Science.gov

Sample records for regional land cover

  1. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  2. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  3. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  4. Seasonal land-cover regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1 -kilometer-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous U.S. has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 152, seasonal land-cover regions. The regionalization is based on a taxonomy of areas with respect to data on land cover, seasonality or phenology, and relative levels of primary production. The resulting database consists of descriptions of the vegetation, land cover, and seasonal, spectral, and site characteristics for each region. These data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7,500,000-scaIe map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment.

  5. The 1980 land cover for the Puget Sound region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, R. D.; Westerlund, F. V.; Eby, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Both LANDSAT imagery and the video information communications and retrieval software were used to develop a land cover classifiction of the Puget Sound of Washington. Planning agencies within the region were provided with a highly accurate land cover map registered to the 1980 census tracts which could subsequently be incorporated as one data layer in a multi-layer data base. Many historical activities related to previous land cover mapping studies conducted in the Puget Sound region are summarized. Valuable insight into conducting a project with a large community of users and in establishing user confidence in a multi-purpose land cover map derived from LANDSAT is provided.

  6. Regional characterization of land cover using multiple sources of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.; Howard, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organizations require accurate intermediate-scale land-cover information for many applications, including modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff, understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity, land-use planning, and policy development. While many techniques have been successfully used to classify land cover in relatively small regions, there are substantial obstacles in applying these methods to large, multiscene regions. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a large region land-cover classification product using a multiple-layer land-characteristics database approach. To derive land-cover information, mosaicked Landsat thematic mapper (TM) scenes were analyzed in conjunction with digital elevation data (and derived slope, aspect, and shaded relief), population census information, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program city lights data, prior land-use and land-cover data, digital line graph data, and National Wetlands Inventory data. Both leaf-on and leaf-off TM data sets were analyzed. The study area was U.S. Federal Region III, which includes the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. The general procedure involved (1) generating mosaics of multiple scenes of leaves-on TM data using histogram equalization methods; (2) clustering mosaics into 100 spectral classes using unsupervised classification; (3) interpreting and labeling spectral classes into approximately 15 land-cover categories (analogous to Anderson Level 1 and 2 classes) using aerial photographs; (4) developing decision-making rules and models using from one to several ancillary data layers to resolve confusion in spectral classes that represented two or more targeted land-cover categories; and (5) incorporating data from other sources (for example, leaf-off TM data and National Wetlands Inventory data) to yield a final land-cover product. Although standard accuracy assessments were not done, a series of consistency checks using available

  7. Seasonal land-cover regions of the US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The US Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1-km-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous US has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 15?? seasonal land-cover regions. Data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7500 000-scale map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment. -from Authors

  8. MODIS land cover uncertainty in regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Messina, Joseph P.; Moore, Nathan J.; Fan, Peilei; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2017-02-01

    MODIS land cover datasets are used extensively across the climate modeling community, but inherent uncertainties and associated propagating impacts are rarely discussed. This paper modeled uncertainties embedded within the annual MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) products and propagated these uncertainties through the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, land cover uncertainties were modeled using pixel-based trajectory analyses from a time series of MCD12Q1 for Urumqi, China. Second, alternative land cover maps were produced based on these categorical uncertainties and passed into RAMS. Finally, simulations from RAMS were analyzed temporally and spatially to reveal impacts. Our study found that MCD12Q1 struggles to discriminate between grasslands and croplands or grasslands and barren in this study area. Such categorical uncertainties have significant impacts on regional climate model outputs. All climate variables examined demonstrated impact across the various regions, with latent heat flux affected most with a magnitude of 4.32 W/m2 in domain average. Impacted areas were spatially connected to locations of greater land cover uncertainty. Both biophysical characteristics and soil moisture settings in regard to land cover types contribute to the variations among simulations. These results indicate that formal land cover uncertainty analysis should be included in MCD12Q1-fed climate modeling as a routine procedure.

  9. Managed Clearings: an Unaccounted Land-cover in Urbanizing Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Madden, M.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Managed clearings (MC), such as lawns, public parks and grassy transportation medians, are a common and ecologically important land cover type in urbanizing regions, especially those characterized by sprawl. We hypothesize that MC is underrepresented in land cover classification schemes and data products such as NLCD (National Land Cover Database) data, which may impact environmental assessments and models of urban ecosystems. We visually interpreted and mapped fine scale land cover with special attention to MC using 2012 NAIP (National Agriculture Imagery Program) images and compared the output with NLCD data. Areas sampled were 50 randomly distributed 1*1km blocks of land in three cities of the Char-lanta mega-region (Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh). We estimated the abundance of MC relative to other land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in NLCD data that are similar to MC. We also assessed if the designations of recreation, transportation, and utility in MC inform the problem differently than simply tallying MC as a whole. 610 ground points, collected using the Google Earth, were used to evaluate accuracy of NLCD data and visual interpretation for consistency. Overall accuracy of visual interpretation and NLCD data was 78% and 58%, respectively. NLCD data underestimated forest and MC by 14.4km2 and 6.4km2, respectively, while overestimated impervious surfaces by 10.2km2 compared to visual interpretation. MC was the second most dominant land cover after forest (40.5%) as it covered about 28% of the total area and about 13% higher than impervious surfaces. Results also suggested that recreation in MC constitutes up to 90% of area followed by transportation and utility. Due to the prevalence of MC in urbanizing regions, the addition of MC to the synthesis of land-cover data can help delineate realistic cover types and area proportions that could inform ecologic/hydrologic models, and allow for accurate prediction of ecological phenomena.

  10. Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System Reference Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saah, D.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Towashiraporn, P.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Anderson, E.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Ate, P.; Markert, K. N.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The assessment revealed that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems and accuracy assessment do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible. Many of the Lower Mekong countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. During this assessment, regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. This system is dependent on a sustainable source of field data that insures data quality and improves potential impact. Based on this need a collaborative workshop was held to create a robust regional reference data system that integrates results from field data, national inventories and high resolution imagery. The results presented here highlights the value of collaboratively developed systems that use data convergence to improve land cover mapping results for multiple end users.

  11. Land Cover / Climate Interaction at Global and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climate interact at regional and global scales through biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. Land cover change (LCC) affects regional climate through impacts on surface albedo and surface net radiation, on the partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes, on the atmospheric heating, moisture flux convergence and circulation, and the partitioning of rainfall between evaporation and runoff. Meanwhile, the climate variability and change also affect the LCC. Based on historical anthropogenic land cover change data from 1948-2005, numerical experiments that were designed to test its impact using general circulation models indicate that the LCC enhances the global warming in past half century. This is because after land degradation, reduction of evaporation is dominant, leading to surface warming. The reduction of net radiation due to high surface albedo plays a secondary role. Meanwhile, its impact on the regional monsoon is significant. The produced monsoon rainfall anomaly is not only limited within the land degradation area but extend to much large area through its interaction with the atmospheric circulations. The warming climate and climate variability also affect the vegetation distribution. For instance, with a coupled biophysical and dynamic vegetation model forced by the observed meteorological data, the North America leaf area index (LAI) shows an increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Meanwhile, the effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S. on vegetation are also evident from the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs. The land covers in some parts of North America also show substantial changes. Evaluations of these simulations using satellite data are crucial. The critical issues in applying satellite data for LCC studies are also discussed.

  12. Enhancing the performance of regional land cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weicheng; Zucca, Claudio; Karam, Fadi; Liu, Guangping

    2016-10-01

    Different pixel-based, object-based and subpixel-based methods such as time-series analysis, decision-tree, and different supervised approaches have been proposed to conduct land use/cover classification. However, despite their proven advantages in small dataset tests, their performance is variable and less satisfactory while dealing with large datasets, particularly, for regional-scale mapping with high resolution data due to the complexity and diversity in landscapes and land cover patterns, and the unacceptably long processing time. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the comparatively highest performance of an operational approach based on integration of multisource information ensuring high mapping accuracy in large areas with acceptable processing time. The information used includes phenologically contrasted multiseasonal and multispectral bands, vegetation index, land surface temperature, and topographic features. The performance of different conventional and machine learning classifiers namely Malahanobis Distance (MD), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Random Forests (RFs) was compared using the same datasets in the same IDL (Interactive Data Language) environment. An Eastern Mediterranean area with complex landscape and steep climate gradients was selected to test and develop the operational approach. The results showed that SVMs and RFs classifiers produced most accurate mapping at local-scale (up to 96.85% in Overall Accuracy), but were very time-consuming in whole-scene classification (more than five days per scene) whereas ML fulfilled the task rapidly (about 10 min per scene) with satisfying accuracy (94.2-96.4%). Thus, the approach composed of integration of seasonally contrasted multisource data and sampling at subclass level followed by a ML classification is a suitable candidate to become an operational and effective regional land cover mapping method.

  13. Land cover mapping of the tropical savanna region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sano, Edson E; Rosa, Roberto; Brito, Jorge L S; Ferreira, Laerte G

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian tropical savanna (Cerrado), encompassing more than 204 million hectares in the central part of the country, is the second richest biome in Brazil in terms of biodiversity and presents high land use pressure. The objective of this study was to map the land cover of the Cerrado biome based on the segmentation and visual interpretation of 170 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus satellite scenes acquired in 2002. The following land cover classes were discriminated: grasslands, shrublands, forestlands, croplands, pasturelands, reforestations, urban areas, and mining areas. The results showed that the remnant natural vegetation is still covering about 61% of the biome, however, on a highly asymmetrical basis. While natural physiognomies comprise 90% of the northern part of the biome, only 15% are left in its southern portions. Shrublands were the dominant natural land cover class, while pasturelands were the dominant land use class in the Cerrado biome. The final Cerrado's land cover map confirmed the intensive land use pressure in this unique biome. This paper also showed that Landsat-like sensors can provide feasible land cover maps of Cerrado, although ancillary data are required to help image interpretation.

  14. Land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Joria, Peter C.; Douglas, David C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documenting the distribution of land-cover types on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain is the foundation for impact assessment and mitigation of potential oil exploration and development. Vegetation maps facilitate wildlife studies by allowing biologists to quantify the availability of important wildlife habitats, investigate the relationships between animal locations and the distribution or juxtaposition of habitat types, and assess or extrapolate habitat characteristics across regional areas.To meet the needs of refuge managers and biologists, satellite imagery was chosen as the most cost-effective method for mapping the large, remote landscape of the 1002 Area.Objectives of our study were the following: 1) evaluate a vegetation classification scheme for use in mapping. 2) determine optimal methods for producing a satellite-based vegetation map that adequately met the needs of the wildlife research and management objectives; 3) produce a digital vegetation map for the Arctic Refuge coastal plain using Lands at-Thematic Mapper(TM) satellite imagery, existing geobotanical classifications, ground data, and aerial photographs, and 4) perform an accuracy assessment of the map.

  15. Trends in land use and land cover change in the protected and communal areas of the Zambezi Region, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Kamwi, Jonathan Mutau; Kaetsch, Christoph; Graz, Friedrich Patric; Chirwa, Paxie; Manda, Samuel

    2017-05-01

    Land management decisions have extensively modified land use and land cover in the Zambezi Region. These decisions are influenced by land tenure classifications, legislation, and livelihoods. Land use and land cover change is an important indicator for quantifying the effectiveness of different land management strategies. However, there has been no evidence on whether protected or communal land tenure is more affected by land use and land cover changes in southern Africa and particularly Namibia. Our study attempted to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between land use and land cover change and land tenure regimes stratified according to protected and communal area in the Zambezi Region. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to determine the temporal dynamics of land use and land cover change from 1984 to 2010. The landscape showed distinctive modifications over the study period; broad trends include the increase in forest land after 1991. However, changes were not uniform across the study areas. Two landscape development stages were deduced: (1) 1984-1991 represented high deforestation and gradual increase in shrub land; (2) 1991-2000 and 2000-2010 represented lower deforestation and slower agropastoral expansion. The results further show clear patterns of the dynamics, magnitude, and direction of land use and land cover change by tenure regime. The study concluded that land tenure has a direct impact on land use and land cover, since it may restrict some activities carried out on the land in the Zambezi Region.

  16. Forest land cover change (1975-2000) in the Greater Border Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Peter T. Wolter; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Sue M. Lietz; Phillip A. Townsend; John. Pastor

    2012-01-01

    This document and accompanying maps describe land cover classifications and change detection for a 13.8 million ha landscape straddling the border between Minnesota, and Ontario, Canada (greater Border Lakes Region). Land cover classifications focus on discerning Anderson Level II forest and nonforest cover to track spatiotemporal changes in forest cover. Multi-...

  17. Historical land cover changes in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Davis, M.B.; Stearns, F.; Guntenspergen, G.; Walker, K.; Sisk, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods of reconstructing historical vegetation change, drawing on General Land Office (GLO) surveys and fossil pollen deposits, are demonstrated by using data from the Great Lakes region. Both types of data are incorporated into landscape-scale analyses and presented through geographic information systems. Results from the two methods reinforce each other and allow reconstructions of past landscapes at different time scales. Changes to forests of the Great Lakes region during the last 150 years were far greater than the changes recorded over the preceding 1,000 years. Over the last 150 years, the total amount of forested land in the Great Lakes region declined by over 40%, and much of the remaining forest was converted to early successional forest types as a result of extensive logging. These results demonstrate the utility of using GLO survey data in conjunction with other data sources to reconstruct a generalized 'presettlement' condition and assess changes in landcover.

  18. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,

    1998-01-01

    As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

  19. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  20. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  1. Recent progress on land cover change and its regional climatic effects over China during historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; He, F.; Lin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change has been demonstrated as an important forcing driver of climate change, and many studies have been conducted that simulate the climatic effects of human-induced land cover change at global and regional scales. Land cover in China has undergone large-scale modifications, mainly through deforestation and desertification, over the last several thousand years, and the extents to which these changes have influenced climate change have increasingly attracted scientists' attention. The simulations of regional climatic effects caused by land cover changes which based on different datasets--historical reconstruction and potential land cover data--show that the human-induced land cover changes over China since 1700AD have led to the enhancement on the East Asian Winter Monsoon and cooling in winter overall, with warming over most of China but cooling at somewhere (e.g. northern China or the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley) in summer. However, the different simulations by different models show different effects on annual mean temperature, annual precipitation and East Asian Summer Monsoon. These differences among these simulations are shown to have resulted from the disparities in the classifications of land cover types among different land cover dataset used, in the extent of land cover.

  2. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  3. Land cover change during a period of extensive landscape restoration in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Cadavid Restrepo, Angela M; Yang, Yu Rong; Hamm, Nicholas A S; Gray, Darren J; Barnes, Tamsin S; Williams, Gail M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; McManus, Donald P; Guo, Danhuai; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-11-15

    Environmental change has been a topic of great interest over the last century due to its potential impact on ecosystem services that are fundamental for sustainable development and human well-being. Here, we assess and quantify the spatial and temporal variation in land cover in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), China. With high-resolution (30m) imagery from Landsat 4/5-TM and 8-OLI for the entire region, land cover maps of the region were created to explore local land cover changes in a spatially explicit way. The results suggest that land cover changes observed in NHAR from 1991 to 2015 reflect the main goals of a national policy implemented there to recover degraded landscapes. Forest, herbaceous vegetation and cultivated land increased by approximately 410,200ha, 708,600ha and 164,300ha, respectively. The largest relative land cover change over the entire study period was the increase in forestland. Forest growth resulted mainly from the conversion of herbaceous vegetation (53.8%) and cultivated land (30.8%). Accurate information on the local patterns of land cover in NHAR may contribute to the future establishment of better landscape policies for ecosystem management and protection. Spatially explicit information on land cover change may also help decision makers to understand and respond appropriately to emerging environmental risks for the local population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THEMATIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL SCALE LAND COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium, a cooperative effort of several U .S. federal agencies, including. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), have jointly conducted the National Land C...

  5. THEMATIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL SCALE LAND COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium, a cooperative effort of several U .S. federal agencies, including. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), have jointly conducted the National Land C...

  6. Assessing the accuracy of a regional land cover classification

    Treesearch

    William Clerke; Raymond Czaplewski; Jeff Campbell; Janet Fahringer

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Region USDA Forest Service recently completed the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The Assessment is a broad scale interagency analysis and sharing of existing information relative to the natural and human resources of the region. The SAA encompasses over 36 million acres extending from Northern Virginia to Northern Alabama. It was clear early in the...

  7. A regional analysis of drivers and impacts of land cover change and long-term land cover trends in the Great Basin, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Bethany Adella

    An improved understanding of land use/land cover change at local and regional scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. The land surface provides resources necessary for human survival (e.g., cropland, water, raw materials) as well as providing other services such as habitat for native species, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. A goal of land change science is to identify where land cover change is taking place, understand how land use may affect that change, and determine what the consequences of change may be. In the Great Basin Desert of the Western U.S., an important form of land cover change is invasion by non-native cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass invasion destroys native shrub ecosystems, leading to a loss of biodiversity, loss of viable rangeland and increased fire frequency. In this work, I show how remote sensing can be used to detect the regional and local extents of cheatgrass invasion. Remote sensing results are then used to assess the spatial patterns of cheatgrass invasion over time to determine how land use might have affected invasion. Further, I consider the long-term impacts of cheatgrass invasion on biodiversity and carbon storage in the Great Basin. In addition to an analysis of cheatgrass, this thesis presents a new methodology for time series modeling, which can be used to better interpret annual and inter-annual vegetation community phenology. I apply this modeling methodology to all land cover in the Great Basin to assess long-term land cover trends and localized anomalous response within the range of land cover classes present. By investigating regional land cover change I am able to provide more detailed analysis of the drivers of change for land managers while working at a scale relevant to studies of global environmental change.

  8. A High-Resolution Land Cover Study of Regional Early Eocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrasher, B. L.; Sloan, L. C.; Stauffer, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    Although the distribution of various types of land cover is directly affected by climate factors such as temperature and precipitation, the reverse is also true. Land cover itself can affect regional climate in a number of ways such as through changes in surface albedo, changes in moisture availability, and exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Much of the research on the effect land cover type has on climate has dealt with modeling deforestation. The removal of boreal forests leads to an increase in albedo, decreases in both temperature and precipitation, and changes in the pattern of snowmelt. Tropical deforestation, on the other hand, leads to an increase in temperature but a decrease in precipitation and evapotranspiration. In addition to vegetation, climate effects due to surface water land cover types (lakes, wetlands, glaciers, etc.) have also been modeled. Studies of North Africa during the mid-Holocene have shown that the addition of lakes and wetlands decreases albedo and increases precipitation and evaporation in the region. Studies of Lake Victoria have shown that increases in the lake surface temperature lead to increases in regional precipitation amount and distribution. Global-scale modeling studies of the basins of Western North America have shown that the presence of a sizeable body of water in this area could have had a mitigating effect on the regional climate during the early Eocene (approximately 50-56 million years ago), keeping winter temperatures above freezing and decreasing the annual temperature range. Meanwhile, regional modeling studies of the same area and time have not examined varying land cover types and have instead used only extensive zones of singular land types. This study uses high-resolution land cover maps with a regional model to examine the climate sensitivity of Western North America during the early Eocene to the addition of land cover features such as lakes, marshland, and shrubs.

  9. Quantifying urban land cover change between 2001 and 2006 in the Gulf of Mexico region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin; Bunde, Brett; Danielson, Patrick; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce; Pu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    We estimated urbanization rates (2001–2006) in the Gulf of Mexico region using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 and 2006 impervious surface products. An improved method was used to update the NLCD impervious surface product in 2006 and associated land cover transition between 2001 and 2006. Our estimation reveals that impervious surface increased 416 km2 with a growth rate of 5.8% between 2001 and 2006. Approximately 1110.1 km2 of non-urban lands were converted into urban land, resulting in a 3.2% increase in the region. Hay/pasture, woody wetland, and evergreen forest represented the three most common land cover classes that transitioned to urban. Among these land cover transitions, more than 50% of the urbanization occurred within 50 km of the coast. Our analysis shows that the close-to-coast land cover transition trend, especially within 10 km off the coast, potentially imposes substantial long-term impacts on regional landscape and ecological conditions.

  10. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW OF STRESSORS AND IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and regional to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential activities. LULC change a...

  11. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW OF STRESSORS AND IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and regional to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential activities. LULC change a...

  12. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  13. [Land cover and landscape pattern changes in Poyang Lake region of China in 1980-2010].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-le; Ran, Ying-ying; Zhang, Yong-jie; Cao, Xiao-ming; Yang, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Based on the land cover datasets of Poyang Lake region in 1980, 2005, and 2010, and by using GIS, RS, and landscape ecology approaches, this paper studied the land cover and landscape pattern changes in this region from 1980 to 2010, and quantitatively analyzed the land cover types change degree, patch area index, patch shape index, margin density index, and landscape diversity index. In 1980-2010, the main land cover types in this region were paddy field, inland water, evergreen broadleaf forest, and urban built-up area, and their areas and spatial patterns varied dramatically. Overall, the areas of inland water and urban built-up area had a significant increase, while those of paddy field and dry farmland decreased somewhat. Due to the effects of population growth and economic development, the landscape fragmentation degree and landscape diversity index presented a decreasing trend, but the decrement was small, which implied that the previous environmental management of this region had exerted important roles, but a long term challenge was still faced with between the regional environmental protection and sustainable development.

  14. Spatial configuration of land-use/land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Hernández, Humberto; Aguilar Robledo, Miguel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Fortanelli Martínez, Javier

    2008-07-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the configuration and spatial reorganization of land-use and land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, eastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, as well as the relationship between these changes and the environmental conditions prevailing in the area. Land-use and land-cover changes were determined through the analysis and interpretation of satellite images from different dates. The changes identified in the different study periods were correlated with the prevailing physical factors. The results show that the spatial configuration of farming activities, initially induced by the implementation of a regional development project, is highly correlated to the presence of limiting factors such as soil type, slope, and climate. Particularly, the former represents the element that has led to the establishment of the current distribution pattern of farming activities.

  15. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  16. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  17. Land-use and land-cover scenarios and spatial modeling at the regional scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LULC) change has altered a large part of the earth's surface. Scenarios of potential future LULC change are required in order to better manage potential impacts on biodiversity, carbon fluxes, climate change, hydrology, and many other ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey is analyzing potential future LULC change in the United States, using an approach based on scenario construction and spatially explicit modeling. Similar modeling techniques are being used to produce historical LULC maps from 1940 to present. With the combination of backcast and forecast LULC data, the USGS is providing consistent LULC data for historical, current, and future time frames to support a variety of research applications.

  18. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  19. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  20. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    SciTech Connect

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-08

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the 'Houghton' bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  2. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    DOE PAGES

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; ...

    2016-07-08

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the 'Houghton' bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and Southmore » Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.« less

  3. Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, R. A.; Nassikas, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    The net flux of carbon from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is an important term in the global carbon balance. Here we report a new estimate of annual fluxes from 1850 to 2015, updating earlier analyses with new estimates of both historical and current rates of LULCC and including emissions from draining and burning of peatlands in Southeast Asia. For most of the 186 countries included we relied on data from Food and Agriculture Organization to document changes in the areas of croplands and pastures since 1960 and changes in the areas of forests and "other land" since 1990. For earlier years we used other sources of information. We used a bookkeeping model that prescribed changes in carbon density of vegetation and soils for 20 types of ecosystems and five land uses. The total net flux attributable to LULCC over the period 1850-2015 is calculated to have been 145 ± 16 Pg C (1 standard deviation). Most of the emissions were from the tropics (102 ± 5.8 Pg C), generally increasing over time to a maximum of 2.10 Pg C yr-1 in 1997. Outside the tropics emissions were roughly constant at 0.5 Pg C yr-1 until 1940, declined to zero around 1970, and then became negative. For the most recent decade (2006-2015) global net emissions from LULCC averaged 1.11 (±0.35) Pg C yr-1, consisting of a net source from the tropics (1.41 ± 0.17 Pg C yr-1), a net sink in northern midlatitudes (-0.28 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1), and carbon neutrality in southern midlatitudes.

  4. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the ‘Houghton’ bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%-40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%-25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990-2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  6. Impact of land cover characterization on regional climate modeling over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Pal, Jeremy S.; Wang, Guiling L.; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high resolution modern vegetation cover on the West African climate is examined using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model implementing the NCAR Community Land Model. Two high resolution 25 km long-term simulations driven by the output from a coarser 50-km resolution simulation are performed for the period 1998-2010. One high resolution simulation uses an earlier and coarser-resolution version of plant functional type distribution and leaf area index, while the other uses a more recent, higher-quality, and finer-resolution version of the data. The results indicate that the new land cover distribution substantially alters the distribution of temperature with warming in Central Nigeria, northern Gulf of Guinea and part of the Sahel due to the replacement of C4 grass with corn; and cooling along the coastlines of the Gulf of Guinea and in Central Africa due to the replacement of C4 grass with tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these temperature changes with a net decrease (increase) in regions of warming (cooling). The improved land cover distribution also results in a wetter monsoon season. The presence of corn tends to favor larger precipitation amounts via more intense events, while the presence of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees tends to favor the occurrence of both more intense and more frequent events. The wetter conditions appear to be sustained via (1) an enhanced soil moisture feedback; and (2) elevated moisture transport due to increased low-level convergence in regions south of 10N where the most substantial land cover differences are present. Overall the changes induced by the improved vegetation cover improve, to some extent, the performance of the high resolution regional climate model in simulating the main West African summer monsoon features.

  7. Evaluating relationships between urban land cover composition and evapotranspiration in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    California experienced its most severe drought on record in 2013 and 2014, forcing the governor to call for the first statewide reductions in urban water use. This led to numerous water conservation efforts including turf removal and restrictions on outdoor irrigation. The decrease in irrigation across the city of Los Angeles has had major effects on regional hydrologic fluxes. Previous studies have found that conservation efforts have decreased streamflow but little work has been done on the impact of reduced irrigation on Evapotranspiration (ET). ET is one of the most difficult variables to measure as a result of its heterogeneity both spatially and temporally; yet, it is imperative in characterizing energy and hydrologic processes and in aiding water management decisions. Estimating ET is further complicated in urban regions where land cover composition is extremely variable, even at small scales. Irrigated landscape and impervious surfaces are two of the most common land cover types associated with urbanization, but they have opposite effects on ET. While numerous studies have evaluated changes in ET caused by urbanization, they have all produced varying results. This is expected as changes to ET are highly dependent on land cover composition. In this study, we modeled the relationship between ET and urban land cover change in Los Angeles. We utilized empirical equations derived from in situ measurements to calculate tree and irrigated turfgrass ET and compared the results to estimates based on remote-sensing and California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) network of weather stations. We found that unshaded turfgrass largely increased ET compared to impervious surfaces, which reveals lavish irrigation practices. Trees also increased ET, but they provided shade that decreased ET from turf grass. With much of the western United States facing drought and water supply uncertainty due to climate change, understanding and predicting how land cover

  8. Modeling vulnerability to thermokarst disturbance and its consequences on regional land cover dynamic in boreal Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; Lara, M. J.; Bolton, W. R.; McGuire, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Estimation of the magnitude and consequences of permafrost degradation in high latitude is one of the most urgent research challenges related to contemporary and future climate change. In addition to widespread vertical degradation, ice-rich permafrost can thaw laterally, often triggering abrupt subsidence of the ground surface called thermokart. In this depression, permafrost plateau vegetation will transition to wetlands or lakes, while surface water of the surrounding landscape may drain towards it. These abrupt changes in land cover and hydrology can have dramatic consequences from wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycles. Although recent studies have documented an acceleration of the rates of thermokarst formation in boreal and arctic peatlands, the importance of thermokarst at the regional level is still poorly understood. To better understand the vulnerability of the landscape to thermokarst disturbance in Alaska, we developed the Alaska Thermokarst Model (ATM), a state-and-transition model designed to simulate land cover change associated with thermokarst disturbance. In boreal regions, the model simulates transitions from permafrost plateau forest to thermokarst lake, bog or fen, as a function of climate and fire dynamics, permafrost characteristics and physiographic information. This model is designed and parameterized based on existing literature and a new repeated imagery analysis we conducted in a major wetland complex in boreal Alaska. We will present simulation and validation of thermokarst dynamic and associated land cover change in two wetland complexes in boreal Alaska, from 2000 to 2100 for six climate scenarios associating three AR5 emission scenarios and two global circulation model simulations. By 2100, ATM is predicting decrease between 3.5 and 9.1 % in the extent of permafrost plateau forest, mostly to the benefit of thermokarst fen, and lake. This analysis allowed us to assess the importance of thermokarst dynamics and landscape evolution

  9. Land Use Land Cover Change in the Albertine Region of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Plumptre, A.; Goetz, S. J.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring threats to protected areas and species is a major challenge for the conservation community. The Albertine Rift region is a hot spot of biodiversity with many endemic vertebrates and plant species. Most of forests east of the Albertine (Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi) are, however, highly fragmented and human population densities are some of the highest of Africa. In this study, we used a series of Landsat images to provide a quantitative assessment of forest loss between the 1980s to year 2000 for the protected areas in the Western Uganda. In this region, monitoring forest conversion to agricultural land and modeling future threats for the protected areas system are important to the maintenance of wildlife populations. By combining remote sensing monitoring techniques with traditional field surveys, it becomes easier to monitor and manage extensive protected area systems. Most of the forest loss (deforestation) was located outside the official protected area limits, indicating that active deforestation during this period is mainly located on non protected lands. The largest forest loss was located in the north around Bugoma, Budonga and Kagombe Forest Reserves and is associated with large scale farming and mechanized logging.

  10. Using global land cover data to assess regional food production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licker, R.; Kucharik, C. J.; Foley, J. A.; Johnston, M.; Monfreda, C.; Ramankutty, N.

    2009-12-01

    With over 900 million people living undernourished, food insecurity is one of the most important issues facing society today. In this study, we show how global Earth observation data can be used in concert with a variety of sources of information to consider both where and how additional food might be grown on already cultivated lands. In a previous study, we used global, gridded crop yield data derived in part from MODIS and GLC2000 land cover datasets, along with observed twentieth century global, gridded average climate data to determine how the yields of 18 dominant crops compare across regions with similar climate. In this study we move from the global scale, and focus on regions such as Western and Eastern Europe that have similar climates yet significantly different crop yields. We investigate the cause of these differences by considering additional drivers of crop yields such as fertilizer use, availability of crop varieties, agricultural subsidies, and land tenure. We provide a framework to integrate these agronomic, socioeconomic, political, and land use datasets with the biophysical factors already taken into account. We also consider additional biophysical parameters such as topography and soil conditions, as well as inter-annual climate variability. With this work, we aim to highlight how the recent availability of global land cover datasets can be used to improve our understanding of our prospect for increasing food availability, and how it is constrained by both natural and human-related factors.

