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Sample records for regional stage upper

  1. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  4. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  5. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  6. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  7. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  8. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  9. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  10. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  11. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  12. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  13. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

  14. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  15. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  16. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  17. Regional anesthesia for an upper extremity amputation for palliative care in a patient with end-stage osteosarcoma complicated by a large anterior mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Mumin; Burrier, Candice; Bhalla, Tarun; Raman, Vidya T; Martin, David P; Dairo, Olamide; Mayerson, Joel L; Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression during end-of-life care can lead to significant pain, which at times may be refractory to routine analgesic techniques. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used for postoperative pain care, there is limited experience with its use during home hospice care. We present a 24-year-old male with end-stage metastatic osteosarcoma who required anesthetic care for a right-sided above-the-elbow amputation. The anesthetic management was complicated by the presence of a large mediastinal mass, limited pulmonary reserve, and severe chronic pain with a high preoperative opioid requirement. Intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative pain management were provided by regional anesthesia using an interscalene catheter. He was discharged home with the interscalene catheter in place with a continuous local anesthetic infusion that allowed weaning of his chronic opioid medications and the provision of effective pain control. The perioperative applications of regional anesthesia in palliative and home hospice care are discussed. PMID:26442759

  18. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics include: 1) What is NASA s Mission?; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line?; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 4) Ares I Upper Stage; 5) Upper Stage Primary Products; 6) Ares I Upper Stage Development Approach; 7) What progress have we made?; 8) Upper Stage Subsystem Highlights; 9) Structural Testing; 10) Common Bulkhead Processing; 11) Stage Installation at Stennis Space Center; 12) Boeing Producibility Team; 13) Upper Stage Low Cost Strategy; 14) Ares I and V Production at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF); 15) Merged Manufacturing Flow; and 16) Manufacturing and Assembly Weld Tools.

  19. Postmission disposal options for upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Peter; Reynolds, Robert C.; Zhang, Jingchang; Bade, Anette; Jackson, A. A.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; McNamara, Roger

    1997-10-01

    NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8 directs each project office to limit orbital debris generation if this action is cost-effective and consistent with achieving mission objectives. To implement this policy, the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the sponsor of NMI 1700.8, tasked NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to develop the NASA Safety Standard 1740.14: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris, August 1995. To mitigate the accumulation of mass in Earth orbit, NSS 1740.14 addresses the issues of postmission disposal of spacecraft and upper stages. According to the guidelines, these systems in general should be left in an orbit in which, using conservative projections for solar activity, atmospheric drag and gravitational perturbations will limit the lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) to no longer than 25 years after completion of mission. Consequently, JSC undertook a series of studies to investigate the most efficient and cost effective options for reducing orbit lifetime. In this paper we present an overview of the various options and give hints for the choice of the option best suited for specific mission types, e.g., depending on initial orbit, existing propulsion systems, existing electrical power level, electrical power and attitude control lifetime, and acceptable maneuver time and mass penalties.

  20. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  1. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  5. Overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.

    2006-01-01

    The overview begins with the bold vision for space exploration set out by President Bush in 2004. A brief description of the proposed systems architecture is presented along with an animation showing the various stages and phases of a mission. The overview concludes with latest roadmaps for the Upper Stage.

  6. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  7. The Upper Midwest and Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    The broad question addressed is whether the Upper Midwest needs a new regional educational laboratory and, if so, why and where and for whom? Conclusions were reached after a sampling of deans of education, chief state school officers, classroom teachers, National Institute of Education staff members, local superintendents, and other knowledgeable…

  8. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  9. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davusm Daniel J.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system.

  10. Orbit decay analysis of STS upper stage boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    An orbit decay analysis of the space transportation system upper stage boosters is presented. An overview of the computer trajectory programs, DSTROB, algorithm is presented. Atmospheric drag and perturbation models are described. The development of launch windows, such that the transfer orbit will decay within two years, is discussed. A study of the lifetimes of geosynchronous transfer orbits is presented.

  11. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  12. Active Debris Removal Using Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, S. Ali; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of space debris in the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. These studies also highlight the urgency for active debris removal.An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, stabilizing its attitude, establishing physical contact, and finally de-orbiting the debris object. The de-orbiting phase could be powered by propulsion systems such as chemical rockets or electrodynamic tether (EDT) systems.The aim of this project is to model and evaluate a debris removal mission in which an adapted rocket upper stage, equipped with an electrodynamic tether (EDT) system, is employed for de-orbiting a debris object. This ADRS package is installed initially as part of a launch vehicle on a normal satellite deployment mission, and a far-approach manoeuvre will be required to align the ADRS' orbit with that of the target debris. We begin by selecting a suitable target debris and launch vehicle, and then proceed with modelling the entire debris removal mission from launch to de-orbiting of the target debris object using Analytical Graphic Inc.'s Systems Tool Kit (STK).

  13. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.

  14. ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

  15. Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

  16. Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has

  18. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion for Spacecraft and Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Rnrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan

    1998-01-01

    Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost and the electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes, all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter.

  19. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  20. Shuttle/IUS performance for planetary missions. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Driver, J. M.; Wright, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential requirements for planetary missions in the 1980s, capabilities of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) candidates to perform those missions, and Shuttle/IUS mission profile options for performance enhancement are examined. The most demanding planetary missions are the Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan Probe and the Mariner-class orbiters of Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Options available to designers of these missions will depend on the specific IUS selected for development and the programmatic phasing of the IUS and the NASA Tug. Use of Shuttle elliptic orbits as initial conditions for IUS ignition offers significant performance improvements; specific values are mission dependent.

  1. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  2. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  3. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  4. Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

  5. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  6. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  7. Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

  8. Risk Assessment Challenges in the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Elrada, Hassan A.; Hark, Frank

    2007-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently at work developing hardware and systems for the Ares I rocket that will send future astronauts into orbit. Built on cutting-edge launch technologies, evolved powerful Apollo and Space Shuttle propulsion elements, and decades of NASA spaceflight experience, Ares I is the essential core of a safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation system -- one that will carry crewed missions back to the moon, on to Mars and out into the solar system. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the vehicle's primary mission -carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit --Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to "park" payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Crew transportation to the International Space Station is planned to begin no later than 2014. The first lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe. This paper presents the challenges in designing the Ares I upper stage for reliability and safety while minimizing weight and maximizing performance.

  9. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  10. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  11. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  13. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  14. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  15. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  16. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

  17. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  18. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  20. Thrust vector control of upper stage with a gimbaled thruster during orbit transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jia, Yinghong; Jin, Lei; Duan, Jiajia

    2016-10-01

    In launching Multi-Satellite with One-Vehicle, the main thruster provided by the upper stage is mounted on a two-axis gimbal. During orbit transfer, the thrust vector of this gimbaled thruster (GT) should theoretically pass through the mass center of the upper stage and align with the command direction to provide orbit transfer impetus. However, it is hard to be implemented from the viewpoint of the engineering mission. The deviations of the thrust vector from the command direction would result in large velocity errors. Moreover, the deviations of the thrust vector from the upper stage mass center would produce large disturbance torques. This paper discusses the thrust vector control (TVC) of the upper stage during its orbit transfer. Firstly, the accurate nonlinear coupled kinematic and dynamic equations of the upper stage body, the two-axis gimbal and the GT are derived by taking the upper stage as a multi-body system. Then, a thrust vector control system consisting of the special attitude control of the upper stage and the gimbal rotation of the gimbaled thruster is proposed. The special attitude control defined by the desired attitude that draws the thrust vector to align with the command direction when the gimbal control makes the thrust vector passes through the upper stage mass center. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified through numerical simulations.

  1. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  2. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1990-11-01

    During the current reporting period experimental studies of aerosol deposition in replicate NOPL airways have carried out. A replicate model of a 4 week old infant nasal passage was constructed from MR scans. The model completes the age range from newborn'' to 4 years, there now being one child model for 4 different ages. Deposition studies have been performed with unattached radon progeny aerosols in collaboration with ITRI, Albuquerque, NM and NRPB, Chilton, UK. Overall measurements have been performed in adult and child nasal airways indicating that the child nasal passage was slightly more efficient than the adult in removing 1 nm particles at corresponding flow rates. A similar weak dependence on flow rate was observed. Local deposition studies in an adult nasal model indicated predominant deposition in the anterior region during inspiratory flow, but measurable deposition was found throughout the model. The deposition pattern during expiration was reverse, greater deposition being observed in the posterior region. Local deposition studies of attached progeny aerosol size (100--200 nm) were performed in adult and child nasal models using technigas'' and a gamma scintillation camera. Similar to the unattached size, deposition occurred throughout the models, but was greater in the anterior region.

  4. Implausibility of Hydrostatic Funnels Constituting the Sun's Upper Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Carpio, Melisa M.; Sheung, Janet

    2007-09-01

    Over the past thirty years, two bodies of literature have developed in parallel presenting mutually exclusive views of the Sun’s upper transition region. One model holds that the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas are confined primarily in hydrostatic funnels with a substantial backheating component. The other model holds that discrete structures, which are effectively isolated from the corona, predominate in the Sun’s upper transition region. Purveyors of the latter position have recently begun to present near-resolved observations of discrete structures. The funnel scenario, in contrast, has only been addressed by modeling unresolved upper transition region emission. To address this paradox we have constructed hydrostatic funnel models and tested them against a wider set of solar observations than previously performed. We reproduce the results of the previous analyses, yet find that the hydrostatic funnels are unable to self-consistently match the wider set of observations against which we test the models. We show that it is not possible for a class of funnels having peak temperatures in the transition region or in the corona to match the observations. We conclude that it is implausible that a class of hydrostatic funnels constitutes the dominant emitting component of the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas as has been suggested.

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  6. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  7. Interaction between fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena in a cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, G. D.; Navickas, J.

    1993-07-01

    A generic cryogenic upper stage is analyzed using the FLOW-3D finite-difference program. The analysis is conducted to illustrate that coupled fluid-dynamic-thermodynamic numerical modeling is feasible with existing computational technology. A long-duration simulation of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank in a cryogenic upper stage is completed with no major computational difficulties. The numerical tank is exposed to external heating and dynamic disturbances typical for such a stage including high-gravity boost, stage separation, upper-stage initial burn, low-gravity orbital coast, and engine restart. Results show that propellant sloshing and temperature distribution are highly coupled indicating that fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena cannot be modeled independently for such a system.

  8. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  9. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  10. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  11. Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton

  12. Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

  13. Active Space Debris Removal using European Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Equipped with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Ali S.; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea; Becker, Cristoph

    2013-08-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. This cascade effect can be even more significant when intact objects as dismissed rocket bodies are involved in the collision. The majority of the studies until now have highlighted the urgency for active debris removal in the next years. An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is a system capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical connection, stabilizing its attitude and finally de-orbiting the debris object using a type of propulsion system in a controlled manoeuvre. In its previous work, this group showed that a modified Fregat (Soyuz FG's 4th stage) or Breeze-M upper stage (Proton-M) launched from Plesetsk (Russian Federation) and equipped with an electro-dynamic tether (EDT) system can be used, after an opportune inclination's change, to de-orbit a Kosmos-3M second stage rocket body while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit. In this paper, we continue our work on the aforementioned concept, presented at the 2012 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, by comparing its performance to ADR missions using only chemical propulsion from the upper stage for the far approach and the de-orbiting phase. We will also update the EDT model used in our previous work and highlight some of the methods for creating physical contact with the object. Moreover, we will assess this concept also with European launch vehicles (Vega and Soyuz 2-1A) to remove space debris from space. In addition, the paper will cover some economic aspects, like the cost for the launches' operator in term of payload mass' loss at the launch. The entire debris removal

  14. TROJID: A portable software package for upper-stage trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammes, Steven M.

    1990-01-01

    Performance optimization for upper-stage exoatmospheric vehicles often is performed within the framework of a full capability trajectory simulation package requiring either a large mainframe computer or powerful work-station. Since these software packages tend to include capabilities providing for high-fidelity boost and reentry simulations, the programs usually are quite large and not very portable. The program TROJID is an attempt to provide an environment for the optimization of upper-stage trajectories within a small package capable of being run on a standard desktop microcomputer. Utilizing a state-of-the-art nonlinear programming algorithm and a trajectory simulator implementing impulsive burns and an analytic coast phase propagator, TROJID is capable of producing trajectories for optimal multi-burn upper-stage orbit transfers. The package has been designed to allow full generality in definition of both the trajectory simulator and the parameter optimization problem.

  15. NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

  16. Variational Dynamic Coupled-Loads Analysis within the Frame of Launcher Upper Stage Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzner, R.; Abdoly, K.; Beuchel, W.; Stellino, W.

