spin properties of the ice giants. Aims: Stochastic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by large bodies are, at present, the usually accepted mechanisms able to account for the obliquity of the ice giants. We attempt to set constraints on giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as the cause of Uranus's current obliquity of 98° and on the impactor masses. Methods: Since stochastic collisions among embryos are assumed to occur beyond oligarchy, we model the angular momentum transfer to proto-Uranus by the last stochastic collision (GC) between the protoplanet and an oligarchic mass at the end of Uranus's formation. We take a minimum impactor mass mi of 1 m⊕. Results: We find that an oligarchic mass mi ~ 1 m⊕ ≤ mi ≤ 4.5 m⊕ would be required at the GC to reproduce the present rotational properties of Uranus. An <span class="hlt">impact</span> with mi > 4.5 m⊕ is not possible, unless the <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameter of the collision is very small and/or the angle between the spin axis of Uranus prior and after the GC is higher than 130°. This result is valid if Uranus formed in situ or between 10 - 20 AU and does not depend on the occurrence of the GC after or during the possible migration of the planet. This result is very similar to one obtained for Neptune from its rotational properties. Conclusions: If the stage of stochastic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> among oligarchs has occurred and if the present rotational status of Uranus is the result of such processes, the 4.5 m⊕ mass limit must be understood as an upper constraint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Power Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or <span class="hlt">regional</span> constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the <span class="hlt">region</span> of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 <span class="hlt">regions</span> specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and <span class="hlt">regional</span> hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC33F..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC33F..04T"><span>Energy-Water-Land-Climate Nexus: Modeling <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from the Asset to <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tidwell, V. C.; Bennett, K. E.; Middleton, R. S.; Behery, S.; Macknick, J.; Corning-Padilla, A.; Brinkman, G.; Meng, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A critical challenge for the energy-water-land nexus is understanding and modeling the connection between the natural system—including changes in climate, land use/cover, and streamflow—and the engineered system including water for energy, agriculture, and society. Equally important is understanding the linkage across scales; that is, how <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at the asset level aggregate to influence behavior at the local to <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. Toward this need, a case study was conducted featuring multi-sector and multi-scale modeling centered on the San Juan River basin (a watershed that accounts for one-tenth of the Colorado River drainage area). Simulations were driven by statistically downscaled climate data from three global climate models (emission scenario RCP 8.5) and planned growth in <span class="hlt">regional</span> water demand. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model was fitted with a custom vegetation mortality sub-model and used to estimate tributary inflows to the San Juan River and estimate reservoir evaporation. San Juan River operations, including releases from Navajo Reservoir, were subsequently modeled using RiverWare to estimate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water deliveries out to the year 2100. Major water demands included two large coal-fired power plants, a local electric utility, river-side irrigation, the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project and instream flows managed for endangered aquatic species. Also tracked were basin exports, including water (downstream flows to the Colorado River and interbasin transfers to the Rio Grande) and interstate electric power transmission. Implications for the larger western electric grid were assessed using PLEXOS, a sub-hourly dispatch, electric production-cost model. Results highlight asset-level interactions at the energy-water-land nexus driven by climate and population dynamics; specifically, growing vulnerabilities to shorted water deliveries. Analyses also explored linkages across geographic scales from the San Juan to the larger</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150001304&hterms=Hydrolysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHydrolysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150001304&hterms=Hydrolysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHydrolysis"><span>Global and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of HONO on the Chemical Composition of Clouds and Aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elshorbany, Y. F.; Crutzen, P. J.; Steil, B.; Pozzer, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recently, realistic simulation of nitrous acid (HONO) based on the HONO/NO(sub x) ratio of 0.02 was found to have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the global budgets of HO(sub x) (OH + HO2) and gas phase oxidation products in polluted <span class="hlt">regions</span>, especially in winter when other photolytic sources are of minor importance. It has been reported that chemistry-transport models underestimate sulphate concentrations, mostly during winter. Here we show that simulating realistic HONO levels can significantly enhance aerosol sulphate (S(VI)) due to the increased formation of H2SO4. Even though in-cloud aqueous phase oxidation of dissolved SO2 (S(IV)) is the main source of S(VI), it appears that HONO related enhancement of H2O2 does not significantly affect sulphate because of the predominantly S(IV) limited conditions, except over eastern Asia. Nitrate is also increased via enhanced gaseous HNO3 formation and N2O5 hydrolysis on aerosol particles. Ammonium nitrate is enhanced in ammonia-rich <span class="hlt">regions</span> but not under ammonia-limited conditions. Furthermore, particle number concentrations are also higher, accompanied by the transfer from hydrophobic to hydrophilic aerosol modes. This implies a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the particle lifetime and cloud nucleating properties. The HONO induced enhancements of all species studied are relatively strong in winter though negligible in summer. Simulating realistic HONO levels is found to improve the model measurement agreement of sulphate aerosols, most apparent over the US. Our results underscore the importance of HONO for the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and corroborate the central role of cloud chemical processing in S(IV) formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7615K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7615K"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on shallow groundwater conditions in Hungary: Conclusions from a <span class="hlt">regional</span> modelling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovács, Attila; Marton, Annamária; Tóth, György; Szöcs, Teodóra</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A quantitative methodology has been developed for the calculation of groundwater table based on measured and simulated climate parameters. The aim of the study was to develop a toolset which can be used for the calculation of shallow groundwater conditions for various climate scenarios. This was done with the goal of facilitating the assessment of climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> and vulnerability of shallow groundwater resources. The simulated groundwater table distributions are representative of groundwater conditions at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. The introduced methodology is valid for modelling purposes at various scales and thus represents a versatile tool for the assessment of climate vulnerability of shallow groundwater bodies. The calculation modules include the following: 1. A toolset to calculate climate zonation from climate parameter grids, 2. Delineation of recharge zones (Hydrological Response Units, HRUs) based on geology, landuse and slope conditions, 3. Calculation of percolation (recharge) rates using 1D analytical hydrological models, 