  11. Managing water services in tropical regions: From land cover proxies to hydrologic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G; Brauman, Kate A; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Farley, Kathleen A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Young, Kenneth R; Curran, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Watershed investment programs frequently use land cover as a proxy for water-based ecosystem services, an approach based on assumed relationships between land cover and hydrologic outcomes. Water flows are rarely quantified, and unanticipated results are common, suggesting land cover alone is not a reliable proxy for water services. We argue that managing key hydrologic fluxes at the site of intervention is more effective than promoting particular land-cover types. Moving beyond land cover proxies to a focus on hydrologic fluxes requires that programs (1) identify the specific water service of interest and associated hydrologic flux; (2) account for structural and ecological characteristics of the relevant land cover; and, (3) determine key mediators of the target hydrologic flux. Using examples from the tropics, we illustrate how this conceptual framework can clarify interventions with a higher probability of delivering desired water services than with land cover as a proxy.

  12. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherba, Jason T.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Davis, Adam W.; Parker, Owen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global land-use/land-cover (LULC) change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC transitions into spatial scales and thematic LULC classes appropriate for use in a regional STSM. For each downscaling approach, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) LULC projections, at the 0.5 × 0.5 cell resolution, were downscaled to seven Level III ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest, United States. RCP transition values at each cell were downscaled based on the proportional distribution between ecoregions of (1) cell area, (2) land-cover composition derived from remotely-sensed imagery, and (3) historic LULC transition values from a LULC history database. Resulting downscaled LULC transition values were aggregated according to their bounding ecoregion and “cross-walked” to relevant LULC classes. Ecoregion-level LULC transition values were applied in a STSM projecting LULC change between 2005 and 2100. While each downscaling methods had advantages and disadvantages, downscaling using the historical land-use history dataset consistently apportioned RCP LULC transitions in agreement with historical observations. Regardless of the downscaling method, some LULC projections remain improbable and require further investigation.

  13. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).

  14. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  15. Hydrologic Response to Widespread Land Cover Change Simulated from the Hillslope through the Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearup, L. A.; Maxwell, R. M.; Engdahl, N. B.; Penn, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in the Rocky Mountains of Western North America provides an opportunity to probe the ecohydrologic response to land cover disturbance that is largely unprecedented in spatial extent. Understanding this response is limited by our ability to measure and model across scales. Here, we apply fully-integrated models (that span the subsurface through the land surface) across a range of different landscape scales to study the impacts of land cover change on the hydrologic cycle in important Rocky Mountain headwater systems. These models also provide a controlled method to synthesize field observations of hydrochemical properties. Analysis of hillslope outflow partitioning from groundwater and precipitation sources indicates that topography and precipitation can drive mixed signatures in groundwater inputs over prolonged periods. Watershed-scale models confirm that competition between offsetting processes at the hillslope (such as increases in evaporation and decreases in transpiration with tree death) and heterogeneous watershed properties effectively mute changes in water yield. Both hillslope and watershed models identify the importance of subsurface flow and storage changes, indicating that soil and groundwater may play an important role in the propagation of the hydrologic response to land cover change. Accordingly, regional models are used to examine changes in longer subsurface flow paths. Alterations to water sources and pathways may explain observed changes in water quality that are not expected if only the minimal detectable change in discharge is considered. This work, and its usefulness in interpreting field observations, provides additional mechanistic insight into hydrologic response from spatially and temporally variable land-cover perturbations.

  16. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects.

  17. Effects of land use/land cover on diurnal temperature range in the temperate grassland region of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Lu, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As a fragile ecological zone, the temperate grassland region of China has experienced dramatic land use/land cover (LULC) changes due to human disturbances. So far, the impacts of LULC change on climate especially the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in this region are still not well understood. Based on the OMR (observation minus reanalysis) method, this study investigated the effects of LULC on DTR in the temperate grassland region of China. Considering the possible uncertainty of the results due to spatial resolution of the reanalysis dataset, two reanalysis datasets with different spatial resolutions were utilized. Results showed that LULC generally contributed to the decline of DTR in the temperate grassland region of China during 1980 to 2005. Due to different warming effects on monthly maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin), grassland and forest tend to slightly decrease monthly DTR (approximately -0.053 to -0.050°C/decade and approximately -0.059 to -0.055°C/decade, respectively), while bare land has a slightly positive effect on DTR (approximately 0.018-0.021°C/decade). By contrast, cropland and urban tend to slightly decrease Tmax, obviously increase Tmin and thus result in a rapid decline of DTR (approximately -0.556 to -0.503°C/decade and approximately -0.617 to -0.612°C/decade, respectively). In the temperate grassland region of China, grassland vegetation changes due to human disturbances can have some effects on DTR mainly by changing the Tmax. Conversion from grassland to cropland could decrease the DTR by slowing down the increase of Tmax. But the conversion from grassland to bare land, as well as the reduction of grassland vegetation cover will increase Tmax, and consequently the DTR. The results suggest that grassland degradation is likely to result in daylight warming and increased DTR in the temperate grassland region of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bidecadal Urban Land Cover and Ecosystem Service Changes in the Three Urbanized Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has experienced rapid urbanization as a consequence of economic reforms and population growth. Urbanization is still proceeding at staggering speed. Therefore, the development of effective analytical methods to monitor the unprecedented growth of Chinese cities and the resulting environmental impacts are crucial for urban planning and sustainable development. The overall objective of this research is to investigate urban land cover change between 1990 and 2010 and the resulting effects upon ecosystem services by analysis of multitemporal Landsat 5 and HJ1-A/B images in three highly urbanized regions.

  19. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  20. Alternative method to validate the seasonal land cover regions of the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    Zhiliang Zhu; Donald O. Ohlen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Robert E. Burgan

    1996-01-01

    An accuracy assessment method involving double sampling and the multivariate composite estimator has been used to validate the prototype seasonal land cover characteristics database of the conterminous United States. The database consists of 159 land cover classes, classified using time series of 1990 1-km satellite data and augmented with ancillary data including...

  1. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Changes 1977 to 2000 in the Steppe Region of Ukraine, and Preliminary Results of Evaluating its Ecological and Land Form Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Prydatko, V.; Luhmann, E. P.

    2001-05-01

    Ukraine's history as agro-economic region dates back hundreds of years, being the most productive portion of the "black earth region" for the now defunct Soviet Union. This incredible level of agricultural production brought tremendous changes to the landscape matrix, largely eliminating forests and prairie systems from the southern steppe regions of Ukraine. The age of industrialization has had far less significant impacts to the land use patterns as large farms were operated and managed under Soviet Era cooperatives. The recent, 1992, independence of Ukraine has brought new pressures to the landscape. These pressures are initiated by economic needs of Ukraine seeking to be resolved through increased farm production and rapid land and industrial privatization. This study examines land cover changes between 1977, 1988 and 2000 within a representative region of southern Ukraine and northern Crimea. The region covers prototypical landscapes of the steppe region of agriculture at various scales and crops. The study area also allows an examination of changes along coastal areas in the Azov and Black Seas, specifically barrier systems. Additionally, areas of rapid privatization of industries and introduction of western industries exist within this region. The years selected for documentation were chosen as being one near the height of Soviet autonomy, near separation of the Soviet Union and independence of Ukraine and current times. The study looks at ways of documenting land cover change using satellite imagery with ancillary ground based information. The study evaluates effects of these land cover changes through associated losses of hydrologic characteristics in the landscape such as stream, as well as landform changes especially in coastal barrier systems. These changes are correlated to landscape changes and ecological parameters recorded during this nearly 30 year period. Preliminary conclusions are presented as to alternative land use practices and actions for

  3. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

  4. Environmental monitoring of land-use and land-cover changes in a Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kilic, S; Evrendilek, F; Berberoglu, S; Demirkesen, A C

    2006-03-01

    Unprecedented rates of human-induced changes in land use and land cover (LULC) at local and regional scales lead to alterations of global biogeochemical cycles. Driving forces behind LULC changes mainly include rapid growth rates of population and consumption, lack of valuation of ecological services, poverty, ignorance of biophysical limitations, and use of ecologically incompatible technologies. One of the major ecological tragedies of the commons in a Mediterranean region of Turkey is the loss of Lake Amik at the expense of increasing the area of croplands, which used to provide vital ecosystem goods and services for the region. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the effects of past land-use transitions on soil organic carbon (SOC) pools (0-20 cm) in a Mediterranean region of 3930 km(2), between 1972 and 2000. LULC changes were quantified from a time series of satellite images of Landsat-MSS in 1972, Landsat-5 TM in 1987, and Landsat-7 ETM+ in 2000 using geographic information systems. The study showed that the increase in croplands between 1972 and 1987 took place at the expense of the irreversible losses of Lake Amik and its related wetlands of over 53 km(2). In the period of 1972 to 2000, croplands, settlements, and evergreen forests increased by 174%, 106%, and 14%, respectively. The increase in settlements occurred mostly to the detriment of croplands. Given the average rates of all the land-use transitions, and associated changes in SOC density for the study region of 3930 km(2), total SOC pool was estimated to decrease by 14.1% from 130.1 Mt in 1972 to 111.7 Mt in 2000.

  5. Land cover and land use changes in the oil and gas regions of Northwestern Siberia under changing climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard E.; Engstrom, Ryan; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Strelestskiy, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Northwestern Siberia has been undergoing a range of land cover and land use changes associated with climate change, animal husbandry and development of mineral resources, particularly oil and gas. The changes caused by climate and oil/gas development Southeast of the city of Nadym were investigated using multi-temporal and multi-spatial remotely sensed images. Comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in 1968 and 2006 indicates that 8.9% of the study area experienced an increase in vegetation cover (e.g. establishment of new saplings, extent of vegetated cover) in response to climate warming while 10.8% of the area showed a decrease in vegetation cover due to oil and gas development and logging activities. Waterlogging along linear structures and vehicle tracks was found near the oil and gas development site, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to warming caused permafrost degradation. A Landsat time series dataset was used to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of these ecosystems in response to climate change and disturbances. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiative, and hydrological properties were evaluated using Landsat image-derived biophysical indices. The spatial and temporal analyses suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development were mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance and can have significant implications for changes in permafrost dynamics and surface energy budgets at landscape and regional scales.

  6. Effects of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and Climate on Simulation of Phosphorus loading in the Southeast United States Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jima, T. G.; Roberts, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quality of coastal and freshwater resources in the Southeastern United States is threatened due to Eutrophication as a result of excessive nutrients, and phosphorus is acknowledged as one of the major limiting nutrients. In areas with much non-point source (NPS) pollution, land use land cover and climate have been found to have significant impact on water quality. Landscape metrics applied in catchment and riparian stream based nutrient export models are known to significantly improve nutrient prediction. The regional SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes), which predicts Total Phosphorus has been developed by the Southeastern United States regions USGS, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program and the model accuracy was found to be 67%. However, landscape composition and configuration metrics which play a significant role in the source, transport and delivery of the nutrient have not been incorporated in the model. Including these matrices in the models parameterization will improve the models accuracy and improve decision making process for mitigating and managing NPS phosphorus in the region. The National Land Cover Data 2001 raster data will be used (since the base line is 2002) for the region (with 8321 watersheds ) with fragstats 4.1 and ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 for the analysis of landscape matrices, buffers and creating map layers. The result will be imported to the Southeast SPARROW model and will be analyzed. Resulting statistical significance and model accuracy will be assessed and predictions for those areas with no water quality monitoring station will be made.

  7. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  8. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  9. Climate variability and land cover change over the North American monsoon region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Scheftic, W. D.; Broxton, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The North American Monsoon System over Mexico and southwestern United States represents a weather/climate and ecosystem coupled "macrosystem". The weather and climate affect the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem, while the ecosystem change affects surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes that, in turn, affect weather and climate. Furthermore, long-term weather/climate data have a much coarser horizontal resolution than the satellite land cover data. Here the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data at 32 km grid spacing will be combined with various satellite remote sensing products at 1 km and/or 8 km resolution from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT for the period of 1982 to present. Our analysis includes: a) precipitation, wind, and precipitable water data from NARR to characterize the North American monsoon; b) land cover type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation fraction, and leaf-area index (LAI) data to characterize the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem; c) assessing the consistency of various satellite products; and d) testing the coherence in the weather/climate and ecosystem variability.

  10. [Regional difference of land use/cover change in farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chang, Xue-Li; Li, Jian-Ying; Cai, Ming-Yu

    2008-03-01

    Based on the four TM images of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia in 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2005, the extent and relative rate of land use change were used as the indices to analyze the regional difference of land use/cover change in the farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner, and the indices abundance and importance value were adopted to analyze the spatial distribution features of land use/cover change in the study area. The results showed that from 1975 to 2005, the types of land use/cover became diversified. The annual change rate was high, and the regional difference was significant. In the northern alluvial plain sub-area, woodland area increased rapidly and largely, while sandy land area decreased obviously. The changing speed of the areas of meadow and sandy land was the fastest, while that of residential area was the slowest. The main forms of land conversion were the conversion from sandy land to cropland and woodland. In the middle sandy land sub-area, sandy land had a wide distribution. The changes of other land use types were comparatively small, and the main form of land conversion was the inter-conversion between cropland and sandy land. In southern loess sub-area, cropland was the dominant land use type and had the smallest change, meadow and sandy land changed most quickly, and the conversion from meadow to cropland and woodland was the most important land conversion form. Natural factors determined the principal characteristics of land use structure in each sub-area of the study area, and artificial factors determined the changing trends of each land use type in each sub-area.

  11. The impact of CO2 fertilization and historical land use/land cover change on regional climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findell, Kirsten; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John; Lintner, Benjamin; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Recent research highlights the role of land surface processes in heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. Here we use an earth system model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to investigate the regional impacts of historical anthropogenic land use/land cover change (LULCC) and the vegetative response to changes in atmospheric CO2 on combined extremes of temperature and humidity. A bivariate assessment allows us to consider aridity and moist enthalpy extremes, quantities central to human experience of near-surface climate conditions. We show that according to this model, conversion of forests to cropland has contributed to much of the upper central US and central Europe experiencing extreme hot, dry summers every 2-3 years instead of every 10 years. In the tropics, historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation and regrowth of secondary vegetation have enhanced near surface moist enthalpy, leading to extensive increases in the occurrence of humid conditions throughout the tropics year round. These critical land use processes and practices are not included in many current generation land models, yet these results identify them as critical factors in the energy and water cycles of the midlatitudes and tropics. Current work is targeted at understanding how CO2 fertilization of plant growth impacts water use efficiency and surface flux partitioning, and how these changes influence temperature and humidity extremes. We use this modeling work to explore how remote sensing can be used to determine how different forest ecosystems in different climatological regimes are responding to enhanced CO2 and a warming world.

  12. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  13. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  14. National land-cover pattern data

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  15. Holocene history of land cover and land use in northwestern Europe: a new approach in pollen-based reconstruction of regional landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, S.; Gaillard, M.; Trondman, A.; Mazier, F.; Nielsen, A. B.; Fyfe, R.

    2009-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of land cover changes in the Holocene have become increasingly important for a better understanding of the human impacts on the earth surface-atmosphere feedbacks in the past. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic Research Councils [NordForsk]) aim to estimate the Holocene changes in regional vegetation and land cover north of Alps in western Europe, and to evaluate the effects of the changes in land cover, particularly human land-use, on the regional climate through altered feedback. This report presents the preliminary results on the Holocene land-cover change in the region. The projects use the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007; the Holocene 17, 229-241), which is theoretically derived and empirically tested, to reconstruct quantitatively the regional vegetation and land cover in the spatial resolution of 1o x 1o based on fossil pollen records. The pollen-vegetation relationship is non-linear, influenced by factors such as the size of sedimentary basins and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal characteristics. The REVEALS model corrects for biases caused by these factors and provides regional vegetation and land cover in a 104 - 105 km2 scale. Our results show that, in general, the regional landscape openness changed from 10-20% to 40-70% around 2600 cal year BP in many parts of northwestern Europe. This was the time period when land use increased, particularly crop cultivation and cattle grazing. The timing of the dramatic changes was region-specific, however. Pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, always underestimate the unforested areas significantly and tend to overestimate the areas covered by deciduous-tree. Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications, such as grass (i.e. unforested), deciduous, and conifer covers. Therefore, the large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are

  16. Spatial Analysis of Land Cover Determinants of Malaria Incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4–272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR] = 1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR = 3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR = 0.53, p = 0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

  17. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds to various land covers in the Athabasca oil sands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leiming; Cheng, Irene; Wu, Zhiyong; Harner, Tom; Schuster, Jasmin; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Muir, Derek; Parnis, J. Mark

    2015-09-01

    A framework was developed to estimate dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 21 alkylated PAHs, and 5 parent and alkylated dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), to various land covers surrounding three monitoring sites in the Athabasca oil sands region. Modeled dry deposition velocities for various gaseous PACs and over various land covers were mostly in the range of 0.01-0.5 cm s-1 with median and annual mean values between 0.08 and 0.24 cm s-1, comparable with literature values obtained from field studies. Annual dry deposition of the sum of PAHs was estimated to range from 330 to 560 μg m-2 over forested canopies surrounding the three sites and from 270 to 490 μg m-2 over grass and shrubs. The corresponding values are 3920-5380 and 2850-4920 μg m-2 for the sum of 21 alkylated PAHs, and are 230-1120 and 450-930 μg m-2 for the sum of 5 DBTs. The three monitoring sites are situated nearby the Athabasca River, and the direct annual atmospheric dry deposition to water surface was estimated to range from 350 to 500, 3170 to 4530, and 170 to 840 μg m-2 for PAHs, alkylated PAHs, and DBTs, respectively. Alkylated PAHs contributed 80% of the total dry and 60% of the total wet deposition budget, suggesting the importance of including this group of PAHs in the atmospheric deposition budget estimation for subsequent ecosystem impact studies.

  18. Pattern-based, multi-scale segmentation and regionalization of EOSD land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesterowicz, Jacek; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    2017-10-01

    The Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) map is a 25 m resolution thematic map of Canadian forests. Because of its large spatial extent and relatively high resolution the EOSD is difficult to analyze using standard GIS methods. In this paper we propose multi-scale segmentation and regionalization of EOSD as new methods for analyzing EOSD on large spatial scales. Segments, which we refer to as forest land units (FLUs), are delineated as tracts of forest characterized by cohesive patterns of EOSD categories; we delineated from 727 to 91,885 FLUs within the spatial extent of EOSD depending on the selected scale of a pattern. Pattern of EOSD's categories within each FLU is described by 1037 landscape metrics. A shapefile containing boundaries of all FLUs together with an attribute table listing landscape metrics make up an SQL-searchable spatial database providing detailed information on composition and pattern of land cover types in Canadian forest. Shapefile format and extensive attribute table pertaining to the entire legend of EOSD are designed to facilitate broad range of investigations in which assessment of composition and pattern of forest over large areas is needed. We calculated four such databases using different spatial scales of pattern. We illustrate the use of FLU database for producing forest regionalization maps of two Canadian provinces, Quebec and Ontario. Such maps capture the broad scale variability of forest at the spatial scale of the entire province. We also demonstrate how FLU database can be used to map variability of landscape metrics, and thus the character of landscape, over the entire Canada.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM CHEMISTRY AND WATERSHED LAND COVER DATA IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the relationship between stream chemistry and watershed land cover at the regional scale, we analyzed data from 368 wadeable streams sampled in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. during spring 1993-1994. Study sites were selected using a probability sampl...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM CHEMISTRY AND WATERSHED LAND COVER DATA IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the relationship between stream chemistry and watershed land cover at the regional scale, we analyzed data from 368 wadeable streams sampled in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. during spring 1993-1994. Study sites were selected using a probability sampl...

  1. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  2. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  3. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  4. Multi Satellites Monitoring of Land Use/Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in Kashgar Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitiaili, Ayisulitan; Aji, xiaokaiti; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Multi Satellites Monitoring of Land Use/Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in Kashgar Region, China Ayisulitan Maimaitiaili1, Xiaokaiti Aji2 Akihiko Kondoh2 1Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Japan 2Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University The spatio-temporal changes of Land Use/Cover (LUCC) and its driving forces in Kashgar region, Xinjiang Province, China, are investigated by using satellite remote sensing and a geographical information system (GIS). Main goal of this paper is to quantify the drivers of LUCC. First, considering lack of the Land Cover (LC) map in whole study area, we produced LC map by using Landsat images. Land use information from Landsat data was collected using maximum likelihood classification method. Land use change was studied based on the change detection method of land use types. Second, because the snow provides a key water resources for stream flow, agricultural production and drinking water for sustaining large population in Kashgar region, snow cover are estimated by Spot Vegetation data. Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) algorithm are applied to make snow cover map, which is used to screen the LUCC and climate change. The best agreement is found with threshold value of NDSI≥0.2 to generate multi-temporal snow cover and snowmelt maps. Third, driving forces are systematically identified by LC maps and statistical data such as climate and socio-economic data, regarding to i) the climate changes and ii) socioeconomic development that the spatial correlation among LUCC, snow cover change, climate and socioeconomic changes are quantified by using liner regression model and negative / positive trend analysis. Our results showed that water bodies, bare land and grass land have decreasing notably. By contrast, crop land and urban area have continually increasing significantly, which are dominated in study area. The area of snow/ice have fluctuated and has strong seasonal trends, total annual snow cover

  5. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) is developing seamless digital coverages for land cover, vertebrate animal habitat, and land management status for the 5-state region of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. The project is a second generation effor...

  6. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) is developing seamless digital coverages for land cover, vertebrate animal habitat, and land management status for the 5-state region of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. The project is a second generation effor...

  7. Regional contributions to global climate change in present and future from anthropogenic land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Reick, C.; Raddatz, T.; Caldeira, K.; Claussen, M.

    2009-12-01

    How can historical CO2 emissions be taken into account when determining a country's responsibility for increased present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing? For emissions arising from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) the question is further complicated by the millennium-scale history that needs to be considered. Moreover, the positive radiative forcing (RF) caused by CO2 emissions is often counteracted by changes of the physical properties of the land surface. In this study, we simulate the overall RF from historical ALCC in each region of the world, including different accounting methods for past emissions. Conclusions are drawn for the effectiveness of reversing past ALCC for climate change mitigation. We perform transient simulations over the last millennium using ECHAM5/MPI-OM, a comprehensive Earth system model that includes the closed, interactive carbon cycle. Applying a detailed reconstruction of past ALCC as only forcing, we simulate the evolution of atmospheric CO2 since AD 800. The contribution of each region to the CO2 increase is then quantified in two ways: (a) using the time integral over the historical ALCC emissions, and (b) taking into account the larger uptake by land and ocean of earlier emissions, by weighting the emissions according to their occurrence in time with an exponential response function fitted to our model. The contribution to the atmospheric CO2 increase that is simulated for regions with substantial historical emissions is over- or underestimated on average by about 25% if no weighting is performed, but may be overestimated by up to 100% for parts of Europe. This emphasizes the relevance of accounting for the historical evolution of regional emissions and global carbon sinks over a millennium timescale to determine a country's contribution to present-day CO2 increase by ALCC. We then determine the strength of ALCC effects counteracting the positive RF of CO2 emissions. Comparing CO2 RF to RF from

  8. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  9. Multi Satellites Monitoring of Land Use/Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in Kashgar Region, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitiaili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The spatio-temporal changes of Land Use/Cover (LUCC) and its driving forces in Kashgar region, central Asia, are investigated by using satellite remote sensing and a GIS thechnics. Main goal of this paper is to quantify the drivers of LUCC. First, considering lack of the Land Cover (LC) map in study area, we produced LC map by using Landsat images. Land use information from Landsat data was collected using maximum likelihood classification method. Second, because the snow provides a key water resources for the study area, snow cover are estimated by Spot Vegetation data. Normalized Difference Snow Index algorithm are applied to make snow cover map, which is used to screen the LUCC and climate change. Third, driving forces are systematically identified by LC maps and statistical data, regarding to the climate changes and socioeconomic development that the spatial correlation among LUCC, snow cover change, climate and socioeconomic changes are quantified by using liner regression model. Our results showed that water bodies, bare land and grass land have decreasing notably. By contrast, crop land and urban area have continually increasing. The area of snow/ice have fluctuated, total annual snow cover has two peaks in 2005 and 2009. With increasing population, crop land reclamation from 6031.4 km2 in 1972 to 16549km2 in 2014 at the study area. Water resources consumption increased with support to large population and irrigate whole crop land area, caused the water shortages that the surface water bodies decreased from 2531.43km2 in the 1972s to 1067.05km2 in the 2014. The results also suggested high linearity between the LUCC and socioeconomic changes that specific land cover change be cause of the fact that socioeconomic development. In the recent 42 years, average annual temperature have been increasing, although, precipitation have increased but partly weaken effect of the rising temperature, in addition snow cover more sensitive to precipitation than temperature

  10. Regional differences of urbanization in the conterminous U.S. on upland forest land cover, 1973-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auch, Roger F.; Drummond, Mark A.; Xian, George Z.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.

    2016-01-01

    In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management.

  11. Quantitative Geomorphological Analysis & Land Use/ Land Cover Change Detection of Two Sub-Watersheds in NE region of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, M.; Singh, S.; Verma, V. K.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the landforms. The delineation of drainage system is of utmost importance in understanding hydrological system of an area, water resource management and it's planning in an effective manner. Morphometric analysis and land use change detection of two sub-watersheds namely Kukar Suha and Ratewal of district Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Punjab, India was carried out for quantitative description of drainage and characterisation. The stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, and other morphometric analysis like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, texture, relief ratio, ruggedness number etc. were measured. The drainage pattern of Kukar Suha and Ratewal is mainly dendritic. The agriculture and settlements came up along the drainage network causes the pattern disturbance in the watershed. The study was undertaken to spotlight the morphometric parameters, their impact on the basin and the land use land cover changes occurred over the period of time. Morphometric parameters such as linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect of the watershed are computed. The land use/land cover change was extracted from LISS IV Mx + Cartosat1 PAN data. ASTER data is used to prepare DEM (digital elevation model) and geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate various morphometric parameters in ArcGIS10 software.

  12. Declining Snow Cover Reduces Radiative Cooling from Historic Land Use Change in the Western Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by rapid changes in both land use and snow cover. The relative importance of these two forces remains unknown but may have important and long-term biophysical effects that are not adequately incorporated into current modeling efforts. Humans have altered the landscape of the Eastern U.S. both historically through deforestation during European settlement and more recently through climatic reductions in snow cover. Here we empirically reconstruct historic albedo in the Eastern U.S. using both modern and historic data. We focus on the Western Great Lakes region (MI, WI, MN, IL, IN), a global hotspot of historic deforestation that spans latitudes where anthropogenic climate modifications have produced important changes in snow cover. We find that vegetation changes have caused an overall increase in regional albedo that is strongest where intensive land use persists (i.e. agriculture) and weakest where forest regrowth has occurred. Changes in snow cover have caused an overall decrease in regional albedo that is about half as strong as increase in albedo due to vegetation change. Although the negative forcings of historic land use change may currently provide a radiative 'discount' on regional warming, these benefits are likely to disappear with time as snow cover decreases and forest regrowth continues.

  13. Modeling the Climatic Impact of Land Cover Changes Using a Regional Model: Sensitivity to Experimental Design and Lateral Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Yu, M.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "ideal but realistic" land cover degradation on the 20th century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified using two different approaches of experimental design: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived from the driving GCMs.

  14. Land cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseniky mountain region: a remote sensing and GIS based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Vozenilek, Vit

    2014-10-01

    The Jeseníky Mountains tourism in Czech Republic is unique for its floristic richness, which is caused mainly by the altitude division and polymorphism of the landscape; climate and oil structure are other important factors. This study assesses the impacts of tourism on the land cover in the Jeseniky mountain region by comparing multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1991, 2001 and 2013) to describe the rate and extent of land-cover change throughout the Jeseniky mountain region. This was achieved through spectral classification of different land cover and by assessing the change in forest; settlements; pasture and agriculture in relation to increasing distances (5, 10 and 15 km) from three tourism site. The results indicate that the area was deforested (11.13%) from 1991 to 2001 than experienced forest regrowth (6.71%) from 2001 to 2013. In first decay pasture and agriculture areas was increase and then in next decay it was decrease. The influence of tourism facilities on land cover is also variable. Around each of the tourism site sampled there was a general trend of forest removal decreasing as the distance from each village increased, which indicates tourism does have a negative impact on forests. However, there was an opposite trend from 2001 to 2013 that indicate conservation area. The interplay among global (tourism, climate), regional (national policies, large-river management), and local (construction and agriculture, energy and water sources to support the tourism industry) factors drives a distinctive but complex pattern of land-use and land-cover disturbance.

  15. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010–2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000–2010 to 2010–2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services. PMID:28754029

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Li, Jingye; Yang, Jianxin; Li, Shicheng; Tang, Wenwu

    2017-07-21

    Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010-2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000-2010 to 2010-2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services.

  17. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  18. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  19. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-09

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  20. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  1. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    PubMed

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Latałowa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Accuracy assessment for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Land-Cover Mapping Program: New York and New Jersey Region

    Treesearch

    Zhiliang Zhu; Limin Yang; Stephen V. Stehman; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other government and private organizations, is producing a conterminous U.S. land-cover map using Landsat Thematic Mapper 30-meter data for the Federal regions designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accuracy assessment is to be conducted for each Federal region to estimate overall and class-specific...

  3. Effects of new MODIS land cover map replacement in a regional climate model on surface temperature and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.

    This study investigates the extent to which utilizing 1-km new the Moderate-resolution Imaging-Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data in the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR's MM5 coupled with Oregon State University (OSU) provides an improved regional diagnosis of near-surface atmospheric state variables as well as characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Those variables are strongly influenced by the energy, matter and momentum exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. MODIS data provides not only a detailed spatial distribution of vegetation, but also a delineation between water bodies and land surface for MM5 high-resolution applications. Advances in remote sensing technology allow MODIS to collect higher-quality data than previous sensors, yielding the most detailed land cover classification maps to date. The new maps are better because the quality of MODIS data is much higher than the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The default 25-category United States Geological Survey (USGS) land cover classification in MM5 was produced using data acquired in from 1992-1993 by AVHRR. Parameter sets of 17-category MODIS land use dataset are determined by making close match between MODIS, USGS and SIB categories to use in OSU land-surface model. 1-km Land-Water Mask (LWM) data is also derived from this new data as an input to MM5. When the MM5 horizontal grid increment is larger than 1-km (4-km and 12-km in current study), the dominant vegetation type in each grid box is selected to represent the ``grid level'' vegetation characteristics. The MODIS data consider the influence of detailed picture of the distribution of Earth's ecosystems in the surface energy and water budget and hence the evolution of the boundary layer. The impact on the near-surface temperature and humidity is given by making comparison between model and observations at selected land surface types.

  4. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, S.; Saha, S. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Chase, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.