    2014-06-01

    During development the definition of realistic mechanical loads is a major challenge and milestone for space launcher programs. Especially the definition of dynamic loads for large structures, e.g. cryogenic tanks, and equipments, based on multi-variational payload configurations is a key element in the frame of new launcher upper stage developments.This paper presents a methodology to define realistic dynamic loads based on multi-variational dynamic coupled- loads analyses in the global launcher system up to equipment level.The complex challenge towards this task is to perform about 256000 complete coupled-loads analyses for the entire launcher upper stage including various recovery items within two weeks.The shown example describes multi-variational dynamic coupled-loads analyses and their post processing for the complete Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution launcher including the new upper stage using Nastran and PUMA3D software.

  17. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  18. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  19. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of the east Anatolian-Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobeltsyn, Gleb Anatolyevich

    The Eastern Anatolian-Caucasus region is a relatively young part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt and has been formed as the result of the ongoing continental collision of Arabia and Eurasia. In spite of a number of geological studies that have been conducted in this area, there is still no consensus within the geoscience community about the regional tectonic settings and a model for the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Anatolian Plateau. Knowledge of the upper mantle velocity structure in this region can provide the geological community with important constraints that are crucial for developing an understanding of the regional geology and the processes associated with early stages of mountain building. In the present dissertation, I describe two studies of the regional upper mantle S wave velocity structure. In order to derive the absolute velocity structure of the upper mantle, I have applied surface wave tomography to model Rayleigh wave phase velocities as a function of period. Then I inverted the Rayleigh phase velocities to obtain S wave velocities as a function of depth. The resulted high-resolution 3-D S wave velocity model of the regional upper mantle is characterized by a better depth resolution than any preexisting tomographic models. I also conducted an S wave splitting analysis using traditional methods and developed a two-layer grid search algorithm in order to infer the upper mantle anisotropic structure. The results of the S wave splitting analysis for the stations located in Azerbaijan are the first in the region. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  1. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  2. Estimating regional transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.H. )

    1993-03-01

    The distribution of permeability in the Upper Floridan aquifer is complex due to variations in the original depositional environments and the post-depositional history. The transmissivity of the aquifer is directly related to the thickness and lithology of the overlying confining unit (Miocene clastic deposits). Where this unit has been thinned or removed by erosion, solution-cavity development and thus high transmissivity are common. At depth, transmissivity is affected by the lithology of the carbonate rocks and the occurrence of paleokarst. The transmissivity of the Upper Floridan varies by more than three orders of magnitude: from less than 1,000 feet squared per day in the thickly confined, micrite-rich limestone of the Fort Walton Beach area of panhandle Florida to more than 1,000,000 feet squared per day in the unconfined, karstic areas of central and northern Florida. The application of aquifer-test methods to determine transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer is summarized as follows: (1) Conducting aquifer tests in the unconfined, karstic areas is virtually impossible because of logistical problems (removing large volumes of pumped water to prevent recycling) and because non-Darcian flow can preclude the use of standard aquifer-test methods. However, flow-net analyses using springs as the discharge control have been used successfully to estimate regional transmissivity values. (2) Multi-well aquifer tests outside of karst areas generally provide data plots that match appropriate type curves. (3) Specific capacity is not a good basis for estimating regional transmissivity values. Transmissivity maps of the Floridan should be accompanied by an evaluation of their reliability based on availability of field-test data. If transmissivity values are derived from computer models, the model sensitivity to transmissivity should be discussed.

  3. Upper mantle anisotropy in the New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Klosko, E.K.

    1999-02-01

    Shear-wave splitting parameters of fast polarization direction (F) and delay time (dt) are determined using data from the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE), on the South Island of New Zealand and in the surrounding region. Our results clearly show that F are subparallel to trends of the Alpine and Marlborough Faults, and to the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. The dt values range from 0.6-2.2 s with an average value of 1.6 s; the largest values are from the central South Island. The main source of the observed shear-wave splitting is an anisotropic region between 40-400 km. The width of the zone is approximately 200 km. We attribute the coincidence of surface structural trends with the measured F, and the large dt values, to significant shear deformation in a 200 km thick zone along the plate boundary extending from the surface to deep within the upper mantle.

  4. Glacial stages and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Upper Garonne valley, Central Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M; Oliva, M; Palma, P; Ruiz-Fernández, J; Lopes, L

    2017-04-15

    The maximum glacial extent in the Central Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation is known to have occurred before the global Last Glacial Maximum, but the succession of cold events afterwards and their impact on the landscape are still relatively unknown. This study focuses on the environmental evolution in the upper valley of the Garonne River since the Last Glaciation. Geomorphological mapping allows analysis of the spatial distribution of inherited and current processes and landforms in the study area. The distribution of glacial records (moraines, till, erratic boulders, glacial thresholds) suggests the existence of four glacial stages, from the maximum expansion to the end of the glaciation. GIS modeling allows quantification of the Equilibrium Line Altitude, extent, thickness and volume of ice in each glacial stage. During the first stage, the Garonne glacier reached 460m in the Loures-Barousse-Barbazan basin, where it formed a piedmont glacier 88km from the head and extended over 960km(2). At a second stage of glacier stabilization during the deglaciation process, the valley glaciers were 12-23km from the head until elevations of 1000-1850m, covering an area of 157km(2). Glaciers during stage three remained isolated in the upper parts of the valley, at heights of 2050-2200m and 2.6-4.5km from the head, with a glacial surface of 16km(2). In stage four, cirque glaciers were formed between 2260m and 2590m, with a length of 0.4-2km and a glacial area of 5.7km(2). Also, the wide range of periglacial, slope, nival and alluvial landforms existing in the formerly glaciated environments allows reconstruction of the post-glacial environmental dynamics in the upper Garonne basin. Today, the highest lands are organized following three elevation belts: subnival (1500-1900m), nival (1900-2300m) and periglacial/cryonival (2300-2800m).

  5. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  6. Development of Jettisonable Fluid Ground Connector for the ESA Next Generation Launcher Cryogenic Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nick

    2014-06-01

    RUAG Space have successfully designed, developed and tested a new cryogenic connector sub-system for Hydrogen and Oxygen Filling and Venting of a potential launcher Upper Stage tank. The work was performed within the ESA Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme. The scope of the work was the development of this technology within Europe to a Technology Readiness Level of 5. Basic requirements were that the connector is jettisoned at lift-off, and that the filling of tanks located within the payload fairing volume is feasible. Beginning with concept studies, basic approaches were described and traded off, and more detailed designs and analyses performed for selected concepts. Experimental validation of the connector design was performed using extensive testing to simulate the fluid, mechanical, dynamic and thermal environments of the connector in pre-launch, lift-off and flight conditions.

  7. Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

  8. Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

  9. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  10. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  11. Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

    2009-01-01

    A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

  12. Upper D region chemical kinetic modeling of LORE relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Luque, A.; Haldoupis, C.

    2016-04-01

    The recovery times of upper D region electron density elevations, caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP), are modeled. The work was motivated from the need to understand a recently identified narrowband VLF perturbation named LOREs, an acronym for LOng Recovery Early VLF events. LOREs associate with long-living electron density perturbations in the upper D region ionosphere; they are generated by strong EMP radiated from large peak current intensities of ±CG (cloud to ground) lightning discharges, known also to be capable of producing elves. Relaxation model scenarios are considered first for a weak enhancement in electron density and then for a much stronger one caused by an intense lightning EMP acting as an impulsive ionization source. The full nonequilibrium kinetic modeling of the perturbed mesosphere in the 76 to 92 km range during LORE-occurring conditions predicts that the electron density relaxation time is controlled by electron attachment at lower altitudes, whereas above 79 km attachment is balanced totally by associative electron detachment so that electron loss at these higher altitudes is controlled mainly by electron recombination with hydrated positive clusters H+(H2O)n and secondarily by dissociative recombination with NO+ ions, a process which gradually dominates at altitudes >88 km. The calculated recovery times agree fairly well with LORE observations. In addition, a simplified (quasi-analytic) model build for the key charged species and chemical reactions is applied, which arrives at similar results with those of the full kinetic model. Finally, the modeled recovery estimates for lower altitudes, that is <79 km, are in good agreement with the observed short recovery times of typical early VLF events, which are known to be associated with sprites.

  13. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  14. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  15. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

  16. The Inertial Upper Stage - A space transportation system element nearing first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, D. J.; Redd, F. J.; Van Rensselaer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) developed by the USAF and NASA is a highly reliable, cost-effective solid propellant upper stage, with inherent flexibility and adaptability for integration with the Space Shuttle. The propulsion system is simple, utilizing safe, solid rocket motors with extremely light-weight nonmetallic cases and nozzles. The IUS can deliver 2268 kg from the Shuttle to geosynchronous altitude; it consists of a 9700 kg propellant weight first stage, an interstage structure, a 2720 kg propellant weight second stage, and an equipment support section. The avionics system includes the electronic and electrical hardware used to perform all signal conditioning, data processing, and software formatting associated with navigation, guidance, control, data management, and redundancy management. The generic thermal design of the IUS is suited to a wide range of thermal environments; the software design provides for selectable thermal maneuvers (rotisserie, reciprocating, toasting, space facing, sun facing) to satisfy different payload thermal requirements. A 1982 launch with the Titan 34D and a 1983 launch with the Shuttle Orbiter are planned.

  17. Second Stage of Upper Bainite in a 0.3 Mass Pct C Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-03-01

    Upper bainite forms in at least two stages, the formation of parallel plates of ferrite and the transformation of the interspaces to a mixture of cementite and ferrite. The first stage was examined in a preceding metallographic study of the formation of ferrite in hypoeutectoid steels and the second stage, which is initiated by the occurrence of cementite in the interspaces, is the subject of the present study. The alloy from the preceding study will also be used here. The band of austenite in the interspaces between parallel plates is generally transformed by a degenerate eutectoid transformation when this band is thin. When it is thicker, it will transform by a more cooperative growth mechanism and result in a eutectoid colony, often with cementite platelets. A series of sketches are presented which illustrate in detail how the second stage of upper bainite progresses according to the present observations. The cooperative manner did not increase as the temperature was lowered because the tendency to form plates of ferrite was still increasing at lower temperatures, making the interspaces too narrow for the cooperative reaction to dominate over the formation of fine plates of ferrite.

  18. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into

  19. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  20. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.239 Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the... Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  2. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  3. Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  4. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1997-11-01

    During the award period, a number of studies have been carried out related to the overall objective of the project which is to elucidate important factors which influence the upper airway deposition and dose of particles in the size range 0.5 nm - 10 {mu}m, such as particle size, breathing conditions, age, airway geometry, and mode of breathing. These studies are listed below. (1) A high voltage electrospray system was constructed to generate polydispersed 1-10 {mu}m diameter di-ethylhexyl sebacate aerosol for particle deposition studies in nasal casts and in human subjects. (2) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage geometry, and nasal resistance on particle deposition efficiency in forty healthy, nonsmoking adults at a constant flowrate were studied. (3) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage dimensions and nasal resistance on the percentage of particle deposition in the anterior 3 cm of the nasal passage of spontaneously breathing humans were studied. (4) The region of deposition of monodispersed aerosols were studied using replicate casts. (5) Ultrafine aerosol deposition using simulated breath holding path and natural path was compared. (6) An experimental technique was proposed and tested to measure the oral deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles. (7) We have calculated the total deposition fraction of ultrafine aerosols from 5 to 200 n in the extrathoracic airways and in the lung. (8) The deposition fraction of radon progeny in the head airways was studied using several head airway models.

  5. STS-29 crewmembers inspect TDRS-D inertial upper stage (IUS) at KSC VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Mae C. Jemison and STS-29 Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian and MS Robert C. Springer inspect the interface between the tracking and data relay satellite D (TDRS-D) and inertial upper stage (IUS-9) in a test cell located in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). The clean-suited astronauts, engineers, and technicians discuss the payload. Springer and Bagian are responsible for deployment of IUS / TDRS-D from Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB) on STS-29. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-89PC-16.

  6. IRIS upper stage - The design and performances of electronic system for multipurpose application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tolle, F.; Biondo, F.; Esposti, M. L.

    The onboard electronics complement of the IRIS upper stage for injection of satellites into orbit from the Shuttle is described. The approach of electronics design was to build modular structures which would allow easy reconfiguration to fulfill a variety of mission objectives. The major design criteria used in the development of the electronics payload are identified. Distinctive features of the major electronics subsystems are described. These include: an Electrical Sequencing System (ESS); Nutation Control Electronics (NCE); and a Telemetry Data Handling (TDH) equipment. Block diagrams of all the electronic systems are provided.