4. Simulation of the groundwater table using numerical groundwater flow models. The applied methodology provides a quantitative link between climate conditions and shallow groundwater conditions, and thus can be used for assessing climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The climate data source applied in our calculation comprised interpolated daily climate data of the Central European CARPATCLIM database. Climate zones were determined making use of the Thorntwaite climate zonation scheme. Recharge zones (HRUs) were determined based on surface geology, landuse and slope conditions. The HELP hydrological model was used for the calculation of 1D water balance for hydrological response units. The MODFLOW numerical groundwater modelling code was used for the calculation of the water table. The developed methodology was demonstrated through the simulation of <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater table using spatially averaged climate data and hydrogeological properties for various time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022479','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022479"><span>Global and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of HONO on the Chemical Composition of Clouds and Aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elshorbany, Y. F.; Crutzen, P. J.; Steil, B.; Pozzer, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recently, realistic simulation of nitrous acid (HONO) based on the HONO / NOx ratio of 0.02 was found to have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the global budgets of HOx (OH + HO2) and gas phase oxidation products in polluted <span class="hlt">regions</span>, especially in winter when other photolytic sources are of minor importance. It has been reported that chemistry-transport models underestimate sulphate concentrations, mostly during winter. Here we show that simulating realistic HONO levels can significantly enhance aerosol sulphate (S(VI)) due to the increased formation of H2SO4. Even though in-cloud aqueous phase oxidation of dissolved SO2 (S(IV)) is the main source of S(VI), it appears that HONO related enhancement of H2O2 does not significantly affect sulphate because of the predominantly S(IV) limited conditions, except over eastern Asia. Nitrate is also increased via enhanced gaseous HNO3 formation and N2O5 hydrolysis on aerosol particles. Ammonium nitrate is enhanced in ammonia-rich <span class="hlt">regions</span> but not under ammonia-limited conditions. Furthermore, particle number concentrations are also higher, accompanied by the transfer from hydrophobic to hydrophilic aerosol modes. This implies a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the particle lifetime and cloud nucleating properties. The HONO induced enhancements of all species studied are relatively strong in winter though negligible in summer. Simulating realistic HONO levels is found to improve the model measurement agreement of sulphate aerosols, most apparent over the US. Our results underscore the importance of HONO for the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and corroborate the central role of cloud chemical processing in S(IV) formation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM23A2221I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM23A2221I"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Plasma Sheath on Rocket-based E-<span class="hlt">region</span> Ion Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Imtiaz, N.; Burchill, J. K.; Marchand, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We model the particle velocity distribution functions around the entrance window of the Suprathermal Ion Imager (SII) to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of electrostatic sheath on ion measurements in the E-<span class="hlt">region</span> ionosphere. The SII sensor is an electrostatic analyzer that measures two dimensional slices of the distribution of the kinetic energies and arrival-angles of low energy ions. The study is concerned with the interpretation of data obtained from the sensor SII that was affixed to a 1-m NASA rocket 36.234 as part of the Joule II mission to investigate Joule heating in the E-<span class="hlt">region</span> ionosphere. The rocket flew into quiet auroral conditions above Northern Alaska on 19 January 2007. The payload was spin-stabilitized with a period of 1.6 s, giving an apparent rotation of the ion flow velocity in the frame of reference of the SII. We numerically investigate the ram velocity effect on the ions velocity distributions in the vicinity of SII aperture at an altitudes of approximately 150km. The electrostatic sheath potential profiles surrounding the sensor and payload are calculated numerically with the PIC code PTetra. It is observed that the direction of the ion flow velocity vector modifies the plasma sheath potential profile. This in turn <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the velocity distributions of molecular oxygen and Nitric oxideions at the aperture of the particle sensor. The velocity distribution functions are calculated by using test-particle modeling. These particle distribution functions are then used to inject the particles in the particle sensor, and to calculate the fluxes on the sensor microchannel plate (MCP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11910232S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11910232S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>To investigate the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian <span class="hlt">region</span>, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian <span class="hlt">region</span>. Further, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of <span class="hlt">regional</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study presents an investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in the northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">regional</span> model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS approximate date of burning product were implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF/NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was temporarily imposed through lower ground albedo for a period of 10 days after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground degradation increased surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground of the <span class="hlt">region</span>, which in turn caused a decrease in surface net radiation and evapotranspiration in northern sub-saharan Africa. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was simulated in the burned area experiments, which plays a dominant role in reducing precipitation over the area, especially in the months preceding the West African monsoon onset. The areas with largest <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were those covered by forests and savanna, where annual precipitation decreased by 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by burned areas led to strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly vertical wind over the area showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, especially for those with daily precipitation rates above 2.0 mm day-1, which substantiates the hypothesis of convective</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033059"><span>Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> History of the SPA Basin from <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Melt Rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral <span class="hlt">impact</span> mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> history of a site. A detailed <span class="hlt">impact</span> history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt fragments will yield the <span class="hlt">impact</span> history of the SPA basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172675"><span>[<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> guidelines on the management of urinary tract infections with antibiotics].