    2015-07-01

    Daily moderate rainfall events, that constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 till 2005. Mean and extreme near surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have also increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) with prescribed vegetation cover of 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the above observed changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use land-cover change (LULCC) which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over central India coincides with the region of decreased (increased) forest (crop) cover. The results also show that land-use land-cover alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by maximum of 1-1.2 °C, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease (increase) in forest (crop) cover reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, apart from decreasing the moisture convergence. These factors act together not only in reducing the moderate rainfall events over central India but also the amount of rainfall in that category, significantly. This is the most interesting result of this study. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures. As a result, there is enhanced warming at the surface and decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India. Results from the additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of land-use land-cover change on increase in daily mean and extreme temperature and decrease in moderate rainfall events. This study not only demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over India, but also shows the necessity for inclusion of projected anthropogenic

  5. Thematic accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data for the eastern United States: Statistical methodology and regional results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Smith, J.H.; Yang, L.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or alternate reference label determined for a sample pixel and a mode class of the mapped 3×3 block of pixels centered on the sample pixel. Results are reported for each of the four regions comprising the eastern United States for both Anderson Level I and II classifications. Overall accuracies for Levels I and II are 80% and 46% for New England, 82% and 62% for New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ), 70% and 43% for the Mid-Atlantic, and 83% and 66% for the Southeast.

  6. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  7. Development and testing of a statistical texture model for land cover classification of the Black Sea region with MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaneva, M. G.; Krezhova, D. D.; Yanev, T. K.

    2010-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed for analysis of the texture of land cover types for global and regional land cover classification by using texture features extracted by multiresolution image analysis techniques. It consists of four novel indices representing second-order texture, which are calculated after wavelet decomposition of an image and after texture extraction by a new approach that makes use of a four-pixel texture unit. The model was applied to four satellite images of the Black Sea region, obtained by Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS at different spatial resolution. In single texture classification experiments, we used 15 subimages (50 × 50 pixels) of the selected classes of land covers that are present in the satellite images studied. These subimages were subjected to one-level and two-level decompositions by using orthonormal spline and Gabor-like spline wavelets. The texture indices were calculated and used as feature vectors in the supervised classification system with neural networks. The testing of the model was based on the use of two kinds of widely accepted statistical texture quantities: five texture features determined by the co-occurrence matrix (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment, entropy), and four statistical texture features determined after the wavelet transformation (mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy). The supervised neural network classification was performed and the discrimination ability of the proposed texture indices was found comparable with that for the sets of five GLCM texture features and four wavelet-based texture features. The results obtained from the neural network classifier showed that the proposed texture model yielded an accuracy of 92.86% on average after orthonormal wavelet decomposition and 100% after Gabor-like wavelet decomposition for texture classification of the examined land cover types on satellite images.

  8. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  9. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  10. Analysis of historical forest fire regime in Madrid region (1984-2010) and its relation with land-use/land-cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Nieto, Israel; Martín, María del Pilar; Salas, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between natural and socio-economic factors that determine fire regime is essential to make accurate projections and impact assessments. However, this requires having accurate historical, systematic, homogeneous and spatially explicit information on fire occurrence. Fire databases usually have serious limitations in this regard; therefore other sources of information, such as remote sensing, have emerged as alternatives to generate optimal fire maps on various spatial and temporal scales. Several national and international projects work in order to generate information to study the factors that determine the current fire regime and its future evolution. This work is included in the framework of the project "Forest fires under climate, social and economic Changes in Europe, the Mediterranean and other fire-affected areas of the World" (FUME http://www.fumeproject.eu), which aims to study the changes and factors related to fire regimes through time to determine the potential impacts on vegetation in Mediterranean regions and concrete steps to address future risk scenarios. We analyzed the changes in the fire regime in Madrid region (Spain) in the past three decades (1984-2010) and its relation to land use changes. We identified and mapped fires that have occurred in the region during those years using Landsat satellite images by combining digital techniques and visual analysis. The results show a clear cyclical behaviour of the fire, with years of high incidence (as 1985, 2000 and 2003, highlighted by the number of fires and the area concerned, over 2000 ha) followed by another with a clear occurrence decrease. At the same time, we analyzed the land use changes that have occurred in Madrid region between the early 80s and mid-2000s using as reference the CORINE Land-cover maps (1990, 2000 and 2006) and the Vegetation and Land Use map of the Community of Madrid, 1982. We studied the relationship between fire regimes and observed land

  11. A dynamic analysis of regional land use and cover changing (LUCC) by remote sensing and GIS: taking Fuzhou area as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ming; Chen, Dawei; Huang, Ruihong; Ai, Tinghua

    2010-04-01

    Regional difference of environmental evolvements is one of important aspects in world change research program. Changes in land cover and in the way people use the land have become recognized as important global environmental change in many areas. Land-use and cover changing (LUCC) is one of the major studies of global changing lately. Land-use is the term which covers the condition of used-land, the method, extent, structure, regional distributing and benefits in the land-use. It is affected by the natural condition or is enslaved to the conditions in society, economy and technology, and social production mode plays a decisive role in land-use; land-cover is the state of covering which is formed on account of the earth's surface or contrived by human being, is the summary of vegetation and artificially covering on the earth's surface. So land-use and cover changing is connecting closely. Land-use and cover changing information points that information on the position, distributing, range, and size of land-use and cover changing in the certain time. Motivated by a global concern for sustainability and environmental quality in city, a considerable number of studies have utilized satellite sensor data in the analysis of urban morphological change .some studies focused on the physical and socioeconomic drivers of change in urban land cover and implications on land use practices and resource management. Other studies went beyond the characterization of change and its causes and attempted to integrate remotely sensed data with models of urban growth to project future change. GIS and RS technologies are widely applied for LUCC studies providing a powerful tool for capturing, storing, checking manipulating, merging, analyzing and displaying data. Especially RS technology are also widely used for LUCC studies such as automatic discovery changing, automatic extraction changing area, confirmation changing type, using interactive explanation accessorily to extract the changing

  12. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  13. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  14. High-resolution Land Cover Datasets, Composite Curve Numbers, and Storm Water Retention in the Tampa Bay, FL region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Policy makers need to understand how land cover change alters storm water regimes, yet existing methods do not fully utilize newly available datasets to quantify storm water changes at a landscape-scale. Here, we use high-resolution, remotely-sensed land cover, imperviousness, an...

  15. High-resolution Land Cover Datasets, Composite Curve Numbers, and Storm Water Retention in the Tampa Bay, FL region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Policy makers need to understand how land cover change alters storm water regimes, yet existing methods do not fully utilize newly available datasets to quantify storm water changes at a landscape-scale. Here, we use high-resolution, remotely-sensed land cover, imperviousness, an...

  16. Determining Robust Impacts of Land-Use-Induced Land Cover Changes on Surface Temperature over China and surrounding regions: Results from the First Set of LUCID Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Zheng; Guo, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was designed to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use-land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC that are robust and consistent across the climate models. The biogeophysical impacts of LULCC were also compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases and resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (hereafter SST/CO2). Focusing the analysis on China and surrounding regions, the climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced cooling is directed by decreases in absorbed solar radiation, but its amplitude is 30 to 50% smaller than the one that would be expected from the sole radiative changes. This results from direct impacts on the total turbulent energy flux (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as evapotranspiration efficiency or surface roughness) that decreases at all seasons, and thereby induces a relative warming in all models. The magnitude of those processes varies significantly from model to model, resulting on different climate responses to LULCC.

  17. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  18. The Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Water Yield in the Jing- Jin-Ji Region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suxiao; Yang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Water yield is one of the key ecosystem services sustaining both people's life and economic development. However, the water yield function is sensitive to anthropogenic activity especially the land use and land cover change (LUCC). Assessment of historical LUCC and its impact on water yield could benefit designing and implementing appropriate land use strategy that enhance the water yield capacity. Beijing (Jing) and its surrounding areas of Tianjin (Jin) and Hebei (Ji) is the political, cultural and economic center of China. The region is facing increasingly water crisis. Taking the Jing-Jin-Ji region as a study area, this study analyzed the historical LUCC and its impact on water yield by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to spatially map and quantify the changes of water yield from 1995 to 2010. The results showed there was main decline in area of wetland and forest and increase in area of crop land and built up land. An abrupt decline in water yield was found for year 2000. The water yield was influenced to a great extent by precipitation and evapotranspiration, but the land use played an important role in the water yield capacity (water yield per unit area) through plant cover that affected evapotranspiration, soil water permeability and the capacity of holding the moisture content. By general ranking, the water yield capacity of different land use type was as follows: built-up>bare land>cropland> grassland>forest >wetland, which illustrated that the built-up and bare land had higher run off rate while the vegetation area had higher capacity to control surface run off to increase the groundwater. A good understanding of temporal-spatial allocation of historical LUCC and Water yield of the Jing-Jin-Ji region could help guide land use policy decisions that take into consideration of tradeoffs with respect to spatial distribution of ecosystem services amongst the three administrative entities (Jing-Jin-Ji) and

  19. Regional-scale land-cover change during the 20th century and its consequences for biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Sara A O; Auffret, Alistair G; Lindgren, Jessica; Tränk, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Extensive changes in land cover during the 20th century are known to have had detrimental effects on biodiversity in rural landscapes, but the magnitude of change and their ecological effects are not well known on regional scales. We digitized historical maps from the beginning of the 20th century over a 1652 km(2) study area in southeastern Sweden, comparing it to modern-day land cover with a focus on valuable habitat types. Semi-natural grassland cover decreased by over 96 % in the study area, being largely lost to afforestation and silviculture. Grasslands on finer soils were more likely to be converted into modern grassland or arable fields. However, in addition to remaining semi-natural grassland, today's valuable deciduous forest and wetland habitats were mostly grazed grassland in 1900. An analysis of the landscape-level biodiversity revealed that plant species richness was generally more related to the modern landscape, with grazing management being a positive influence on species richness.

  20. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  1. Albedo and its Relationship to Land Cover and the Urban Heat Island in the Boston Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trlica, A.; Hutyra, L.; Wang, J.; Schaaf, C.; Erb, A.

    2016-12-01

    The urban built environment creates key changes in the biophysical character of the landscape, including the creation of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) with increased near-surface temperatures in and around cities. Alteration in surface albedo is believed to partially drive UHIs through greater absorption of solar energy, but few empirical studies have specifically quantified albedo across a heterogeneous urban landscape, or investigated linkages between albedo, the UHI, and other surface socio-biophysical characteristics at a high enough spatial resolution to discern urban-scale features. This study used data derived from observations by Landsat and other remote sensing platforms to measure albedo across a varied urban landscape centered on Boston, Massachusetts, and examined the relationship between albedo, several key indicators of urban surface character (canopy cover, impervious fraction, and population density) and land surface temperature at resolutions of both 30 and 500 m. Albedo tended to be lower in areas with highest urbanization intensity indicators compared to rural undeveloped areas, and areas with lower albedo tended also to have higher median daytime summer surface temperatures. A k-means classification utilizing all the data available for each pixel revealed several distinct patterns of urban land cover corresponding mainly to the density of population and constructed surfaces and their impact on tree canopy cover. Mean 30-m summer surface temperatures ranged from 40.0 °C (SD = 2.6) in urban core areas to 26.2 °C (SD = 1.1) in nearby forest, but we only observed correspondingly large albedo decreases in the highest density urban core, with mean albedo of 0.116 (SD = 0.015) compared with 0.155 (SD = 0.015) in forest. Observations show that lower albedo in the Boston metropolitan region may be an important component of the local UHI in the most densely built-up urban core regions, while the UHI temperature effect in less densely settled peripheral

  2. Impacts of land use/land cover change on regional carbon dynamics: an investigation along an urban-to-rural gradient in Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Allison L.; Briber, Brittain M.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2016-04-01

    More than half the world's population lives in cities, a fraction which is projected to increase over the next century. Land use and land cover changes associated with the urbanization process have important implications for vegetation and soil carbon cycling. The impact of urbanization on carbon dynamics is poorly understood, representing a major uncertainty in constraining regional carbon budgets. We initiated a suite of field measurements, remote sensing analyses, and modeling activities in order to investigate how urbanization alters carbon dynamics. We found that conversion of forest to urban land uses resulted in a decrease in overall biomass but a marked increase in productivity of the remaining vegetation. We also found that land use patterns had a profound impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on daily, seasonal, and annual timescales. Our results suggest that urbanization has a profound impact on regional carbon dynamics that extends from the time of land use change out well into the future, and the trajectory of urban carbon exchange in the future strongly depends on development patterns.

  3. Assessments of Regional Climate Change and Land-Cover Change Impacts on Fire Weather in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, W. E.; Pei, L.; Tang, Y.; Bian, X.; Zhong, S. S.; Luo, L.; Yu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Wildland fire is recognized as one of the dominant disturbances affecting forests and grasslands throughout the United States (U.S.). The development of long-term wildland fire and fuel management strategies can be aided with an improved understanding of how climate and land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes could potentially affect the occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable for extreme fire behavior and for prescribed-fire usage as a fuel reduction tactic. Using atmospheric reanalysis data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset, current and projected LULC data from the U.S. Geological Survey, and regional climate simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a suite of North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) modeling systems, we have examined recent trends and potential future changes in fire-weather patterns driven by regional climate and LULC changes. This presentation highlights some of the key findings of the assessments, including the identification of specific areas in the U.S. where future climate conditions may lead to more extreme wildfire behavior as quantified by an operational fire-weather index. The implications for wildland fire and fuels management in the U.S. are also presented.

  4. Correlations between land covers and honey bee colony losses in a country with industrialized and rural regions.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Antoine; Eickermann, Michael; Kraus, François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2015-11-01

    High levels of honey bee colony losses were recently reported from Canada, China, Europe, Israel, Turkey and the United States, raising concerns of a global pollinator decline and questioning current land use practices, in particular intense agricultural cropping systems. Sixty-seven crops (data from the years 2010-2012) and 66 mid-term stable land cover classes (data from 2007) were analysed for statistical relationships with the honey bee colony losses experienced over the winters 2010/11-2012/13 in Luxembourg (Western Europe). The area covered by each land cover class, the shortest distance between each land cover class and the respective apiary, the number of plots covered by each land use class and the size of the biggest plot of each land cover class within radii of 2 km and 5 km around 166 apiaries (2010), 184 apiaries (2011) and 188 apiaries (2012) were tested for correlations with honey bee colony losses (% per apiary) experienced in the winter following the season when the crops were grown. Artificial water bodies, open urban areas, large industrial facilities including heavy industry, railways and associated installations, buildings and installations with socio-cultural purpose, camping-, sports-, playgrounds, golf courts, oilseed crops other than oilseed rape like sunflower or linseed, some spring cereals and former forest clearcuts or windthrows were the land cover classes most frequently associated with high honey bee colony losses. Grain maize, mixed forest and mixed coniferous forest were the land cover classes most frequently associated with low honey bee colony losses. The present data suggest that land covers related to transport, industry and leisure may have made a more substantial contribution to winter honey bee colony losses in developed countries than anticipated so far. Recommendations for the positioning of apiaries are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra

    2016-05-01

    Daily moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by a maximum of 1-1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in daily mean and extreme temperature over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over

  6. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  7. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  8. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  9. Using land-cover data to understand effects of agricultural and urban development on regional water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    The Land-Cover Trends project is a collaborative effort between the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary land-use and land-cover change in the United States. The data produced from this research can lead to an enriched understanding of the drivers of future landuse change, effects on environmental systems, and any associated feedbacks. USGS scientists are using the EPA Level III ecoregions as the geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. General land-cover classes for these periods were interpreted from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize and evaluate land-cover change using a modified Anderson Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation.

  10. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  11. Hydrological responses to land use/cover changes in the source region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldesenbet, Tekalegn Ayele; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Ribbe, Lars; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in distinctive land use/land cover (LULC) types influence the basin hydrology would greatly improve the predictability of the hydrological consequences of LULC dynamics for sustainable water resource management. As the main flow contributor to the River Nile, quantifying the effect of LULC change on water resources in the source regions is very important for the assessment of water resources availability and management downstream in the riparian states in general and the study watersheds in particular. In this study, an integrated approach comprising hydrological modeling and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to quantify the contributions of changes in individual LULC classes to changes in hydrological components. Two watersheds, namely Lake Tana and Beles in the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia, were considered for the conduction of hydrological modeling using LULC maps and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In the Tana sub-basin, it is found that expansion of cultivation land and decline in woody shrub are the major contributors to the rise in surface run-off and to the decline in the groundwater component. Similarly, decline of woodland and expansion of cultivation land are the major contributors to the increase in surface run-off and water yield in the Beles sub-basin. Increased run-off and reduced baseflow and actual evapotranspiration would have negative impacts on water resources, especially in relation to erosion and sedimentation in the upper Blue Nile River Basin. As a result, expansion of cultivation land and decline in woody shrub/woodland appear to be major environmental stressors affecting local water resources. The wider implications of the hydrological changes on the Easter Nile water resources are briefly discussed. The approach to assessing changes in basin hydrology could generally be applied to a variety of other watersheds for which temporal digital LULC maps are available.

  12. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951–2005 using a regional climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Goswami, Bhupendra Nath

    2016-05-10

    Daily moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1–1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by a maximum of 1–1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in daily mean and extreme temperature over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of

  13. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951–2005 using a regional climate model

    DOE PAGES

    Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; ...

    2016-05-10

    Daily moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1–1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over centralmore » India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by a maximum of 1–1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in daily mean and extreme temperature over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important

  14. The Effects of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change on Global and Regional Climate in the Preindustrial Holocene: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) scenarios that cover all or part of the preindustrial Holocene (11,700 BP to ~AD 1850) has led to a number of modelling studies on the impacts of land cover change on climate, using both GCMs and regional climate models. Because most ALCC scenarios arrive at similar estimates of anthropogenic deforestation by the late preindustrial, most models agree that the net biogeophysical effect of ALCC by AD 1850 is regional cooling at mid- to high-latitudes and warming and drying over the tropics and subtropics. In particular, tropical deforestation appears to lead to local amplification of externally forced drought cycles, e.g., from ENSO. The spatial extent of these climate changes varies between models because the choice of ALCC scenario leads to large differences in the initial forcing. Those model studies that considered biogeochemical feedbacks show that the importance of preindustrial CO2 emissions ranges from being insignificant to larger than the global biogeophysical feedback, depending on assumptions made about potential natural atmospheric CO2 at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. While the net magnitude of deforestation is similar among ALCC scenarios at AD 1850, the timing of deforestation varies widely, which, in addition to affecting the inferred importance of biogeochemical feedbacks, leads to large differences in the estimated importance of ALCC on climate earlier in the Holocene. For example, modelling experiments performed on Europe and the Mediterranean representing conditions at the peak of the Roman Empire or in Mesoamerica for the Classic Maya period show large differences in the estimated importance of the biogeophysical feedback to regional climate depending on the ALCC scenario used. The wide variety of results gained so far from ALCC and climate modelling experiments shows that the question of "how much did humans influence the state of the Earth System before the

  15. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  16. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  17. Do we need to account for scenarios of land use/land cover changes in regional climate modeling and impact studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc

    2016-04-01

    By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land

  18. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  19. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A.; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission. PMID:27171475

  20. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  1. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  2. Elements of regional beetle faunas: faunal variation and compositional breakpoints along climate, land cover and geographical gradients.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne

    2015-03-01

    Regional faunas are structured by historical, spatial and environmental factors. We studied large-scale variation in four ecologically different beetle groups (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Hydrophiloidea, Cerambycidae) along climate, land cover and geographical gradients, examined faunal breakpoints in relation to environmental variables, and investigated the best fit pattern of assemblage variation (i.e. randomness, checkerboards, nestedness, evenly spaced, Gleasonian, Clementsian). We applied statistical methods typically used in the analysis of local ecological communities to provide novel insights into faunal compositional patterns at large spatial grain and geographical extent. We found that spatially structured variation in climate and land cover accounted for most variation in each beetle group in partial redundancy analyses, whereas the individual effect of each explanatory variable group was generally much less important in accounting for variation in provincial species composition. We also found that climate variables were most strongly associated with faunal breakpoints, with temperature-related variables alone accounting for about 20% of variation at the first node of multivariate regression tree for each beetle group. The existence of faunal breakpoints was also shown by the 'elements of faunal structure' analyses, which suggested Clementsian gradients across the provinces, that is, that there were two or more clear groups of species responding similarly to the underlying ecological gradients. The four beetle groups showed highly similar biogeographical patterns across our study area. The fact that temperature was related to faunal breakpoints in the species composition of each beetle group suggests that climate sets a strong filter to the distributions of species at this combination of spatial grain and spatial extent. This finding held true despite the ecological differences among the four beetle groups, ranging from fully aquatic to fully

  3. Comparison Of Multi-Frequency SAR Land Cover Signatures For Multi-Site Semi-Arid Regions Of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spies, Bernard; Lamb, Alistair; Brown, Sarah, Balzter, Heiko; Fisher, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This study shows the analysis and comparison of different SAR backscatter signatures (σ0 distributions) for distinguishable land cover types over two semi-arid test sites in Africa. The two sites that were chosen are located in Tanzania and Chad, where existing multi- frequency data was available from the different synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archives. Images were grouped into wet and dry season for the Tanzania site, whereas only dry season imagery was available for the Chad site. An IsoData unsupervised classification was applied on all three sets of images to classify seven land cover classes. Random samples were taken from each of the classes, resulting in σ0 distributions for the different classes for each site. These SAR land cover signatures are interpreted and discussed, with further steps identified.

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF THE STRESSORS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE, AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and re~ona1 to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential of those activities. LULC...

  5. AN OVERVIEW OF THE STRESSORS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE, AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and re~ona1 to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential of those activities. LULC...

  6. A comparative analysis of ALOS PALSAR L-band and RADARSAT-2 C-band data for land-cover classification in a tropical moist region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Dutra, Luciano; Batistella, Mateus

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the use of ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSARL-band (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and RADARSAT-2 C-band data for land-cover classification in a tropical moist region. Transformed divergence was used to identify potential textural images which were calculated with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix method. The standard deviation of selected textural images and correlation coefficients between them were then used to determine the best combination of texture images for land-cover classification. Classification results based on different scenarios with maximum likelihood classifier were compared. Based on the identified best scenarios, different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classifier, classification tree analysis, Fuzzy ARTMAP (a neural-network method), k-nearest neighbor, object-based classification, and support vector machine were compared for examining which algorithm was suitable for land-cover classification in the tropical moist region. This research indicates that the combination of radiometric images and their textures provided considerably better classification accuracies than individual datasets. The L-band data provided much better land-cover classification than C-band data but neither L-band nor C-band was suitable for fine land-cover classification system, no matter which classification algorithm was used. L-band data provided reasonably good classification accuracies for coarse land-cover classification system such as forest, succession, agropasture, water, wetland, and urban with an overall classification accuracy of 72.2%, but C-band data provided only 54.7%. Compared to the maximum likelihood classifier, both classification tree analysis and Fuzzy ARTMAP provided better performances, object-based classification and support vector machine had similar performances, and k-nearest neighbor performed poorly. More research should address the use of multitemporal radar data and the

  7. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  8. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  9. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  10. Identifying the fingerprints of the anthropogenic component of land use/land cover changes on regional climate of the USA high plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutiibwa, D.; Irmak, S.

    2011-12-01

    The majority of recent climate change studies have largely focused on detection and attribution of anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases, aerosols, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. However, there is growing evidence that land cover/land use (LULC) change can significantly impact atmospheric processes from local to regional weather and climate variability. Human activities such as conversion of natural ecosystem to croplands and urban-centers, deforestation and afforestation impact biophysical properties of the land surfaces including albedo, energy balance, moisture-holding capacity of soil, and surface roughness. Alterations in these properties affect the heat and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmospheric boundary layer, and ultimately impact the climate system. The challenge is to demonstrate that LULC changes produce a signal that can be discerned from natural climate noise. In this study, we attempt to detect the signature of anthropogenic forcing of LULC change on climate on regional scale. The signal projector investigated for detecting the signature of LULC changes on regional climate of the High Plains of the USA is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI is an indicator that captures short and long-term geographical distribution of vegetation surfaces. The study develops an enhanced signal processing procedure to maximize the signal to noise ratio by introducing a pre-filtering technique of ARMA processes on the investigated climate and signal variables, before applying the optimal fingerprinting technique to detect the signals of LULC changes on observed climate, temperature, in the High Plains. The intent is to filter out as much noise as possible while still retaining the essential features of the signal by making use of the known characteristics of the noise and the anticipated signal. The study discusses the approach of identifying and suppressing the autocorrelation in optimal fingerprint analysis by

  11. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  12. Estimation of evapotranspiration for different land covers in a Brazilian semi-arid region: A case study of the Brígida River basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Celso Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Richarde Marques da; Silva, Alexandro Medeiros; Brasil Neto, Reginaldo Moura

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to compute the surface albedo, vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI and LAI), surface temperature, soil heat flux and evapotranspiration (ET) over two contrasting years (dry and wet) in the Brígida River basin, a semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil. The actual ET was computed during satellite overpass and was integrated for 24 h on a pixel-by-pixel basis for the daily ET distribution. Due to the topographic effects, an attempt was also made to incorporate DEM information to estimate the net radiation. The land cover types identified in the watershed are cropland, bare land, dense canopy, grassland, and caatinga vegetation. In order to study the variation among the biophysical parameters and ET, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. The ET calculated by SEBAL ranged between 2.46 and 6.87 mm/day for the dry year (1990) and 1.31 and 6.84 mm/day for the wet year (2009) for the river basin. The results showed that a reduction in vegetation cover is evident in the temporal and spatial analysis over the studied periods in the region and that these facts influence the values of the energy balance and ET. The results showed significant differences in the variables of land cover type and year at the probability level of 0.05 for all land cover types.

  13. Challenges in Global Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    For the purposes of projecting and anticipating human-induced land use change at the global scale, much work remains in the systematic mapping and modeling of world-wide land uses and their related dynamics. In particular, research has focused on tropical deforestation, loss of prime agricultural land, loss of wild land and open space, and the spread of urbanization. Fifteen years of experience in modeling land use and land cover change at the regional and city level with the cellular automata model SLEUTH, including cross city and regional comparisons, has led to an ability to comment on the challenges and constraints that apply to global level land use change modeling. Some issues are common to other modeling domains, such as scaling, earth geometry, and model coupling. Others relate to geographical scaling of human activity, while some are issues of data fusion and international interoperability. Grid computing now offers the prospect of global land use change simulation. This presentation summarizes what barriers face global scale land use modeling, but also highlights the benefits of such modeling activity on global change research. An approach to converting land use maps and forecasts into environmental impact measurements is proposed. Using such an approach means that multitemporal mapping, often using remotely sensed sources, and forecasting can also yield results showing the overall and disaggregated status of the environment.

  14. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    land cover and their attributes, researchers manipulate the colors recorded by the satellite to get the combination of wavelengths that best distinguishes the spectral signature of the land cover they wish to identify. After an area of forest or water or grass is identified, they can outline the category on an easy-to-analyze, color-coded map. To verify their results, the scientists will often travel to the regions of interest and compare the results of the map with test sites on the ground. next: The Basic Vegetation Map back: Mapping Earth's Diverse Landscapes

  15. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    land cover and their attributes, researchers manipulate the colors recorded by the satellite to get the combination of wavelengths that best distinguishes the spectral signature of the land cover they wish to identify. After an area of forest or water or grass is identified, they can outline the category on an easy-to-analyze, color-coded map. To verify their results, the scientists will often travel to the regions of interest and compare the results of the map with test sites on the ground. next: The Basic Vegetation Map back: Mapping Earth's Diverse Landscapes

  16. A Landscape Indicator Approach to the Identification and Articulation of the Consequences of Land-Cover Change in the Mid-Atlantic Region, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape indicators, derived from land-use and land-cover data, hydrology, nitrate deposition, and elevation data, were used by Jones and others (2001a) to calculate the ecological consequences of land-cover change. Nitrate loading and physical bird habitat were modeled from 1973 and 1992 land-cover and other spatial data for the Mid-Atlantic region. Utilizing the same methods, this study extends the analysis another decade with the use of the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset. Land-cover statistics and trends are calculated for three time periods: 1973-1992, 1992-2001 and 1973-2001. In addition, high-resolution aerial photographs (1 meter or better ground-sample distance) were acquired and analyzed for thirteen pairs of adjacent USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle maps in areas where distinct positive or negative changes to nitrogen loading and bird habitat were previously calculated. During the entire 30 year period, the data show that there was extensive loss of agriculture and forest area and a major increase in urban land-cover classes. However, the majority of the conversion of other classes to urban occurred during the 1992-2001 period. During the 1973-1992 period, there was only moderate increase in urban area, while there was an inverse relationship between agricultural change and forest change. In general, forest gain and agricultural loss was found in areas of improving landscape indicators, and forest loss and agricultural gain was found to occur in areas of declining indicators related to habitat and nitrogen loadings, which was generally confirmed by the aerial photographic analysis. In terms of the specific model results, bird habitat, which is mainly related to the extent of forest cover, declined overall with forest extent, but was also affected more in the decline of habitat quality. Nitrate loading, which is mainly related to agricultural land cover actually improved from 1992-2001, and in the overall study, mainly due to the conversion of agriculture to

  17. Assessment of land cover change and desertification using remote sensing technology in a local region of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamchin, Munkhnasan; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Moonil; Lim, Chul-Hee; Choi, Hyun-Ah; Kim, So-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Desertification is a serious ecological, environmental, and socio-economic threat to the world, and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Hogno Khaan protected area in Mongolia was selected as the study area, and a quantitative method for assessing land cover change and desertification assessment was developed using Landsat TM/ETM+ data on a local scale. In this method, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), TGSI (Topsoil Grain Size Index), and land surface albedo were selected as indicators for representing land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern, and micrometeorology. A Decision Tree (DT) approach was used to assess the land cover change and desertification of the Hogno Khaan protected area in 1990, 2002, and 2011. Our analysis showed no correlation between NDVI and albedo or TGSI but high correlation between TGSI and albedo. Strong correlations (0.77-0.92) between TGSI and albedo were found in the non-desertification areas. The TGSI was less strongly correlated with albedo in the low and non desertification areas, at 0.70 and 0.92; respectively. The desertification of the study area is increasing each year; in the desertification map for 1990-2002, there is a decrease in areas of zero and low desertification, and an increase in areas of high and severe desertification. From 2002 to 2011, areas of non desertification increased significantly, with areas of severe desertification also exhibiting increase, while areas of medium and high desertification demonstrated little change.

  18. Effects of land cover and regional climate variations on long-term spatiotemporal changes in sagebrush ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of climate and land cover change on variation in sagebrush ecosystems. We combined information of multi-year sagebrush distribution derived from multitemporal remote sensing imagery and climate data to study the variation patterns of sagebrush ecosystems under different potential disturbances. We found that less than 40% of sagebrush ecosystem changes involved abrupt changes directly caused by landscape transformations and over 60% of the variations involved gradual changes directly related to climatic perturbations. The primary increases in bare ground and declines in sagebrush vegetation abundance were significantly correlated with the 1996-2006 decreasing trend in annual precipitation.

  19. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Treesearch

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  20. Developed land cover of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of developed land cover in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Developed land cover refers to urban, built-up and non-vegetated areas that result from human activity. These typically include built structures, concrete, asphalt, and other infrastructure. The developed land cover was estimated using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images pan...