  7. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  8. Operations analysis (study 2.1): Shuttle upper stage software requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of software costs related to space shuttle upper stage operations with emphasis on the additional costs attributable to space servicing was conducted. The questions and problem areas include the following: (1) the key parameters involved with software costs; (2) historical data for extrapolation of future costs; (3) elements of the basic software development effort that are applicable to servicing functions; (4) effect of multiple servicing on complexity of the operation; and (5) are recurring software costs significant. The results address these questions and provide a foundation for estimating software costs based on the costs of similar programs and a series of empirical factors.

  9. Upper stage in-flight retargeting to enhance geosynchronous satellite operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Otto W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Real time utilization of propellant reserves that are not needed is available with the implementation of the in-flight retargeting capability for the Centaur Upper Stage. Application to a performance critical, geosynchronous mission is discussed. The operational duration of the satellite may be increased by selectively choosing the appropriate final orbit injection conditions. During ascent Centaur evaluates the amount of propellant excess available and adjusts the final orbit target to consume the excess. Typical satellite mission requirements are introduced to illustrate the mission analysis process to determine the pre-flight nominal target and the in-flight retarget function.

  10. Benefits of the integrated solar upper stage (ISUS) to commercial space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, John; Miles, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar thermal system that provides both propulsion and electric power. Using hydrogen as the propellant, ISUS can provide average specific impulses between 750 and 800 seconds. Once in final orbit, the stage uses thermionic diodes to produce electricity for the satellite payload throughout its operating lifetime. Because of its high specific impulse, ISUS can increase the total mass delivered to GEO by any launch vehicle by up to 250%. ISUS can provide benefits to commercial system in lower orbits as well. These orbits are particularly demanding on battery system because of the short orbit periods and the resulting number of battery cycles. Thermal storage in the ISUS receiver can accommodate these cycles without increasing system mass. ISUS also provide more efficient propulsion for station keeping and for separation of satellites when multiple satellites are launched for a single launch vehicle.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  12. Space Shuttle/high energy upper stage capabilities for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, C.

    1982-01-01

    Possible performance gains and cost reductions available through the evolution of succeedingly larger unmanned, and then manned, orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) as Shuttle upper stages are projected. Future missions could include delivery of 10,000 lb to GEO, planetary missions in the 2000-12,000 lb class, 30-42 ft payloads in the 5000-10,000 lb class, and manned and unmanned satellite servicing by the turn of the century. The vehicles could evolve from the Centaur F vehicle through stages of all-propulsive configurations to aerobraked, fully reusable vehicles. Reusability introduces cost savings and the ability to make plane changes. Furthermore, aerobraking will double the payload capability for round trip journeys to GEO, bringing costs down to $7000/lb.

  13. Regional anesthesia procedures for shoulder and upper arm surgery upper extremity update--2005 to present.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Ramprasad; Bowens, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature since 2005 assesses developments of RA techniques commonly used for shoulder surgery, and their effectiveness for postoperative analgesia. Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the ISB provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impacts of IA single-injections remain unclear. When combined with GA, ISB can be used in lower volumes and reducing the complications for shoulder and proximal upper extremity. USG ISB and SCB are both effective and safe for shoulder surgery with a low incidence of complications, especially PONS.53 When compared with intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia, a perineural LA infusion using a disposable pump with patient-controlled LA bolus function has led to better pain relief and functional recovery while decreasing the need for rescue analgesics and the number of adverse events after ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The most remarkable advance in RA in the past 5 years is the increased usage of USG. Although there are no large-scale prospective studies to show the safety, efficacy, and success and complication rates for USG blocks, USG RA theoretically could have less risk for neurologic symptoms, except for those induced by LA (less likely perineurally, much more likely intraneurally). The next "quantum leap" lies in reducing LA concentrations and augmenting anesthetic-analgesic effects with perineural additives (including clonidine, buprenorphine, and likely low-dose dexamethasone). Since 2005, perineural catheters have been an analgesic option that offers improved pain relief among other benefits, and are now being used at home. It is clear that patients benefit greatly from a single injection and continuous nerve block for postoperative pain management,but the financial and logistical aspects need to be resolved, not to mention the phrenic hemiparesis coin toss. Whether combined

  14. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  15. Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in Geostationary Transfer Orbit.

    PubMed

    Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-01-01

    The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days.

  16. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, THomas

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware

  17. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  18. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  19. The role of the upper sample size limit in two-stage bioequivalence designs.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Vangelis

    2013-11-01

    Two-stage designs (TSDs) are currently recommended by the regulatory authorities for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. The TSDs presented until now rely on an assumed geometric mean ratio (GMR) value of the BE metric in stage I in order to avoid inflation of type I error. In contrast, this work proposes a more realistic TSD design where sample re-estimation relies not only on the variability of stage I, but also on the observed GMR. In these cases, an upper sample size limit (UL) is introduced in order to prevent inflation of type I error. The aim of this study is to unveil the impact of UL on two TSD bioequivalence approaches which are based entirely on the interim results. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate several different scenarios of UL levels, within-subject variability, different starting number of subjects, and GMR. The use of UL leads to no inflation of type I error. As UL values increase, the % probability of declaring BE becomes higher. The starting sample size and the variability of the study affect type I error. Increased UL levels result in higher total sample sizes of the TSD which are more pronounced for highly variable drugs.

  20. Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, Louis; Groseilliers, Sylvain Des; Fortin, Michel; Mutch, David O.

    1996-01-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is well-known pathologic entity. Most such diverticula are asymptomatic and located on the second stage of the duodenum. The diagnosis is most often established by endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal radiography. Hemorrhage has been described but is an infrequent complication. We report on a patient who presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis was made with a combination of arteriography and scanning with technetium 99-labelled red cells. Diverticulectomy was performed with a successful outcome. This report underlines the diagnostic limits of fiberoptic endoscopy for hemorrhagic lesions located past the third stage of the duodenum. PMID:8956821

  1. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

  2. Salvage of amputated upper extremities with temporary ectopic implantation followed by replantation at a second stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Zhao, Gui-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Salvage of the complex amputation of extremities, such as combined with devastating segmental injuries, extensive soft tissue defect, and multiple important organ injuries, continues to be a challenge for plastic surgeons. Temporary ectopic implantation of the amputated part to a healthy recipient site allows the patient to recover from critical combined injuries, radical debridements, and soft tissue repair. In this article, the authors report two cases of temporary ectopic implantation of complexly amputated forearms, followed by successful replantation to their anatomic positions at a second stage. The contralateral upper extremity is an acceptable recipient site for temporary ectopic implantation. In secondary replantation, a cross-arm flap can be designed to carry the vascular pedicle from the ectopic implantation recipient to improve blood supply to the replanted part when the second blood supply is established. The authors validated that temporary ectopic implantation of amputated parts provides an alternative procedure for the salvage of amputated extremities under special circumstances.

  3. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromis, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

  5. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

  6. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  7. Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

  8. KAP@FREGAT - A Carrier for New Technology In -Orbit Demonstration using FREGAT Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Pfeuffer, H.; Pont, G.; Smirnow, A.; Ishin, S.

    2008-08-01

    The success of the Kayser-Threde test satellite MAQSAT-B2 on Ariane L521 in February 2005 (2nd Ariane 5 ECA qualification flight) and its instrument platform equipped with experiments, sensors and an autonomous telemetry system has led to the development of a new autonomous experiment platform called KAP. KAP stands for Kayser-Threde Auxiliary Platform carrier and is a direct spin-off product out of Kayser-Threde Ariane 5 post projects and experience. The main idea is to use the available remaining payload capacity of the launcher to provide a flexible and low- cost test facility for scientific experiments and In-Orbit Demonstration of new technologies remaining attached to the launcher upper stage. KAP is a fully autonomous kit providing the complete necessary infrastructure (power, data acquisition and telemetry) to minimize constraints and interactions with the launch vehicle, increasing significantly the possibility for regular flight opportunities. Two different mission scenarios are foreseen. One with KAP only working during the launch phase itself, referred to as Short Mission (SM), the other as Medium Mission (MM), to be switched on after upper stage passivation for up to 7 days in orbit. Different accommodations for KAP are foreseen in order to ease its integration on various launchers including Ariane 5, SOYUZ and Vega. KAP can either be mounted on an additional load-carrying raising cylinder located underneath the launcher payload adaptor (MFD type), or integrated on a platform for auxiliary payloads (ASAP-5 type). The technical concept for both mechanical and electrical subsystems for space segment and ground support equipment is mainly based on existing and space qualified technologies from the successful MAQSAT-B2 project and Kayser-Threde's sounding rocket programme TEXUS/MAXUS. In particular, the data acquisition and telemetry unit as back bone of the KAP experimental payload infrastructure, is a direct adaptation from these programmes to the

  9. Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

  10. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aktiv De-Orbiting Onboard System from Leo of Upper Stages of Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shalay, V.; Shatrov, J.; Jakovlev, M.; Kostantino, A.

    2009-03-01

    The active de-orbiting onboard system (VDOS) of upper separable parts (USP) stage of launchers from LEO into orbits of utilization with term of existence orbital lifetimes till 25 years is offered. ADOS it is based on use of power resources of not produced rests of liquid fuel onboard USP launchers with liquid propulsion module (LPM). Following systems enter in structure VDOS: the gas jet propulsion system consisting of a system of gasification, chambers of gas engines (GE), a control system. For gasification of the rests of liquid fuel the heat-carrier received in the autonomous gas generator is used. The gasification propellant components from each tank with temperature and the pressure determined by strength of the corresponding tank, move in chambers of the GE established on a top of a fuel compartment. After separation of a payload execute twist USP for preservation of its position in the space by activity of the GE. Ways of increase of a system effectiveness of gasification are offered by superposition on the entered heat-carrier of ultrasonic oscillations, and also introduction in gaseous fuel nanopowder of aluminum. The volume of adaptations of construction USP, connected with introduction VDOS does not exceed 5 % from weight of a dry construction.

  12. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S.; Cao, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base-Changhsingian Stage is defined at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Clarkina wangi within the lineage from C. longicuspidata to C. wangi at a point 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone in the lower part of Bed 4 (base of 4a-2) at Meishan D section, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China. This level is consistent with the first appearance of Changhsingian index fusulinid Palaeofusulina sinensis and tapashanitid ammonoids. The speciation event from Clarkina longicuspidata to C. wangi occurs just above the flooding surface of the second parasequence in the Changxing Limestone. In addition, the boundary interval is clearly recognizable by the depletion of isotopic carbon ratios and the normal polarity zone appearing above the Late Wuchiapingian reversed polarity zone. Section C, about 300 m to the west of Section D, exposes more of the upper Longtan Formation. It clearly shows the transitional nature of deposition across the Longtan/Changxing formational boundary, and thus is described as a supplementary reference section.

  13. Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

  14. Effect of Gimbal friction modeling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper-stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  15. Effect of gimbal friction modelling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  16. Regional Variability and Predictability in the Upper Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for post-exercise analyses. To provide additional operational testing of telemetry components the system was also deployed in support of the ONR...depth-averaged currents in sub-polar and polar regions from known winds. 1) Lagrangian dispersion in the Gulf of Mexico: This work centered on testing ...dynamical systems theory) and turbulence theory. The testing was carried out using various statistical measures. The data consisted of surface drifter

  17. The stage of nutrition transition in different Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Mondini, L; Monteiro, C A

    1997-06-01

    The stage of nutrition transition in Brazil at the end of the 1980s was evaluated using the data from a nationwide cross-sectional anthropometry survey in Brazil in 1989 (Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição-PNSN). Comparable estimates of undernutrition and obesity were produced for children from 6 to 35 months old (n = 3,641), adult males from 20 to 64 years old (n = 14,235) and adult females from 18 to 64 years old (n = 15,669). Body Mass Index (kg/m2) was employed to assess both undernutrition and obesity in adults and weight-for-age (undernutrition) and weight-for-height (obesity) indices were used for children. The 5th and 95th centiles of the distribution of these indices in a reference population were used as limits for the diagnosis of undernutrition and obesity, respectively. Ordering the frequency of the problems in the population showed obesity in women and undernutrition in children to be the two main nutritional disorders in the country. These two problems are the most frequent in the urban population of the North, Northeast and Center-West regions, and in the Southeast and Center-West rural regions. Obesity leads among both adults and children in the urban areas of the Southeast and South regions, and in the rural South. Only in the rural Northeast, the poorest region in the country, undernutrition leads among children, men and women. This mosaic of situations determines the need for a complete reassessment of traditional nutrition policies and programs employed in the country.