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruyer, O; Slekovec, C; Bertrand, X; Faller, J-P; Hoen, B; Talon, D; Leroy, J</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a committed guideline at the end of the first quarter 2008 on the management of urinary tract infection (UTI) with antibiotic prescription (fluoroquinolone, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin), by analysing reimbursement data for ambulatory care provided by the <span class="hlt">regional</span> health insurance agency. During the survey, we observed a 13.2% decrease of norfloxacin prescriptions between the first quarter 2008 and the first quarter 2009. The (fosfomycin+nitrofurantoin)/norfloxacin ratio increased between the third quarter 2007 and the first quarter 2009 from 0.55 to 0.72 and from 0.82 to 1.13 for general practitioners and hospital physicians respectively. The global number of patients treated with these antibiotics remained stable during the period. The number of fluoroquinolone prescription was stable between the first quarter 2008 and the first quarter 2009 with 28,427 DDD and 28,363 DDD, respectively; while the number of single dose rise in the same time from 151 DDD to 427.5 DDD, respectively. The three messages which seem to be essential for an optimal use of fluoroquinolones in UTIs are: no treatment for bacterial colonisation (asymptomatic bacteriuria) except for specific cases, no indication for fluoroquinolones in non-complicated acute cystitis and for elderly women, UTI is complicated only if it occurs in women with co-morbidities regardless of age. Our indicators suggest that our guideline had an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the prescription of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated acute cystitis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3977093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3977093"><span>An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Logistics Network with Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Consideration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for <span class="hlt">regional</span> logistics network with environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977209"><span>An optimal hierarchical decision model for a <span class="hlt">regional</span> logistics network with environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> consideration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for <span class="hlt">regional</span> logistics network with environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.138...22W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.138...22W"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with <span class="hlt">regional</span> air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone <span class="hlt">impact</span> (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7437A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7437A"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> Arctic sea ice loss on atmospheric circulation and the NAO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Cvijanovic, Ivana; Langen, Peter Lang; Vinther, Bo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover can affect the atmospheric circulation, and thus <span class="hlt">impact</span> the climate beyond the Arctic. The atmospheric response may, however, vary with the geographical location of sea ice loss. The atmospheric sensitivity to the location of sea ice loss is studied using a general circulation model in a configuration that allows combination of a prescribed sea ice cover and an active mixed layer ocean. This hybrid setup makes it possible to simulate the isolated <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea ice loss and provides a more complete response compared to experiments with fixed sea surface temperatures. Three investigated sea ice scenarios with ice loss in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> all exhibit substantial near-surface warming which peaks over the area of ice loss. The maximum warming is found during winter, delayed compared to the maximum sea ice reduction. The wintertime response of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation shows a non-uniform sensitivity to the location of sea ice reduction. While all three scenarios exhibit decreased zonal winds related to high-latitude geopotential height increases, the magnitudes and locations of the anomalies vary between the simulations. Investigation of the North Atlantic Oscillation reveals a high sensitivity to the location of the ice loss. The northern center of action exhibits clear shifts in response to the different sea ice reductions. Sea ice loss in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Arctic cause westward and eastward shifts, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506323"><span>National nursing strategies in seven countries of the <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the Americas: issues and <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shasanmi, Rebecca O; Kim, Esther M; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy <span class="hlt">impact</span> of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to <span class="hlt">impact</span> public health. The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323319"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of increased energy maize cultivation on farmland birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brandt, Karoline; Glemnitz, Michael</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The increasing cultivation of energy crops in Germany substantially affects the habitat function of agricultural landscapes. Precise ex ante evaluations regarding the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of this cultivation on farmland bird populations are rare. The objective of this paper was to implement a methodology to assess the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of increasing energy maize cultivation on the habitat quality of agricultural lands for farmland birds. We selected five farmland bird indicator species with varying habitat demands. Using a crop suitability modelling approach, we analysed the availability of potential habitat areas according to different land use scenarios for a real landscape in Northeast Germany. The model was based on crop architecture, cultivation period, and landscape preconditions. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of different crops varied between bird species, and scenario calculations revealed an increase and a decrease in the size of the potential breeding and feeding habitats, respectively. The effects observed in scenario 1 (increased energy maize by 15%) were not reproduced in all cases in scenario 2 (increased energy maize by 30%). Spatial aggregation of energy maize resulted in a negative effect for some species. Changes in the composition of the farmland bird communities, the negative effects on farmland bird species limited in distribution and spread and the relevance of the type of agricultural land use being replaced by energy crops are also discussed. In conclusion, we suggest a trade-off between biodiversity and energy targets by identifying biodiversity-friendly energy cropping systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCli....9.2173X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCli....9.2173X"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Desertification in the Mongolian and the Inner Mongolian Grassland on the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xue, Yongkang</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>This is an investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of and mechanisms for biosphere feedback in the northeast Asian grassland on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate. Desertification in the Inner Mongolian grassland has dramatically increased during the past 40 years. The Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies atmospheric general circulation model, which includes a biosphere model, was used to test the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this desertification. In the grassland experiment, areas of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia were specified as grassland. In the desertification experiment, these areas were specified as desert. Each experiment consists of six integrations with different atmospheric initial conditions and different specifications of the extent of the desertification area. All integrations were 90 days in length, beginning in early June and continuing through August, coincident with the period of the East Asian summer monsoon.The desertification had a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the simulated climate. During the past 40 years, the observed rainfall has decreased in northern and southern China but increased in central China, and the Inner Mongolian grassland and northern China have become warmer. The simulated rainfall and surface temperature differences