  1. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  2. Evaluating land cover influences on model uncertainties—A case study of cropland carbon dynamics in the Mid-Continent Intensive Campaign region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Xuesong; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Zhou, Naijun

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of carbon sources and sinks and their uncertainties across agriculture-dominated areas remains challenging for understanding regional carbon cycles. Characteristics of local land cover inputs could impact the regional carbon estimates but the effect has not been fully evaluated in the past. Within the North American Carbon Program Mid-Continent Intensive (MCI) Campaign, three models were developed to estimate carbon fluxes on croplands: an inventory-based model, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) model. They all provided estimates of three major carbon fluxes on cropland: net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), and soil organic carbon (SOC) change. Using data mining and spatial statistics, we studied the spatial distribution of the carbon fluxes uncertainties and the relationships between the uncertainties and the land cover characteristics. Results indicated that uncertainties for all three carbon fluxes were not randomly distributed, but instead formed multiple clusters within the MCI region. We investigated the impacts of three land cover characteristics on the fluxes uncertainties: cropland percentage, cropland richness and cropland diversity. The results indicated that cropland percentage significantly influenced the uncertainties of NPP and NEP, but not on the uncertainties of SOC change. Greater uncertainties of NPP and NEP were found in counties with small cropland percentage than the counties with large cropland percentage. Cropland species richness and diversity also showed negative correlations with the model uncertainties. Our study demonstrated that the land cover characteristics contributed to the uncertainties of regional carbon fluxes estimates. The approaches we used in this study can be applied to other ecosystem models to identify the areas with high uncertainties and where models can be improved to

  3. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  4. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  5. A Regional Modeling Study of the Influence of Urban Land Cover Change on the Lower Atmosphere in Baltimore-Washington DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J.; Gallo, K.; Pielke, R.; Rozoff, C.; Steyaert, L.

    2001-12-01

    The land-use and land cover (LULC) history of the Baltimore-Washington region has been intensively studied through a variety of environmental research collaborations and regional partnerships. One such partnership, the Baltimore-Washington Regional Collaboratory, involved multiple Federal and local agencies cooperating on a 200-year urban growth study in the Chesapeake region. Information from this study on pre-1900 and current LULC conditions for the Baltimore-Washington DC area was integrated with data from other sources to construct different lower boundary conditions for a series of simulations using the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). We use the RAMS simulations to diagnose the extent and nature of the effect of urban anomalies in surface heat, moisture, and momentum on mid-summer local and regional climate. The experimental design adopted for this study takes advantage of the grid-nesting capability of RAMS. A fine grid with 1km horizontal resolution was nested into a coarser 5 km grid, which extends from southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, to parts of Virginia, and West Virginia. Two sets of month-long simulations for July 2000 were conducted with RAMS running in parallel on a 26-processor cluster of computers at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), CSU. In the first set of simulations, we initially used satellite-derived current land cover data as the lower boundary condition in a 31-day RAMS run. We then replaced this data with the pre-1900 land cover data for the same region and ran a similar RAMS simulation. Identical observed meteorology was retained for the lateral boundary conditions in both cases. The model results for the initial run were validated with July 2000 surface climate data and flux measurements of sensible and latent heat from sites located within the fine grid model domain. Additional simulations were conducted to compare RAMS model performance using prescribed land

  6. Meteorological conditions and land cover as predictors for the prevalence of Bluetongue virus in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua; Wang, Hongbin

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue is a major disease of economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. It is transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the main pastoral areas for farmed sheep in Mainland China and, because of its large area, represents an ideal candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence characteristics. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission in sheep in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land cover and the transmission of the virus was conducted. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the determination of BTV infection in the surveyed animals. Between June 2013 and February 2015, 6199 sheep were subjected to virus detection and 2199 sheep (35.47%) were determined to be positive for BTV. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was used to investigate the relationship between land cover, meteorological factors and the prevalence of BTV infection. Jackknife analysis revealed that the mean monthly temperature, rainfall and average wind speed were associated with the occurrence of BTV infection and that BTV infection positivity was significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland and forest area. Our findings indicate that meteorological factors and land cover may be important variables affecting transmission of BTV and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance programmes for BTV.

  7. Influence of Land Cover Heterogeneity, Land-Use Change and Management on the Regional Carbon Cycle in the Upper Midwest USA as Evaluated by High-Density Observations and a Dynamic Ecosystem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Bolstad, P. V.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Davis, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    The interplay between land use change, forest management and land cover variability complicates the ability to characterize regional scale (10-1000 km) exchange of carbon dioxide between the land surface and atmosphere in heterogeneous landscapes. An attempt was made to observe and model these factors and their influence on the regional carbon cycle across the upper Midwest USA. A high density of eddy-covariance carbon flux, micrometeorology, carbon dioxide mixing ratio, stand-scale biometry and canopy component flux observations have been occurring in this area as part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study. Observations limited to sampling only dominant stands and coarse-resolution biogeochemical models limited to biome-scale parameterization neither accurately capture the variability of carbon fluxes measured by the network of eddy covariance towers nor match the regional-scale carbon flux inferred from very tall tower eddy covariance measurements and multi-site upscaling. Analysis of plot level biometric data, U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis data and high-resolution land cover data around the tall tower revealed significant variations in vegetation type, stand age, canopy stocking and structure. Wetlands, clearcuts and recent natural disturbances occur in characteristic small non-uniformly distributed patches that aggregate to form more than 30% of the landscape. The Ecosystem Demography model, a dynamic ecosystem model that incorporates vegetation heterogeneity, canopy structure, stand age, disturbance, land use change and forest management, was parameterized with regional biometric data and meteorology, historical records of land management and high-resolution satellite land cover maps. The model will be used to examine the significance of past land use change, natural disturbance history and current forest management in explaining landscape structure and regional carbon fluxes observed in the region today.

  8. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  9. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  10. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  11. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover.

  12. Estimating Landscape Pattern Metrics from a Sample of Land Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units (“blocks”) to create a samplin...

  13. Estimating Landscape Pattern Metrics from a Sample of Land Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units (“blocks”) to create a samplin...

  14. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized interannual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  15. Effective UV surface albedo of seasonally snow-covered lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, A.; Manninen, T.

    2007-05-01

    At ultraviolet wavelengths the albedo of most natural surfaces is small with the striking exception of snow and ice. Therefore, snow cover is a major challenge for various applications based on radiative transfer modelling. The aim of this work was to determine the characteristic effective UV range surface albedo of various land cover types when covered by snow. First we selected 1 by 1 degree sample regions that met three criteria: the sample region contained dominantly subpixels of only one land cover type according to the 8 km global land cover classification product from the University of Maryland; the average slope of the sample region was less than 2 degrees according to the USGS's HYDRO1K slope data; the sample region had snow cover in March according to the NSIDC Northern Hemisphere weekly snow cover data. Next we generated 1 by 1 degree gridded 360 nm surface albedo data from the Nimbus-7 TOMS Lambertian equivalent reflectivity data, and used them to construct characteristic effective surface albedo distributions for each land cover type. The resulting distributions showed that each land cover type experiences a characteristic range of surface albedo values when covered by snow. The result is explained by the vegetation that extends upward beyond the snow cover and masks the bright snow covered surface.

  16. Effective UV surface albedo of seasonally snow-covered lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, A.; Manninen, T.

    2007-02-01

    At ultraviolet wavelengths the albedo of most natural surfaces is small with the striking exception of snow and ice. Therefore, snow cover is a major challenge for various applications based on radiative transfer modelling. The aim of this work was to determine the characteristic effective UV range surface albedo of various land cover types when covered by snow. First we selected 1 by 1 degree sample regions that met three criteria: the sample region contained dominantly subpixels of only one land cover type according to the 8 km global land cover classification product from the University of Maryland; the average slope of the sample region was less than 2 degrees according to the USGS's HYDRO1K slope data; the sample region had snow cover in March according to the NSIDC Northern Hemisphere weekly snow cover data. Next we generated 1 by 1 degree gridded 360 nm surface albedo data from the Nimbus-7 TOMS Lambertian equivalent reflectivity data, and used them to construct characteristic effective surface albedo distributions for each land cover type. The resulting distributions showed that each land cover type experiences a characteristic range of surface albedo values when covered by snow. The result is explained by the vegetation that extends upward beyond the snow cover and masks the bright snow covered surface.

  17. Land cover classification for Puget Sound, 1974-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Digital analysis of LANDSAT data for land cover classification projects in the Puget Sound region is surveyed. Two early rural and urban land use classifications and their application are described. After acquisition of VICAR/IBIs software, another land use classification of the area was performed, and is described in more detail. Future applications are considered.

  18. Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator: description: implementing Landsat TM and ETM to detect land cover and land use changes in the mount Cameroon region using the CVA technique with the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator.

    PubMed

    Siwe, Rene Ngamabou; Koch, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    The continuous extraction of wood and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricultural parcels is rapidly changing the land cover of the mount Cameroon region. The changes occur at varying spatial scales most often not more than 2ha for the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance of land use and land cover data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to provide up-to-date change information are required. A number of techniques for realising the detection of land cover dynamics using remotely sensed imagery have been formulated, tested and assessed with the results varying with respect to the change scenario under investigation, the information required and the imagery applied. In this study the Change Vector Analysis (CVA) technique was implemented on multitemporal multispectral Landsat data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensors to monitor the dynamics of forest change in the mount Cameroon region. CVA was applied to multi-temporal data to compare the differences in the time-trajectory of the tasseled cap greenness and brightness for two successive time periods - 1987 and 2002. The tasseled cap was selected as biophysical indicator because it optimises the data viewing capabilities of vegetation, representing the basic types of land cover - vegetation, soil and water. Classes were created arbitrarily to predict the technique's potential in monitoring forest cover changes in the mount Cameroon region. The efficiency of the technique could not be fully assessed due to the inavailability of sufficient ground truth data. Assessment was based on the establishment of an error matrix of change versus no-change. The overall accuracy was 70%. The technique nevertheless demonstrated immense potentials in monitoring forest cover change dynamics especially when complemented with field studies.

  19. West Africa land use land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  20. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Treesearch

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  1. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ROE National Land Cover Data (NLCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This raster dataset comes from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), 2011 version. It represents land cover across the contiguous 48 states, circa 2011. Each 30-meter-square pixel has been classified using a standard land cover classification scheme, and some of these categories have been aggregated further according to procedures outlined in EPA's Report on the Environment (www.epa.gov/roe). Data were originally processed and compiled by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC), a U.S. federal inter-agency group, based on Landsat satellite imagery.

  3. Analysis of impacts of urban land use and land cover on air quality in the Las Vegas region using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.

    2007-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada (USA) has expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. The air quality in the valley has suffered owing to increases from anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide, ozone and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Air quality observations show that pollutant concentrations have apparent heterogeneous characteristics in the urban area. Quantified urban land use and land cover information derived from satellite remote sensing data indicate an apparent local influence of urban development density on air pollutant distributions. Multi‐year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations specify that ozone maximums develop in the May and June timeframe, whereas minimum concentrations generally occur from November to February. The fine particulate matter maximum occurs in July. Ozone concentrations are highest on the west and northwest sides of the valley. Night‐time ozone reduction contributes to the heterogeneous features of the spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggest that the highest ozone and lowest nitrogen oxides concentrations are associated with medium to low density urban development in Las Vegas.

  4. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  5. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  6. THEMATIC ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY AND REGIONAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or a...

  7. THEMATIC ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY AND REGIONAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or a...

  8. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  9. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  10. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  11. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  12. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    Treesearch

    Rezaul Mahmood; Roger A. Pielke; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Dev Niyogi; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Clive McAlpine; Andrew M. Carleton; Robert Hale; Samuel Gameda; Adriana Beltrán-Przekurat; Bruce Baker; Richard McNider; David R. Legates; Marshall Shepherd; Jinyang Du; Peter D. Blanken; Oliver W. Frauenfeld; U.S. Nair; Souleymane. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Land cover changes (LCCs) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation. These impacts range from the local- and regional-scale to sub-continental and global-scale. It has been found that the impacts of regional-scale...

  13. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  14. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water

    Treesearch

    C.L. Burcher; H.M. Valett; E.F. Benfield

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats...

  15. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  16. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  17. Evaluating the relative roles of ecological regions and land-cover composition for guiding establishment of nutrient criteria

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    2005-01-01

    The continuing degradation of United States surface waters by excessive nutrient loads has motivated the establishment of nutrient criteria for streams, lakes, and estuaries as a means to protect aquatic resources. Nutrient criteria have been established based on ecoregional differences, recognizing that geographic variation in climate, topography, geology, and land...

  18. Mapping moderate-scale land-cover over very large geographic areas within a collaborative framework: A case study of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, J.; Ramsey, R.D.; Thomas, K.; Schrupp, D.; Sajwaj, T.; Kirby, J.; Waller, E.; Schrader, S.; Falzarano, S.; Langs, L.; Manis, G.; Wallace, C.; Schulz, K.; Comer, P.; Pohs, K.; Rieth, W.; Velasquez, C.; Wolk, B.; Kepner, W.; Boykin, K.; O'Brien, L.; Bradford, D.; Thompson, B.; Prior-Magee, J.

    2007-01-01

    Land-cover mapping efforts within the USGS Gap Analysis Program have traditionally been state-centered; each state having the responsibility of implementing a project design for the geographic area within their state boundaries. The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was the first formal GAP project designed at a regional, multi-state scale. The project area comprises the southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The land-cover map/dataset was generated using regionally consistent geospatial data (Landsat ETM+ imagery (1999-2001) and DEM derivatives), similar field data collection protocols, a standardized land-cover legend, and a common modeling approach (decision tree classifier). Partitioning of mapping responsibilities amongst the five collaborating states was organized around ecoregion-based "mapping zones". Over the course of 21/2 field seasons approximately 93,000 reference samples were collected directly, or obtained from other contemporary projects, for the land-cover modeling effort. The final map was made public in 2004 and contains 125 land-cover classes. An internal validation of 85 of the classes, representing 91% of the land area was performed. Agreement between withheld samples and the validated dataset was 61% (KHAT = .60, n = 17,030). This paper presents an overview of the methodologies used to create the regional land-cover dataset and highlights issues associated with large-area mapping within a coordinated, multi-institutional management framework. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  20. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  1. Determination of Land Cover/land Use Using SPOT 7 Data with Supervised Classification Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Karakacan Kuzucu, A.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/ land cover (LULC) classification is a key research field in remote sensing. With recent developments of high-spatial-resolution sensors, Earth-observation technology offers a viable solution for land use/land cover identification and management in the rural part of the cities. There is a strong need to produce accurate, reliable, and up-to-date land use/land cover maps for sustainable monitoring and management. In this study, SPOT 7 imagery was used to test the potential of the data for land cover/land use mapping. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which is mostly covered with agricultural fields and forest lands. The potentials of two classification algorithms maximum likelihood, and support vector machine, were tested, and accuracy assessment of the land cover maps was performed through error matrix and Kappa statistics. The results indicated that both of the selected classifiers were highly useful (over 83% accuracy) in the mapping of land use/cover in the study region. The support vector machine classification approach slightly outperformed the maximum likelihood classification in both overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  2. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  3. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  4. Characteristics of the surface-subsurface flow generation and sediment yield to the rainfall regime and land-cover by long-term in-situ observation in the red soil region, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jian-Min; Tang, Chong-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Land cover and rainfall regime are two important factors that affect soil erosion. In this paper, three land cover types - grass cover, litter cover and bare land - were employed to analyze surface runoff, subsurface flow and sediment loss processes in relation to the rainfall regimes in the red soil region of China. Five rainfall regimes were classified according to 393 rainfall events via a k-means clustering method based on the rainfall depth, duration and maximum 30-min intensity. The highest surface runoff coefficient and erosion amount were found on bare land in all five rainfall regimes, and the lowest were found on grass cover. The litter cover generated the highest subsurface flow rate, followed by the grass cover; the lowest was on bare land. For grass cover and litter cover plots, rainfall events of rainfall regime IV which had the longest duration, greatest depth and lowest intensity had the highest surface runoff coefficient, soil erosion amount and subsurface flow rate. For bare land, storm rainfall events of rainfall regime V had the highest intensity, lowest depth and duration, had the highest surface runoff coefficient and soil erosion amount, but the lowest subsurface flow rate. The highest subsurface flow rate of bare land happened in rainfall regime IV. Surface cover was urgently needed to reduce soil erosion. When the lands under dense surface cover, more attention should be paid to rainfall events that of long duration, high depth but low in intensity which commonly occurred in spring. The interactions of surface-subsurface flow and its effects on soil erosion and nutrient loss were worth considering in the red soil region.

  5. An operational methodology for riparian land cover fine scale regional mapping for the study of landscape influence on river ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormos, T.; Kosuth, P.; Souchon, Y.; Villeneuve, B.; Durrieu, S.; Chandesris, A.

    2010-12-01

    Preservation and restoration of river ecosystems require an improved understanding of the mechanisms through which they are influenced by landscape at multiple spatial scales and particularly at river corridor scale considering the role of riparian vegetation for regulating and protecting river ecological status and the relevance of this specific area for implementing efficient and realistic strategies. Assessing correctly this influence over large river networks involves accurate broad scale (i.e. at least regional) information on Land Cover within Riparian Areas (LCRA). As the structure of land cover along rivers is generally not accessible using moderate-scale satellite imagery, finer spatial resolution imagery and specific mapping techniques are needed. For this purpose we developed a generic multi-scale Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) scheme able to produce LCRA maps in different geographic context by exploiting information available from very high spatial resolution imagery (satellite or airborne) and/or metric to decametric spatial thematic data on a given study zone thanks to fuzzy expert knowledge classification rules. A first experimentation was carried out on the Herault river watershed (southern of France), a 2650 square kilometers basin that presents a contrasted landscape (different ecoregions) and a total stream length of 1150 Km, using high and very high multispectral remotely-sensed images (10m Spot5 multispectral images and 0.5m aerial photography) and existing spatial thematic data. Application of the OBIA scheme produced a detailed (22 classes) LCRA map with an overall accuracy of 89% and a Kappa index of 83% according to a land cover pressures typology (six categories). A second experimentation (using the same data sources) was carried out on a larger test zone, a part of the Normandy river network (25 000 square kilometers basin; 6000 km long river network; 155 ecological stations). This second work aimed at elaborating a robust statistical

  6. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover and soil moisture on spin up behaviour of a land surface model in a monsoonal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2015-04-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline one dimensional Noah land surface model is integrated recursively for three years to assess its spin-up behavior at different sites over the Indian Monsoon domain. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of soil category, vegetation cover, initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with the dominant soil and vegetation covers of this region, different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized at different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is seen that the spin-up behavior of the model depends on the soil type and vegetation cover with soil characteristics having the larger influence. Over India, the model has the longest spin-up in the case of simulations with loamy soil covered with mixed-shrub. It is noted that the model has a significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. This observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized just before the Monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon rain episodes has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. Furthermore, it is seen that the model has a shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process and could be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition depending on

  7. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.; Fry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Comparison of IGBP DISCover land cover dataset with a land cover dataset in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Zhuang, Dafang

    2004-09-01

    Land cover information is important for the study of physical, chemical, biological and anthropological process on the surface of earth. Remote sensing data has been used to produce the land cover map by visual interpretation or automatic classification method in the past years. IGBP DISCover land cover dataset is a global land cover dataset based on remote sensing method in recent years. Firstly, we present a method to compare different land cover dataset based on invariant reliable land unit. Secondly, we compare IGBP Discover land cover dataset with Chinese land cover dataset. Finally, we analyze the possible reasons impacting the differences among the land cover classifications. The comparison results show that most of the land surface in China was identified as different types in those two datasets. For example, 63.7% of the deciduous needleleaf forest units in CLCD are mapped to the mixed forest by IDLCD. The different classification scheme and method used in these datasets are most likely the reasons to explain the differences between them.

  9. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  10. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  11. Survey methods for assessing land cover map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Klaas, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for a regional assessment of GAP land cover maps. We focused not only on appropriate sample designs and estimation approaches, but on aspects of the data collection process, such as gaining cooperation of land owners and using pixel clusters as an observation unit. The approach was tested in a pilot study to assess the accuracy of Iowa GAP land cover maps. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design addressed sample size requirements for land covers and the need for geographic spread while minimizing operational effort. Recruitment methods used for private land owners yielded high response rates, minimizing a source of nonresponse error. Collecting data for a 9-pixel cluster centered on the sampled pixel was simple to implement, and provided better information on rarer vegetation classes as well as substantial gains in precision relative to observing data at a single-pixel.

  12. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  13. Classifying land cover from an object-oriented approach - applied to LANDSAT 8 at the regional scale of the Lake Tana Basin (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Hanibal; Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Object-oriented image classification has been gaining prominence in the field of remote sensing and provides a valid alternative to the 'traditional' pixel based methods. Recent studies have proven the superiority of the object-based approach. So far, object-oriented land cover classifications have been applied either at limited spatial coverages (ranging 2 to 1091 km2) or by using very high resolution (0.5-16 m) imageries. The main aim of this study is to drive land cover information for large area from Landsat 8 OLI surface reflectance using the Estimation of Scale Parameter (ESP) tool and the object oriented software eCognition. The available land cover map of Lake Tana Basin (Ethiopia) is about 20 years old with a courser spatial scale (1:250,000) and has limited use for environmental modelling and monitoring studies. Up-to-date and basin wide land cover maps are essential to overcome haphazard natural resources management, land degradation and reduced agricultural production. Indeed, object-oriented approach involves image segmentation prior to classification, i.e. adjacent similar pixels are aggregated into segments as long as the heterogeneity in the spectral and spatial domains is minimized. For each segmented object, different attributes (spectral, textural and shape) were calculated and used for in subsequent classification analysis. Moreover, the commonly used error matrix is employed to determine the quality of the land cover map. As a result, the multiresolution segmentation (with parameters of scale=30, shape=0.3 and Compactness=0.7) produces highly homogeneous image objects as it is observed in different sample locations in google earth. Out of the 15,089 km2 area of the basin, cultivated land is dominant (69%) followed by water bodies (21%), grassland (4.8%), forest (3.7%) and shrubs (1.1%). Wetlands, artificial surfaces and bare land cover only about 1% of the basin. The overall classification accuracy is 80% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.75. With

  14. Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change over South America: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. G. D.; Herdies, D. L.; Souza, D. O. D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in patterns of land use and land cover have great influence on hydrology, climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this work the influences caused by changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil on the behavior of the water balance over South America were evaluated. To fulfill this objective numerical experiments were carried out with the regional model ETA for the period between 1979 and 2008, in which three different conditions of land use and land cover in Brazil was used: 1) Potential Experiment, which are not included the anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover; 2) Control Experiment, in which the map of land use and land cover used the conditions of the 90s; 3) New Experiment, which represents the current conditions of land use and land cover. The results show clearly that the constant changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil cause an increase in precipitation and moisture convergence, and reduced evapotranspiration over the Amazon Region. In other words, it can be stated that with the advance of changes in patterns of land use and land cover, Amazon further intensified their behavior as a sink of moisture, mainly due to increased precipitation and significant reduction in evapotranspiration, noting also that reduction of moisture available in the atmosphere was not offset by increased moisture convergence. The results on the La Plata Basin shows that initially (CONTROL) there is an increase in precipitation and evapotranspiration over the region and reduction in moisture convergence, which is later (NEW) modified to a pattern of reduction in precipitation and evapotranspiration followed by an increase in moisture convergence. These changes in the patterns of land use and land cover of the 90s make the area potentially source of moisture to the atmosphere, even with the reduction in moisture convergence, but reversing their behavior to sink moisture by inserting current vegetation cover modifications, mainly due to reduced

  15. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  16. Revealing Land Cover Change in California With Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Genovese, Vanessa; Gross, Peggy; Boriah, Shyam; Steinbach, Michael; Kumar, Vipin

    2007-06-01

    The conversion of natural land cover into human-dominated cover types continues to be a change of global proportions with many unknown environmental consequences. Noteworthy conversions of this type include tree stand harvests in forested regions, urbanization, and agricultural intensification in former woodland and natural grassland areas. Determining where, when, and why natural ecosystem conversions occur is a crucial scientific concern [Foley et al., 2005]. Characteristics of the land cover can have important impacts on local climate, radiation balance, biogeochemistry, hydrology and the diversity and abundance of terrestrial species [Randerson et al., 2006]. Consequently, understanding trends in land cover conversion at local scales is a requirement for making useful numerical predictions about other regional and global changes. It is urgent that accurate, timely, and economical tools be made available to document these conversions and aid in the management of their impacts.

  17. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  18. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  19. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Alaaddin; Akay, Abdullah E.; Gundogan, Recep

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study, an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance (TOA), was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE) land cover nomenclature, for an area representing the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data of ASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of 83.2% and 0.79, respectively) and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory for CORINE Land Cover Project. PMID:27879763

  20. A methodology to generate a synergetic land-cover map by fusion of different land-cover products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hoyos, A.; García-Haro, F. J.; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a general framework for building a hybrid land-cover map by the synergistic combination of a number of land-cover classifications with different legends and spatial resolutions. The proposed approach assesses class-specific accuracies of datasets and establishes affinity between thematic legends using a common land-cover language such as the UN Land-Cover Classification System (LCCS). The approach is illustrated over a large region in Europe using four land-cover datasets (CORINE, GLC2000, MODIS and GlobCover), but it can be applied to any set of existing products. The multi-classification map is expected to improve the performance of individual classifications by reconciling their best characteristics while avoiding their main weaknesses. The intermap comparison reveals improved agreement of the hybrid map with all other land-cover products and therefore indicates the successful exploration of synergies between the different products. The approach offers also estimates for the classification confidence associated with the pixel label and flexibility to shift the balance between commission and omission errors, which are critical in order to obtain a desired reliable map.

  1. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  2. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  3. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  4. EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory



    Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

  5. EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory



    Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

  6. Integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques for change detection of the land use and land cover (LULC) for soil management in the southern Port Said region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed Abd El Rehim Abd El Aziz

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of land use/land cover (LULC) changes in southern Port Said region area is very important for the planner of managements, governmental and non-governmental organizations, decision makers and the scientific community. This information is essential for planning and implementing policies to optimize the use of natural resources and accommodate development whilst minimizing the impact on the environment. To monitor these changes in the study area, two sets of satellite images (Landsat TM-5 and ETM+7) data were used with Path/Row (175/38) in date 1986 and 2006, respectively. The Landsat TM and ETM data are useful for this type of study due to its high spatial resolution, spectral resolution and low repetitive acquisition (16 days). A postclassification technique is used in this study based on hybrid classification (Unsupervised and Supervised). Each method used was assessed, and checked in field. Eight to Twelve LULC classes are recognized and mapping produced. The soils in southern Port Said area were classification in two orders for soil taxonomic units, which are Entisols and Aridisols and four sub-orders classes. The study land was evaluated into five classes from non suitable (N) to very highly suitable (S1) for some crops in the southern region of Port Said studied soils, with assess the nature of future change following construction of the international coastal road which crosses near to the study area.

  7. USING CLASSIFICATION CONSISTENCY IN INTER-SCENE OVERLAP AREAS TO MODEL SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN LAND-COVER ACCURACY OVER LARGE GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the last decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create systematic national and global data sets of processed satellite imagery. An important application of these data is the derivation of large area (i.e. multi-scene) land cover products. Such products, ho...

  8. USING CLASSIFICATION CONSISTENCY IN INTER-SCENE OVERLAP AREAS TO MODEL SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN LAND-COVER ACCURACY OVER LARGE GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the last decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create systematic national and global data sets of processed satellite imagery. An important application of these data is the derivation of large area (i.e. multi-scene) land cover products. Such products, ho...

  9. Land-Cover and Imperviousness Data for Regional Areas near Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin - 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James A.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the processing and results of land-cover and impervious surface derivation for parts of three metropolitan areas being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE). The data were derived primarily from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery from the period 1999-2002, and are provided as 30-meter resolution raster datasets. Data were produced to a standard consistent with data being produced as part of the USGS National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Program, and were derived in cooperation with, and assistance from, NLCD01 personnel. The data were intended as surrogates for NLCD01 data because of the EUSE Program's time-critical need for updated land-cover for parts of the United States that would not be available in time from the NLCD01 Program. Six datasets are described in this report: separate land-cover (15-class categorical data) and imperviousness (0-100 percent continuous data) raster datasets for parts of the general Denver, Colorado area (South Platte River Basin), Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas area (Trinity River Basin), and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin area (Western Lake Michigan Drainages).

  10. Impact of land cover types and components on urban heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. T.; Cai, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper discussed the impact of the distribution of parks including water bodies on the relief of urban heat. An image of QuickBird on Aug. 30, 2013 was employed to perform the detailed land cover classification. One swath of Landsat 8 THIR image was collected to derive the land surface temperature. After some necessary preprocessing procedures, object-based classification method was used to classify the land cover as residential region, square and road, water body, as well as park. The results showed that water bodies and parks play an important role in reducing the land surface temperature. Grass, shrub and trees were extracted out respectively by manual from parks that were adopted to test the influence of proportions among trees, shrubs and grass on the fluctuation of land surface temperature in urban area. The results achieved in this paper could be helpful for the local governments to make a decision in urban plan and management.

  11. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  12. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil temperature variability under different land covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyerova, Katerina; Safanda, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this presentation is to detect how far are soil temperatures influenced by type of the land cover. We analysed soil temperature data under different types of land cover (grass, bare soil, sand, and asphalt) in the period 2003 - 2015. The measurements took place on the grounds of the Institute of Geophysics in Prague (Czech Republic). Soil temperature data were collected from various depths (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cm). Moreover, meteorological data such as air temperature, incoming solar radiation, precipitation etc. were collected too. In this contribution, results of soil temperature measurements from 2 cm and 50 cm depths and selected meteorological properties are presented. Since the temperature regime is changing during the year, various temporal resolutions were chosen - hour, day, month, season and annual. This allow us to see how/if different types of land cover have influence on soil temperatures in different parts of the year. One of the studied factors was coefficient of variation (CV). It allows us to compare soil temperature datasets under different land covers in relation with their mean. In high temporal resolution (hours) the highest CV was found under the asphaltic land cover. CV in 2 cm under the bare soil and sand is almost as high as under the asphalt. The lowest CV was found under the grassy surface both in 2 cm and 50 cm depths. Under the sand, CV is slightly lower than under the bare soil, but has higher mean temperature than the bare soil. In lower temporal resolution (years) CV in both 2 cm and 50 cm depths is similar. The lower temporal resolution the lower soil temperature variability. We also analysed a temperature offset (difference between soil and air temperature) in selected depths to detect possible surface specific coupling between soil and air temperature. Soil is warmer than air in general, but significant differences can be found over various land cover types. Soil under the grass in on average 1°C warmer than air, soil

  14. National land cover monitoring using large, permanent photo plots

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Glenn P. Catts; Paul W. Snook

    1987-01-01

    A study in the State of North Carplina, U.S.A. demonstrated that large, permanent photo plots (400 hectares) can be used to monitor large regions of land by using remote sensing techniques. Estimates of area in a variety of land cover categories were made by photointerpretation of medium-scale aerial photography from a single month using 111 photo plots. Many of these...