  18. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  19. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

  20. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was

  1. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  2. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper

  3. Conodont-based stratigraphy of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Eifelian, Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, V. M.; Kononova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    Conodonts from the deposits of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise are studied on the basis of the data from six boreholes. Three assemblages are recognized. The index species of the lowermost assemblage is Icriodus formosus Naz. The index species of the middle assemblage are I. formosus Naz. and Pseudobipennatus ziegleri Kon. et Kim, as well as I. arkonensis Stauff. and I. jejunus Naz. This assemblage is the most diverse and is recognized in all boreholes. The deposits containing this assemblage correspond to the maximum of the Nara transgression. The upper assemblage is also recognized in all the studied boreholes. Its index species is Ps. ziegleri Kon. et Kim. The Mosolovian Regional Stage is assigned to the kockelianus Zone. The distribution diagrams of species in the most diverse middle assemblage support the hypothesis that, in the southeastern regions of the Voronezh anteclise, the depth was greater than in its western part. The characteristic conodont species are shown in the plates.

  4. Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene terrestrial sediments of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beluzhenko, E. V.; Pis'mennaya, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of their stratigraphic, lithological, and genetic features, the Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene terrestrial sediments of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region are subdivided into the following local stratigraphic units (formations): Azov-Kuban, Srednyaya Kuban, Novoaleksandrovsk, Temizhbekskaya. The paleontological and paleomagnetic data are used for determining or specifying their age and correlating the formations between each other and with the regional stratigraphic scale. The obtained data make it possible to improve the Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene stratigraphic scale of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region.

  5. Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

  6. Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

  7. Role of postoperative local or regional irradiation in the treatment of Stage 1 ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Powlis, W.D.; Mauch, P.; Ehrmann, R.L.; Rose, C.M.; Knapp, R.C.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Histological grade and cell type were major prognostic factors in a retrospective study of 63 patients with Stage I epithelial carcinoma of the ovary. Grading by architectural pattern seemed to predict relapse better than cytological grading. With serous, mucinous, and endometrioid cystadenocarcinomas, relapses increased with higher grades. Relapse occurred in none of 18 tumors of borderline malignancy, 2 of 27 (7%) with Grade I or II tumor, and 4 of 6 (67%) with Grade III. The upper abdomen and pelvis were both at risk. Because most recurrences were limited to the peritoneal surface in Grade III serous, mucinous, and endometrioid carcinoma, local and regional radiation therapy are justified; postoperative therapy is not recommended for borderline or Grade I tumors unless ascites or cytological evidence of peritoneal disease is present. Clear-cell carcinoma was uncommon and unfavorable; of 12 cases, 5 involved relapse, with 3 recurrences developing outside the abdomen.

  8. Changing the facial features of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome: protocol for 3-stage treatment of hard and soft tissue hypoplasia in the upper half of the face.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-07-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face

  9. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit Via Shuttle_Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982 to 1986 joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-United States Air Force (USAF) Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37 deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57 deg inclined orbit: 9,545 versus 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a 1 hr window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer versus 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three versus two burn transfer (12 vs. 1-1/4 hr), but could be

  10. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2014-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were

  11. Regional variations in the incidence of upper urinary tract stones in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J; Donnan, S P

    1978-01-14

    Data from the Hospital In-patient Enquiry were used to define the regional patterns of hospital discharge rates for upper urinary tract stones and renal colic in England and Wales. By combining the rates for stones and colic, and by distinguishing emergency from planned admissions, the biases produced by repeated admissions of the same patient and by regional variations in diagnosis and coding may be reduced. There are regional variations in incidence of upper urinary tract stones: Wales and the southern regions of England have a generally higher incidence than northern regions. These variations may be related to regional differences in diet or occupation; or they may partly depend on associations between stone incidence and atmospheric temperature, exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, and hardness of drinking water.

  12. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  13. A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, Ronald (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  14. Re-Entry Analysis Comparison with Different Solar Activity Models of Spent Upper Stage Using ESA's DRAMA Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Emmanuelle; Braun, Vitali

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the paper is to investigate the influence of different methods for solar activity forecasts on the simulation of residual lifetime of upper stages in GTO. For this study the OSCAR software from the ESA DRAMA tool suite was used to perform an orbital decay simulation for an Ariane 4 upper stage (1997-016-C) from 1997 to 2012. As a reference, the orbital decay of the rocket body has been compared to TLE data available from Space-Track. For the simulation, it was possible to select between a best-guess scenario (including best case and worst case scenarios), constant equivalent solar activity, ECSS standard cycle or any user-selected historic cycle and solar activity sampled through a Monte Carlo approach. In addition, the evolution of the orbit has been analysed taking orbit perturbation into account (Drag, Geopotential, Third Bodies effect). Finally a sensitivity on the mass and cross-section area of the upper-stage have been performed in order to understand which parameter may influence the residual life in GTO.

  15. Properties of solar ephemeral regions at the emergence stage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we statistically study the properties of ephemeral regions (ERs) and quantitatively determine their parameters at the emergence stage based on a sample of 2988 ERs observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. During the emergence process, there are three kinds of kinematic performances, i.e., separation of dipolar patches, shift of the ER's magnetic centroid, and rotation of the ER's axis. The average emergence duration, flux emergence rate, separation velocity, shift velocity, and angular speed are 49.3 minutes, 2.6 × 10{sup 15} Mx s{sup –1}, 1.1 km s{sup –1}, 0.9 km s{sup –1}, and 0.°6 minute{sup –1}, respectively. At the end of emergence, the mean magnetic flux, separation distance, shift distance, and rotation angle are 9.3 × 10{sup 18} Mx, 4.7 Mm, 1.1 Mm, and 12.°9, respectively. We also find that the higher the ER magnetic flux is, (1) the longer the emergence lasts, (2) the higher the flux emergence rate is, (3) the further the two polarities separate, (4) the lower the separation velocity is, (5) the larger the shift distance is, (6) the slower the ER shifts, and (7) the lower the rotation speed is. However, the rotation angle seems not to depend on the magnetic flux. Not only at the start time, but also at the end time, the ERs are randomly oriented in both the northern and the southern hemispheres. Finally, neither the anti-clockwise-rotated ERs nor the clockwise rotated ones dominate the northern or the southern hemisphere.

  16. Upper-stage space shuttle propulsion by means of separate scramjet and rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.; Allen, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study of a reusable vehicle from staging to orbit indicates payload advantages for a dual-propulsion system consisting of separate scramjet and rocket engines. In the analysis the scramjet operated continuously and the initiation of rocket operation was varied. For a stage weight of 500,000 lb the payload was 10.4 percent of stage weight or 70 percent greater than that of a comparable all-rocket-powered stage. When compared with a reusable two-state rocket vehicle having 50,000 lb payload, the use of the dual propulsion system for the second stage resulted in significant decreases in lift-off weight and empty weight, indicating possible lower hardware costs.

  17. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  18. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  19. Identification of Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Opportunities Along the Upper Texas Coast Through Sediment Budget Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    used to combine these three studies to develop a regional characterization of coastal (including beaches and inlets) sediment transport rates and...Sheridan Willey, Tricia Campbell, Samantha Lambert, Andrew Morang, David King, and Robert Thomas PURPOSE. The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics...Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to document development of a regional sediment budget and assessment of coastal sediment needs on the Upper Texas

  20. Upper Ovetian trilobites from Spain and their implications for the palaeobiogeography and correlation of the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liñán, Eladio; Gámez Vintaned, José Antonio; Pillola, Gian Luigi; Gozalo, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The upper part of the La Herrería Formation in Los Barrios de Luna (León Province, N Spain) has been revised from a palaeontological and biostratigraphical point of view. Two stratigraphic sections have been studied including their trilobite and ichnofossils contents. The ichnofossil assemblages have a high diversity of species characterising the Cruziana ichnofacies, suggesting a shallow sublittoral environment for the upper part of the La Herrería Formation. The trilobites species recognised are Lunagraulos antiquus, Dolerolenus formosus, Dolerolenus longioculatus, Lunolenus lunae, Metadoxides richterorum, Metadoxides armatus and Sardaspis? sp. from the upper Ovetian (lower Cambrian Stage 3 under discussion by the ISCS). The new trilobite assemblages make possible a good correlation between the lower Cambrian formations of North Spain, Sardinia, South China and Siberia. Analysis of the palaeobiogeographical meaning of all trilobite genera that have been identified in the upper Ovetian of Spain shows a strong connection between the northern peri-Gondwana margin and west Gondwana, with a low latitude distribution for the Spanish trilobites at this time.

  1. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  2. Framework for Regional, Coordinated Monitoring in the Middle and Upper Deschutes River Basins, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a framework for regional water-quality monitoring in the middle and upper Deschutes River Basin, Oregon, that would be coordinated among organizations doing related monitoring. The emphasis is on maximizing the value of existing programs and resources by minimizing overlapping sampling efforts, filling key data gaps, increasing communication about results, and facilitating coordination and cooperation among organizations. The report was developed in conjunction with the Upper Deschutes Watershed Council and a committee of representatives from each of the organizations listed in the Acknowledgments (hereafter referred to as the Upper Deschutes Water Quality Monitoring Committee, or "the Committee" ). This group helped to (1) determine the water-quality issues to be addressed, (2) provide information on current programs in the basin, (3) develop the overall monitoring objectives, and (4) reach agreement on the general monitoring framework

  3. Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

    1998-01-01

    The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected

  4. Proposal for staging of inflammatory lesions in the frontal region.

    PubMed

    Soberón, Galo S; Prado, Héctor M; Sadek, Andrés; Plowes, Olga; Arrieta, José R; Figueroa, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Frontal swelling can be due to multiple etiologies, including: mucocele, Pott's puffy tumor, fibro osseous lesions, benign and malignant neoplasms of the nose and paranasal sinuses, intracranial lesions, and metastasis. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical protocol used for the diagnosis of patients presented with frontal swelling and the proposal for staging of inflammatory lesions. We performed an observational retrospective analysis. We found 7 cases of patients with frontal swelling: 4 cases secondary to inflammatory pathology (3 Potts puffy tumors and one frontal mucocele), and 3 cases secondary to neoplasms (one benign and 2 malignant neoplasms). It's very important to consider the wide differential diagnosis that can present as frontal swelling, from inflammatory pathologies secondary to possible advanced infections of the paranasal sinuses to invasive malignant neoplasms. We propose a system of staging of frontal inflammatory lesions.

  5. Morphological characteristics of disturbances generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hitoshi

    Recent radar and satellite observations have shown various disturbances in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere. For example, the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and CHAMP satellite observations have revealed ionospheric and thermospheric variations due to energy inputs from the magnetosphere. From the simultaneous observations with the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS radar, Fujiwara et al. [2007] showed existence of significant heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events. Bruinsma and Forbes [2007] showed trans-polar propagation of the traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in connection with three sudden injections of energy at high latitudes from the CHAMP mass density observations. In the present study, we focus our attention on both disturbances directly generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere and those propagating from other regions. We perform numerical simulations with a general circulation model, which includes all the atmospheric regions, developed by Miyoshi and Fujiwara [2003]. The morphological characteristics of the disturbances due to auroral particle precipitation and electric field enhancement are investigated here. References: Bruinsma, S., and J. M. Forbes, Global observation of traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in the thermosphere, Geophys. Res., Lett., 34, L14103, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030243, 2007. Fujiwara, H., R. Kataoka, M. Suzuki, S. Maeda, S. Nozawa, K. Hosokawa, H. Fukunishi, N. Sato, and M. Lester, Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations, Ann. Geophys., 25, 2393-2403, 2007. Miyoshi, Y., and H. Fujiwara, Day-to-day variations of migrating diurnal tide simulated by a GCM from the ground surface to the

  6. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  7. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  8. Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L.; Weller, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

  9. Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

    2010-01-01

    NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

  10. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  11. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  12. Sensory nerve conduction in the upper limbs at various stages of diabetic neuropathy 1

    PubMed Central

    Noël, P.