between the desertification integrations and the grassland integrations are consistent with these observed changes.The water balance and surface energy balance were altered by the desertification. The reduction in evaporation in the desertification experiment dominated the changes in the local surface energy budget. The reduction in convective latent beating above the surface layer enhanced sinking motion (or weakened rising motion) over the desertification area and over the adjacent area to the south. Coincidentally, the monsoon circulation was weakened and the rainfall was reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5503246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5503246"><span>Addressing uncertainty in modelling cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> within maritime spatial planning in the Adriatic and Ionian <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sarretta, Alessandro; Appiotti, Federica; Maragno, Denis; Vianello, Andrea; Depellegrin, Daniel; Venier, Chiara; Barbanti, Andrea</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is envisaged as a tool to apply an ecosystem-based approach to the marine and coastal realms, aiming at ensuring that the collective pressure of human activities is kept within acceptable limits. Cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (CI) assessment can support science-based MSP, in order to understand the existing and potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of human uses on the marine environment. A CI assessment includes several sources of uncertainty that can hinder the correct interpretation of its results if not explicitly incorporated in the decision-making process. This study proposes a three-level methodology to perform a general uncertainty analysis integrated with the CI assessment for MSP, applied to the Adriatic and Ionian <span class="hlt">Region</span> (AIR). We describe the nature and level of uncertainty with the help of expert judgement and elicitation to include all of the possible sources of uncertainty related to the CI model with assumptions and gaps related to the case-based MSP process in the AIR. Next, we use the results to tailor the global uncertainty analysis to spatially describe the uncertainty distribution and variations of the CI scores dependent on the CI model factors. The results show the variability of the uncertainty in the AIR, with only limited portions robustly identified as the most or the least <span class="hlt">impacted</span> areas under multiple model factors hypothesis. The results are discussed for the level and type of reliable information and insights they provide to decision-making. The most significant uncertainty factors are identified to facilitate the adaptive MSP process and to establish research priorities to fill knowledge gaps for subsequent planning cycles. The method aims to depict the potential CI effects, as well as the extent and spatial variation of the data and scientific uncertainty; therefore, this method constitutes a suitable tool to inform the potential establishment of the precautionary principle in MSP. PMID:28692688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13D0806V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13D0806V"><span>Adapting to Climate Change in the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Region</span>: The Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vimont, D.; Liebl, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mission of the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (WICCI; http://www.wicci.wisc.edu) is to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on Wisconsin's natural, human, and built environments; and to assist in developing, recommending, and implementing climate adaptation strategies in Wisconsin. WICCI originated in 2007 as a partnership between the University of Wisconsin Nelson Institute and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and has since grown to include numerous other state, public, and private institutions. In 2011, WICCI released its First Assessment Report, which documents the efforts of over 200 individuals around the state in assessing vulnerability and estimating the risk that <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change poses to Wisconsin. The success of WICCI as an organization can be traced to its existence as a partnership between academic and state institutions, and as a boundary organization that catalyzes cross-disciplinary efforts between science and policy. WICCI's organizational structure and its past success at assessing climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Wisconsin will be briefly discussed. As WICCI moves into its second phase, it is increasing its emphasis on the second part of its mission: development, and implementation of adaptation strategies. Towards these goals WICCI has expanded its organizational structure to include a Communications and Outreach Committee that further ensures a necessary two-way communication of information between stakeholders / decision makers, and scientific efforts. WICCI is also increasing its focus on place-based efforts that include climate change information as one part of an integrated effort at sustainable development. The talk will include a discussion of current outreach and education efforts, as well as future directions for WICCI efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT........56L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT........56L"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain <span class="hlt">Regions</span> as Examined through High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Letcher, Theodore</p> <p></p> <p>As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span> with transient snow cover. One such <span class="hlt">region</span> is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a <span class="hlt">regional</span> model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the <span class="hlt">region</span> through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the SAF on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this <span class="hlt">region</span> is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..366C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..366C"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of climate change on snow melt driven runoff timing over the Alpine <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppola, Erika; Raffaele, Francesca; Giorgi, Filippo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on snowmelt-driven runoff (SDR) over the Alpine <span class="hlt">region</span> using the output from two Med-CORDEX and two EURO-CORDEX <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model projections (RCP8.5 scenario) at two resolutions (12, 50 km) driven by a sub-set of the CMIP5 GCMs. Comparison with the European Water Archive observed runoff dataset (242 stations) over the Alps shows a good performance by the higher resolution models in representing present day SDR, with the lower resolution simulations being less accurate in capturing the SDR timing. In the future projections all the models show a temperature increase of up to 4° by the end of the 21st century throughout the Alps and this leads to an anticipation of SDR timing throughout the year that can span from 1 to 3 months depending on the model horizontal resolution. These timing changes are associated with changes in snow cover modulated by the complex Alpine topography. In fact, model resolution plays a critical role in regulating the magnitude, timing and spatial distribution of the response of snow cover and SDR to warming. We find that the accurate simulation of changes in runoff timing requires a high resolution representation of the Alpine topography, and can be important for water storage regulations concerning energy production, agriculture and domestic use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28451959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28451959"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Ghana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the <span class="hlt">region</span>'s rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176949','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176949"><span>Current and potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>LaPointe, Dennis</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human and wildlife health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820048186&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820048186&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings"><span>The Balmer basin - <span class="hlt">Regional</span> geology and geochemistry of an ancient lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maxwell, T. A.; Andre, C. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Photogeologic, geochemical and geophysical information is cited to support the contention that an ancient multi-ringed basin exists in the east limb <span class="hlt">region</span> of the moon, centered at 15 deg S and 70 deg E. The inner ring of the basin, with a diameter of 225 km, is composed of isolated rugged mountains of pre-Nectarian terra; the less distinct outer ring, whose diameter is approximately 450 km, is made up of irregular segments of surrounding large craters. It is noted that two units of light plains material occur in this area and that they are confined for the most part to the <span class="hlt">region</span> within the proposed outer basin ring. According to orbital geochemical data, the younger unit (Imbrian age plains) consists of a mare basalt not unlike others of the nearside. This unit possesses high Mg/Al concentration ratios as determined from X-ray fluorescence data; it is also relatively high in Th and Fe when compared with the surrounding highlands. It is thought that the relatively high albedo of the Balmer plains may derive from either a reworking by numerous secondary craters from the surrounding <span class="hlt">impacts</span> or a basaltic composition with higher albedo and lower Fe than the nearside maria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15083647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15083647"><span>The negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of human activities in the eastern African <span class="hlt">region</span>: an international waters perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Payet, Rolph; Obura, David</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and <span class="hlt">regional</span> economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.1312S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.1312S"><span>An oil spill accident and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ozone levels in the surrounding coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>An oil spill on the west coast of the Republic of Korea was investigated with regard to its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ozone (O 3) concentration levels in the surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The accident occurred on December 7, 2007 with the total estimate of 12,500 tons of Iranian Heavy plus Kuwait Export crude oils. The evaporation rates of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions in these crude oils were estimated based on the molar fractions of crude oils and their mass transfer coefficients. Their emission rates parameterized with several key environmental parameters (e.g., wind speed, seawater temperature, and salinity) along with oil type information were then applied in the 3-D chemical transport model. Photochemical production of O 3 in winter just after the accident was relatively insignificant due to very low photochemical activity. For the case/sensitivity study, the photochemical production of O 3 simulated under the hot summer weather conditions was predicted to be significant at the same magnitude of the oil spill. This study confirms that an oil spill, if occurring around coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span>, can alter O 3 levels to a large extent depending on the meteorological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039509','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039509"><span>Forecasting climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert <span class="hlt">region</span> to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915011T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915011T"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on crop yield in the Euro-Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toreti, Andrea; Ceglar, Andrej; Dentener, Frank; Niemeyer, Stefan; Dosio, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Davide</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Agriculture is strongly influenced by climate variability, climate extremes and climate changes. Recent studies on past decades have identified and analysed the effects of climate variability and extremes on crop yields in the Euro-Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span>. As these effects could be amplified in a changing climate context, it is essential to analyse available climate projections and investigate the possible <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on European agriculture in terms of crop yield. In this study, five model runs from the Euro-CORDEX initiative under two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) have been used. Climate model data have been bias corrected and then used to feed a mechanistic crop growth model. The crop model has been run under different settings to better sample the intrinsic uncertainties. Among the main results, it is worth to report a weak but significant and spatially homogeneous increase in potential wheat yield at mid-century (under a CO2 fertilisation effect scenario). While more complex changes seem to characterise potential maize yield, with large areas in the <span class="hlt">region</span> showing a weak-to-moderate decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214001"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of an extreme dry and hot summer on water supply security in an alpine <span class="hlt">region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanham, D; Fleischhacker, E; Rauch, W</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Climate change will induce an increasing drought risk in western and southern Europe and a resulting increase in water stress. This paper investigates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of both the extreme hot and dry summer of 2003 and the PRUDENCE CHRM climate change scenario summer for 2071-2100 on the monthly water balance (available water resources versus water demand) within the Kitzbueheler <span class="hlt">Region</span> in the Austrian Alps. As a baseline period the climate normal period from 1961 to 1990 was chosen. In both summer scenarios total flow and ground water recharge decrease substantially, due to the decrease in precipitation and increase in evapotranspiration However, <span class="hlt">regional</span> water availability is still sufficient to serve all water demand stakeholders. As a result of decreased snow cover duration, flow seasonality changes within the CHRM scenario. Especially springs are very vulnerable to these climatological conditions; average local groundwater recharge is reduced by 20% up to 70% within both scenarios. Due to the hydrogeological characteristics of the case study area and the typical small structured alpine water supply infrastructure, local deficits can occur. But also groundwater aquifers in the valleys show a decrease in water availability. These results are supported by observations made in 2003 throughout Austria and Switzerland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040127"><span>Supporting work practices through telehealth: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nurses in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background In Canada, workforce shortages in the health care sector constrain the ability of the health care system to meet the needs of its population and of its health care professionals. This issue is of particular importance in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Quebec, where significant inequalities in workforce distribution between <span class="hlt">regions</span> has lead to acute nursing shortages and increased workloads. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are innovative solutions that can be used to develop strategies to optimise the use of available resources and to design new nursing work practices. However, current knowledge is still limited about the real <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ICTs on nursing recruitment and retention. Our aim is to better understand how work practice reorganization, supported by ICTs, and particularly by telehealth, may influence professional, educational, and organizational factors relating to Quebec nurses, notably those working in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Methods/Design First, we will conduct a descriptive study on the issue of nursing recruitment. Stratified sampling will be used to select approximately twenty innovative projects relating to the reorganization of work practices based upon ICTs. Semi-structured interviews with key informants will determine professional, educational, and organizational recruitment factors. The results will be used to create a questionnaire which, using a convenience sampling method, will be mailed to 600 third year students and recent graduates of two Quebec university nursing faculties. Descriptive, correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses will be performed to identify factors influencing nursing graduates' intentions to practice in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Secondly, we will conduct five case studies pertaining to the issue of nursing retention. Five ICT projects in semi-urban, rural, and isolated <span class="hlt">regions</span> have been identified. Qualitative data will be collected through field observation and approximately fifty semi</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EurSS..50..732O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EurSS..50..732O"><span>Soil contamination in the <span class="hlt">impact</span> zone of mining enterprises in the Bashkir Transural <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Opekunova, M. G.; Somov, V. V.; Papyan, E. E.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The results of long-term studies of the contents of bulk forms of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cd) and their mobile compounds in soils of background and human-disturbed areas within the Krasnoural'sk-Sibai-Gai copper-zinc and Baimak-Buribai mixed copper mineralization zones in the Bashkir Transural <span class="hlt">region</span> are discussed. It is shown that soils of the <span class="hlt">region</span> are characterized by abnormally high natural total contents of heavy metals (HMs) typomorphic for ore mineralization: Cu, Zn, and Fe for the Sibai province and Cu, Zn, and Ni for the Baimak province. In the case of a shallow depth of the ores, the concentrations of HMs in the soils are close to or higher than the tentative permissible concentration values. The concentrations of mobile HM compounds in soils of background areas and their percentage in the total HM content strongly vary from year to year in dependence on weather conditions, position in the soil catenas, species composition of vegetation, and distance from the source of technogenic contamination. The high natural variability in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils complicates the reliable determination of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> geochemical background and necessitates annual estimation of background parameters for the purposes of the ecological monitoring of soils. The bulk content of Cu and Zn content in soils near mining enterprises exceeds the <span class="hlt">regional</span> geochemical background values by 2-12 times and the tentative permissible concentrations of these metals by 2-4 times. Anthropogenic contamination results in a sharp rise in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils. Their highest concentrations exceed the maximum permissible concentrations by 26 times for Cu, 18 times for Zn, and 2 times for Pb. Soil contamination in the <span class="hlt">impact</span> zone of mining enterprises is extremely dangerous or dangerous. However, because of the high temporal variability in the migration and accumulation of HMs in the soils, the recent decline in the ore mining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411590C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411590C"><span>Coastal erosion <span class="hlt">impacts</span> under climate change scenarios at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale in the North Adriatic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294882"><span>Supporting work practices through telehealth: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nurses in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Paré, Guy; Pollender, Hugo; Duplantie, Julie; Côté, José; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Labadie, Rita; Duplàa, Emmanuel; Thifault, Marie-Claude; Courcy, François; McGinn, Carrie Anna; Ly, Birama Apho; Trépanier, Amélie; Malo, François-Bernard</p> <p>2011-02-04</p> <p>In Canada, workforce shortages in the health care sector constrain the ability of the health care system to meet the needs of its population and of its health care professionals. This issue is of particular importance in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Quebec, where significant inequalities in workforce distribution between <span class="hlt">regions</span> has lead to acute nursing shortages and increased workloads. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are innovative solutions that can be used to develop strategies to optimise the use of available resources and to design new nursing work practices. However, current knowledge is still limited about the real <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ICTs on nursing recruitment and retention. Our aim is to better understand how work practice reorganization, supported by ICTs, and particularly by telehealth, may influence professional, educational, and organizational factors relating to Quebec nurses, notably those working in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span>. First, we will conduct a descriptive study on the issue of nursing recruitment. Stratified sampling will be used to select approximately twenty innovative projects relating to the reorganization of work practices based upon ICTs. Semi-structured interviews with key informants will determine professional, educational, and organizational recruitment factors. The results will be used to create a questionnaire which, using a convenience sampling method, will be mailed to 600 third year students and recent graduates of two Quebec university nursing faculties. Descriptive, correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses will be performed to identify factors influencing nursing graduates' intentions to practice in peripheral <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Secondly, we will conduct five case studies pertaining to the issue of nursing retention. Five ICT projects in semi-urban, rural, and isolated <span class="hlt">regions</span> have been identified. Qualitative data will be collected through field observation and approximately fifty semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A43D..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A43D..06C"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change on the Amazon Rainforest: 2080-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model with resolution of 60 km is coupled with a potential vegetation model to simulate future climate over South America. The following steps are taken to effectively communicate the results across disciplines and to make them useful to the policy and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> communities: the simulation is aimed at a particular time period (2081-2100), the climate change results are translated into changes in vegetation distribution, and the results are reported on <span class="hlt">regional</span> space scales relative to political boundaries. In addition, the model validation in clearly presented to provide perspective on uncertainty for the prognosis. The model reproduces today's climate and vegetation over tropical and subtropical South America accurately. In simulations of the future, the model is forced by the IPCC's A2 scenario of future emissions, which assumes that CO2 emissions continue to grow at essentially today's rate throughout the 21st century, reaching 757 ppmv averaged over 2081-2100. The model is constrained on its lateral boundaries by atmospheric conditions simulated by a global climate model, applied as anomalies to present day conditions, and predicted changes in sea surface temperatures. The extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent in the simulation, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste <span class="hlt">region</span> spreads westward and southward well into the continental interior. Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina lose all of their rainforest vegetation, and Brazil and Peru lose most of it. The surviving rain forest is concentrated near the equator. Columbia's rainforest survives largely intact and, along the northern coast, Venezuela and French Guiana suffer relatively small reductions. The loss in Guyana and Surinam is 30-50 per cent. Much of the rainforest in the central Amazon north of about 15S is replaced by savanna vegetation, but in southern Bolivia, northern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, grasslands take the place of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H52C..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H52C..04R"><span>Future Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Crop Water Demand and Groundwater Longevity in Agricultural <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russo, T. A.; Sahoo, S.; Elliott, J. W.; Foster, I.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Improving groundwater management practices under future drought conditions in agricultural <span class="hlt">regions</span> requires three steps: 1) estimating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate and drought on crop water demand, 2) projecting groundwater availability given climate and demand forcing, and 3) using this information to develop climate-smart policy and water use practices. We present an innovative combination of models to address the first two steps, and inform the third. Crop water demand was simulated using biophysical crop models forced by multiple climate models and climate scenarios, with one case simulating climate adaptation (e.g. modify planting or harvest time) and another without adaptation. These scenarios were intended to represent a range of drought projections and farm management responses. Nexty, we used projected climate conditions and simulated water demand across the United States as inputs to a novel machine learning-based groundwater model. The model was applied to major agricultural <span class="hlt">regions</span> relying on the High Plains and Mississippi Alluvial aquifer systems in the US. The groundwater model integrates input data preprocessed using single spectrum analysis, mutual information, and a genetic algorithm, with an artificial neural network model. Model calibration and test results indicate low errors over the 33 year model run, and strong correlations to groundwater levels in hundreds of wells across each aquifer. Model results include a range of projected groundwater level changes from the present to 2050, and in some <span class="hlt">regions</span>, identification and timeframe of aquifer depletion. These results quantify aquifer longevity under climate and crop scenarios, and provide decision makers with the data needed to compare scenarios of crop water demand, crop yield, and groundwater response, as they aim to balance water sustainability with food security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959553"><span>Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> and Urban Air Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming</p> <p>2017-01-17</p> <p>There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m(-3) during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD <span class="hlt">region</span> could generally play a positive role in improving <span class="hlt">regional</span> and urban air quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040610"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Weather Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In data sparse <span class="hlt">regions</span>, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a <span class="hlt">regional</span> configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of <span class="hlt">impact</span> the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2339T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2339T"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of spectral nudging on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulation over CORDEX East Asia using WRF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Niu, Xiaorui; Hui, Pinhong; Zong, Peishu; Wang, Xueyuan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the spectral nudging method on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulation over the Coordinated <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Downscaling Experiment East Asia (CORDEX-EA) <span class="hlt">region</span> is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, five continuous simulations covering 1989-2007 are conducted by the WRF model, in which four runs adopt the interior spectral nudging with different wavenumbers, nudging variables and nudging coefficients. Model validation shows that WRF has the ability to simulate spatial distributions and temporal variations of the surface climate (air temperature and precipitation) over CORDEX-EA domain. Comparably the spectral nudging technique is effective in improving the model's skill in the following aspects: (1), the simulated biases and root mean square errors of annual mean temperature and precipitation are obviously reduced. The SN3-UVT (spectral nudging with wavenumber 3 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U, V and T) and SN6 (spectral nudging with wavenumber 6 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U and V) experiments give the best simulations for temperature and precipitation respectively. The inter-annual and seasonal variances produced by the SN experiments are also closer to the ERA-Interim observation. (2), the application of spectral nudging in WRF is helpful for simulating the extreme temperature and precipitation, and the SN3-UVT simulation shows a clear advantage over the other simulations in depicting both the spatial distributions and inter-annual variances of temperature and precipitation extremes. With the spectral nudging, WRF is able to preserve the variability in the large scale climate information, and therefore adjust the temperature and precipitation variabilities toward the observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23B0201S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23B0201S"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several <span class="hlt">regions</span>, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study <span class="hlt">region</span>. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3393D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3393D"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of <span class="hlt">regional</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This study investigates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">regional</span> model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the <span class="hlt">region</span>. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation <span class="hlt">impact</span> were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the <span class="hlt">region</span>, which was strongest in late winter and early</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f5001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f5001T"><span>The use of <span class="hlt">regional</span> advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with sustainability; a perspective from the USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their <span class="hlt">regional</span>, spatially cumulative, environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will <span class="hlt">impact</span> 2411-3490 ha of habitat supporting 30-43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> shows the need for a <span class="hlt">regional</span> approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a <span class="hlt">regional</span> approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3008S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> air quality around coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span>, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality around coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality <span class="hlt">impact</span> near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.3825C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.3825C"><span>Forty years of improvements in European air quality: <span class="hlt">regional</span> policy-industry interactions with global <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and <span class="hlt">region</span>-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H33D1341C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H33D1341C"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change on Water Resources: the Jucar River Basin, Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chirivella Osma, V.; Capilla, J. E.; Perez Martin, M.; Sanchez Fuster, I.