  15. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  16. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in land-use and land-cover inventory tasks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The bibliography contains more than 300 citations of selected publications on the application of remote-sensing techniques to regional and metropolitan land-use and land-cover inventroy and analysis tasks.  Most of the citations were published between January 1968 and June 1977, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  17. Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

  18. Observing and monitoring land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; DeFries, R.; DeFries, R.; Asner, G.; Houghton, R.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled:Detecting Change at Multiple Spatial and Temporal ScalesDefining Observation and MonitoringTools for Change Observation and MonitoringMonitoring Change in Land CoverThe Characteristics of ChangeIntegrated Analysis of Change: Case Examples and Studies ChallengesAdvancing the State-of-the-Science in Change Observation and Monitoring

  19. Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.; Groisman, P.; Reissell, A.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation is an overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in the surface reflectivity and hydrology due to changes in snow melt timing; impacts of black carbon emitted by fires and settled on bright surfaces; changes in sea ice and the consequent change in ocean circulation affecting vegetation cover patterns indirectly; and changes in the amounts of greenhouse gases emission due to permafrost melting, especially in peatlands, as warming progresses. The Arctic Eurasia is being affected by global and regional external factors that are causing its change and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. If the warming trend continues it will have a tremendous impact on all aspects of land cover in the Arctic region with considerable consequences at the global scale. It will cause significant changes in the natural land cover, and perhaps even greater changes in the areas where the land cover has already been considerably modified by human activities. Major changes have already taken place in how land is used in the Arctic. In many regions, there has been a clear shift from the land use practiced by indigenous people to intensive exploitation of the land for commercial and industrial uses. Results on the climate/environment - land-cover interactions will be presented.

  20. Land-Cover and Land-Use Change under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.

    2009-04-01

    An overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic will be presented. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in the surface reflectivity and hydrology due to changes in snow melt timing; impacts of black carbon emitted by fires and settled on bright surfaces; changes in sea ice and the consequent change in ocean circulation affecting vegetation cover patterns indirectly; and changes in the amounts of greenhouse gases emission due to permafrost melting, especially in peatlands, as warming progresses. The Arctic Eurasia is being affected by global and regional external factors that are causing its change and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. If the warming trend continues it will have a tremendous impact on all aspects of land cover in the Arctic region with considerable consequences at the global scale. It will cause significant changes in the natural land cover, and perhaps even greater changes in the areas where the land cover has already been considerably modified by human activities. Major changes have already taken place in how land is used in the Arctic. In many regions, there has been a clear shift from the land use practiced by indigenous people to intensive exploitation of the land for commercial and industrial uses. Results on the climate/environment - land-cover interactions will be presented.

  1. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  2. Development of an Independent Global Land Cover Validation Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C. E.; Holden, C.; Metcalfe, M.; Friedl, M. A.; Stehman, S. V.; Herold, M.; Giri, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate information related to the global distribution and dynamics in global land cover is critical for a large number of global change science questions. A growing number of land cover products have been produced at regional to global scales, but the uncertainty in these products and the relative strengths and weaknesses among available products are poorly characterized. To address this limitation we are compiling a database of high spatial resolution imagery to support international land cover validation studies. Validation sites were selected based on a probability sample, and may therefore be used to estimate statistically defensible accuracy statistics and associated standard errors. Validation site locations were identified using a stratified random design based on 21 strata derived from an intersection of Koppen climate classes and a population density layer. In this way, the two major sources of global variation in land cover (climate and human activity) are explicitly included in the stratification scheme. At each site we are acquiring high spatial resolution (< 1-m) satellite imagery for 5-km x 5-km blocks. The response design uses an object-oriented hierarchical legend that is compatible with the UN FAO Land Cover Classification System. Using this response design, we are classifying each site using a semi-automated algorithm that blends image segmentation with a supervised RandomForest classification algorithm. In the long run, the validation site database is designed to support international efforts to validate land cover products. To illustrate, we use the site database to validate the MODIS Collection 4 Land Cover product, providing a prototype for validating the VIIRS Surface Type Intermediate Product scheduled to start operational production early in 2013. As part of our analysis we evaluate sources of error in coarse resolution products including semantic issues related to the class definitions, mixed pixels, and poor spectral separation between

  3. The Land Cover Dynamics and Conversion of Agricultural Land in Northwestern Bangladesh, 1973-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Seelan, S. K.; Rundquist, B. C.

    2006-05-01

    The importance of land cover information describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time is increasing; this is especially true in Bangladesh, where land cover is changing rapidly. This paper presents research into the land cover dynamics of northwestern Bangladesh for the period 1973-2003 using Landsat satellite images in combination with field survey data collected in January and February 2005. Land cover maps were produced for eight different years during the study period with an average 73 percent overall classification accuracy. The classification results and post-classification change analysis showed that agriculture is the dominant land cover (occupying 74.5 percent of the study area) and is being reduced at a rate of about 3,000 ha per year. In addition, 6.7 percent of the agricultural land is vulnerable to temporary water logging annually. Despite this loss of agricultural land, irrigated agriculture increased substantially until 2000, but has since declined because of diminishing water availability and uncontrolled extraction of groundwater driven by population pressures and the extended need for food. A good agreement (r = 0.73) was found between increases in irrigated land and the depletion of the shallow groundwater table, a factor affecting widely practiced small-scale irrigation in northwestern Bangladesh. Results quantified the land cover change patterns and the stresses placed on natural resources; additionally, they demonstrated an accurate and economical means to map and analyze changes in land cover over time at a regional scale, which can assist decision makers in land and natural resources management decisions.

  4. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  5. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    W.A. Gould; S. Martinuzzi; I.K. Páres-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land...

  6. AN INTER-AGENCY APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  7. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency progranl that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  8. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency progranl that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  9. AN INTER-AGENCY APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  10. Incorporating anthropogenic land cover changes into studies of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Martina; Brandt, Martijn; van den Hurk, Bart

    2010-05-01

    The recently developed reconstruction of historical landuse data based on HYDE in combination with a set of 4 land use scenarios enables the analysis of transient land cover change impacts on regional and global climate. In this study, the impact of land cover changes on selected climate parameters for the period 1850 to 2100 is analyzed with the earth system model EC-Earth. EC-Earth builds upon the Operational Seasonal Forecast System 3 of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and works at a resolution of T159L62. Altered surface parameters due to changes in global vegetation cover are accounted for in the model by adjusting vegetation types, vegetation cover, roughness length and, most importantly, albedo. The impact of past and future land-use activities on climate is potentially significant, since managed croplands and pastures are now among the largest ecosystems on the planet, with a total share of 35% of the ice-free land surface. Their surface parameters differ largely from those of most natural vegetations they replace. The direction of change, however, merits careful analysis, as effects of opposing signs can occur. These largely cancel out on a global basis but can have significant impacts on the regional scale. This study will therefore identify hotspots of climate-vegetation interaction, and further assess the performance of the model by means of the commonly used performance index (PI).

  11. Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Gebelein, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This report is produced in accordance with the requirements outlined in the NASA Research Grant NAG9-1032 titled "Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery". This grant funds the Remote Sensing Research Unit of the University of California, Santa Barbara. This document summarizes the research progress and accomplishments to date and describes current on-going research activities. Even though this grant has technically expired, in a contractual sense, work continues on this project. Therefore, this summary will include all work done through and 5 May 1999. The principal goal of this effort is to test the accuracy of a sub-regional portion of an AVHRR-based land cover product. Land cover mapped to three different classification systems, in the southwestern United States, have been subjected to two specific accuracy assessments. One assessment utilizing astronaut acquired photography, and a second assessment employing Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, augmented in some cases, high aerial photography. Validation of these three land cover products has proceeded using a stratified sampling methodology. We believe this research will provide an important initial test of the potential use of imagery acquired from Shuttle and ultimately the International Space Station (ISS) for the operational validation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land cover products.

  12. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  13. Land Cover Change in the Boston Mountains, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) to develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data to measure regional land-cover change across the United States; (2) to characterize the types, rates, and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period; (3) to document regional driving forces and consequences of change; and (4) to prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). The 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) provide the geographic framework for the geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000, and the data are evaluated using a modified Anderson Land Use Land Cover Classification System (Anderson and others, 1976) for image interpretation. The rates of land-cover change are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historic aerial photographs from similar time frames and other ancillary data, such as census statistics and published literature, are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. Field data of the sample blocks include direct measurements of land cover, particularly ground-survey data collected for training and validation of image classifications (Loveland and others, 2002). The field experience allows for additional

  14. A preliminary evaluation of land use mapping and change detection capabilities using an ERTS image covering a portion of the CARETS region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A preliminary study on the capabilities of ERTS data in land use mapping and change detection was carried out in the area around Frederick County, Maryland, which lies in the northwest corner of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site. The investigation has revealed that Level 1 (of the Anderson classification system) land use mapping can be performed and that, in some cases, land undergoing change can be identified. Results to date suggest that more work should be done in areas where land use changes are known to exist, in order to establish some form of base for recognizing the spectral signature indicative of change areas.

  15. Sensitivity of selected landscape pattern metrics to land-cover misclassification and differences in land-cover composition

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    1997-01-01

    Calculation of landscape metrics from land-cover data is becoming increasingly common. Some studies have shown that these measurements are sensitive to differences in land-cover composition, but none are known to have tested also their a sensitivity to land-cover misclassification. An error simulation model was written to test the sensitivity of selected land-scape...

  16. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Ma, Zhuguo; Mahmood, Rezaul; Zhao, Tianbao; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Yanping

    2017-08-01

    Reliable land cover data are important for improving numerical simulation by regional climate model, because the land surface properties directly affect climate simulation by partitioning of energy, water and momentum fluxes and by determining temperature and moisture at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. China has experienced significant land cover change in recent decades and accurate representation of these changes is, hence, essential. In this study, we used a climate model to examine the changes experienced in the regional climate because of the different land cover data in recent decades. Three sets of experiments are performed using the same settings, except for the land use/cover (LC) data for the years 1990, 2000, 2009, and the model default LC data. Three warm season periods are selected, which represented a wet (1998), normal (2000) and a dry year (2011) for China in each set of experiment. The results show that all three sets of land cover experiments simulate a warm bias relative to the control with default LC data for near-surface temperature in summertime in most parts of China. It is especially noticeable in the southwest China and south of the Yangtze River, where significant changes of LC occurred. Deforestation in southwest China and to the south of Yangtze River in the experiment cases may have contributed to the negative precipitation bias relative to the control cases. Large LC changes in northwestern Tibetan Plateau for 2000 and 2009 datasets are also associated with changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and heat fluxes. Wind anomalies and energy budget changes are consistent with the precipitation and temperature changes.

  17. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Ma, Zhuguo; Mahmood, Rezaul; Zhao, Tianbao; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Yanping

    2016-09-01

    Reliable land cover data are important for improving numerical simulation by regional climate model, because the land surface properties directly affect climate simulation by partitioning of energy, water and momentum fluxes and by determining temperature and moisture at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. China has experienced significant land cover change in recent decades and accurate representation of these changes is, hence, essential. In this study, we used a climate model to examine the changes experienced in the regional climate because of the different land cover data in recent decades. Three sets of experiments are performed using the same settings, except for the land use/cover (LC) data for the years 1990, 2000, 2009, and the model default LC data. Three warm season periods are selected, which represented a wet (1998), normal (2000) and a dry year (2011) for China in each set of experiment. The results show that all three sets of land cover experiments simulate a warm bias relative to the control with default LC data for near-surface temperature in summertime in most parts of China. It is especially noticeable in the southwest China and south of the Yangtze River, where significant changes of LC occurred. Deforestation in southwest China and to the south of Yangtze River in the experiment cases may have contributed to the negative precipitation bias relative to the control cases. Large LC changes in northwestern Tibetan Plateau for 2000 and 2009 datasets are also associated with changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and heat fluxes. Wind anomalies and energy budget changes are consistent with the precipitation and temperature changes.

  18. Land use and land cover, 1972-77, Culpeper Basin, Virginia-Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1980-01-01

    In showing land use and land cover in the Culpeper Basin, this map features a consistent level of detail and standardization of categories.  The use of the 1:125,000 compilation scale is appropriate, because this type of data is used frequently for different purposes by people representing several disciplines- land use planners, land managers, resource managemnet planners, and others.  For example, maps and data similar to this publication have been used for river basin planning, for analysis of land use and land cover changes relative to recreation, for river quality assessment, for preparation of environmental impact statements, and for studies on urbanization.  These efforts have been made at the multicounty regional, State, and Federal levels.

  19. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  20. Commentary: A cautionary tale regarding use of the National Land Cover Dataset 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Knutson, Melinda G.; Fox, Timothy J.; Suarez, Manuel J.

    2004-01-01

    Digital land-cover data are among the most popular data sources used in ecological research and natural resource management. However, processes for accurate land-cover classification over large regions are still evolving. We identified inconsistencies in the National Land Cover Dataset 1992, the most current and available representation of land cover for the conterminous United States. We also report means to address these inconsistencies in a bird-habitat model. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to position a regular grid (or lattice) over the upper midwestern United States and summarized the proportion of individual land covers in each cell within the lattice. These proportions were then mapped back onto the lattice, and the resultant lattice was compared to satellite paths, state borders, and regional map classification units. We observed mapping inconsistencies at the borders between mapping regions, states, and Thematic Mapper (TM) mapping paths in the upper midwestern United States, particularly related to grass I and-herbaceous, emergent-herbaceous wetland, and small-grain land covers. We attributed these discrepancies to differences in image dates between mapping regions, suboptimal image dates for distinguishing certain land-cover types, lack of suitable ancillary data for improving discrimination for rare land covers, and possibly differences among image interpreters. To overcome these inconsistencies for the purpose of modeling regional populations of birds, we combined grassland-herbaceous and pasture-hay land-cover classes and excluded the use of emergent-herbaceous and small-grain land covers. We recommend that users of digital land-cover data conduct similar assessments for other regions before using these data for habitat evaluation. Further, caution is advised in using these data in the analysis of regional land-cover change because it is not likely that future digital land-cover maps will repeat the same problems, thus resulting in

  1. Development of a land-cover characteristics database for the conterminous U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Merchant, J.W.; Ohlen, D.O.; Brown, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Information regarding the characteristics and spatial distribution of the Earth's land cover is critical to global environmental research. A prototype land-cover database for the conterminous United States designed for use in a variety of global modelling, monitoring, mapping, and analytical endeavors has been created. The resultant database contains multiple layers, including the source AVHRR data, the ancillary data layers, the land-cover regions defined by the research, and translation tables linking the regions to other land classification schema (for example, UNESCO, USGS Anderson System). The land-cover characteristics database can be analyzed, transformed, or aggregated by users to meet a broad spectrum of requirements. -from Authors

  2. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  3. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  4. Strong dependence of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change on initial land cover and soil carbon parametrization

    DOE PAGES

    Goll, Daniel S.; Brovkin, Victor; Liski, Jari; ...

    2015-08-12

    The quantification of sources and sinks of carbon from land use and land cover changes (LULCC) is uncertain. We investigated how the parametrization of LULCC and of organic matter decomposition, as well as initial land cover, affects the historical and future carbon fluxes in an Earth System Model (ESM). Using the land component of the Max Planck Institute ESM, we found that the historical (1750–2010) LULCC flux varied up to 25% depending on the fraction of biomass which enters the atmosphere directly due to burning or is used in short-lived products. The uncertainty in the decadal LULCC fluxes of themore » recent past due to the parametrization of decomposition and direct emissions was 0.6 Pg C yr$-$1, which is 3 times larger than the uncertainty previously attributed to model and method in general. Preindustrial natural land cover had a larger effect on decadal LULCC fluxes than the aforementioned parameter sensitivity (1.0 Pg C yr$-$1). Regional differences between reconstructed and dynamically computed land covers, in particular, at low latitudes, led to differences in historical LULCC emissions of 84–114 Pg C, globally. This effect is larger than the effects of forest regrowth, shifting cultivation, or climate feedbacks and comparable to the effect of differences among studies in the terminology of LULCC. Finally, in general, we find that the practice of calibrating the net land carbon balance to provide realistic boundary conditions for the climate component of an ESM hampers the applicability of the land component outside its primary field of application.« less

  5. African land-cover classification using satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Goff, T. E.; Townshend, J. R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer sensor on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational series of meteorological satellites were used to classify land cover and monitor vegetation dynamics for Africa over a 19-month period. There was a correspondence between seasonal variations in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation and the patterns of rainfall associated with the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Regional variations, such as the 1983 drought in the Sahel of western Africa, were observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time for a 12-month period produced a remotely sensed estimate of primary production based upon the density and duration of green leaf biomass. Eight of the 21-day composited data sets covering an 11-month period were used to produce a general land-cover classification that corresponded well with those of existing maps.

  6. The regional impact of Land-Use Land-cover Change (LULCC) over West Africa from an ensemble of global climate models under the auspices of the WAMME2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Aaron Anthony; Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Comer, Ruth E.; Hagos, Samson; Mahanama, Sarith; Schiro, Kathleen; Song, Guoqiong; Wang, Guiling; Li, S.; Mechoso, Carlos R.

    2016-12-01

    The population of the Sahel region of West Africa has approximately doubled in the past 50 years, and could potentially double again by the middle of this century. This has led to the northward expansion of agricultural areas at the expense of natural savanna, leading to widespread land use -land cover change (LULCC). Because there is strong evidence of significant surface-atmosphere coupling in this region, one of the main goals of the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project phase II is to provide basic understanding of LULCC on the regional climate, and to evaluate the sensitivity of the seasonal variability of the West African Monsoon to LULCC. The prescribed LULCC is based on the changes from 1950 through 1990, representing a maximum feasible degradation scenario in the past half century. It is applied to 5 state of the art global climate models (GCMs) over a 6-year simulation period. Multiple GCMs are used because the magnitude of the impact of LULCC depends on model-dependent coupling strength between the surface and the overlying atmosphere, the magnitude of the surface biophysical changes, and how the key processes linking the surface with the atmosphere are parameterized within a particular model framework. Land cover maps and surface parameters may vary widely among models; therefore a special effort was made to impose consistent biogeophysical responses of surface parameters to LULCC using a simple experimental setup. The prescribed LULCC corresponds to degraded vegetation conditions, which mainly cause increases in the Bowen ratio and decreases in the surface net radiation, and result in a significant reduction in surface evaporation (upwards of 1 mm day-1 over a large part of the Sahel). This, in turn, mainly leads to less moisture convergence and precipitation over the LULCC zone. The overall impact is a rainfall reduction with every model, which ranges across models from 4 to 25 % averaged over the Sahel, and a southward shift of the

  7. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  8. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  9. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  10. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  11. Examining the impact of land cover change for biofuel production on the Midwestern U.S. hydroclimate using a regional climate model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, K. J.; Twine, T. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Bagley, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been proposed as cellulosic feedstocks for U.S. biofuel production because their high productivity and low inputs could reduce net CO2 emissions. Possible biogeochemical feedbacks of widespread production have been extensively studied, but less attention has been given to the two-way biophysical interactions between the land surface and regional climate. Miscanthus uses significantly more water than maize, resulting in large evapotranspiration (ET) increases upon conversion from maize to Miscanthus that could impact regional precipitation, precipitation recycling, and soil moisture. In this study, we simulate perennial grass production in a fully coupled regional climate model with dynamic vegetation, enabling an investigation into the two-way responses between these potential biofuels and the climate over the Mississippi River Basin. We incorporated algorithms of miscanthus and switchgrass growth and management from the Agro-IBIS model into with WRF-CLM4crop, a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to the Community Land Model with dynamic crop growth and irrigation enabled. Using suggested production regions from the United States Department of Energy, we performed simulations driven with 10 years of NCEP-DOE Reanalysis (NCEP2) data, with 25%, 50%, and 75% of current croplands replaced by perennial grass feedstocks. Our results provide spatially explicit maps of how simulated ET increased with conversion and the resulting regional cooling, greater precipitation, and precipitation recycling over the region.

  12. A satellite based scheme for predicting the effects of land cover change on local microclimate and surface hydrology: Development of an operational regional planning tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Sandra Traci

    Humans have diverse goals for their use of land: mining, water supply, aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, transportation, housing, etc. Any individual living within an actively developing community can look back in time and note how, perhaps slowly but nonetheless dramatically, the total land area dedicated to human use has increased. As our society's basic functioning intensifies, the disappearance of "free" open space is apparent---today, even conservation areas are carefully designated, mapped and controlled. This transition in land use is a result of many individual decisions that occur throughout space and time, often with little concern for the potential impacts on the local environment. Two specific environmental components---the microclimate and surface hydrology---are the focus of this thesis. This study, as well as related tools and bodies of knowledge, should be used to broaden the scientific basis behind land use management decisions. It will be shown that development can induce predictable changes in measures of the local radiant surface temperature and evapotranspiration fraction---as long as certain features of the development are known. Specifically, the vegetation changes that accompany the development must be noted, as well as the initial climatic state of the land parcel. Additionally, plots of runoff vs. rainfall for gauged basins will be interpreted in terms of the proportion of the basin contributing to a storm event's runoff signal. For a particular basin, four distinct runoff responses, separated by season and antecedent moisture conditions, will be distinguished. The response for the non-summer months under typical antecedent moisture conditions will be shown to be the most representative of and responsive to a basin's land use patterns. A scheme that makes use of satellite-derived land cover patterns and other physical attributes of the basin in order to determine this particular runoff response will be presented. The Soil Conservation

  13. National climate assessment technical report on the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas; Mahmood, Rezaul; Patel-Weynand, Toral; Karstensen, Krista; Beckendorf, Kari; Bliss, Norman; Carleton, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This technical report responds to the recognition by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the importance of understanding how land use and land cover (LULC) affects weather and climate variability and change and how that variability and change affects LULC. Current published, peer-reviewed, scientific literature and supporting data from both existing and original sources forms the basis for this report's assessment of the current state of knowledge regarding land change and climate interactions. The synthesis presented herein documents how current and future land change may alter environment processes and in turn, how those conditions may affect both land cover and land use by specifically investigating, * The primary contemporary trends in land use and land cover, * The land-use and land-cover sectors and regions which are most affected by weather and climate variability,* How land-use practices are adapting to climate change, * How land-use and land-cover patterns and conditions are affecting weather and climate, and * The key elements of an ongoing Land Resources assessment. These findings present information that can be used to better assess land change and climate interactions in order to better assess land management and adaptation strategies for future environmental change and to assist in the development of a framework for an ongoing national assessment.

  14. Impact of future land use and land cover changes on atmospheric chemistry-climate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, Laurens; Bouwman, Lex; Stehfest, Elke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Eickhout, Bas; Lelieveld, Jos

    2010-12-01

    To demonstrate potential future consequences of land cover and land use changes beyond those for physical climate and the carbon cycle, we present an analysis of large-scale impacts of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry using the chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) constrained with present-day and 2050 land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions scenarios. Future land use and land cover changes are expected to result in an increase in global annual soil NO emissions by ˜1.2 TgN yr-1 (9%), whereas isoprene emissions decrease by ˜50 TgC yr-1 (-12%). The analysis shows increases in simulated boundary layer ozone mixing ratios up to ˜9 ppbv and more than a doubling in hydroxyl radical concentrations over deforested areas in Africa. Small changes in global atmosphere-biosphere fluxes of NOx and ozone point to compensating effects. Decreases in soil NO emissions in deforested regions are counteracted by a larger canopy release of NOx caused by reduced foliage uptake. Despite this decrease in foliage uptake, the ozone deposition flux does not decrease since surface layer mixing ratios increase because of a reduced oxidation of isoprene by ozone. Our study indicates that the simulated impact of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry depends on a consistent representation of emissions, deposition, and canopy interactions and their dependence on meteorological, hydrological, and biological drivers to account for these compensating effects. It results in negligible changes in the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and, consequently, in the lifetime of methane. Conversely, we expect a pronounced increase in oxidizing capacity as a consequence of anthropogenic emission increases.

  15. Estimation of Croplands in West Africa using Global Land Cover and Land Use Datasets: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    Africa is vulnerable to the effects of global climate change resulting in reduced agricultural production and worsening food security. Studies show that Africa has the lowest cereal yield compared to other regions of the world. The situation is particularly dire in East, Central and West Africa. Despite their low cereal yield, the population of East, Central and West Africa has doubled between 1980 and 2007. Furthermore, West Africa has a history of severe and long droughts which have occasionally caused widespread famine. To understand how global climate change and land cover change have impacted crop production (yield) it is important to estimate croplands in the region. The objective of this study is to compare ten publicly available land cover and land use datasets, covering different time periods, to estimate croplands in West Africa. The land cover and land use data sets used cover the period from early 1990s to 2010. Preliminary results show a high variability in cropland estimates. For example, in Benin, the estimated cropland area varies from 2.5 to 21% of the total area, while it varies from 3 to 8% in Niger. Datasets with a finer resolution (≤ 1,000 m) have consistently estimated comparable cropland areas across all countries. Several categorical verification statistics such as probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR) and critical success index are also used to analyze the correspondence between estimated and observed cropland pixels at the scales of 1 Km and 10 Km.

  16. Continental land cover classification using satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Tucker, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Four different approaches to the classification of land cover for whole continents using multitemporal images of the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer of the NOAA series of satellites are discussed. The first approach uses only two dates from different seasons and classification dependent upon subdivision of the resultant two-dimensional feature space by an analyst using a track ball. The second approach involves a similar method of partitioning the feature space, but with the two dimensions being the first and second principal components derived from 13 four-week composite images. The third approach uses the maximum likelihood rule to derive the classified map. In the fourth approach, the amount of deviation from characteristic curves is used as a basis for classification.

  17. Land cover diversity increases predator aggregation and consumption of prey.

    PubMed

    Penn, Hannah J; Athey, Kacie J; Lee, Brian D

    2017-03-28

    A lower diversity of land cover types is purported to decrease arthropod diversity in agroecosystems and is dependent on patterns of land use and fragmentation. Ants, important providers of ecosystem services such as biological control, are susceptible to landscape-level changes. We determined the relationships between land cover diversity and fragmentation on the within-field spatial associations of ants to pests and resulting predation events by combining mapping and molecular tools. Increased land cover diversity and decreased fragmentation increased ant abundance, spatial association to pests and predation. Land cover diversity and fragmentation were more explanatory than land cover types. Even so, specific land cover types, such as deciduous forest, influenced ant and pest diversity more so than abundance. These results indicate that geospatial techniques and molecular gut content analysis can be combined to determine the role of land use in influencing predator-prey interactions and resulting predation events in agroecosystems.

  18. Land Cover Changes between 1974 and 2008 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Yamagata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the past 35 years, a combination of human actions and natural causes has led to a significant decline in land quality in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. Human causes include changes in conventional livestock husbandry, overgrazing, and exploitation for traditional uses. Natural causes include a harsh, dry climate, short growing seasons, and thin soils. Since 1995, many herders left the countryside to come to the city in search of new opportunities, the Ger areas (wooden houses and Ger) have expended, resulting in urban sprawl. Since urbanization usually advance in an uncontrolled or unorganized way in Mongolia, they have destructive effects on the environment, particularly on basic ecosystems, wildlife habitat, and pollution of natural resources (e.g. air and water). Land use and land cover changes occurred in the region are investigated using satellite images acquired in 1974 (Landsat MSS), 1990 (Landsat TM), 2000 (ASTER), 2006 (IKONOS), and 2008 (ALOS). Pre-processing of all data included orthorectification and registration to precisely geolocated imagery. In the detection of changes, classification approaches were employed using a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network classifier (Fig. 1a) and new developed subspace classification method (Fig. 1b). From the time-series classified remote sensing images, we extract the land cover and land cover temporal changes from 1974 to 2008. The results show some important findings regarding the size and nature of the change occurred in the study area. A significant amount of steppe and forest lands have been destroyed or replaced by residential areas; as a result, the total area of urban region doubled in the 35-year period with a higher urbanization rate between 2000 and 2008. Key words: Environment; Land Cover; Urban; Change detection; Classification. References Chinbat,B., Bayantur,M., & Amarsaikhan.D. (2006). Investigation of the internal structure changes of ulaanbaatar city using RS and GIS. ISPRS

  19. Applications of VIC for Climate Land Cover Change Imapacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, Kel

    2017-01-01

    Study focuses on the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), the LMB is an economically and ecologically important region: (1) One of the largest exporters of rice and fish products, (2) Within top three most biodiverse river basins in the world. Natural climate variability plays an important role in water supply within the region: (1) Short-term climate variability (ENSO, MJO), (2) Long-term climate variability (climate change). Projections of climate change show there will be a decrease in water availability world wide which has implications for food security and ecology. Additional studies show there may be socioeconomic turmoil due to water wars and food security in developing regions such as the Mekong Basin. Southeast Asia has experienced major changes in land use and land cover from 1980 – 2000. Major economic reforms resulting in shift from subsistence farming to market-based agricultural production. Changes in land cover continue to occur which have an important role within the land surface aspect of hydrology.

  20. Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2012-12-01

    Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in

  1. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  2. Impact of land cover change on the environmental hydrology characteristics in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatkhah, Nader; Mansor, Shattri; Khuzaimah, Zailani; Asmat, Arnis; Adnan, Noraizam; Adam, Siti Noradzah

    2016-09-01

    Changing the land cover/ land use has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem in Malaysia. The impact of land cover changes on the environmental functions such as surface water, loss water, and soil moisture is considered in this paper on the Kelantan river basin. The study area at the east coast of the peninsular Malaysia has suffered significant land cover changes in the recent years. The current research tried to assess the impact of land cover changes in the study area focused on the surface water, loss water, and soil moisture from different land use classes and the potential impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of Kelantan river basin. To simulate the impact of land cover changes on the environmental hydrology characteristics, a deterministic regional modeling were employed in this study based on five approaches, i.e. (1) Land cover classification based on Landsat images; (2) assessment of land cover changes during last three decades; (3) Calculation the rate of water Loss/ Infiltration; (4) Assessment of hydrological and mechanical effects of the land cover changes on the surface water; and (5) evaluation the impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of the study area. Assessment of land cover impact on the environmental hydrology was computed with the improved transient rainfall infiltration and grid based regional model (Improved-TRIGRS) based on the transient infiltration, and subsequently changes in the surface water, due to precipitation events. The results showed the direct increased in surface water from development area, agricultural area, and grassland regions compared with surface water from other land covered areas in the study area. The urban areas or lower planting density areas tend to increase for surface water during the monsoon seasons, whereas the inter flow from forested and secondary jungle areas contributes to the normal surface water.

  3. Three distinct global estimates of historical land-cover change and land-use conversions for over 200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiyappan, Prasanth; Jain, Atul K.