    1973-01-01

    In 59 diabetic patients, sensory nerve potentials were recorded at various sites along the course of the median nerve. Pathological responses were characterized by reduced amplitude, desynchronization and decreased conduction velocity (CV). Four groups of patients with increasingly severe nerve dysfunction were distinguished. The presence and severity of clinical neuropathy in the upper limbs could be related to decreased maximal sensory nerve CV in the proximal segment of the limbs. When maximal sensory nerve CV was normal above the wrist, neuropathy usually remained latent. In severe cases where no sensory nerve potentials could be recorded, the cerebral evoked potentials nonetheless permitted a precise evaluation of the somatosensory conduction. In these cases, maximal sensory nerve CV was very low. In five patients with a so-called diabetic mononeuropathy, abnormal nerve potentials were recorded in the median nerve, although no clinical signs could be seen in the corresponding territory. It is proposed that the diabetic nature of a mononeuropathy can be assessed by the finding of latent abnormalities in seemingly normal nerve. PMID:4753874

  13. Dry needling for management of pain in the upper quarter and craniofacial region.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Mannheimer, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Dry needling is a therapeutic intervention that has been growing in popularity. It is primarily used with patients that have pain of myofascial origin. This review provides background about dry needling, myofascial pain, and craniofacial pain. We summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of dry needling. For patients with upper quarter myofascial pain, a 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled studies reported that dry needling is effective in reducing pain (especially immediately after treatment) in patients with upper quarter pain. There have been fewer studies of patients with craniofacial pain and myofascial pain in other regions, but most of these studies report findings to suggest the dry needling may be helpful in reducing pain and improving other pain related variables such as the pain pressure threshold. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are clearly needed to more fully elucidate the effectiveness of dry needling.

  14. Upper mantle anisotropy from teleseismic SKS splitting beneath Lützow-Holm Bay Region, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.; Kubo, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Negishi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of SKS wave splitting of teleseismic events from digital seismographs recorded at eight stations around the Lützow-Holm Bay Region have lead to understanding the evolution of the Antarctic Plate. The observed delay times of SKS splitting are up to 1.3 s, which are generally equal to the global average. A two-layer model reveals that the lower layer anisotropy is caused by the recent asthenospheric flow, as compared with the Absolute Plate Motion by the HS3-NUVEL1 model. The upper layer anisotropy corresponds well to polarization of NE–SW convergence direction between East and West Gondwana in Pan-African age. We suggest that the upper layer anisotropy was formed during Pan-African orogeny and was possibly influenced by the preexisting structure during Gondwana break-up. The origin of anisotropy is the Lattice Preferred Orientation of olivine which was caused by both paleo-tectonic events and the recent asthenospheric flow.

  15. Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Fischer, H.; Freitas, S. R.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Hansel, A.; Hoor, P.; Kormann, R.; Krejci, R.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Lindinger, W.; Longo, K.; Peters, W.; de Reus, M.; Scheeren, B.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Ström, J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Williams, J.

    During LBA-CLAIRE-98, we found atmospheric layers with aged biomass smoke at altitudes >10 km over Suriname. CO, CO2, acetonitrile, methyl chloride, hydrocarbons, NO, O3, and aerosols were strongly enhanced in these layers. We estimate that 80-95% of accumulation mode aerosols had been removed during convective transport. Trajectories show that the plumes originated from large fires near the Brazil/Venezuela border during March 1998. This smoke was entrained into deep convection over the northern Amazon, transported out over the Pacific, and then returned to South America by the circulation around a large upper-level anticyclone. Our observations provide evidence for the importance of deep convection in the equatorial region as a mechanism to transport large amounts of pyrogenic pollutants into the upper troposphere. The entrainment of biomass smoke into tropical convective clouds may have significant effects on cloud microphysics and climate dynamics.

  16. Hurricane interaction with the upper ocean in the Amazon-Orinoco plume region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Halliwell, George; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, Heesook; Mehari, Michael; Atlas, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of three successive hurricanes (Katia, Maria, and Ophelia) is investigated over the river plume area formed by the Amazon and Orinoco river outflows during September of 2011. The study focuses on hurricane impacts on the ocean structure and the ocean feedback influencing hurricane intensification. High-resolution (1/25° × 1/25° horizontal grid) numerical simulations of the circulation in the extended Atlantic Hurricane Region (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Northwest Atlantic Ocean) were used to investigate the upper ocean response during the three hurricane-plume interaction cases. The three hurricanes revealed different evolution and intensification characteristics over an area covered by brackish surface waters. The upper ocean response to the hurricane passages over the plume affected region showed high variability due to the interaction of oceanic and atmospheric processes. The existence of a barrier layer (BL), formed by the offshore spreading of brackish waters, probably facilitated intensification of the first storm (Hurricane Katia) because the river-induced BL enhanced the resistance of the upper ocean to cooling. This effect was missing in the subsequent two hurricanes (Maria and Ophelia) as the eroded BL (due to Katia passage) allowed the upper ocean cooling to be increased. As a consequence, the amount of ocean thermal energy provided to these storms was greatly reduced, which acted to limit intensification. Numerical experiments and analyses, in tandem with observational support, lead to the conclusion that the presence of a river plume-induced BL is a strong factor in the ocean conditions influencing hurricane intensification.

  17. An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

  18. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Available seismic and ground based gravity data are combined to infer the three dimensional crust and upper mantle structure in selected regions. This synthesis and interpretation proceeds from large-scale average models suitable for early comparison with high-altitude satellite potential field data to more detailed delineation of structural boundaries and other variations that may be significant in natural resource assessment. Seismic and ground based gravity data are the primary focal point, but other relevant information (e.g. magnetic field, heat flow, Landsat imagery, geodetic leveling, and natural resources maps) is used to constrain the structure inferred and to assist in defining structural domains and boundaries. The seismic data consists of regional refraction lines, limited reflection coverage, surface wave dispersion, teleseismic P and S wave delay times, anelastic absorption, and regional seismicity patterns. The gravity data base consists of available point gravity determinations for the areas considered.

  19. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  20. ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

    2003-08-01

    ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28

  1. Structure of North Atlantic upper mantle based on gravity modelling, regional geochemistry and tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.

  2. Crust and upper-mantle discontinuities from analysis of broadband seismological data in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; van der Lee, S.; Giardini, D.

    2001-12-01

    We have analyzed receiver functions to derive simple crustal models for a total of 17 permanent and temporary 3-component broadband seismological stations in the Mediterranean region. The 12 studied temporary stations have been operated under the MIDSEA project. To determine an accurate Moho depth we have reduced the trade-off between crustal velocities and discontinuity depth by using a new grid search method, which is an extension of recently published methods to determine crustal thickness. The values we find for Moho depth range from around 20 km for intra-oceanic islands and extended continental margins to near 45 km in regions where the Eurasian and African continents have collided. The relatively stable north-eastern African margin shows crustal thicknesses close to a standard value of 35 km while the relatively tectonically disturbed margin of north-western Africa shows significantly thinner crust. Modeling of crustal structure shows that all stacked receiver functions can be explained within standard deviations by a 2- or 3-layer model containing a sedimentary layer and/or a mid-crustal discontinuity. Both receiver function analysis and cross-correlation are powerful tools to reveal interfaces in the upper-mantle. For studying upper-mantle discontinuities we use both these methods. We transform the processed signals to the slowness-time domain to highlight P-to-S conversions from interfaces at different depths. The tectonic complexity of the Mediterranean region is found to extend down to the transition zone.

  3. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery of the foramen magnum region and upper neck lesions: technique modification.

    PubMed

    Samblas, J M; Bustos, J C; Gutiérrez-Díaz, J A; Donckaster, G; Santos, M; Ortiz de Urbina, D I

    1994-04-01

    A modification of the stereotactic radiosurgical procedure to permit treatment of lesions in the foramen magnum and upper cervical regions is described. The modification consists of placing the frontal pins of the stereotactic head ring in the zigoma bone, with no changes in the position of the occipital pins, so the final BRW head ring is oblique to the orbito-meatal plane. In this new position there is room enough in the posterior part of the guide for the support scrubs. This is unhampered by the patient's shoulders and the lesion is far enough to permit setting the axial coordinate sufficiently above the head ring plane.

  5. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  6. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Upper Colorado region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Arnow, Ted

    1974-01-01

    Options available for use of ground water in water-resources management·in the·region include conjunctive use with surface water or development of ground water as an independent supply. The latter option could be for & perennial supply or for a time-limited supply (mining ground water), depending on the need and the existing ground-water conditions. All options can be carried out so as to meet the requirements of the Colorado River Compact. The options could be implemented to optimally develop the Upper Colorado River Basin's allocation of Colorado River water while meeting the Compact commitments to the Lower Basin.

  7. Dynamic-chemical coupling of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region.

    PubMed

    Grewe, V; Reithmeier, C; Shindell, D T

    2002-06-01

    The importance of the interaction between chemistry and dynamics in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for chemical species like ozone is investigated using two chemistry-climate models and a Lagrangian trajectory model. Air parcels from the upper troposphere, i.e. regions of lightning and aircraft emissions, are able to be transported into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Trajectory calculations suggest that the main transport pathway runs via the inter tropical convergence zone, across the tropical tropopause and then to higher latitudes, i.e. into the LMS. NOx from aircraft emissions at mid-latitudes are unlikely to perturb the LMS since they are washed-out while still in the troposphere. In contrast, NOx from tropical lightning has the chance to accumulate in the LMS. Because of the longer residence times of NOx in the LMS, compared to the upper troposphere, this excess NOx from lightning has the potential to form ozone in the LMS, which then is transported back to the troposphere at mid-latitudes. In the models, around 10% of the ozone concentration and 50% of the NOx concentration in the northern hemisphere LMS is produced by lightning NOx At least 5% of the ozone concentration and 35% the NOx concentration at 150 hPa at mid-latitudes originates from tropical lightning in the climate-chemistry simulations.

  8. Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachary, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

  9. Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

  10. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects’ upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients. PMID:27942143

  11. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects' upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients.

  12. New upper mantle P-velocity model of Eurasia resolves connections to main regional tectonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, I.; Kaban, M. K.; Cloetingh, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new model of P-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath Eurasia constructed by merging several existing models and by computing new results for a number of gap areas. The models were computed based on tomographic inversions of travel-time data from the worldwide catalogues (ISC, 2001). The calculations were performed in a series of overlapping circular areas of 700-1000 km size. All data with rays corresponding to sources and/or stations in the areas traveling through the target volume were, at least partly, used in the inversions. In case of lack of stations and events, the calculations were based on PP-rays with reflection points in the target area. The new model of Eurasia resolves connections between upper mantle structures and main tectonic units. Cratonic blocks in Eurasia, such as the East-European, Siberian, Indian and Arabian cratons are detected in terms of high-velocity patterns down to 250-300 km depth. The subduction zones in the western Pacific, Burma and the Mediterranean are robustly resolved, consistent with previous studies. In zones of continental collision, we observe traces of mantle delamination as drops of high-velocity material in the mantle. Sites of intraplate volcanism in Europe, Siberia, Mongolia and Yakutia coincide with low-velocity areas, interpreted as overheated upper mantle. Digital version of the model can be downloaded at www.ivan-art.com/temp/vis_eurasia.zip. P-velocity anomalies beneath Eurasia at 100 km depth from regional tomographic inversion. Polygons indicate possible locations of cratonic lithosphere blocks; stars mark the areas of Cenozoic volcanism. P-velocity anomalies beneath Eurasia at 300 km depth from regional tomographic inversion. Polygons indicate possible locations of cratonic lithosphere blocks.

  13. Investigation Spectral Image the Upper Atmosphere over Regions with Thunderstorm Using Data from the Sv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichshenko, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The results of the two-level experiment, including registration of the electric field in the surface layer during thunderstorm on TSCRS (Almaty) and synchronous image the top of the cloud cover over the test range from satellite "Terra / MODIS" are presented. Spectral image of the upper atmosphere over of the thunderstorm related to lighting discharge has been created. As a result of the processing of satellite images Terra / MODIS created a new index of "lightning discharge," which will be used to search for and investigation of optical phenomena (such as Sprites, Elves, Blue Jet) over the regions with thunderstorm activity. The developed technique of space picture processing will be used for studying optical phenomena above other regions too.

  14. Upper mantle electrical conductivity for seven subcontinental regions of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis coefficients of the external and internal parts of the quiet-day geomagnetic field variations (Sq) separated for the 7 continental regions of the observatories have been used to determine conductivity profiles to depths of about 600 km by the Schmucker equivalent substitute conductor method. The profiles give evidence of increases in conductivity between about 150 and 350 km depth, then a general increase in conductivity thereafter. For South America we found a high conductivity at shallow depths. The European profile showed a highly conducting layer near 125 km. At the greater depths, Europe, Australia and South America had the lowest values of conductivity. North America and east Asia had intermediate values whereas the African and central Asian profiles both showed the conductivities rising rapidly beyond 450 km depth. The regional differences indicate that there may be considerable lateral heterogeneity of electrical conductivity in the Earth's upper mantle. -Authors

  15. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic patterns, LANDSAT images and geological information revealed two major lineaments crossing western Pennsylvania and parts of surrounding states. These lineaments are inferred to be expressions of fracture zones which penetrare deeply into the crust and possibly the upper mantle. The extensions of the Tyron-Mt. Union and the Pittsburgh-Washington lineaments bound a distinct crustal block (Lake Erie-Maryland block) over 100 km wide and probably more than 600 km in length. Evidence exists for the lateral displacement of this block at least 60 km northwestward during late Precambrian to Lower Ordovician time. Subsequent movements have been mainly vertical with respect to neighboring blocks. A possible crustal block that passes through eastern Kentucky, proposed by a TVA study on tectonics in the southern Appalachians, was also investigated. Finally, the use of regional gravity and magnetic data in identifying major crustal structures beneath western Pennsylvania is discussed.