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> precipitation scenarios for 2010-40. Thus, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on water resources shows a great degree of dispersion, ranging from -13.45 to 18.1% with a mean value of -2.13%. These results question the suitability of current GCM results and downscaling techniques to generate future climate scenarios in the JB area. Moreover, they raise the need to apply downscaling methodologies able to honor known spatial patterns of rainfall, and the clear necessity of analyzing how accurate are GCM results for <span class="hlt">regional</span> analyses in the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512904J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512904J"><span>A climate robust integrated modelling framework for <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janssen, Gijs; Bakker, Alexander; van Ek, Remco; Groot, Annemarie; Kroes, Joop; Kuiper, Marijn; Schipper, Peter; van Walsum, Paul; Wamelink, Wieger; Mol, Janet</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Decision making towards climate proofing the water management of <span class="hlt">regional</span> catchments can benefit greatly from the availability of a climate robust integrated modelling framework, capable of a consistent assessment of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the various interests present in the catchments. In the Netherlands, much effort has been devoted to developing state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">regional</span> dynamic groundwater models with a very high spatial resolution (25x25 m2). Still, these models are not completely satisfactory to decision makers because the modelling concepts do not take into account feedbacks between meteorology, vegetation/crop growth, and hydrology. This introduces uncertainties in forecasting the effects of climate change on groundwater, surface water, agricultural yields, and development of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These uncertainties add to the uncertainties about the predictions on climate change itself. In order to create an integrated, climate robust modelling framework, we coupled existing model codes on hydrology, agriculture and nature that are currently in use at the different research institutes in the Netherlands. The modelling framework consists of the model codes MODFLOW (groundwater flow), MetaSWAP (vadose zone), WOFOST (crop growth), SMART2-SUMO2 (soil-vegetation) and NTM3 (nature valuation). MODFLOW, MetaSWAP and WOFOST are coupled online (i.e. exchange information on time step basis). Thus, changes in meteorology and CO2-concentrations affect crop growth and feedbacks between crop growth, vadose zone water movement and groundwater recharge are accounted for. The model chain WOFOST-MetaSWAP-MODFLOW generates hydrological input for the ecological prediction model combination SMART2-SUMO2-NTM3. The modelling framework was used to support the <span class="hlt">regional</span> water management decision making process in the 267 km2 Baakse Beek-Veengoot catchment in the east of the Netherlands. Computations were performed for <span class="hlt">regionalized</span> 30-year climate change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1331H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1331H"><span>On the long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> of emissions from central European cities on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1532101H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1532101H"><span>On the long term <span class="hlt">impact</span> of emissions from central European cities on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air-quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day <span class="hlt">regional</span> air-quality, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8617O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8617O"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Volcanic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "<span class="hlt">regional</span>-model-resolution" of 25-km and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) <span class="hlt">region</span>. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711122B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711122B"><span>Global change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on water resources at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale - a reflection on participatory modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barthel, Roland; Büttner, Hannah; Nickel, Darla; Seidl, Roman</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> discussion we therefore focus on the following three questions: • Can a stakeholder dialogue be successfully used to support the development of new, complex modelling systems, in particular at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale? • What is the right timing for stakeholder interaction in the case of unclear problem definition - i.e. global (climate) change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">regions</span> where climate is not (yet) a threat to water or land use related demands and activities? • To what degree can scientists be motivated to carry out participatory research at all? We conclude that the PM process in GD was only partly successful because the project set overambitious goals, including the application of fundamentally new approaches to interdisciplinary science, the use of new modelling technologies, the focus upon and evaluation of potential and therefore characteristically uncertain future problems, including stakeholder demands, and the development of a ready-to-use, user-friendly tool. Furthermore, GD also showed that an externally and professionally moderated stakeholder dialogue is an absolute necessity to achieve successful participation of stakeholders in model development. The modelers themselves neither had the time, the skills and the ambitions to do this. Furthermore, there is a lack of incentives for scientists, particularly natural scientists, to commit to PM activities. Given the fact that the outcomes of PM are supposed to be relevant for societal decision making, this issue needs further attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0506X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0506X"><span>Assessing Sea Level Rise <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6994M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6994M"><span>Investigating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spaceborne radar blind zone on surface snowfall statistics in polar <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maahn, Maximilian; Burgard, Clara; Crewell, Susanne; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Kneifel, Stefan; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; van Lipzig, Nicole</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Currently, global statistics of snowfall are only available from the CloudSat satellite launched in 2006. However, measurements of CloudSat can be only obtained at an altitude of at least 1200 m above ground, because measurements below are contaminated by ground clutter. As a consequence, global estimates of snowfall at the surface have to be estimated from observations at 1200 m above ground. In the presented study, it is investigated how this blind zone <span class="hlt">impacts</span> snowfall statistics obtained from CloudSat observations in polar <span class="hlt">regions</span>. For this, 12-months datasets containing observations of a vertically pointing 24 GHz Micro Rain Radar (MRR) are analyzed for three sites: the Belgian Princess Elisabeth station in East-Antarctica, and for Ny-Ålesund as well as Longyearbyen in Svalbard, Norway. Statistical comparison of CloudSat and MRR observations shows that MRRs are suited to study snowfall when reflectivity exceeds -5 dBz. To study the vertical variability of snowfall, MRR radar reflectivity profiles are analyzed with respect to changes in frequency distribution, the number of observed snow events and total precipitation. Results show that the blind zone leads to reflectivity being underestimated by up to 1 dB, the number of events being altered by ±5% and the precipitation amount being underestimated by 9 to 11 percentage points. In order to account for future satellite missions which feature a smaller blind-zone, also the <span class="h