    2012-06-01

    Earth's land cover has been extensively transformed over time due to both human activities and natural causes. Previous global studies have focused on developing spatial and temporal patterns of dominant human land-use activities (e.g., cropland, pastureland, urban land, wood harvest). Process-based modeling studies adopt different strategies to estimate the changes in land cover by using these land-use data sets in combination with a potential vegetation map, and subsequently use this information for impact assessments. However, due to unaccounted changes in land cover (resulting from both indirect anthropogenic and natural causes), heterogeneity in land-use/cover (LUC) conversions among grid cells, even for the same land use activity, and uncertainty associated with potential vegetation mapping and historical estimates of human land use result in land cover estimates that are substantially different compared to results acquired from remote sensing observations. Here, we present a method to implicitly account for the differences arising from these uncertainties in order to provide historical estimates of land cover that are consistent with satellite estimates for recent years. Due to uncertainty in historical agricultural land use, we use three widely accepted global estimates of cropland and pastureland in combination with common wood harvest and urban land data sets to generate three distinct estimates of historical land-cover change and underlying LUC conversions. Hence, these distinct historical reconstructions offer a wide range of plausible regional estimates of uncertainty and the extent to which different ecosystems have undergone changes. The annual land cover maps and LUC conversion maps are reported at 0.5°×0.5° resolution and describe the area of 28 landcover types and respective underlying land-use transitions. The reconstructed data sets are relevant for studies addressing the impact of land-cover change on biogeophysics, biogeochemistry, water

  4. Integrating multisource land use and land cover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Tait, Mike; Lins, K.F.; Crawford, J.S.; Benjamin, S.P.; Brown, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) land use and land cover (LULC) program, the USGS in cooperation with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) is collecting and integrating LULC data for a standard USGS 1:100,000-scale product. The LULC data collection techniques include interpreting spectrally clustered Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images; interpreting 1-meter resolution digital panchromatic orthophoto images; and, for comparison, aggregating locally available large-scale digital data of urban areas. The area selected is the Vancouver, WA-OR quadrangle, which has a mix of urban, rural agriculture, and forest land. Anticipated products include an integrated LULC prototype data set in a standard classification scheme referenced to the USGS digital line graph (DLG) data of the area and prototype software to develop digital LULC data sets.This project will evaluate a draft standard LULC classification system developed by the USGS for use with various source material and collection techniques. Federal, State, and local governments, and private sector groups will have an opportunity to evaluate the resulting prototype software and data sets and to provide recommendations. It is anticipated that this joint research endeavor will increase future collaboration among interested organizations, public and private, for LULC data collection using common standards and tools.

  5. Metropolitan land cover inventory using multiseasonal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Hill, R.N.; Henry, C.C.; Lake, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNLRIDP), planners from State, regional, and local agencies in Oregon are working with scientists from the EROS Data Center (USGS), Ames Research Center (NASA), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) to obtain practical training and experience in the analysis of remotely sensed data collected from air and spacecraft. A 4,000 km2 area centered on metropolitan Portland was chosen as the demonstration site, and a four-date Landsat temporal overlay was created which contained January, April, July, and October data collected in 1973. Digital multispectral analysis of single dates and two-date combinations revealed that the spring-summer and summer-fall combinations were the most satisfactory for land cover inventory. Residential, commercial and industrial, improved open space, water, forested, and agriculture land cover categories were obtained consistently in the majority of classification iterations. Census tract and traffic zone boundaries were digitized and registered with the Landsat data to facilitate integration of the land cover information with socioeconomic and environmental data already available to Oregon planners.

  6. Land-use and land-cover change in montane mainland southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes land-cover and land-use change at eight sites in Thailand, Yunnan (China), Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos over the last 50 years. Project methodology included incorporating information collected from a combination of semiformal, key informant, and formal household interviews with the development of spatial databases based on aerial photographs, satellite images, topographic maps, and GPS data. Results suggest that land use (e.g. swidden cultivation) and land cover (e.g. secondary vegetation) have remained stable and the minor amount of land-use change that has occurred has been a change from swidden to monocultural cash crops. Results suggest that two forces will increasingly determine land-use systems in this region. First, national land tenure policies-the nationalization of forest lands and efforts to increase control over upland resources by central governments-will provide a push factor making it increasingly difficult for farmers to maintain their traditional swidden land-use practices. Second, market pressures-the commercialization of subsistence resources and the substitution of commercial crops for subsistence crops-will provide a pull factor encouraging farmers to engage in new and different forms of commercial agriculture. These results appear to be robust as they come from eight studies conducted over the last decade. But important questions remain in terms of what research protocols are needed, if any, when linking social science data with remotely sensed data for understanding human-environment interactions.

  7. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  8. Simulating Land-Cover Change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B.; Sen, Omer L.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  9. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  10. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Photo interpretation key to Michigan land cover/use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.

  12. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  13. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-11-24

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class.

  14. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  16. Land cover change in coastal watersheds 1996 to 2010

    Treesearch

    Nate Herold

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover play a significant role as drivers of environmental change. Information on what is changing and where those changes are occurring is essential if we are to improve our understanding of...

  17. Land use, land cover, and drainage on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula, Eastern North Carolina, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A land use, land cover, and drainage map of the 2,000-square-mile Albermarle-Pamlico peninsula of eastern North Carolina has been prepared, at a scale of 1:125,000, as part of a larger study of the effects of large-scale land clearing on regional hydrology. The peninsula includes the most extensive area of wetland in North Carolina and one of the largest in the country. In recent years the pace of land clearing on the peninsula has accelerated as land is being converted from forest, swamp, and brushland to agricultural use. Conversion of swamps to intensive farming operations requires profound changes in the landscape. Vegetation is uprooted and burned and ditches and canals are dug to remove excess water. What is the impact of these changes on ground-water supplies and on the streams and surrounding coastal waters which receive the runoff This map will aid in answering these and similar questions that have arisen about the patterns of land use and the artificial drainage system that removes excess water from the land. By showing both land use and drainage, this map can be used to identify those areas where water-related problems may occur and help assess the nature and causes of these problems. The map covers the entire area east of the Suffolk Scarp, an area of about 2,000 square miles, for the year 1974 using data from 1974-76. Land use and land cover were compiled and modified from the U.S. Geological Survey 's Rocky Mount and Manteo LUDA maps. Additional information came from U.S. Geological Survey orthophotoquads, Landsat imagery, and field checking. Drainage was mapped from orthophotoquads, some field inspection, and 7-1/2 minute topographic quadrangle maps.

  18. Reduction of monsoon rainfall in response to past and future land use and land cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Devaraju, Narayanappa; Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Arneth, Almut

    2017-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) can have significant biophysical impacts on regional precipitation, including monsoon rainfall. Using global simulations with and without LULCC from five general circulation models, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, we find that future LULCC significantly reduce monsoon precipitation in at least four (out of eight) monsoon regions. While monsoon rainfalls are likely to intensify under future global warming, we estimate that biophysical effects of LULCC substantially weaken future projections of monsoons' rainfall by 9% (Indian region), 12% (East Asian), 32% (South African), and 41% (North African), with an average of 30% for projections across the global monsoon region. A similar strong contribution is found for biophysical effects of past LULCC to monsoon rainfall changes since the preindustrial period. Rather than remote effects, local land-atmosphere interactions, implying a decrease in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and clouds along with more anticyclonic conditions, could explain this reduction in monsoon rainfall.

  19. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Natural forests are threatened worldwide, therefore their protection in National Parks is essential. Here, we investigate how this protection status affects the land cover. To answer this question, we analyse the surface reflectance of three Landsat images of Matobo National Park and surrounding in Zimbabwe from 1989, 1998 and 2014 to detect changes in land cover in this region. To account for the rolling countryside and the resulting prominent shadows, a topographical correction of the surface reflectance was required. To infer land cover changes it is not only necessary to have some ground data for the current satellite images but also for the old ones. In particular for the older images no recent field study could help to reconstruct these data reliably. In our study we follow the idea that land cover classes of pixels in current images can be transferred to the equivalent pixels of older ones if no changes occurred meanwhile. Therefore we combine unsupervised clustering with supervised classification as follows. At first, we produce a land cover map for 2014. Secondly, we cluster the images with clara, which is similar to k-means, but suitable for large data sets. Whereby the best number of classes were determined to be 4. Thirdly, we locate unchanged pixels with change vector analysis in the images of 1989 and 1998. For these pixels we transfer the corresponding cluster label from 2014 to 1989 and 1998. Subsequently, the classified pixels serve as training data for supervised classification with random forest, which is carried out for each image separately. Finally, we derive land cover classes from the Landsat image in 2014, photographs and Google Earth and transfer them to the other two images. The resulting classes are shrub land; forest/shallow waters; bare soils/fields with some trees/shrubs; and bare light soils/rocks, fields and settlements. Subsequently the three different classifications are compared and land changes are mapped. The main changes are

  20. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  1. Continental land cover classification using meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Goff, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data for classifying land cover and monitoring of vegetation dynamics over an extremely large area is demonstrated for the continent of Africa. Data from 17 imaging periods of 21 consecutive days each were composited by a technique sensitive to the in situ green-leaf biomass to provide cloud-free imagery for the whole continent. Virtually cloud-free images were obtainable even for equatorial areas. Seasonal variation in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation corresponded to the patterns of rainfall associated with the inter-tropical convergence zone. Regional variations, such as the 1982 drought in east Africa, were also observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time produced a remotely sensed assessment of biological activity based upon density and duration of green-leaf biomass. Two of the 21-day composited data sets were used to produce a general land cover classification. The resultant land cover distributions correspond well to those of existing maps.

  2. Time series change detection: Algorithms for land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriah, Shyam

    The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data-poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, climate and ecosystem related observations from remote sensors on satellites, as well as outputs of climate or earth system models from large-scale computational platforms, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal data. These massive and information-rich datasets offer huge potential for advancing the science of land cover change, climate change and anthropogenic impacts. One important area where remote sensing data can play a key role is in the study of land cover change. Specifically, the conversion of natural land cover into humandominated cover types continues to be a change of global proportions with many unknown environmental consequences. In addition, being able to assess the carbon risk of changes in forest cover is of critical importance for both economic and scientific reasons. In fact, changes in forests account for as much as 20% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, an amount second only to fossil fuel emissions. Thus, there is a need in the earth science domain to systematically study land cover change in order to understand its impact on local climate, radiation balance, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and the diversity and abundance of terrestrial species. Land cover conversions include tree harvests in forested regions, urbanization, and agricultural intensification in former woodland and natural grassland areas. These types of conversions also have significant public policy implications due to issues such as water supply management and atmospheric CO2 output. In spite of the importance of this problem and the considerable advances made over the last few years in high-resolution satellite data, data mining, and online mapping tools and services, end users still lack practical tools to help them manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge of changes in forest ecosystems that

  3. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  4. Forest service contributions to the national land cover database (NLCD): Tree Canopy Cover Production

    Treesearch

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Robert Benton; Vicky Johnson; Tanushree Biswas; Craig Baker; Mark Finco; Kevin Megown; John Coulston; Ken Winterberger; Mark. Riley

    2015-01-01

    A tree canopy cover (TCC) layer is one of three elements in the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 suite of nationwide geospatial data layers. In 2010, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) committed to creating the TCC layer as a member of the Multi-Resolution Land Cover (MRLC) consortium. A general methodology for creating the TCC layer was reported at the 2012 FIA...

  5. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  6. Land cover/land use change in semi-arid Inner Mongolia: 1992-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Ranjeet; Chen, Jiquan; Lu, Nan; Wilske, Burkhard

    2009-10-01

    The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socio-economic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional level (i.e. the whole of IM) as well as the level of the dominant biomes (i.e. the grassland and desert). We quantified proportional change, rate of change and the changes in class-level landscape metrics using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS. The dominant land cover types, grassland and barren, 0.47 and 0.27 million km2, respectively, have increased proportionally. Cropland and urban land use also increased to 0.15 million km2 and 2197 km2, respectively. However, the results further indicated increases in both the homogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape. Increasing homogeneity was mainly related to the reduction in minority cover types such as savanna, forests and permanent wetlands and increasing cohesion, aggregation index and clumpy indices. Conversely, increased fragmentation of the landscape was based on the increase in patch density and the interspersion/juxtaposition index (IJI). It is important to note the socio-economic growth in this fragile ecosystem, manifested by an increasing proportion of agricultural and urban land use not just at the regional level but also at the biome level in the context of regional climate change and increasing water stress.

  7. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  8. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  9. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  10. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  11. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  12. A global dataset of crowdsourced land cover and land use reference data.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Perger, Christoph; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Duerauer, Martina; Karner, Mathias; Dresel, Christopher; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Lesiv, Myroslava; Moorthy, Inian; Salk, Carl F; Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Albrecht, Franziska; You, Liangzhi; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Global land cover is an essential climate variable and a key biophysical driver for earth system models. While remote sensing technology, particularly satellites, have played a key role in providing land cover datasets, large discrepancies have been noted among the available products. Global land use is typically more difficult to map and in many cases cannot be remotely sensed. In-situ or ground-based data and high resolution imagery are thus an important requirement for producing accurate land cover and land use datasets and this is precisely what is lacking. Here we describe the global land cover and land use reference data derived from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing platform via four campaigns. These global datasets provide information on human impact, land cover disagreement, wilderness and land cover and land use. Hence, they are relevant for the scientific community that requires reference data for global satellite-derived products, as well as those interested in monitoring global terrestrial ecosystems in general.

  13. A simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification from multispectral remote sensing imagery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Xinliang; Ren, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1) images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization) with convenience.

  14. A Simple Semi-Automatic Approach for Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Xinliang; Ren, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1) images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization) with convenience. PMID:23049886

  15. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  16. Effect of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures - The Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereher, Mohamed E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study remote sensing techniques were employed to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures (LST) for a highly dynamic landscape, i.e. the Nile Delta. Land use change was determined from analyzing a 15 years of bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra satellite along with a synchronized 13 years of bi-monthly LST dataset retrieved from MODIS Aqua satellite. Time series analysis for NDVI and LST data was carried out at selected locations experiencing land use change. Mean LST change was determined for each location before and after the land use change. Results indicate that NDVI composite data for 15 years proved sufficient for delineating land use change. Significant spatial changes include the transformation from agriculture to urban land, which increased the LST by 1.7 °C during the 13 years and the transformation of bare land to agriculture, which decreased the LST by 0.52 °C for the same period. Due to the explosive population growth in the Nile Delta, urban encroachment upon agricultural land could, hence, promote a prolonged regional warming by modifying the micro-climate and other climate-related phenomena.

  17. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  18. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    PubMed

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  19. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  20. Land surface processes/land cover change (LCC) and the Tibetan Plateau climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Li, Q.; de Sales, F.; Vasic, R.; Song, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a key region of land-atmosphere interactions with severe eco-environment degradation. A GCM land/atmosphere interaction study indicates that the land surface processes has substantial impact on TP water cycle, contributing 46% and 53% of annual precipitation for TP and East Asian, respectively, with strong land impacts during the spring and summer (Xue et al., 2010). For East Asia, the land effect during the fall is also strong. Using the NCEP GCM/SSiB, a preliminarily assessment of possible impact of LCC on the TP regional summer circulation and precipitation has been conducted. Two existing vegetation maps with very different land cover conditions over the TP, one with bare ground and one with grassland over the central TP and needleleaf evergreen trees in the southeastern derived from satellite-derived data, are tested and produce clearer climate signals due to land cover change. It shows that LCC from vegetated land to bare ground decreases radiation absorbed by the surface and results in weaker surface thermal effects, which leads to lower sensible heat flux as well as weaker vertical ascending motion, low-layer cyclonic, upper-level anticyclonic, and summer monsoon circulation in large scale. These changes in circulation cause a decrease in the precipitation in the southeastern TP. This spatial characteristics are consistent with the statistical relationship between satellite products and observed precipitation. Meanwhile, the results also show that through affecting the meridional circulation cells, the land disturbance in TP could have substantial impact on the global circulation.

  1. Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sajikumar, N; Remya, R S

    2015-09-15

    Change in Land Cover and Land Use (LCLU) influences the runoff characteristics of a drainage basin to a large extent, which in turn, affects the surface and groundwater availability of the area, and hence leads to further change in LCLU. This forms a vicious circle. Hence it becomes essential to assess the effect of change in LCLU on the runoff characteristics of a region in general and of small watershed levels (sub-basin levels) in particular. Such an analysis can effectively be carried out by using watershed simulation models with integrated GIS frame work. SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model, being one of the versatile watershed simulation models, is found to be suitable for this purpose as many GIS integration modules are available for this model (e.g. ArcSWAT, MWSWAT). Watershed simulation using SWAT requires the land use and land cover data, soil data and many other features. With the availability of repository of satellite imageries, both from Indian and foreign sources, it becomes possible to use the concurrent local land use and land cover data, thereby enabling more accurate modelling of small watersheds. Such availability will also enable us to assess the effect of LCLU on runoff characteristics and their reverse impact. The current study assesses the effect of land use and land cover on the runoff characteristics of two watersheds in Kerala, India. It also assesses how the change in land use and land cover in the last few decades affected the runoff characteristics of these watersheds. It is seen that the reduction in the forest area amounts to 60% and 32% in the analysed watersheds. However, the changes in the surface runoff for these watersheds are not comparable with the changes in the forest area but are within 20%. Similarly the maximum (peak) value of runoff has increased by an amount of 15% only. The lesser (aforementioned) effect than expected might be due to the fact that forest has been converted to agricultural purpose with major

  2. U.S. landowner behavior, land use and land cover changes, and climate change mitigation.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    2003-01-01

    Landowner behavior is a major determinant of land use and land cover changes. an important consideration for policy analysts concerned with global change. Study of landowner behavior aids in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change by reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Afforestation,...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Global Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, N.; Yang, Y. E.; Choi, H. I.; Islam, A.; Charlotte, D. F.; Cai, X.; Kumar, P.

    2007-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) significantly modify the hydrological regime of the watersheds, affecting water resources and environment from regional to global scale. This study seeks to advance and integrate water and energy cycle observation, scientific understanding, and human impacts to assess future water availability. To achieve the research objective, we integrate and interpret past and current space based and in situ observations into a global hydrologic model (GHM). GHM is developed with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, physical complexity, hydrologic theory and processes to quantify the impact of LULCC on physical variables: surface runoff, subsurface flow, groundwater, infiltration, ET, soil moisture, etc. Coupled with the common land model (CLM), a 3-dimensional volume averaged soil-moisture transport (VAST) model is expanded to incorporate the lateral flow and subgrid heterogeneity. The model consists of 11 soil-hydrology layers to predict lateral as well as vertical moisture flux transport based on Richard's equations. The primary surface boundary conditions (SBCs) include surface elevation and its derivatives, land cover category, sand and clay fraction profiles, bedrock depth and fractional vegetation cover. A consistent global GIS-based dataset is constructed for the SBCs of the model from existing observational datasets comprising of various resolutions, map projections and data formats. Global ECMWF data at 6-hour time steps for the period 1971 through 2000 is processed to get the forcing data which includes incoming longwave and shortwave radiation, precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind components, boundary layer height and specific humidity. Land use land cover data, generated using IPCC scenarios for every 10 years from 2000 to 2100 is used for future assessment on water resources. Alterations due to LULCC on surface water balance components: ET, groundwater recharge and runoff are then addressed in the study. Land

  4. Land use and land cover data changes in Indian Ocean Islands: Case study of Unguja in Zanzibar Island.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Muli, Eliud; Faki, Asha; Raina, Suresh

    2017-04-01

    Land use and land cover changes will continue to affect resilient human communities and ecosystems as a result of climate change. However, an assessment of land use and land cover changes over time in Indian Ocean Islands is less documented. The land use/cover data changes over 10 years at smaller geographical scale across Unguja Island in Zanzibar were analyzed. Downscaling of the data was obtained from SERVIR through partnership with Kenya-based Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) database (http://www.servirglobal.net), and clipped down in ArcMap (Version 10.1) to Unguja Island. SERVIR and RCMRD Land Cover Dataset are mainly 30 m multispectral images include Landsat TM and ETM+Multispectral Images. Landscape ecology Statistics tool (LecoS) was used to analysis the land use and land cover changes. The data provide information on the status of the land use and land cover changes along the Unguja Island in Zanzibar. The data is of great significance to the future research on global change.

  5. The Trajectories and Impacts of Land Use and Land Cover Change: A Global Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Fisher, T. R.; Prince, S. D.; Soja, A. J.; Elmore, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    We have summarized the trajectories of land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and the resulting impacts through a synthesis of results from studies encompassing a wide range of environments. While the specific changes and impacts are in some ways unique to each environment, we have nevertheless identified some general principles that seem to apply across all regions. The LCLUC trajectory of a particular landscape under influence by human actions begins with the transition from conditions dominated by natural vegetation to a frontier state. Land use activities in a frontier state are centered primarily around resource extraction and development of infrastructure such as roads or ports. Under the proper conditions (e.g. soils, climate), the frontier state gives way to an agricultural landscape by further conversion of natural vegetation to agriculture and management of cleared land for agriculture. The maximum extent of this conversion is a function of local biophysical and socio-economic factors. For example conversion of arid lands may be limited by water availability, access to capital for development of water resources and access to markets for the products. Given the appropriate conditions (e.g. economic and social policy, generation of wealth), LCLUC evolves as large settlements and industrialization develop in concert with high land prices and agricultural intensification. In some cases (e.g., New England, Appalachia), economic conditions (e.g., better land for agriculture elsewhere) may result in reversion of agriculture to natural vegetation. The last stage in LCLUC is conversion of agriculture to residential and suburban environments (e.g., Baltimore/Washington corridor). Examination of global land cover indicates that every stage is currently present, with areas like the Eastern United States and Western Europe as examples of regions having experienced all stages, while parts of the Amazon basin, Siberia, and Africa are moving through the frontier

  6. Changes of Land Cover and Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Reilly, J.; McGuire, A.; Prinn, R.; Shvidenko, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Sirin, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Peregon, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia accounts for about 20% of the Earth's land surface and 60% of the terrestrial land cover north of 40°N. It contains 70% of the Earth's boreal forests and more than two-thirds of the Earth's land that is underlain by permafrost. The region is covered by vast areas of peatland, complex tundra in the north and semi-deserts and deserts in the south, including the Mongolia plateau. The surface air temperature has increased in the last half century and this increase will continue during this century. We present the results of climate change effects on biogeochemical processes and mechanisms governing the carbon and water dynamics in the region. Future research will address on how patterns of land use in Northern Eurasia may change in the future due to: 1) Economic pressures for providing food, fiber and fuel to a growing global population; 2) Expansion of management of land for cropping, pasture, and forestry into areas that experience a more favorable climate in the future; and 3) Abandonment of management in areas that experience a less favorable climate and the implications of these changes for (1) the exchange of CO2 and CH4 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere; (2) terrestrial carbon storage and primary productivity; (3) water supply; and (4) radiative forcing of the atmosphere through changes in surface albedo. We use a system of linked models that include the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the world economy, the SiBCliM bioclimatic vegetation model, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) with land-cover/ land-use modeling and biogeochemical modeling based on current relationships as observed through satellite and remote sensing data.

  7. Applications of national land cover maps in United States forestry

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; Gregory A. Reams

    2008-01-01

    Land cover maps derived from satellite imagery have a long and varied history of uses in United States forestry science and management. This article reviews recent developments concerning the use of national- to continental-scale land cover maps for inventory, monitoring, and resource assessment in the U.S. Forest Service. The use of mid-scale digital resolution...

  8. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this publication is satellite systems for land cover monitoring. On the reverse is a table that compares a selection of these systems, whose data are globally available in a form suitable for land cover analysis. We hope the information presented will help you assess the utility of remotely sensed image to meet your needs.

  9. Evaluating ecoregions for sampling and mapping land-cover patterns

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade

    2006-01-01

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land-cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for nine landscapelevel and eight forest pattern indices, and compared stratification by ecoregions, administrative units, and watersheds. Ecoregions...

  10. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  11. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  12. Globally scalable generation of high-resolution land cover from multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutts, S. Craig; Raskob, Benjamin L.; Wenger, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    We present an automated method of generating high resolution ( 2 meter) land cover using a pattern recognition neural network trained on spatial and spectral features obtained from over 9000 WorldView multispectral images (MSI) in six distinct world regions. At this resolution, the network can classify small-scale objects such as individual buildings, roads, and irrigation ponds. This paper focuses on three key areas. First, we describe our land cover generation process, which involves the co-registration and aggregation of multiple spatially overlapping MSI, post-aggregation processing, and the registration of land cover to OpenStreetMap (OSM) road vectors using feature correspondence. Second, we discuss the generation of land cover derivative products and their impact in the areas of region reduction and object detection. Finally, we discuss the process of globally scaling land cover generation using cloud computing via Amazon Web Services (AWS).

  13. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  14. Statistical Models of Areal Distribution of Fragmented Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.; Dungan, J.; DAntoni, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 square kilometer pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We summarize our model based approach to improved area estimations and report on progress to develop accurate areas estimates based on modeling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery.

  15. Statistical Models of Areal Distribution of Fragmented Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.; Dungan, J.; DAntoni, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 square kilometer pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We summarize our model based approach to improved area estimations and report on progress to develop accurate areas estimates based on modeling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery.

  16. Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tieszen, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change project at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) seeks to integrate remote sensing and simulation models to better understand and seek solutions to national and global issues. Modeling processes related to population impacts, natural resource management, climate change, invasive species, land use changes, energy development, and climate mitigation all pose significant scientific opportunities. The project activities use remotely sensed data to support spatial monitoring, provide sensitivity analyses across landscapes and large regions, and make the data and results available on the Internet with data access and distribution, decision support systems, and on-line modeling. Applications support sustainable natural resource use, carbon cycle science, biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and robust simulation modeling approaches that evaluate ecosystem and landscape dynamics.

  17. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  18. Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

  19. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  20. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  1. Impacts of land use and land cover on surface and air temperature in urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating urbanization affects regional climate as the result of changing land cover and land use (LCLU). Urban land cover composition may provide valuable insight into relationships among urbanization, air, and land-surface temperature (Ta and LST, respectively). Climate may alter these relationships, where hotter climates experience larger LULC effects. To address these hypotheses we examined links between Ta, LST, LCLU, and vegetation across an urban coastal to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. Using surface temperature radiometers, continuously measuring LST on standardized asphalt, concrete, and turf grass surfaces across the climate gradient, we found a 7.2°C and 4.6°C temperature decrease from asphalt to vegetated cover in the coast and desert, respectively. There is 131% more temporal variation in asphalt than turf grass surfaces, but 37% less temporal variation in concrete than turf grass. For concrete and turf grass surfaces, temporal variation in temperature increased from coast to desert. Using ground-based thermal imagery, measuring LST for 24 h sequences over citrus orchard and industrial use locations, we found a 14.5°C temperature decrease from industrial to orchard land use types (38.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively). Additionally, industrial land use types have 209% more spatial variation than orchard (CV=0.20 and 0.09, respectively). Using a network of 300 Ta (iButton) sensors mounted in city street trees throughout the region and hyperspectral imagery data we found urban vegetation greenness, measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), was negatively correlated to Ta at night across the climate gradient. Contrasting previous findings, the closest coupling between NDVI and Ta is at the coast from 0000 h to 0800 h (highest r2 = 0.6, P < 0.05) while relationships at the desert are weaker (highest r2 = 0.38, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that vegetation cover in urbanized regions of southern

  2. Integrated modelling of anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change on the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaldach, R.; Koch, J.; Alcamo, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many cases land-use activities go hand in hand with substantial modifications of the physical and biological cover of the Earth's surface, resulting in direct effects on energy and matter fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. For instance, the conversion of forest to cropland is changing climate relevant surface parameters (e.g. albedo) as well as evapotranspiration processes and carbon flows. In turn, human land-use decisions are also influenced by environmental processes. Changing temperature and precipitation patterns for example are important determinants for location and intensity of agriculture. Due to these close linkages, processes of land-use and related land-cover change should be considered as important components in the construction of Earth System models. A major challenge in modelling land-use change on the global scale is the integration of socio-economic aspects and human decision making with environmental processes. One of the few global approaches that integrates functional components to represent both anthropogenic and environmental aspects of land-use change, is the LandSHIFT model. It simulates the spatial and temporal dynamics of the human land-use activities settlement, cultivation of food crops and grazing management, which compete for the available land resources. The rational of the model is to regionalize the demands for area intensive commodities (e.g. crop production) and services (e.g. space for housing) from the country-level to a global grid with the spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes. The modelled land-use decisions within the agricultural sector are influenced by changing climate and the resulting effects on biomass productivity. Currently, this causal chain is modelled by integrating results from the process-based vegetation model LPJmL model for changing crop yields and net primary productivity of grazing land. Model output of LandSHIFT is a time series of grid maps with land-use/land-cover information

  3. AVHRR composite period selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Multitemporal satellite image datasets provide valuable information on the phenological characteristics of vegetation, thereby significantly increasing the accuracy of cover type classifications compared to single date classifications. However, the processing of these datasets can become very complex when dealing with multitemporal data combined with multispectral data. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) biweekly composite data are commonly used to classify land cover over large regions. Selecting a subset of these biweekly composite periods may be required to reduce the complexity and cost of land cover mapping. The objective of our research was to evaluate the effect of reducing the number of composite periods and altering the spacing of those composite periods on classification accuracy. Because inter-annual variability can have a major impact on classification results, 5 years of AVHRR data were evaluated. AVHRR biweekly composite images for spectral channels 1-4 (visible, near-infrared and two thermal bands) covering the entire growing season were used to classify 14 cover types over the entire state of Colorado for each of five different years. A supervised classification method was applied to maintain consistent procedures for each case tested. Results indicate that the number of composite periods can be halved-reduced from 14 composite dates to seven composite dates-without significantly reducing overall classification accuracy (80.4% Kappa accuracy for the 14-composite data-set as compared to 80.0% for a seven-composite dataset). At least seven composite periods were required to ensure the classification accuracy was not affected by inter-annual variability due to climate fluctuations. Concentrating more composites near the beginning and end of the growing season, as compared to using evenly spaced time periods, consistently produced slightly higher classification values over the 5 years tested (average Kappa) of 80.3% for the heavy early

  4. Projected Changes in Precipitation Variability and Distribution Due to Land Cover Change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; Lofgren, B. M.; Andresen, J. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Olson, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) is studying climate impacts coupled to land use/land cover (LULC) change in East Africa. Accompanying dramatic shifts in population distribution and economic drivers in eastern Africa are changes in global climate forcings; e.g. the melting of Kilimanjaro's glaciers, shifts in the Indian Ocean Dipole periodicity, and greater drought frequency. These socioeconomic factors can alter the surface energy balance, thereby influencing climate, and climate shifts can in turn influence patterns and practices in agriculture that will affect LULC. Here we present preliminary results from regional climate model simulations under current (2000-2010) and future (2040-2050) climate conditions driven by boundary conditions from NCAR's CCSM model (using scenario A1B), with land cover prognosed by a land transformation model. Prognosed land cover is driven by projected socioeconomic forces ranging from urban migration to agricultural expansion into marginal lands. We first simulate only future (2040-2050) land cover with current (2000-2010) boundary conditions, then current land cover with future CCSM boundary conditions, then finally both future and cover and boundary conditions. In this way, we will be able to observe effects solely from land cover change, effects solely from climate change, and the synergistic effects of both combined.