  16. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  17. Review of meningitis surveillance data, upper West Region, Ghana 2009-2013

    PubMed Central

    Nuoh, Robert Domo; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Nortey, Priscilla; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Lwanga, Noora Charles; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Nuolabong, Culbert; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Wurapa, Fredrick; Afari, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Upper West region of Ghana is within the meningitis belt. Analysis of long term surveillance data is necessary for understanding changes in the disease occurrence. We analyzed five years of surveillance data to describe by person, place and time and to determine trends in meningitis. Methods Meningitis surveillance data from Ghana Health Service in the Upper West Region, from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Data was obtained from District-Health Information Management System and line list from the Disease Control Unit. Population figures (denominators) and rainfall data were also analyzed. Results Within the period 980 cases of meningitis were reported in the region, 507(52%) females and 473(48%) males. The mean age of cases was 20.1years and standard deviation 18.8 years with, 77.6 %( 761/980) cases occurring in persons aged under 30 years. Children under five years were 19.3% (190/980). Attack rates ranged from 6.1/100,000 population in the Daffiama-bussei-Issa-district to 47.5/100,000 in Jirapa. Overall case fatality rate of meningitis was 12.2% with 14deaths/100,000 population. Bacterial agents were isolated from 35% (245/702) of CSF. Majority were Streptococcus pneumonia 48.2 % ( 122/258), and N. meningitides Y/W 135 40.3% (102/258). Meningitis was found to be seasonal with peaks in the dry season. Conclusion Meningitis in the region is seasonal, and showed a decreasing trend. Jirapa, Lawra, Nadowli and Wa West districts had the highest burden. Control effort of the disease should focus on vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and N. meningitis W135 especially within crowded settlements such as boarding schools. PMID:28210377

  18. Regionalized temperature variations in the upper 400 km of the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralli, David M.; Ita, Joel J.

    Tectonically regionalized variations in the temperature of the upper 400 km of the Earth's mantle are estimated from analysis of global seismic travel-time data cataloged by the International Seismological Centre (ISC). Seismic parameter profiles are determined from estimates of P and S velocities obtained by tau inversion. Summary phase diagrams for the olivine and pyroxene-garnet subsystems are constructed in conjunction with a thermodynamic potential formulation that allows self-consistent determination of density, bulk modulus and adiabats throughout the pressure and temperature regimes of the mantle. Perturbations in estimated seismic parameters are expressed in terms of variations in temperature using the model temperature derivatives of the bulk modulus and density at a given temperature and pressure. Confidence bounds on the velocity estimates are used to place corresponding bounds on the constructed seismic parameters. A simple differential relationship is solved iteratively to obtain a temperature variation for a given variation in seismic parameter. This approach allows the estimation of a range of seismically determined temperature variations by employing a given compositional model. Results indicate that whereas the P and S velocity variations in the upper mantle are consistent with the tectonic regionalization, variations in V p/V s ratios are irregular. This leads to unstable estimates of the seismic parameters and thus estimates of mean temperature anomalies, typically within 600°C of the weighted mean, that are inconsistent with the regionalized seismic data. A comparison of two compositional models is used to show the trade-off with estimated temperature variations. A refined regionalization and analysis of a larger ISC data set are suggested to stabilize the S velocity inversion, reduce statistical uncertainties on the seismic parameters, and thus improve constraints on estimated temperature variations.

  19. Regional staging of white matter signal abnormalities in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindemer, Emily R; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce R; Augustinack, Jean C; Salat, David H

    2017-01-01

    White matter lesions, quantified as 'white matter signal abnormalities' (WMSA) on neuroimaging, are common incidental findings on brain images of older adults. This tissue damage is linked to cerebrovascular dysfunction and is associated with cognitive decline. The regional distribution of WMSA throughout the cerebral white matter has been described at a gross scale; however, to date no prior study has described regional patterns relative to cortical gyral landmarks which may be important for understanding functional impact. Additionally, no prior study has described how regional WMSA volume scales with total global WMSA. Such information could be used in the creation of a pathologic 'staging' of WMSA through a detailed regional characterization at the individual level. Magnetic resonance imaging data from 97 cognitively-healthy older individuals (OC) aged 52-90 from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study were processed using a novel WMSA labeling procedure described in our prior work. WMSA were quantified regionally using a procedure that segments the cerebral white matter into 35 bilateral units based on proximity to landmarks in the cerebral cortex. An initial staging was performed by quantifying the regional WMSA volume in four groups based on quartiles of total WMSA volume (quartiles I-IV). A consistent spatial pattern of WMSA accumulation was observed with increasing quartile. A clustering procedure was then used to distinguish regions based on patterns of scaling of regional WMSA to global WMSA. Three patterns were extracted that showed high, medium, and non-scaling with global WMSA. Regions in the high-scaling cluster included periventricular, caudal and rostral middle frontal, inferior and superior parietal, supramarginal, and precuneus white matter. A data-driven staging procedure was then created based on patterns of WMSA scaling and specific regional cut-off values from the quartile analyses. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease

  20. Long-Term Stage, Stage-Residual, and Width Data for Streams in the Piedmont Physiographic Region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Jeffrey W.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the data used to assess geomorphic adjustment of streams over time and to changing land-use conditions. Thirty-seven U.S. Geological Survey streamgages were selected within the Piedmont physiographic region of Georgia. Width, depth, stage, and discharge data from these streams were analyzed to assess channel stability and determine if systematic adjustments of channel morphology could be related to time or land use and land cover. Residual analyses of stage-discharge data were used to infer channel stability, which could then be used as an indicator of habitat stability. Streamgages, representing a gradient of urbanization, were selected to test hypotheses regarding stream stability and adjustment to urban conditions. Results indicate that 14 sites exhibited long-term channel stability, 11 were degrading, 6 were aggrading, and 6 showed variability in response over the study period.

  1. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  2. Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.

    2017-02-01

    The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.

  3. Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.

  4. Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

  5. Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

  6. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  7. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  8. Biofacies analysis of Upper Cretaceous deposits in the Ust-Yenisei region: Implications of palynomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, N. K.

    2008-04-01

    The results of palynomorph biofacies analysis in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Ust-Yenisei region are presented. The established facies confinement and indicative features of separate palynomorph groups are used, along with identified dinocyst morphotypes and taxa, in paleogeographic reconstructions. Seven palynomorph associations characterizing continental, coastal-marine, shallow-and deep-water facies are distinguished based on quantitative proportions between morphological groupings and individual taxa. As boundaries between distinguishable biostratigraphic and facies subdivisions do not coincide, dinocysts were likely insignificantly dependent in distribution on facies in the West Siberian epicontinental basin at least. On the other hand, distribution trends of particular dinocyst morphotypes and other microphytofossils are correlative with transgressive-regressive cycles and can be used for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  9. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  10. Large-scale shear velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Europe and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Meier, T. M.; Lebedev, S.; Friederich, W.

    2009-12-01

    The automated multimode waveform inversion technique developed by Lebedev et al. (2005) was applied to available data of broadband stations in Europe and surrounding regions. It performs a fitting of the complete waveform starting from the S-wave onset to the surface wave. Assuming the location and focal mechanism of a considered earthquake as known, the first basic step is to consider each available seismogram separately and to find the 1D-model that can explain the filtered seismogram best. In a second step, each 1D-model serves as a linear constraint in an inversion for a 3D S-wave velocity model of the upper mantle. We collected data for the years from 1990 to 2006 from all permanent stations for which data were available via the data centers of ORFEUS, GEOFON amd IRIS, and from others that build the Virtual European Seismological Network (VEBSN). In addition, we incorporated data from temporary experiments like SVEKALAPKO, TOR and the Eifel plume project as well as permanent stations in France. Just recently we were also able to add the data recorded by the temporary broadband EGELADOS network in the southern Aegean. In this way, a huge data set of about 500000 seismograms came about from which about 60000 1D-models could be constructed. The resulting models exhibit an overwhelming structural detail in relation to the size of the region considered in the inversion. They are to our knowledge the most detailed models of shear wave velocity currently available for the European upper mantle and surroundings. Most prominent features are an extremely sharp demarcation of the East European platform from Western Europe. Narrow high velocity regions follow the Hellenic arc and the Ionian trench toward the north. Whereas high velocities are found beneath the western Alps between about 100 km to 200 km depth, the eastern Alps show a low velocity anomaly at these depths. Low velocity zones are found at depths around 150 km in the Pannonian basin, the back-arc of the

  11. The Mono Arch, eastern Sierra region, California: Dynamic topography associated with upper-mantle upwelling?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A broad, topographic flexure localized east of and over the central and southern Sierra Nevada, herein named the Mono Arch, apparently represents crustal response to lithospheric and/or upper-mantle processes, probably dominated by mantle upwelling within the continental interior associated Pacific-North American plate-boundary deformation. This zone of flexure is identified through comparison between the topographic characteristics of the active Cascade volcanic arc and backarc regions with the analogous former arc and backarc in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sierra Nevada. Serial topographic profiles measured normal to the modern Cascade backarc reveal an accordance of topographic lows defined by valley floors with an average minimum elevation of ???1400-1500m for over 175km to the southeast. Although the accordance drops in elevation slightly to the south, the modern Cascade backarc region is remarkably level, and is characterized by relief up to ???750m above this baseline elevation. By contrast, serial topographic profiles over the former arc and backarc transitions of the eastern Sierra region exhibit a regional anticlinal warping defined by accordant valley floors and by a late Miocene-early Pliocene erosion surface and associated deposits. The amplitude of this flexure above regionally flat baseline elevations to the east varies spatially along the length of the former Sierran arc, with a maximum of ???1000m centred over the Bridgeport Basin. The total zone of flexure is approximately 350km long N-S and 100km wide E-W, and extends from Indian Wells Valley in the south to the Sonora Pass region in the north. Previous geophysical, petrologic, and geodetic studies suggest that the Mono Arch overlies a zone of active mantle upwelling. This region also represents a zone crustal weakness formerly exploited by the middle-to-late Miocene arc and is presently the locus of seismic and volcanic activities. This seismic zone, which lies east of the Sierra Nevada block

  12. Lateral heterogeneity scales in regional and global upper mantle shear velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschede, Matthias; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    We analyse the lateral heterogeneity scales of recent upper mantle tomographic shear velocity (Vs) global and regional models. Our goal is to constrain the spherical harmonics power spectrum over the largest possible range of scales to get an estimate of the strength and statistical distribution of both long and small-scale structure. We use a spherical multitaper method to obtain high quality power spectral estimates from the regional models. After deconvolution of the employed taper functions, we combine global and regional spectral estimates from scales of 20 000 to around 200 km (degree 100). In contrast to previous studies that focus on linear power spectral densities, we interpret the logarithmic power per harmonic degree l as heterogeneity strength at a particular depth and horizontal scale. Throughout the mantle, we observe in recent global models, that their low degree spectrum is anisotropic with respect to Earth's rotation axis. We then constrain the uppermost mantle spectrum from global and regional models. Their power spectra transfer smoothly into each other in overlapping spectral bands, and model correlation is in general best in the uppermost 250 km (i.e. the `heterosphere'). In Europe, we see good correlation from the largest scales down to features of about 500 km. Detailed analysis and interpretation of spectral shape in this depth range shows that the heterosphere has several characteristic length scales and varying spectral decay rates. We interpret these as expressions of different physical processes. At larger depths, the correlation between different models drops, and the power spectrum exhibits strong small scale structure whose location and strength is not as well resolved at present. The spectrum also has bands with elevated power that likely correspond to length scales that are enhanced due to the inversion process.