  5. Sensitivity of land use change emission estimates to historical land use and land cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shushi; Ciais, Philippe; Maignan, Fabienne; Li, Wei; Chang, Jinfeng; Wang, Tao; Yue, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The carbon emissions from land use and land cover change (ELUC) are an important anthropogenic component of the global carbon budget. Yet these emissions have a large uncertainty. Uncertainty in historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) maps and their implementation in global vegetation models is one of the key sources of the spread of ELUC calculated by global vegetation models. In this study, we used the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems terrestrial biosphere model to investigate how the different transition rules to define the priority of conversion from natural vegetation to agricultural land affect the historical reconstruction of plant functional types (PFTs) and ELUC. First, we reconstructed 10 sets of historical PFT maps using different transition rules and two methods. Then, we calculated ELUC from these 10 different historical PFT maps and an additional published PFT reconstruction, using the difference between two sets of simulations (with and without LULCC). The total area of forest loss is highly correlated with the total simulated ELUC (R2 = 0.83, P < 0.001) across the reconstructed PFT maps, which indicates that the choice of transition rules is a critical (and often overlooked) decision affecting the simulated ELUC. In addition to the choice of a transition rule, the initial land cover map and the reconstruction method for the reconstruction of historical PFT maps have an important impact on the resultant estimates of ELUC.

  6. Influence of land development on stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover catchment.

    PubMed

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Lee, B Y; Memon, S A; Umer, S R; Salim, I; Lee, C-H

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating for the negative impacts of stormwater runoff is becoming a concern due to increased land development. Understanding how land development influences stormwater runoff is essential for sustainably managing water resources. In recent years, aggregate low impact development-best management practices (LID-BMPs) have been implemented to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff on receiving water bodies. This study used an integrated approach to determine the influence of land development and assess the ecological benefits of four aggregate LID-BMPs in stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development. It used data from 2011 to 2015 that monitored 41 storm events and monthly LULC, and a Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). The four aggregate LID-BMPs are: ecological (S1), utilizing pervious covers (S2), and multi-control (S3) and (S4). These LID-BMPs were designed and distributed in the study area based on catchment characteristics, cost, and effectiveness. PCSWMM was used to simulate the monitored storm events from 2014 (calibration: R(2) and NSE>0.5; RMSE <11) and 2015 (validation: R(2) and NSE>0.5; RMSE <12). For continuous simulation and analyzing LID-BMPs scenarios, the five-year (2011 to 2015) stormwater runoff data and LULC change patterns (only 2015 for LID-BMPs) were used. Results show that the expansion of bare land and impervious cover, soil alteration, and high amount of precipitation influenced the stormwater runoff variability during different phases of land development. The four aggregate LID-BMPs reduced runoff volume (34%-61%), peak flow (6%-19%), and pollutant concentrations (53%-83%). The results of this study, in addition to supporting local LULC planning and land development activities, also could be applied to input data for empirical modeling, and designing sustainable stormwater management guidelines and monitoring strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  7. National Land Cover and Resource Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, A. B.; Bjørkelo, K.

    2012-08-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of a country's land resources. This requires continuous deliv-ery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information the Norwegian Forest and Land-scape Institute (Skog og landskap) produces, among others, land resource statistics for all municipalities in Norway. The statistics are also produced on a county level and for the whole country. The acreage numbers are retrieved from a combination of different na-tional datasets in various scales together with interpretation of satellite images. Through a reclassification, statistics are calculated for certain land resource classes like arable land, pasture, forest based on productivity class, fresh water, snow and glacier, mountain-ous/scarcely vegetated area and built up area. Skog og landskap has for the last couple of years been using open source software. The whole statistics production line is carried out by the means of such software. The results are stored in XML-files that are published on the internet. The production requires processing of several databases with national coverage, and needs to handle geometric opera-tions efficiently and without error. The open software solution is reliable, stable and fast.

  8. How does the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) product relate to regionally developed land cover and vegetation products in a semi-arid Australian savanna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoettker, Birte; Phinn, Stuart; Schmidt, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Spatio-temporally variable information on total vegetation cover is highly relevant to water quality and land management in river catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. A time series of the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR; 2000-2006) and its underlying biome classification (MOD12Q1) were compared to national land cover and regional, remotely sensed products in the dry-tropical Burdekin River. The MOD12Q1 showed reasonable agreement with a classification of major vegetation groups for 94% of the study area. We then compared dry-seasonal, quality controlled MODIS FPAR observations to (i) Landsat-based woody foliage projective cover (wFPC) (2004) and (ii) MODIS bare ground index (BGI) observations (2001-2003). Statistical analysis of the MODIS FPAR revealed a significant sensitivity to Landsat wFPC-based Vegetation Structural Categories (VSC) and VSC-specific temporal variability over the 2004 dry season. The MODIS FPAR relation to 20 coinciding MODIS BGI dry-seasonal observations was significant (ρ < 0.001) for homogeneous areas of low wFPC. Our results show that the global MODIS FPAR can be used to identify VSC, represent VSC-specific variability of PAR absorption, and indicate that the amount, structure, and optical properties of green and non-green vegetation components contribute to the MODIS FPAR signal.

  9. A design for a sustained assessment of climate forcings and feedbacks on land use land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas; Mahmood, Rezaul

    2014-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) significantly influences the climate system. Hence, to prepare the nation for future climate change and variability, a sustained assessment of LULCC and its climatic impacts needs to be undertaken. To address this objective, not only do we need to determine contemporary trends in land use and land cover that affect, or are affected by, weather and climate but also identify sectors and regions that are most affected by weather and climate variability. Moreover, it is critical that we recognize land cover and regions that are most vulnerable to climate change and how end-use practices are adapting to climate change. This paper identifies a series of steps that need to be undertaken to address these key items. In addition, national-scale institutional capabilities are identified and discussed. Included in the discussions are challenges and opportunities for collaboration among these institutions for a sustained assessment.

  10. Land Cover Classification Method Oriented to Geographic National Conditions Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.

    2014-04-01

    Developing the project of geographic national conditions investigation is in order to obtain land cover change information which is caused by natural and human social and economic activities, and serve the information for government, enterprise and public. Land cover is an important method to describe the geographic national conditions information, which can truly reflect the land surface material type and its natural attribute. It has been contained in the content system preliminary scheme as an important portion. In this paper, it discusses and analyzes on the method and key technology, with according to the land cover content that geographic national conditions watches on. Then it evaluates the applicability of automatic classification method using in land cover information extraction, and comprehensively analyzes various extraction methods' maximum effectiveness. Finally, it proposes a method that is based on high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and can be used in engineering applications, which provides a reference method for geographic national conditions investigation.

  11. Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Afternoon Precipitation over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of historical land cover change on summer afternoon precipitation over North America using the Community Earth System Model. With two-legged coupling metrics, we examine the sensitivity of afternoon atmospheric condition to morning land surface changes that are induced by the land cover changes during the last millennium (850 - 1850) and since pre-industrial times (1850 - 2000). The deforestation in the eastern US during the last millennium leads to increased latent but decreased sensible during the morning, and a reduction in precipitation over the southern regions of the East Coast. The agricultural activities over the Great Plains since pre-industrial times show the similar effects on surface fluxes but result in a significant widespread increase in precipitation. The coupling metric exhibits a strong positive soil-moisture-precipitation relationship over the Great Plains. Specifically, impacts of land cover change manifest through changes in rainfall frequency (rather than rainfall intensity) that are largely controlled by distribution of CAPE as the trigger of convective precipitation. However, deforestation or reforestation over the eastern US, where coupling strength is relatively weak, does not have as dominant an effect on afternoon precipitation, while large-scale atmospheric condition may play a more important role.

  12. Monthly fractional green vegetation cover associated with land cover classes of the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, Dan; Mitchell, Ken; Csiszar, Ivan; Owen, Timothy W.; Reed, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    The land cover classes developed under the coordination of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) have been analyzed for a study area that includes the Conterminous United States and portions of Mexico and Canada. The 1-km resolution data have been analyzed to produce a gridded data set that includes within each 20-km grid cell: 1) the three most dominant land cover classes, 2) the fractional area associated with each of the three dominant classes, and 3) the fractional area covered by water. Additionally, the monthly fraction of green vegetation cover (fgreen) associated with each of the three dominant land cover classes per grid cell was derived from a 5-year climatology of 1-km resolution NOAA-AVHRR data. The variables derived in this study provide a potential improvement over the use of monthly fgreen linked to a single land cover class per model grid cell.

  13. Global land cover mapping and characterization: present situation and future research priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra

    2005-01-01

    The availability and accessibility of global land cover data sets plays an important role in many global change studies. The importance of such science‐based information is also reflected in a number of international, regional, and national projects and programs. Recent developments in earth observing satellite technology, information technology, computer hardware and software, and infrastructure development have helped developed better quality land cover data sets. As a result, such data sets are increasingly becoming available, the user‐base is ever widening, application areas have been expanding, and the potential of many other applications are enormous. Yet, we are far from producing high quality global land cover data sets. This paper examines the progress in the development of digital global land cover data, their availability, and current applications. Problems and opportunities are also explained. The overview sets the stage for identifying future research priorities needed for operational land cover assessment and monitoring.

  14. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management.

    PubMed

    Beck, Scott M; McHale, Melissa R; Hess, George R

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m(2)) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  15. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  16. Integration of land use and land cover inventories for landscape management and planning in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sallustio, Lorenzo; Munafò, Michele; Riitano, Nicola; Lasserre, Bruno; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There are both semantic and technical differences between land use (LU) and land cover (LC) measurements. In cartographic approaches, these differences are often neglected, giving rise to a hybrid classification. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding and characterization of the two classification schemes using a comparison that allows maximization of the informative power of both. The analysis was carried out in the Molise region (Central Italy) using sample information from the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The sampling points were classified with a visual interpretation of aerial photographs for both LU and LC in order to estimate surfaces and assess the changes that occurred between 2000 and 2012. The results underscore the polarization of land use and land cover changes resulting from the following: (a) recolonization of natural surfaces, (b) strong dynamisms between the LC classes in the natural and semi-natural domain and (c) urban sprawl on the lower hills and plains. Most of the observed transitions are attributable to decreases in croplands, natural grasslands and pastures, owing to agricultural abandonment. The results demonstrate that a comparison between LU and LC estimates and their changes provides an understanding of the causes of misalignment between the two criteria. Such information may be useful for planning policies in both natural and semi-natural contexts as well as in urban areas.

  17. The effects of changing land cover on streamflow simulation in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Beusekom, Ashley; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland; Gould, William A.; Collazo, Jaime; Henareh Khalyani, Azad

    2014-01-01

    This study quantitatively explores whether land cover changes have a substantive impact on simulated streamflow within the tropical island setting of Puerto Rico. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to compare streamflow simulations based on five static parameterizations of land cover with those based on dynamically varying parameters derived from four land cover scenes for the period 1953-2012. The PRMS simulations based on static land cover illustrated consistent differences in simulated streamflow across the island. It was determined that the scale of the analysis makes a difference: large regions with localized areas that have undergone dramatic land cover change may show negligible difference in total streamflow, but streamflow simulations using dynamic land cover parameters for a highly altered subwatershed clearly demonstrate the effects of changing land cover on simulated streamflow. Incorporating dynamic parameterization in these highly altered watersheds can reduce the predictive uncertainty in simulations of streamflow using PRMS. Hydrologic models that do not consider the projected changes in land cover may be inadequate for water resource management planning for future conditions.

  18. Effect of land cover data on nitrous oxide inventory in fen meadows.

    PubMed

    Nol, Linda; Verburg, Peter H; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Molenaar, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Landscape representations based on land cover databases differ significantly from the real landscape. Using a land cover database with high uncertainty as input for emission inventory analyses can cause propagation of systematic and random errors. The objective of this study was to analyze how different land cover representations introduce systematic errors into the results of regional N2O emission inventories. Surface areas of grassland, ditches, and ditch banks were estimated for two polders in the Dutch fen meadow landscape using five land cover representations: four commonly used databases and a detailed field map, which most closely resembles the real landscape. These estimated surface areas were scaled up to the Dutch western fen meadow landscape. Based on the estimated surface areas agricultural N2O emissions were estimated using different inventory techniques. All four common databases overestimated the grassland area when compared to the field map. This caused a considerable overestimation of agricultural N2O emissions, ranging from 9% for more detailed databases to 11% for the coarsest database. The effect of poor land cover representation was larger for an inventory method based on a process model than for inventory methods based on simple emission factors. Although the effect of errors in land cover representations may be small compared to the effect of uncertainties in emission factors, these effects are systematic (i.e., cause bias) and do not cancel out by spatial upscaling. Moreover, bias in land cover representations can be quantified or reduced by careful selection of the land cover database.

  19. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Pengra, Bruce; Long, J.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m–1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (∼30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  20. A spatial econometric analysis of land-use change with land cover trends data: an application to the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    David J. Lewis; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a plot-level spatial econometric land-use model and estimates it with U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends (LCT) geographic information system panel data for the western halves of the states of Oregon and Washington. The discrete-choice framework we use models plot-scale choices of the three dominant land uses in this region: forest, agriculture...

  1. Land cover as an important factor for landslide risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promper, C.; Glade, T.; Puissant, A.; Malet, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Landcover change is a crucial component of hazard and vulnerability in terms of quantification of possible future landslide risk, and the importance for spatial planners but also individuals is obvious. Damage of property, losses of agricultural land, loss of production but also damaged infrastructures and fatalities may be the result of landslide hazards. To avoid these economic damages as well as possible fatalities in the future, a method of assessing spatial but also temporal patterns of landslides is necessary. This study represents results of landcover modeling as a first step to the proposition of scenario of landslide risk for the future. The method used for future land cover analysis is the CLUE modeling framework combining past and actual observed landcover conditions. The model is based on a statistical relationship between the actual land cover and driving forces. The allocation of landcover pixel is modified by possible autonomous developments and competition between land use types. (Verburg et al. 1999) The study area is located in a district in the alpine foreland of Lower Austria: Waidhofen/Ybbs, of about 130km2. The topography is characterized by narrow valleys, flat plateau and steep slopes. The landcover is characterized by region of densely populated areas in the valley bottom along the Ybbs River, and a series of separated farm houses on the top of the plateau. Population density is about 90 persons / km2 which represent the observed population density of Austria. The initial landcover includes forest, grassland, culture, built-up areas and individual farms. Most of the observed developments are controlled by the topography (along the valleys) and the actual road network. The results of the landcover model show different scenarios of changes in the landslide prone landcover types. These maps will be implemented into hazard analysis but also into vulnerability assessment regarding elements at risk. Verburg, P.H., de Koning, G.H.J., Kok, K

  2. Land use/cover change detection based on span of land use map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Shu, Ning

    2008-10-01

    Based on the analysis and summarizations of researched home and aboard, the dissertation focused on Land Use/Cover Change Detection Using Feature Database of basic types Based on Land Use span, which belongs to "Feature class" of LUCC. It should be pointed out that the researches must be focused on the land use spans other then traditional methods of the pixels.The main contributions of the study were summarized as follows:1. Feature extraction based on land use span. The land use span is expressed by vector polygon along with raster region. First the spectrum feature database with histogram, texture and shape feathers of the span is formed.2. Foundation and update of feature database. In detail, firstly, by means of the sample spans according to land use map in time T1, the features of each type of the land use classes are obtained in time T1. Secondly, each sample are analyzed, if the index of regional similarity between the image spans of T1 and T2 is accepted, the samples in time T2 could be remained, otherwise the new samples around that sample are selected and are judged by the similarity between the samples of T1. 3. Change detection based on spans and feature database. Each spans of T2 will be classified according to the minimum Euclidean distance to the T2 sample spans accepted, and the corresponding land use type will be assigned to the current span. 4. Change information is extraction automatically based on Boolean operations. After classifications have been performed, the changed spans were vectored, then the change information can be statistic through the different Boolean operations in GIS, and various change analysis can be made (i.e. urbanization and loss of the stew). The method is tested on the Quick Bird images of a district in Wuhan and the precision of the results is high as 85.7% (in loss of the stew) and 92.6% (in urbanization).

  3. Ecoregional differences in late-20th-century land-use and land-cover change in the U.S. northern great plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auch, R.F.; Sayler, K.L.; Napton, D.E.; Taylor, J.L.; Brooks, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Land-cover and land-use change usually results from a combination of anthropogenic drivers and biophysical conditions found across multiple scales, ranging from parcel to regional levels. A group of four Level 111 ecoregions located in the U.S. northern Great Plains is used to demonstrate the similarities and differences in land change during nearly a 30-year period (1973-2000) using results from the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends project. There were changes to major suites of land-cover; the transitions between agriculture and grassland/shrubland and the transitions among wetland, water, agriculture, and grassland/ shrubland were affected by different factors. Anthropogenic drivers affected the land-use tension (or land-use competition) between agriculture and grassland/shrubland land-covers, whereas changes between wetland and water land-covers, and their relationship to agriculture and grassland/shrubland land-covers, were mostly affected by regional weather cycles. More land-use tension between agriculture and grassland/shrubland landcovers occurred in ecoregions with greater amounts of economically marginal cropland. Land-cover change associated with weather variability occurred in ecoregions that had large concentrations of wetlands and water impoundments, such as the Missouri River reservoirs. The Northwestern Glaciated Plains ecoregion had the highest overall estimated percentage of change because it had both land-use tension between agriculture and grassland/shrubland land-covers and wetland-water changes. 

  4. An analysis of IGBP global land-cover characterization process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Ohlen, Donald O.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.; Yang, Limin

    1999-01-01

    The international Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) has called for the development of improved global land-cover data for use in increasingly sophisticated global environmental models. To meet this need, the staff of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln developed and applied a global land-cover characterization methodology using 1992-1993 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and other spatial data. The methodology, based on unsupervised classification with extensive postclassification refinement, yielded a multi-layer database consisting of eight land-cover data sets, descriptive attributes, and source data. An independent IGBP accuracy assessment reports a global accuracy of 73.5 percent, and continental results vary from 63 percent to 83 percent. Although data quality, methodology, interpreter performance, and logistics affected the results, significant problems were associated with the relationship between AVHRR data and fine-scale, spectrally similar land-cover patterns in complex natural or disturbed landscapes.

  5. The Changing Midwest Assessment: land cover, natural resources, and people

    Treesearch

    Robert Potts; Eric Gustafson; Susan I. Stewart; Frank R. Thompson; Kathleen Bergen; Daniel G. Brown; Roger Hammer; Volker Radeloff; David Bengston; John Sauer; Brian Sturtevant

    2004-01-01

    Documents changes in land cover, forests, selected natural resources, and human demographics and attitudes across the Midwest from roughly 1980 to 2000. The changing Midwest assessment: data and shapefiles are available from the Forest Service Research Data Archive....

  6. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  7. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  8. Land cover maps, BVOC emissions, and SOA burden in a global aerosol-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanelle, Tanja; Henrot, Alexandra; Bey, Isaelle

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that different land cover representations influence the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) (e.g. Guenther et al., 2006). But the land cover forcing used in model simulations is quite uncertain (e.g. Jung et al., 2006). As a consequence the simulated emission of BVOCs depends on the applied land cover map. To test the sensitivity of global and regional estimates of BVOC emissions on the applied land cover map we applied 3 different land cover maps into our global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2.2. We found a high sensitivity for tropical regions. BVOCs are a very prominent precursor for the production of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Therefore the sensitivity of BVOC emissions on land cover maps impacts the SOA burden in the atmosphere. With our model system we are able to quantify that impact. References: Guenther et al. (2006), Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3181-3210, doi:10.5194/acp-6-3181-2006. Jung et al. (2006), Exploiting synergies of global land cover products for carbon cycle modeling, Rem. Sens. Environm., 101, 534-553, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.020.

  9. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.

  10. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  11. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 land cover and impervious surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Gass, Leila; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce A.; Wade, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Release of NLCD 2006 provides the first wall-to-wall land-cover change database for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 focused on four primary products: 2001 land cover, 2006 land cover, land-cover change between 2001 and 2006, and impervious surface change between 2001 and 2006. The accuracy assessment was conducted by selecting a stratified random sample of pixels with the reference classification interpreted from multi-temporal high resolution digital imagery. The NLCD Level II (16 classes) overall accuracies for the 2001 and 2006 land cover were 79% and 78%, respectively, with Level II user's accuracies exceeding 80% for water, high density urban, all upland forest classes, shrubland, and cropland for both dates. Level I (8 classes) accuracies were 85% for NLCD 2001 and 84% for NLCD 2006. The high overall and user's accuracies for the individual dates translated into high user's accuracies for the 2001–2006 change reporting themes water gain and loss, forest loss, urban gain, and the no-change reporting themes for water, urban, forest, and agriculture. The main factor limiting higher accuracies for the change reporting themes appeared to be difficulty in distinguishing the context of grass. We discuss the need for more research on land-cover change accuracy assessment.

  12. Uncertainty in hurricane surge simulation due to land cover specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Celso M.; Irish, Jennifer L.; Olivera, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Hurricane storm surge is one of the most costly natural hazards in the United States. Numerical modeling to predict and estimate hurricane surge flooding is currently widely used for research, planning, decision making, and emergency response. Land cover plays an important role in hurricane surge numerical modeling because of its impacts on the forcing (changes in wind momentum transfer to water column) and dissipation (bottom friction) mechanisms of storm surge. In this study, the hydrodynamic model ADCIRC was used to investigate predicted surge response in bays on the central and lower Texas coast using different land cover data sets: (1) Coastal Change Analysis Program for 1996, 2001, and 2006; (2) the National Land Cover Dataset for 1992, 2001, and 2006; and (3) the National Wetlands Inventory for 1993. Hypothetical storms were simulated with varying the storm track, forward speed, central pressure, and radius to maximum wind, totaling 140 simulations. Data set choice impacts the mean of maximum surges throughout the study area, and variability in the surge prediction due to land cover data set choice strongly depends on storm characteristics and geographical location of the bay in relation to storm track. Errors in surge estimation due to land cover choice are approximately 7% of the surge value, with change in surge prediction varying by as much as 1 m, depending on location and storm condition. Finally, the impact of land cover choice on the accuracy of simulating surges for Hurricane Bret in 1999 is evaluated.

  13. Improving distributed hydrologic modeling and global land cover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broxton, Patrick

    Distributed models of the land surface are essential for global climate models because of the importance of land-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, momentum. They are also used for high resolution hydrologic simulation because of the need to capture non-linear responses to spatially variable inputs. Continued improvements to these models, and the data which they use, is especially important given ongoing changes in climate and land cover. In hydrologic models, important aspects are sometimes neglected due to the need to simplify the models for operational simulation. For example, operational flash flood models do not consider the role of snow and are often lumped (i.e. do not discretize a watershed into multiple units, and so do not fully consider the effect of intense, localized rainstorms). To address this deficiency, an overland flow model is coupled with a subsurface flow model to create a distributed flash flood forecasting system that can simulate flash floods that involve rain on snow. The model is intended for operational use, and there are extensive algorithms to incorporate high-resolution hydrometeorologic data, to assist in the calibration of the models, and to run the model in real time. A second study, which is designed to improve snow simulation in forested environments, demonstrates the importance of explicitly representing a near canopy environment in snow models, instead of only representing open and canopy covered areas (i.e. with % canopy fraction), as is often done. Our modeling, which uses canopy structure information from Aerial Laser Survey Mapping at 1 meter resolution, suggests that areas near trees have more net snow water input than surrounding areas because of the lack of snow interception, shading by the trees, and the effects of wind. In addition, the greatest discrepancy between our model simulations that explicitly represent forest structure and those that do not occur in areas with more canopy edges. In addition, two value

  14. Relative Efficiency of Surface Energy Budgets Over Different Land Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan

    The partitioning of available solar energy into different fluxes at the Earth's surface is important in determining different physical processes, such as turbulent transport, subsurface hydrology, land-atmospheric interactions, etc. Direct measurements of these turbulent fluxes were carried out using eddy-covariance (EC) towers. However, the distribution of EC towers is sparse due to relatively high cost and practical difficulties in logistics and deployment. As a result, data is temporally and spatially limited and is inadequate to be used for researches at large scales, such as regional and global climate modeling. Besides field measurements, an alternative way is to estimate turbulent fluxes based on the intrinsic relations between surface energy budget components, largely through thermodynamic equilibrium. These relations, referred as relative efficiency, have been included in several models to estimate the magnitude of turbulent fluxes in surface energy budgets such as latent heat and sensible heat. In this study, three theoretical models based on the lumped heat transfer model, the linear stability analysis and the maximum entropy principle respectively, were investigated. Model predictions of relative efficiencies were compared with turbulent flux data over different land covers, viz. lake, grassland and suburban surfaces. Similar results were observed over lake and suburban surface but significant deviation is found over vegetation surface. The relative efficiency of outgoing longwave radiation is found to be orders of magnitude deviated from theoretic predictions. Meanwhile, results show that energy partitioning process is influenced by the surface water availability to a great extent. The study provides insight into what property is determining energy partitioning process over different land covers and gives suggestion for future models.

  15. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States – Representing a Decade of Land Cover Change Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides nationwide data on land cover and land cover change at the native 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The database is designed to provide five-year cyclical updating of United States land cover and associat...

  16. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States – Representing a Decade of Land Cover Change Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides nationwide data on land cover and land cover change at the native 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The database is designed to provide five-year cyclical updating of United States land cover and associat...

  17. Assessing the impact of future land use and land cover changes on climate over Brazilian semiarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, A. M.; Alvalá, R. S.; Kubota, P. Y.; Vieira, R.

    2013-12-01

    The continental surface vegetal cover has been considerably changed by human activities, mainly through natural vegetation conversion in grasslands. Such changes in surface cover may impact the regional and global climates, through of the changes in biophysical processes and CO2 exchanges between vegetation and atmosphere. In recent decades, most of the Brazilian territory has been presenting transformation in the land use/cover spatial patterns. The typical vegetation of the Brazilian semiarid, known as caatinga (closed shrubland) had been replaced by pasture lands. Based on that, the main objective of this work was to investigate the impacts of future land cover and land use changes (LCLUC) on surface processes and on the climate of Brazilian semiarid region. Numerical experiments using the AGCM/CPTEC/IBIS were performed in order to investigate the impacts of LCLUC on the climate of Brazilian semiarid due to the replacement of natural vegetation by pasture and degraded areas. The climate impacts of LUCC were assessed using climate simulations considering two scenarios of vegetation distribution: i) Potential Vegetation (Control) and ii) Future scenario of the vegetation: maximum pasture limited by areas of desert and semidesert. These degraded areas were obtained from the future projection of the biome distribution in South America developed by Salazar Velasquez (2009) using CPTEC PVMReg and emission scenarios A2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In general, the simulation results showed that the LCLUC, due to the changes in relevant surface variables, has caused alterations in local and neighborhood regions climate. The LCLUC leads to a decrease in mean rainfall during dry season at study area. A meridional dipole pattern with near surface temperature increase (reduction) in the northern (southern) areas of semiarid was found. The results also highlight that LUCC led to changes in the components of the surface energy and carbon balance

  18. Development of the USGS national land-cover database over two decades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Yang, Limin; Weng, Qihao

    2011-01-01

    Land-cover composition and change have profound impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Land-cover and land-use (LCLU) conditions and their changes can affect social and physical environments by altering ecosystem conditions and services. Information about LCLU change is often used to produce landscape-based metrics and evaluate landscape conditions to monitor LCLU status and trends over a specific time interval (Loveland et al. 2002; Coppin et al. 2004; Lunetta et al. 2006). Continuous, accurate, and up-to-date land-cover data are important for natural resource and ecosystem management and are needed to support consistent monitoring of landscape attributes over time. Large-area land-cover information at regional, national, and global scales is critical for monitoring landscape variations over large areas.

  19. Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

  20. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    PubMed

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  1. Mapping Land Use Land Cover Using NDVI in a Semi-arid Areas in Gum Arabic Belt, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    Gum arabic belt is most important region in Sudan with producing gum arabic in global level. Each land cover type has different spectral characteristics, absorbing some frequencies of light and reflecting others. With an understanding of the reflectance characteristics and some ground observations, it is possible to use remotely sensed data to make inferences about the type of land cover and land use. The objective of this study is to measure and classify the vegetation cover in semi-arid area in gum arbic belt in Sudan using NDVI. The remotely sensed data used in this study were NDVI images created from Terra-ASTER (2007), ETM+ (1999) and TM (1985) images of the study area (35x35 km) in the gum arabic in Kordofan region, Sudan. The values of the NDVI were examined and evaluated on pixel-by-pixel using ERDAS software and the training points collected from the field work. Supervised classification of a multi-temporal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set was used to analyse the temporal land-cover changes. The magnitude of green vegetation was quantified to several levels and separated from other classes using the advantage of the stratification of cover classes as a function of the NDVI. Using this stratification, the study found many similarities in the value of NDVI in land use land cover classes in gum arabic belt region. Four LULC classes were indicated using the range (0.184 and below) to represent the bare and farm lands, (0.185 -0.254) represents the grass and bush lands, (0.255 -0.334) represents forest dominated by Hashab trees (0.335 and high) represents mixed woodlands. Maximum NDVI values (0.90) were found in images 1972. Further research is needed to fully determine the spatial and temporal range of the NDVI values over non-vegetated and partially vegetated areas in semi-arid areas. Key words: vegetation cover, NDVI, gum arabic belt, mapping

  2. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  3. Modeling interactions between land cover and climate in integrated assessment models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) link representations of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate in an internally consistent framework. These models are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate, energy, and other policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. Additionally, these models are used to develop future scenarios of emissions and land cover for use in climate models (e.g., RCPs and CMIP5). Land use is strongly influenced by assumptions about population, income, diet, ecosystem productivity change, and climate policy. Population, income, and diet determine the amount of food production needed in the future. Assumptions about future changes in crop yields due to agronomic developments influence the amount of land needed to produce food crops. Climate policy has implications for land when land-based mitigation options (e.g., afforestation and bioenergy) are considered. IAM models consider each of these factors in their computation of land use in the future. As each of these factors is uncertain in the future, IAM models use scenario analysis to explore the implications of each. For example, IAMs have been used to explore the effect of different mitigation policies on land cover. These models can quantify the trade-offs in terms of land cover, energy prices, food prices, and mitigation costs of each of these policies. Furthermore, IAMs are beginning to explore the effect of climate change on land productivity, and the implications that changes in productivity have on mitigation efforts. In this talk, we describe the implications for future land use and land cover of a variety of socioeconomic, technological, and policy drivers in several IAM models. Additionally, we will discuss the effects of future land cover on climate and the effects of climate on future land cover, as simulated

  4. Reconstructing Colonial Land Cover Changes Across the Northeastern United States to Understand Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Duncan, J.; Kumar, S.; Pastore, C.; Bain, D.; Green, M.; Pellerin, B.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover change is one of the most important drivers of hydrologic change. While we understand the North American landscape was substantially altered during the colonial period (1600-1800), the highly variable spatial and temporal dynamics of land cover change have not been yet resolved. Past land cover changes have important implications for the hydrologic history of the region and impart legacy effects on contemporary hydrologic systems. Before European arrival, the northern portion of the region was predominantly a game economy with increasing predominance of subsistence agriculture as one moved south. Upon arrival of Europeans, the region was transformed to a resource extraction economy, predominantly export oriented logging and agriculture production. Several authors have reconstructed historical land use change history at a variety of scales (county, watershed, and globe) based on paleo signatures in sediment cores, historical anecdotes, export data, and population based model. However, fewer integrated efforts utilize these historical land cover reconstructions to inform our understanding of hydrologic change, particularly at the regional scale. Therefore, we synthesize a variety of approaches to reconstruct a regionally coherent/consistent picture of land cover change in the northeast from 1600 to 1800. Our study region is divided into two major hydrological sub-regions based on glaciation history and contemporary climate gradients: the New England region and the Chesapeake Bay regions. We try to clarify uncertainty of each study and difference between them due to diverse research methods and scales. Using a meta-analysis approach and geospatial representation we have hypothesized that intensive land cover changes along coastal lines and navigable river reaches had a significant impact on the regional hydrology.

  5. Measuring Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Using the USDA Cropland Data Layer: Cautions and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, T.; Mueller, R.; Johnson, D. M.; Gibbs, H.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring agricultural land is critically important for understanding and managing food production, environmental conservation efforts, and climate change. The US Department of Agriculture's Cropland Data Layer (CDL), an annual satellite imagery-derived land cover map, has been increasingly used for this application since complete coverage of the conterminous United States became available in 2008. However, the CDL is designed and produced with the intent of monitoring annual land cover rather than changes over time, and as a result certain precautions are needed in multi-year change analyses to minimize error and misapplication. We highlight scenarios that require special considerations, suggest solutions to key challenges, and propose a set of recommended good practices and general guidelines for CDL-based land change estimation. We also characterize a problematic issue of crop area underestimation bias within the CDL that needs to be corrected when calculating changes to crop and cropland areas. When used appropriately and in conjunction with related information, the CDL is a valuable and effective tool for detecting diverse trends in agriculture. By explicitly discussing the methods and techniques for post-classification measurement of land-cover and land-use change using the CDL, we aim to further stimulate the discourse and continued development of suitable methodologies. Recommendations generated here are intended specifically for the CDL but are likely broadly applicable to additional remotely-sensed land cover datasets including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based land cover products, and other regional, national, and global classified land cover maps.

  6. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Project Background: The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-use and land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for measuring regional land-cover change across the United States, (2) characterize the types, rates and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period, (3) document regional driving forces and consequences of change, and (4) prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). Using the 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) as the geographic framework, geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 were processed and analyzed to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes such as water, developed, grassland/shrubland, and agriculture for these periods were interpreted from Landsat MSS, TM, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land-Use Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The interpretation of these land-cover classes complement the program objective of looking at land-use change with cover serving as a surrogate for land use. The land-cover change rates are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other

  7. Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

  8. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  9. Assessing the use of subgrid land model output to study impacts of land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Natalie M.; Lee, Xuhui; Lawrence, Peter J.; Lawrence, David M.; Zhao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Subgrid information from land models has the potential to be a powerful tool for investigating land-atmosphere interactions, but relatively few studies have attempted to exploit subgrid output. In this study, we modify the configuration of the Community Land Model version CLM4.5 so that each plant functional type (PFT) is assigned its own soil column. We compare subgrid and grid cell-averaged air temperature and surface energy fluxes from this modified case (PFTCOL) to a case with the default configuration—a shared soil column for all PFTs (CTRL)—and examine the difference in simulated surface air temperature between grass and tree PFTs within the same grid cells (ΔTGT). The magnitude and spatial patterns of ΔTGT from PFTCOL agree more closely with observations, ranging from -1.5 K in boreal regions to +0.6 K in the tropics. We find that the column configuration has a large effect on PFT-level energy fluxes. In the CTRL configuration, the PFT-level annual mean ground heat flux (G) differs substantially from zero. For example, at a typical tropical grid cell, the annual G is 31.8 W m-2 for the tree PFTs and -14.7 W m-2 for grass PFTs. In PFTCOL, G is always close to zero. These results suggest that care must be taken when assessing local land cover change impacts with subgrid information. For models with PFTs on separate columns, it may be possible to isolate the differences in land surface fluxes between vegetation types that would be associated with land cover change from other climate forcings and feedbacks in climate model simulations.

  10. Segmentation, object-oriented applications for remote sensing land cover and land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Kevin S.

    2011-12-01

    Multiscale segmentation, object-oriented methods in remote sensing have predominantly focused on urban applications using very fine resolution imagery. This dissertation explores three distinct but methodologically related remote sensing applications of multiscale segmentation, object-oriented classification using 30 m Landsat data. The first article reveals that object-oriented methods can achieve high classification accuracy for spectrally indistinct classes, even when forced to utilize non-ideal datasets such as hazy Landsat imagery and the "research grade" ASTER DEM. By incorporating spatial metrics, and exploiting elevational characteristics, seasonal wetlands can be differentiated from spectrally inseparable anthropogenically modified land use and from the upland, mixed tropical forest with high regional and local accuracies. The second article proposes and tests an object-oriented, target-constrained method for mangrove-specific change detection. By integrating pixel-based matched filter probability outputs with fuzzy object classification the proposed hybrid method bypass the need for exhaustive classification reducing classification time immensely. This method, then, has provided a means to globally assess mangrove stocks with the accuracy of object-based methods, but with the rapidity and repeatability found normally in less intensive methods. The third article demonstrates how both textural operators can be used at the object level for residential density classification with 30 m Landsat data. It was concluded that both mean GLCM and local Moran's I spatial statistics should be considered for the classification of residential density with the caveat that their utility is class-dependent. Object level usage of Moran's I was found to be able to be better differentiate high density land use classes while mean GLCM texture was indicated to be superior for separating low density land use and land cover. These applications demonstrate the utility of multiscale

  11. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  12. LAND COVER TRENDS: RATES, CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES OF LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY U.S LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information on the rates, driving forces, and consequences of land use and land cover change is important in studies addressing issues ranging from the health of aquatic resources to climate change. This four-year research project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. ...

  13. LAND COVER TRENDS: RATES, CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES OF LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY U.S LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information on the rates, driving forces, and consequences of land use and land cover change is important in studies addressing issues ranging from the health of aquatic resources to climate change. This four-year research project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. ...

  14. Global land cover mapping: a review and uncertainty analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congalton, Russell G.; Gu, Jianyu; Yadav, Kamini; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Given the advances in remotely sensed imagery and associated technologies, several global land cover maps have been produced in recent times including IGBP DISCover, UMD Land Cover, Global Land Cover 2000 and GlobCover 2009. However, the utility of these maps for specific applications has often been hampered due to considerable amounts of uncertainties and inconsistencies. A thorough review of these global land cover projects including evaluating the sources of error and uncertainty is prudent and enlightening. Therefore, this paper describes our work in which we compared, summarized and conducted an uncertainty analysis of the four global land cover mapping projects using an error budget approach. The results showed that the classification scheme and the validation methodology had the highest error contribution and implementation priority. A comparison of the classification schemes showed that there are many inconsistencies between the definitions of the map classes. This is especially true for the mixed type classes for which thresholds vary for the attributes/discriminators used in the classification process. Examination of these four global mapping projects provided quite a few important lessons for the future global mapping projects including the need for clear and uniform definitions of the classification scheme and an efficient, practical, and valid design of the accuracy assessment.

  15. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  16. Wildfire selectivity for land cover type: does size matter?

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana M G; Pereira, José M C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fires burn certain land cover types disproportionally to their abundance. We used quantile regression to study land cover proneness to fire as a function of fire size, under the hypothesis that they are inversely related, for all land cover types. Using five years of fire perimeters, we estimated conditional quantile functions for lower (avoidance) and upper (preference) quantiles of fire selectivity for five land cover types - annual crops, evergreen oak woodlands, eucalypt forests, pine forests and shrublands. The slope of significant regression quantiles describes the rate of change in fire selectivity (avoidance or preference) as a function of fire size. We used Monte-Carlo methods to randomly permutate fires in order to obtain a distribution of fire selectivity due to chance. This distribution was used to test the null hypotheses that 1) mean fire selectivity does not differ from that obtained by randomly relocating observed fire perimeters; 2) that land cover proneness to fire does not vary with fire size. Our results show that land cover proneness to fire is higher for shrublands and pine forests than for annual crops and evergreen oak woodlands. As fire size increases, selectivity decreases for all land cover types tested. Moreover, the rate of change in selectivity with fire size is higher for preference than for avoidance. Comparison between observed and randomized data led us to reject both null hypotheses tested ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) and to conclude it is very unlikely the observed values of fire selectivity and change in selectivity with fire size are due to chance.

  17. Analysis of the Effects of Different Land Use and Land Cover Classification on Surface Meteorological Variables using WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, A. P.; Mohan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The continuous population growth and the subsequent economic expansion over centuries have been the primary drivers of land use /land cover (LULC) changes resulting in the environmental changes across the globe. Most of the urban areas being developed today are on the expense of agricultural or barren lands and the changes result from various practices such as deforestation, changing agriculture practices, rapid expansion of urban centers etc Updated land cover and land use data derived from satellites offer the possibility of consistent and regularly collected information on LULC. In the present study the land use / land cover (LULC) changes over NCR is examined by supervised classification technique using images obtained from Landsat missions for five years 1972,1981,1993,2003 and 2014, representative of five decades. It is seen that the study region had just 126 sq km of urban built up in 1972 which has increased to 2180 sq km in 2014 depicting almost 17 fold increase in the urban area. The water bodies show a decline of almost 40% in their coverage while Sariska National Park shows a decrease of 76 % in forest cover. Further, LULC of these five decades are taken as different input cases in WRF Model and the effect of these changes on surface temperature (T2m), Land Surface Temperature (LST), Sensible Heat Flux (SHFX) and Latent Heat flux (LH) is analyzed.

  18. Dependence of Polarimetric Scattering Mechanisms on Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, D. K.; Meyer, F.

    2011-03-01

    A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical scattering mechanisms. The approach utilizes two free, open-source software tools, ESA's PolSARpro and the Alaska Satellite Facility's MapReady Remote Sensing Toolbox as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, to compute the probability density functions of normalized decomposition components for each land cover class.The proposed method provides the ability to compare polarimetric decompositions, investigate scattering mechanisms, detect change in land cover classification, and discover inhomogeneities in the spectral characteristics of individual classes. The approach is first employed to compare the Freeman and Van Zyl three-component decomposition techniques, where the former is shown to introduce many pixels with 100% volume saturation.Ideally, the method yields distinctive scattering peaks for each land cover class with minimal variance in the individual scattering components. However, in some instances, bimodal peaks are found. These are shown to either represent changes between the original land classification and the SAR acquisitions, or the existence of spectral subclasses that were not differentiated in the original classification. Last, the method is used to determine the impact of Polarimetric Orientation Angle (POA) correction on the scattering signatures of urban land cover classes. POA compensation is shown to bring about a significant reduction in the volume scattering component.A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical

  19. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus]. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Dianna M; Walbridge, Mark R

    2009-07-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus].

  1. Classifying Urban Land Covers Using Local Indices of Spatial Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arumugam, Mahesh; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The skewed statistical distributions of land cover types in complex, heterogeneous urban areas limits the effectiveness of traditional spectrally based maximum-likelihood classifiers. This work examines the utility of fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting high-resolution panchromatic and lower-resolution multispectral imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze multi-temporal and multi-platform imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. In this example, land cover change trajectories from forest or grassland to built up land covers lead to decreased spatial autocorrelation. In lower resolution imagery such as Landsat MSS, the complex details of forested land covers and urbanized areas are smoothed, and texture-based change detection is less effective. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using fractal dimension or Moran's I, widely differing land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification.

  2. Recent Land Cover History and Nutrient Retention in Riparian Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Walbridge, Mark R.

    2009-07-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [ Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus].

  3. Classifying Urban Land Covers Using Local Indices of Spatial Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arumugam, Mahesh; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The skewed statistical distributions of land cover types in complex, heterogeneous urban areas limits the effectiveness of traditional spectrally based maximum-likelihood classifiers. This work examines the utility of fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting high-resolution panchromatic and lower-resolution multispectral imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze multi-temporal and multi-platform imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. In this example, land cover change trajectories from forest or grassland to built up land covers lead to decreased spatial autocorrelation. In lower resolution imagery such as Landsat MSS, the complex details of forested land covers and urbanized areas are smoothed, and texture-based change detection is less effective. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using fractal dimension or Moran's I, widely differing land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification.

  4. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35 years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  5. Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Tatem, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Gridded population distribution data are finding increasing use in a wide range of fields, including resource allocation, disease burden estimation and climate change impact assessment. Land cover information can be used in combination with detailed settlement extents to redistribute aggregated census counts to improve the accuracy of national-scale gridded population data. In East Africa, such analyses have been done using regional land cover data, thus restricting application of the approach to this region. If gridded population data are to be improved across Africa, an alternative, consistent and comparable source of land cover data is required. Here these analyses were repeated for Kenya using four continent-wide land cover datasets combined with detailed settlement extents and accuracies were assessed against detailed census data. The aim was to identify the large area land cover dataset that, combined with detailed settlement extents, produce the most accurate population distribution data. The effectiveness of the population distribution modelling procedures in the absence of high resolution census data was evaluated, as was the extrapolation ability of population densities between different regions. Results showed that the use of the GlobCover dataset refined with detailed settlement extents provided significantly more accurate gridded population data compared to the use of refined AVHRR-derived, MODIS-derived and GLC2000 land cover datasets. This study supports the hypothesis that land cover information is important for improving population distribution model accuracies, particularly in countries where only coarse resolution census data are available. Obtaining high resolution census data must however remain the priority. With its higher spatial resolution and its more recent data acquisition, the GlobCover dataset was found as the most valuable resource to use in combination with detailed settlement extents for the production of gridded population datasets

  6. Annual Land Cover Change Impacts on Mount Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairman, J. G.; Nair, U. S.; Christopher, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Glacier recession on Kilimanjaro has been linked to reduction in precipitation and cloudiness largely due to large scale changes in tropical climate. Prior research has shown that land use change can alter the local patterns and elevational distribution of cloud cover and precipitation via changes in upwind temperature, moisture, and wind speed but are limited in time to the dry season, which does not address any questions about effects on convective activity on the peak. This study uses the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System to simulate orographic cloudiness, rainfall and orographic flow patterns over Kilimanjaro for current, deforested and reforested land cover scenarios at one kilometer grid spacing for one year, ranging from July 2007 through June 2008. On average, total deforestation causes temperature increases of 0.1-0.2 K at elevations from 2000-3000 m, along with moisture decreases up to 0.2 g/kg. Wind speeds are uniformly increased over deforested areas by values up to 1 m/s, causing an increase in convergence leading to enhanced vertical velocity. Clouds occur less frequently on average with decreasing amounts of forested area, however there is little difference in cloud frequency at elevations over 4000 m. Factors governing these orographic processes such as surface level moisture availability, temperature, and wind speed are examined for times of cloud and precipitation occurrence at high elevations for these three scenarios. Both the reforested and deforested scenarios increase precipitation at the peak compared to the current day, but act in this manner due to differing mechanisms. Afforestation increases local precipitation generation via the thermal circulation and diurnal processes. In contrast, deforestation causes a greater dependence on high synoptic moisture availability, which combined with enhanced updrafts leads to more precipitation occurring at elevations exceeding 5000 m.

  7. Land-use and Land-cover Change from 1974 to 2008 around Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jean; Spruce, Joseph; Smoot, James; Hilbert, Kent; Swann, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This project is a Gulf of Mexico Application Pilot in which NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is working within a regional collaboration network of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance. NASA researchers, with support from the NASA SSC Applied Science Program Steering Committee, employed multi-temporal Landsat data to assess land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes in the coastal counties of Mobile and Baldwin, AL, between 1974 and 2008. A multi-decadal time-series, coastal LULC product unique to NASA SSC was produced. The geographic extent and nature of change was quantified for the open water, barren, upland herbaceous, non-woody wetland, upland forest, woody wetland, and urban landscapes. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Coastal Development Data Center (NCDDC) will assist with the transition of the final product to the operational end user, which primarily is the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP). We found substantial LULC change over the 34-year study period, much more than is evident when the change occurring in the last years. Between 1974 and 2008, the upland forest landscape lost almost 6% of the total acreage, while urban land cover increased by slightly more than 3%. With exception to open water, upland forest is the dominant landscape, accounting for about 25-30% of the total area.

  8. Implication of Agricultural Land Use Change on Regional Climate Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; You, L.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use plays an important role in land-atmosphere interaction. Agricultural activity is one of the most important processes driving human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) in a region. In addition to future socioeconomic changes, climate-induced changes in crop yield represent another important factor shaping agricultural land use. In feedback, the resulting LULCC influences the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. Therefore, assessment of climate change impact on future agricultural land use and its feedback is of great importance in climate change study. In this study, to evaluate the feedback of projected land use changes to the regional climate in West Africa, we employed an asynchronous coupling between a regional climate model (RegCM) and a prototype land use projection model (LandPro). The LandPro model, which was developed to project the future change in agricultural land use and the resulting shift in natural vegetation in West Africa, is a spatially explicit model that can account for both climate and socioeconomic changes in projecting future land use changes. In the asynchronously coupled modeling framework, LandPro was run for every five years during the period of 2005-2050 accounting for climate-induced change in crop yield and socioeconomic changes to project the land use pattern by the mid-21st century. Climate data at 0.5˚ was derived from RegCM to drive the crop model DSSAT for each of the five-year periods to simulate crop yields, which was then provided as input data to LandPro. Subsequently, the land use land cover map required to run RegCM was updated every five years using the outputs from the LandPro simulations. Results from the coupled model simulations improve the understanding of climate change impact on future land use and the resulting feedback to regional climate.

  9. Characterizing the relationship between land use land cover change and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Duy X.; Pla, Filiberto; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Myint, Soe W.; Caetano, Mario; Kieu, Hoan V.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring changes in land use land cover (LULC) to understand the urban heat island (UHI) effect is valuable for both communities and local governments in cities in developing countries, where urbanization and industrialization often take place rapidly but where coherent planning and control policies have not been applied. This work aims at determining and analyzing the relationship between LULC change and land surface temperature (LST) patterns in the context of urbanization. We first explore the relationship between LST and vegetation, man-made features, and cropland using normalized vegetation, and built-up indices within each LULC type. Afterwards, we assess the impacts of LULC change and urbanization in UHI using hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics) and urban landscape analysis. Finally, we propose a model applying non-parametric regression to estimate future urban climate patterns using predicted land cover and land use change. Results from this work provide an effective methodology for UHI characterization, showing that (a) LST depends on a nonlinear way of LULC types; (b) hotspot analysis using Getis Ord Gi∗ statistics allows to analyze the LST pattern change through time; (c) UHI is influenced by both urban landscape and urban development type; (d) LST pattern forecast and UHI effect examination can be done by the proposed model using nonlinear regression and simulated LULC change scenarios. We chose an inner city area of Hanoi as a case-study, a small and flat plain area where LULC change is significant due to urbanization and industrialization. The methodology presented in this paper can be broadly applied in other cities which exhibit a similar dynamic growth. Our findings can represent an useful tool for policy makers and the community awareness by providing a scientific basis for sustainable urban planning and management.

  10. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiong; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, D Brenton; Ross, C Wade; Harris, Willie G; Comerford, Nicolas B

    2014-09-15

    Historically, Florida soils stored the largest amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) among the conterminous U.S. states (2.26 Pg). This region experienced rapid land use/land cover (LULC) shifts and climate change in the past decades. The effects of these changes on SOC sequestration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the change in SOC stocks in Florida to determine if soils have acted as a net sink or net source for carbon (C) over the past four decades and 2) identify the concomitant effects of LULC, LULC change, and climate on the SOC change. A total of 1080 sites were sampled in the topsoil (0-20 cm) between 2008 and 2009 representing the current SOC stocks, 194 of which were selected to collocate with historical sites (n = 1251) from the Florida Soil Characterization Database (1965-1996) for direct comparison. Results show that SOC stocks significantly differed among LULC classes--sugarcane and wetland contained the highest SOC, followed by improved pasture, urban, mesic upland forest, rangeland, and pineland while crop, citrus and xeric upland forest remained the lowest. The surface 20 cm soils acted as a net sink for C with the median SOC significantly increasing from 2.69 to 3.40 kg m(-2) over the past decades. The SOC sequestration rate was LULC dependent and controlled by climate factors interacting with LULC. Higher temperature tended to accelerate SOC accumulation, while higher precipitation reduced the SOC sequestration rate. Land use/land cover change observed over the past four decades also favored the C sequestration in soils due to the increase in the C-rich wetland area by ~140% and decrease in the C-poor agricultural area by ~20%. Soils are likely to provide a substantial soil C sink considering the climate and LULC projections for this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  12. Land-cover change and avian diversity in the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon; Thomas P. Albright; Patrick D. Culbert; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Jeffrey G. Masek; Volker C. Radeloff

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover have affected and will continue to affect biological diversity worldwide. Yet, understanding the spatially extensive effects of land-cover change has been challenging because data that are consistent over space and time are lacking. We used the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset Land Cover Change Retrofit Product and North American...

  13. 25 CFR 162.210 - When can BIA grant a permit covering agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can BIA grant a permit covering agricultural land... covering agricultural land? (a) We may grant a permit covering agricultural land in the same manner as we... no substantial injury to the land will occur. (b) We may grant a permit covering agricultural land...

  14. Combining satellite data with ancillary data to produce a refined land-use/land-cover map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages Study Unit, a current map of land use and land cover is needed to gain a better understanding of how land use and land cover may influence water quality. Satellite data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper provides a means to map and measure the type and amount of various land-cover types across the Study Unit and can be easily updated as changes occur in the landscape or in water quality. Translating these land cover categories to land use, however, requires the use of other thematic maps or ancillary data layers, such as wetland inventories, population data, or road networks. This report describes a process of (1) using satellite imagery to produce a land-cover map for the Fox/Wolf River basin, a portion of the Western Lake Michigan Drainages NAWQA Study Unit and (2) improving the satellite-derived land-cover map by using other thematic maps. The multiple data layers are processed in a geographic information system (GIS), and the combination provides more information than individual sources alone.

  15. Land use/land cover in Swisher County and Deaf Smith County locations, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Agriculture is the major land use/land cover in the Swisher and Deaf Smith County locations. Most of the agricultural land is irrigated. Furrow, center pivot, and lateral-wheel irrigation systems are in common use. Rangeland is the second most abundant land use/land cover; it is typically associated with stream valleys and playas. The rangeland supports cattle, which are an important source of income. The main urban areas in or near the locations are Tulia and Happy, in Swisher County, and Hereford and Vega, in Deaf Smith County. Most of the land within the locations is privately owned - corporate and government ownership is extremely limited - and large portions are currently under lease for oil exploration. County and regional agencies have no authority to regulate land-use patterns in the locations, although the Panhandle Regional Planning Commission can provide guidance to local jurisdictions. Land use within the corporate limits and extraterritorial jurisdictions of Tulia and Hereford is controlled by zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations. According to projections for the locations, agriculture will remain the major land use in the foreseeable future. Dryland farming and rangeland will become more prevalent as irrigation costs increase and marginal areas are taken out of production.

  16. Multi-source remotely sensed data fusion for improving land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Huang, Bo; Xu, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Although many advances have been made in past decades, land cover classification of fine-resolution remotely sensed (RS) data integrating multiple temporal, angular, and spectral features remains limited, and the contribution of different RS features to land cover classification accuracy remains uncertain. We proposed to improve land cover classification accuracy by integrating multi-source RS features through data fusion. We further investigated the effect of different RS features on classification performance. The results of fusing Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), China Environment 1A series (HJ-1A), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM) data, showed that the fused data integrating temporal, spectral, angular, and topographic features achieved better land cover classification accuracy than the original RS data. Compared with the topographic feature, the temporal and angular features extracted from the fused data played more important roles in classification performance, especially those temporal features containing abundant vegetation growth information, which markedly increased the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the multispectral and hyperspectral fusion successfully discriminated detailed forest types. Our study provides a straightforward strategy for hierarchical land cover classification by making full use of available RS data. All of these methods and findings could be useful for land cover classification at both regional and global scales.

  17. Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  18. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  19. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  20. Estimation of late twentieth century land-cover change in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Tamara S.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Liu, Jinxun

    2011-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive multi-temporal analysis of land-cover change for California across its major ecological regions and primary land-cover types. Recently completed satellite-based estimates of land-cover and land-use change information for large portions of the United States allow for consistent measurement and comparison across heterogeneous landscapes. Landsat data were employed within a pure-panel stratified one-stage cluster sample to estimate and characterize land-cover change for 1973–2000. Results indicate anthropogenic and natural disturbances, such as forest cutting and fire, were the dominant changes, followed by large fluctuations between agriculture and rangelands. Contrary to common perception, agriculture remained relatively stable over the 27-year period with an estimated loss of 1.0% of agricultural land. The largest net declines occurred in the grasslands/shrubs class at 5,131 km2 and forest class at 4,722 km2. Developed lands increased by 37.6%, composing an estimated 4.2% of the state’s land cover by 2000.

  1. Estimation of late twentieth century land-cover change in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Tamara S.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Liu, Jinxun

    2011-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive multi-temporal analysis of land-cover change for California across its major ecological regions and primary land-cover types. Recently completed satellite-based estimates of land-cover and land-use change information for large portions of the United States allow for consistent measurement and comparison across heterogeneous landscapes. Landsat data were employed within a pure-panel stratified one-stage cluster sample to estimate and characterize land-cover change for 1973-2000. Results indicate anthropogenic and natural disturbances, such as forest cutting and fire, were the dominant changes, followed by large fluctuations between agriculture and rangelands. Contrary to common perception, agriculture remained relatively stable over the 27-year period with an estimated loss of 1.0% of agricultural land. The largest net declines occurred in the grasslands/shrubs class at 5,131 km2 and forest class at 4,722 km2. Developed lands increased by 37.6%, composing an estimated 4.2% of the state?s land cover by 2000.

  2. Digital hydrographic, land use/land cover, and hydrologic unit boundary files for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1:100,000- and 1:250,000-scale digital data files

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, A.K.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    Digital hydrographic and land-use/land-cover data have been compiled into a digital geographic data base for an {approx}100,000-km{sup 2} area of the Southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and SE California, located between lat 35{degree}N, long 115{degree}W and lat 38{degree}N, long 118{degree}W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California. The data base was compiled from USGS data files distributed by the USGS Earth Scinece Information Center. The data files were converted into six thematic ARC/INFO map coverages representing the Death Valley region.

  3. Estimating accuracy of land-cover composition from two-stage cluster sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Fattorini, L.; Wade, T.D.; Baffetta, F.; Smith, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation (CORR) to quantify accuracy of land-cover composition for a general two-stage cluster sampling design, and for the special case of simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) at each stage. The bias of the estimators for the two-stage SRSWOR design is evaluated via a simulation study. The estimators of RMSE and CORR have small bias except when sample size is small and the land-cover class is rare. The estimator of MAD is biased for both rare and common land-cover classes except when sample size is large. A general recommendation is that rare land-cover classes require large sample sizes to ensure that the accuracy estimators have small bias. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Tsunami exposure estimation with land-cover data: Oregon and the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, N.

    2009-01-01

    A Cascadia subduction-zone earthquake has the potential to generate tsunami waves which would impact more than 1000 km of coastline on the west coast of the United States and Canada. Although the predictable extent of tsunami inundation is similar for low-lying land throughout the region, human use of tsunami-prone land varies, creating variations in community exposure and potential impacts. To better understand such variations, land-cover information derived from midresolution remotely-sensed imagery (e.g., 30-m-resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery) was coupled with tsunami-hazard information to describe tsunami-prone land along the Oregon coast. Land-cover data suggest that 95% of the tsunami-prone land in Oregon is undeveloped and is primarily wetlands and unconsolidated shores. Based on Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rs), correlative relationships are strong and statistically significant (p < 0.05) between city-level estimates of the amount of land-cover pixels classified as developed (impervious cover greater than 20%) and the amount of various societal assets, including residential and employee populations, homes, businesses, and tax-parcel values. Community exposure to tsunami hazards, described here by the amount and relative percentage of developed land in tsunami-prone areas, varies considerably among the 26 communities of the study area, and these variations relate to city size. Correlative relationships are strong and significant (p < 0.05) for community exposure rankings based on land-cover data and those based on aggregated socioeconomic data. In the absence of socioeconomic data or community-based knowledge, the integration of hazards information and land-cover information derived from midresolution remotely-sensed imagery to estimate community exposure may be a useful first step in understanding variations in community vulnerability to regional hazards.

  5. Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall due to Changes in Land Use Land Cover

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Supantha; Ghosh, Subimal; Oglesby, Robert; Pathak, Amey; Chandrasekharan, Anita; Ramsankaran, RAAJ

    2016-01-01

    Weakening of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is traditionally linked with large-scale perturbations and circulations. However, the impacts of local changes in land use and land cover (LULC) on ISMR have yet to be explored. Here, we analyzed this topic using the regional Weather Research and Forecasting model with European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data for the years 2000–2010 as a boundary condition and with LULC data from 1987 and 2005. The differences in LULC between 1987 and 2005 showed deforestation with conversion of forest land to crop land, though the magnitude of such conversion is uncertain because of the coarse resolution of satellite images and use of differential sources and methods for data extraction. We performed a sensitivity analysis to understand the impacts of large-scale deforestation in India on monsoon precipitation and found such impacts are similar to the observed changes in terms of spatial patterns and magnitude. We found that deforestation results in weakening of the ISMR because of the decrease in evapotranspiration and subsequent decrease in the recycled component of precipitation. PMID:27553384

  6. Recent land-use/land-cover change in the Central California Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Wilson, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Open access to Landsat satellite data has enabled annual analyses of modern land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) for the Central California Valley ecoregion between 2005 and 2010. Our annual LULCC estimates capture landscape-level responses to water policy changes, climate, and economic instability. From 2005 to 2010, agriculture in the region fluctuated along with regulatory-driven changes in water allocation as well as persistent drought conditions. Grasslands and shrublands declined, while developed lands increased in former agricultural and grassland/shrublands. Development rates stagnated in 2007, coinciding with the onset of the historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. We utilized annual LULCC estimates to generate interval-based LULCC estimates (2000–2005 and 2005–2010) and extend existing 27 year interval-based land change monitoring through 2010. Resulting change data provides insights into the drivers of landscape change in the Central California Valley ecoregion and represents the first, continuous, 37 year mapping effort of its kind.

  7. Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall due to Changes in Land Use Land Cover.

    PubMed

    Paul, Supantha; Ghosh, Subimal; Oglesby, Robert; Pathak, Amey; Chandrasekharan, Anita; Ramsankaran, Raaj

    2016-08-24

    Weakening of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is traditionally linked with large-scale perturbations and circulations. However, the impacts of local changes in land use and land cover (LULC) on ISMR have yet to