  13. Simulation of regional ground-water flow in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model that simulates regional ground-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon. Ground water and surface water are intimately connected in the upper Deschutes Basin and most of the flow of the Deschutes River is supplied by ground water. Because of this connection, ground-water pumping and reduction of artificial recharge by lining leaking irrigation canals can reduce the amount of ground water discharging to streams and, consequently, streamflow. The model described in this report is intended to help water-management agencies and the public evaluate how the regional ground-water system and streamflow will respond to ground-water pumping, canal lining, drought, and other stresses. Ground-water flow is simulated in the model by the finite-difference method using MODFLOW and MODFLOWP. The finite-difference grid consists of 8 layers, 127 rows, and 87 columns. All major streams and most principal tributaries in the upper Deschutes Basin are included. Ground-water recharge from precipitation was estimated using a daily water-balance approach. Artificial recharge from leaking irrigation canals and on-farm losses was estimated from diversion and delivery records, seepage studies, and crop data. Ground-water pumpage for irrigation and public water supplies, and evapotranspiration are also included in the model. The model was calibrated to mean annual (1993-95) steady-state conditions using parameter-estimation techniques employing nonlinear regression. Fourteen hydraulic-conductivity parameters and two vertical conductance parameters were determined using nonlinear regression. Final parameter values are all within expected ranges. The general shape and slope of the simulated water-table surface and overall hydraulic-head distribution match the geometry determined from field measurements. The fitted standard deviation for hydraulic head is about 76 feet. The general magnitude and distribution of ground-water discharge to

  14. Two late quaternary pollen records from the upper Kolyma region, Soviet Northeast: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.; Andreev, A.A.; Chernenky, B.I.; Federova, I.N.

    1992-03-01

    Pollen records from Sosednee and Elikchan Lakes provide the first continuous late Quaternary vegetation history for the upper Kolyma drainage of the Soviet Northeast. Full-glacial spectra at these sites are similar to those from Eastern Beringia, with high percentages of grass, sedge, and wormwood pollen indicative of herb tundra. In the Elikchan area at approximately 12,500 B.P., herb tundra was replaced by a stone pine-larch forest, perhaps similar to forests in the modern region. In contrast, the herb tundra near Sosednee Lake was succeeded by a birch-alder shrub tundra followed by a larch woodland. Stone pine increased in the region after larch and prior to 8600 B.P. A Holocene decline in stone pine, which is evident at Elikchan Lake, is less marked or absent at Sosednee Lake. The differences in these pollen records is somewhat surprising given the proximity of the two sites. Such differences indicate that numerous well-dated sites will be needed to describe the vegetation and climate histories of Western Beringia.

  15. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron C.; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C.; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence. PMID:27453947

  16. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron C; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence.

  17. Upper crustal structure of the Mount Hood, Oregon, region as revealed by time term analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, W.M.; Healy, J.H.; Wegener, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction data with a dense areal distribution were collected to study the seismic structure of Mount Hood and the surrounding region. This area is typical of Cascade volcanoes and is geologically quite complex. The prime goals of this project were to search for velocity variations in the upper crustal rocks and to determine if the velocity of these rocks is anisotropic. A new system, including 100 remote recording units, was developed to facilitate the collection of data in this type of survey. The data collected in this study reveal a large variation in velocity and thickness of the uppermost crustal rocks that is probably typical of the High Cascade province. A regional structural pattern surrounding Mount Hood, where there is a marked thinning of low-velocity near-surface rocks, suggests that the present edifice of Mount Hood lies on top of a much larger structure, possibly the roof of a large batholith that was emplaced prior to the eruption of the volcanic rocks that form the modern mountain.-Authors

  18. Regional variations in the fluvial Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wholly allochthonous Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate is one of the most extensive fluvial deposits in North America. It crops out for 950 km along the crest of the Brooks Range in a series of thrust plates and is as thick as 2615 m. The Kanayut forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta. The lower part of the Kanayut (the Ear Peak Member) overlies marginal-marine and prodelta turbidite deposits and consists of fining-upward meandering-stream-channel cycles of conglomerate and sandstone within black to maroon floodplain shale deposits. The middle part of the Kanayut (the Shainin Lake Member) lacks shale and consists of fining-upward couplets of channelized conglomerate and parallel- to cross-stratified sandstone interpreted as braidplain deposits. These deposits contain the largest clasts (23 cm) and were deposited during maximum progradation of the fluvial sequence. The upper part of the Kanayut (the Stuver Member), which consists of fining-upward meandering stream cycles similar to those of the lower part, grades upward into overlying Lower Mississippian tidal and marginal-marine deposits. Paleocurrent data and distribution of largest clasts indicate that the Kanayut was deposited by southwest-flowing streams fed by at least two major trunk streams that drained a mountainous region to the north and east. Comparison of stratigraphic and sedimentologic data collected at three selected locations representative of proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the Kanayut basin reveal regional variations in its fluvial character. These include a decrease in total thickness of fluvial strata, an increase in total thickness of associated marine sandstone, the pinch-out of the coarse-grained middle part of the Kanayut and decreases in the conglomerate/sandstone and sandstone/shale ratios from proximal to distal areas of the basin. The coarse-grained parts of the fluvial cycles decrease in thickness and lateral extent from

  19. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otte, Neil E.; Lyles, Garry; Reuter, James L.; Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. The technical personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo-era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. The Ares Projects Office, resident at Marshall, is managing the design and development of America's new space fleet, including the Ares I, which will loft the Orion crew capsule for its first test flight in the 2013 timeframe, as well as the heavy-lift Ares V, which will round out the capability to leave low-Earth orbit once again, when it delivers the Altair lunar lander to orbit late next decade. This paper provides information about the approach to integrating the Ares I stack and designing the upper stage in house, using unique facilities and an expert workforce to revitalize the nation

  20. Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

  1. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  2. Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Connection between Mature Stages of Deep Convection and the Vertical Transport of Aerosols in the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.; Massie, S. T.; Pan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Convective transport of aerosol has implications to aerosol-cloud interactions and is an important problem for climate studies. We use along-track Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (Calipso) vertical feature mask data, CloudSat data, and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) deep convection tracking data to study the impact of deep convection on the transport of aerosols to the upper troposphere (UT) over the South Asian region (0-40N, 70-100E). To minimize misclassification among aerosols and the clouds at UT, we have only used data having large magnitude of cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores for the period of June 2006 to June 2008 when CloudSat and Calipso overlap with the ISCCP deep convection tracking data. Preliminary results suggest that active clouds most likely transport aerosols to high altitudes, whereas decaying clouds are least likely to transport aerosols to the UT. Mature clouds act in-between the active and decaying clouds. Active clouds that transport aerosols are different than decaying clouds in terms of higher cloud water path, cloud water content at 10 km altitude, number of convective clusters, and convective fraction. The NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office wind data, projected onto the CloudSat tracks, suggests a strong updraft associated with active clouds in favor of aerosol transportation, and a low level or mid-level subsidence associated with decaying clouds.

  4. Rainfall and temperature changes and variability in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issahaku, Abdul-Rahaman; Campion, Benjamin Betey; Edziyie, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the current trend and variation in rainfall and temperature in the Upper East Region, Ghana, using time series moving average analysis and decomposition methods. Meteorological data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra, Ghana, from 1954 to 2014 were used in the models. The additive decomposition model was used to analyze the rainfall because the seasonal variation was relatively constant over time, while the multiplicative model was used for both the daytime and nighttime temperatures because their seasonal variations increase over time. The monthly maximum and the minimum values for the entire period were as follows: rainfall 455.50 and 0.00 mm, nighttime temperature 29.10°C and 13.25°C and daytime temperature 41.10°C and 26.10°C, respectively. Also, while rainfall was decreasing, nighttime and daytime temperatures were increasing in decadal times. Since both the daytime and nighttime temperatures were increasing and rainfall was decreasing, climate extreme events such as droughts could result and affect agriculture in the region, which is predominantly rain fed. Also, rivers, dams, and dugouts are likely to dry up in the region. It was also observed that there was much variation in rainfall making prediction difficult. Day temperatures were generally high with the months of March and April have been the highest. The months of December recorded the lowest night temperature. Inhabitants are therefore advised to sleep in well-ventilated rooms during the warmest months and wear protective clothing during the cold months to avoid contracting climate-related diseases.

  5. A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

    2008-05-01

    Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis

  6. A new design for superficial temporal fascial flap for reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal system in one-stage procedure: medusa flap.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kulahci, Yalcin; Kapi, Emin; Karakol, Percin

    2009-12-01

    Reconstruction of the eyebrows, eyelids, and destroyed lacrimal drainage system is a challenging procedure for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. In the case presented, a superficial temporal fascial flap was designed for reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal drainage system in a one-stage procedure in facial burn patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first combined reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal drainage system in one surgical procedure with pedicled superficial temporal fascial flap including skin island and buccal mucosal graft. During the 1-year follow-up period, no complication was encountered and patient healed uneventfully.

  7. Latest Developments in the Installation Planning for Stage 1, NEPTUNE Regional Cabled Observatory, Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    NEPTUNE is a proposed innovative network of over 30 sub-sea observatories linked by over 3300 km of powered, fiber-optic cables covering the Juan de Fuca Plate (200,000 sq km), Northeast Pacific. Each observatory will host and power many scientific instruments on the surrounding seafloor, in boreholes in the seafloor, and buoyed up into the water column. Remotely operated and autonomous vehicles will reside at depth, recharge at observatories, and respond to distant labs. Continuous near-real-time multidisciplinary measurement series will extend over 30 years. Shore stations will be located in Port Alberni, BC and Nedonna Beach, OR. Major research themes include: the structure and seismic behavior of the ocean crust; the dynamics of hot and cold fluids and gas hydrates in the upper ocean crust and overlying sediments; ocean climate change and its effect on the ocean biota at all depths; and the barely known ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity of the deep-sea. All involve interacting processes, long term changes, and non-linear, chaotic, episodic events that are hard to study with traditional means. VENUS, MARS, and NEPTUNE will use many of the same cable and engineering systems with the former two acting as test-beds for the latter. NEPTUNE is an US/Canada (70/30) partnership with the total facility cost of about 250M. Over 40M has already been funded for NEPTUNE design and development and for VENUS and MARS. Funding for NEPTUNE Canada's installation contribution (CAN$62.4M) was announced in October 2003. With US NSF/MREFC funding not anticipated before FY 2006, the Northern Loop (Stage 1) of the Project will be installed by NEPTUNE Canada, which comprises a consortium of 12 Canadian universities, lead by the University of Victoria. Housed in new quarters at UVic, NEPTUNE Canada has hired a dozen staff members, with more of be appointed, and has purchased the former Teleglobe TPC4 Shore Station at Port Alberni. Current activities include: a) issuing an RFQu and RFP

  8. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, P. A.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.; Lee, X.; Crawford, J. T.; Loken, L. C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3-) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2O N m-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3- concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3- concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%.

  9. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, P.A.; Griffis, T.J.; Baker, J.M.; Lee, X.; Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; Venterea, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3-) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2ONm-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3-concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3-concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%.

  10. Clustering oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region on the basis of stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babka, Beáta; Futó, István; Szabó, Szilárd

    2011-11-01

    SummarySeveral times a year the River Tisza floods areas between dikes, fills the oxbow lakes on the floodplain and changes their water. However the water addition in the oxbow lakes does not only take place through flooding; it is also likely that water can seep under the surface through the gravelled layers of the old river-beds, and furthermore, precipitation also plays a role. Our goal with this study is to acquire a full, comprehensive picture of the water addition of the oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region. Surface and groundwater samples were taken from the River Tisza, the oxbow lakes and the boreholes around four oxbow lakes, and stabile isotope ratios were measured. We can get information on the origin, the evaporation and the state of the waters, and the depth of the water table with the help of δ18O VSMOW (‰) and δD VSMOW (‰). During the examination the question we addressed was how oxbow lakes can be classified according to their water addition on the basis of their stable isotope ratios. The results from the Tisza and the oxbow lakes, as well as the results from the oxbow lakes on the reclaimed side and the floodplain are also isolated.

  11. Regional Variations of the ω-upper Bound Magnitude of GIII Distribution in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-08-01

    The Iranian Plateau does not appear to be a single crustal block, but an assemblage of zones comprising the Alborz—Azerbaijan, Zagros, Kopeh—Dagh, Makran, and Central and East Iran. The Gumbel's III asymptotic distribution method (GIII) and maximum magnitude expected by Kijko—Sellevoll method is applied in order to check the potentiality of the each seismogenic zone in the Iranian Plateau for the future occurrence of maximum magnitude ( M max). For this purpose, a homogeneous and complete seismicity database of the instrumental period during 1900-2012 is used in 29 seismogenic zones of the examined region. The spatial mapping of hazard parameters (upper bound magnitude ( ω), most probable earthquake magnitude in next 100 years ( M 100) and maximum magnitude expected by maximum magnitude estimated by Kijko—Sellevoll method (max M K - S max) reveals that Central and East Iran, Alborz and Azerbaijan, Kopeh—Dagh and SE Zagros are a dangerous place for the next occurrence of a large earthquake.

  12. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  13. Production of carbonatite-source regions in depleted upper mantle: metasomatism by alkaline magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Meen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The peridotite-H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ solidus displays a cusp at approximately 22 kbar (corresponding to the intersection of the amphibole-out curve and the solidus). Low-temperature alkaline melts formed near the solidus at P>22 kbar will recross the solidus along the line of the cusp and, at lower pressures, react with wall-rocks. Depleted periodotite of the upper mantle may thus be enriched in low-melting components. Experimental studies on a join between carbonated alkaline rock and harzburgite at P=20 kbar demonstrate that carbonate is a supersolidus phase, except at high ratios of H/sub 2/O to CO/sub 2/, and that amphibole forms at temperatures very close to that of the solidus. Interaction of carbonated alkaline magma and harzburgite produces, with decreasing temperature, clinopyroxene, carbonate, and hornblende. Thus, two different kinds of carbonated 1herzolite source region may be formed. In the first case, a carbonated 1herzolite is formed in equilibrium with a residual magma. This 1herzolite will be enriched in Sr over Rb and in Nd over Sm, but not in U over Pb. Total consumption of the magma will produce a carbonate-amphibole-1herzolite and this will also be enriched in U over Pb. These two source regions will develop, with time, similar Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics (low /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and low /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd), but will have very different Pb-isotopic ratios. The effects of minor minerals on the partitioning of trace elements may, however, by important, and these will also be discussed.

  14. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

  15. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  16. Calibration of Three-Dimensional Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    successfully for global and regional mantle tomography at Berkeley since 1995. In the subregion of study, our “N-Born” model is parameterized at...waveforms, Geophys. J. Int. 143: 709–728. Panning, M. and B. Romanowicz (2004). Inferences on flow at the base of Earth’s mantle based on seismic...CALIBRATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL UPPER MANTLE STRUCTURE IN EURASIA USING REGIONAL AND TELESEISMIC FULL WAVEFORM SEISMIC DATA Barbara Romanowicz1

  17. Trace metal records of regional paleoenvironmental variability in Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) black shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruse, A.M.; Lyons, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    Regional geochemical differences within a laterally continuous, cyclic Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) shale in midcontinent North America are interpreted in light of models of glacioeustatic forcing and new views on water-column paleoredox stability and trace-metal behavior in black shale environments. Specifically, we characterize differences in transition metal (Fe, Mn, Mo, V, Ni, Zn, Pb and U) concentrations in black shales of the Hushpuckney Shale Member of the Swope Limestone in Iowa and equivalent black shale beds of the Coffeyville Formation in Oklahoma. Although C-S-Fe systematics and uniform 34S-depleted isotope ratios of pyrite indicate pervasive euxinic deposition (anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters) for these shales, regional variations can be inferred for the efficiency of Mo scavenging and for the rates of siliciclastic sedimentation as expressed in spatially varying Fe/Al ratios. Black shales in Iowa show Mo enrichment roughly five times greater than that observed in coeval euxinic shales in Oklahoma. By contrast, Fe/Al ratios in Oklahoma shales are as much as five times greater than the continental ratio of 0.5 observed in the over- and underlying oxic facies and in the coeval black shales in Iowa. Recent work in modern marine settings has shown that enrichments in Fe commonly result from scavenging in a euxinic water column during syngenetic pyrite formation. In contrast to Fe, the concentrations of other transition metals (Mo, V, Ni, Pb, Zn, U) are typically more enriched in the black shales in Iowa relative to Oklahoma. The transition metal trends in these Paleozoic shales are reasonably interpreted in terms of early fixation in organic-rich sediments due to euxinic water-column conditions. However, regional variations in (1) rates of siliciclastic input, (2) organic reservoirs, including relative inputs of terrestrial versus marine organic matter, and (3) additional inputs of metals to bottom waters from contemporaneous hydrothermal vents

  18. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  19. Incidence and tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Seemayer, C A; Breuer, Elisabeth; Kroll, G; Markus-Sellhaus, S; Reineke, T H; Mittermayer, C

    2002-03-01

    We present epidemiological data of female breast cancer in the region of Aachen (Germany) including incidence and tumour stages for the period 1996-1997. Furthermore, we compare epidemiological data from Aachen with data from the directly neighbouring Dutch region South-Middle Limburg before and after the introduction of a national mammographic screening programme. The field study of breast cancer was undertaken at the Institute of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Aachen, supported by the Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), using data files from the Cancer Registry Aachen. The patient's consent to collect all data concerning her epidemiological and social situation as well as information on the outcome of disease was obtained in 83.4% of all cases. The remaining 16.6% of the cases without a patient's consent are based on histopathological reports. Only those patients are included who were documented as residing in the region of Aachen at the time of diagnosis. Tumour cases were counted according to International Agency for Research on Cancer rules and tumour stages are classified according to UICC guidelines. Incidence rates are calculated as crude value, adapted to the European and World Standard population (ESR, WSR), and the age specific incidence is presented in 5-year intervals. The cumulative risk is assessed for a certain life span by summarizing the age-specific incidences. The age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate in Aachen was 94 per 100 000 women in 1996 and 90 cases of invasive breast cancer per 100 000 women in 1997 according to the ESR. The cumulative risk of developing breast cancer in the life span ranging from 0 to 74 years is approximately 8%. The stage distribution of breast cancer reveals only 4% favourable carcinomata in situ, but 12% advanced T4 tumours. T1 and T2 tumour stages count for about 40% and T3 tumour stages about 4%. Incidence rates and the tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of

  20. A New Mass Spectrometer for Upper Atmospheric Measurements in the Auroral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, E. A.; Dyer, J. S.; Watson, M.; Sanderson, W.; Schicker, S.; Work, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Bailey, S. M.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    validate and confirm instrument performance and capability. Two proposed rocket campaigns for investigations of the auroral region include the TOF-MS. By making accurate composition measurements of the neutral atmosphere from 70 to 120km, Mass Spectrometry of the Turbopause Region (MSTR) aims to improve the accuracy of temperature measurements in the turbopause region, improve the MSIS model atmosphere and examine the transition from the turbulently mixed lower atmosphere to the diffusive equilibrium of the upper atmosphere. The ROCKet-borne STorm Energetics of Auroral Dosing in the E-region (ROCK-STEADE) mission will study energy transfer in the E-region during an aurora by examining auroral emissions and measuring concentrations of neutrals and ions. The instrument suite for ROCK-STEADE includes two mass spectrometers, one each to measure neutrals and ions in the altitude range of 70 - 170km. The ability of the TOF-MS instrument to make accurate measurements will greatly aid in better understanding the MLT.

  1. Upper mantle structure of the Tonga-Lau-Fiji region from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. Shawn; Zha, Yang; Shen, Weisen; Wiens, Douglas A.; Conder, James A.; Webb, Spahr C.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the upper mantle seismic structure in the Tonga-Lau-Fiji region by jointly fitting the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves from ambient-noise and two-plane-wave tomography. The results suggest a wide low-velocity zone beneath the Lau Basin, with a minimum SV-velocity of about 3.7 ± 0.1 km/s, indicating upwelling hot asthenosphere with extensive partial melting. The variations of velocity anomalies along the Central and Eastern Lau Spreading Centers suggest varying mantle porosity filled with melt. In the north where the spreading centers are distant from the Tonga slab, the inferred melting commences at about 70 km depth, and forms an inclined zone in the mantle, dipping to the west away from the arc. This pattern suggests a passive decompression melting process supplied by the Australian plate mantle from the west. In the south, as the supply from the Australian mantle is impeded by the Lau Ridge lithosphere, flux melting controlled by water from the nearby slab dominates in the back-arc. This source change results in the rapid transition in geochemistry and axial morphology along the spreading centers. The remnant Lau Ridge and the Fiji Plateau are characterized by a 60-80 km thick lithosphere underlain by a low-velocity asthenosphere. Our results suggest the removal of the lithosphere of the northeastern Fiji Plateau-Lau Ridge beneath the active Taveuni Volcano. Azimuthal anisotropy shows that the mantle flow direction rotates from trench-perpendicular beneath Fiji to spreading-perpendicular beneath the Lau Basin, which provides evidence for the southward flow of the mantle wedge and the Samoan plume.

  2. Impact of climate change on Vea Catchment and irrigation scheme in Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limantol, A. M.; Afouda, A.; Lenartz, B.; Agyare, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The study assessed the future impact of climate change (CC) on water resources availability in the Vea catchment of the Upper East of Ghana for irrigated agriculture. A questionnaire survey targeting farmers with at least 30 years of farming experience in the area was conducted in 6 of the 11 agricultural extension areas (EAs) in the catchment (305 km2). Data on perception about CC, adaptation measures and barriers were captured by the questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also conducted in each of the 6 selected EAs. Additionally, 8 stakeholder institutions were interviewed. Climatic data over a period of 1972 to 2012 from four stations were evaluated. Future climate simulations from 16 Regional Climate Models were used to predict future streamflow with IHACRES runoff model. The WEAP model was used to assess future water availability in two future time slices, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. About 89.5% of 466 questioned farmers believe that temperature increased over the past 30 years, while over 94% of farmers believe that amount of rainfall; duration, intensity and rainy days decreased. Over 96% of farmers believe that their farms are extremely vulnerable to decreased rainfall, droughts and changed timing of rainfall. While analysis of climatic data shows rising trend in temperature, no long-term trend and no variability changes in both annual and monthly rainfall amounts were evident. High evapotranspiration due to rising temperature may have triggered the farmers' perception about rainfall trend and droughts in the area. Several measures such as cropping of new varieties, changing farm locations and use of more fertilizer have been employed by farmers to adjust to CC. It was found that CC could cause severe shortfall in water availability for irrigation and domestic supply in the coming decades. Government needs to assist farmers with alternative irrigation schemes and drought resistant crops in order to sustain livelihoods of farmers on the long run.

  3. Exploring river pollution based on sediment analysis in the Upper Tisza region (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Harangi, Sándor; Gyulai, István; Braun, Mihály; Hubay, Katalin; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina

    2017-02-01

    We assessed contamination in the Upper Tisza region (Hungary, Central Europe), analyzing the elemental concentrations in sediment cores of oxbows. Our hypothesis was that the metal contamination which occurred in the year 2000 and which came from the mining area in Transylvania (Romania) may be detected even 15 years after the contamination, based on the vertical profile of sediment cores. Sediment cores were collected from five oxbows, and the following elements were measured with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES): Cu, Cr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn. Among the oxbows studied, there was one protected oxbow, three were used for fishing, and one was contaminated with sewage. Our results indicated that the year of contamination is still observable in the vertical profile of the sediment cores. The pollution index (PI) was used to characterize the sediment enrichment of metal elements in the sediment cores. In the case of Cu, Pb, and Zn, the contamination which originated in the year 2000 was detected in the layers of the sediment cores. The contamination levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn were high or moderate in the studied oxbows. All oxbows were moderately contaminated by Mn, while a moderate level of contamination was found for Fe in the protected oxbow, one fishing oxbow, and the sewage-contaminated oxbow. In the fishing oxbows, a low level of contamination was found for Fe. The contamination level of Sr was low in the protected oxbow and in the two fishing oxbows, while in one of the fishing oxbows and in the sewage-contaminated oxbow, a moderate level of Sr contamination was found. The pollution index scores indicated that the contamination level for Ba and Cr was low in the sediment cores of the oxbows studied. Our results indicated that the contamination of the Tisza River from the mining area in Northern Romania has been continuous and is still ongoing.

  4. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the loco-regional staging of patients with rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marone, Pietro; de Bellis, Mario; D’Angelo, Valentina; Delrio, Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; Di Girolamo, Elena; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Rega, Daniela; Tracey, Maura Claire; Tempesta, Alfonso Mario

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of rectal cancer (RC) is strictly related to both T and N stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. RC staging is crucial for choosing the best multimodal therapy: patients with high risk locally advanced RC (LARC) undergo surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (NAT); those with low risk LARC are operated on after a preoperative short-course radiation therapy; finally, surgery alone is recommended only for early RC. Several imaging methods are used for staging patients with RC: computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). EUS is highly accurate for the loco-regional staging of RC, since it is capable to evaluate precisely the mural infiltration of the tumor (T), especially in early RC. On the other hand, EUS is less accurate in restaging RC after NAT and before surgery. Finally, EUS is indicated for follow-up of patients operated on for RC, where there is a need for the surveillance of the anastomosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the impact of EUS on the management of patients with RC, evaluating its role in both preoperative staging and follow-up of patients after surgery. PMID:26140096

  5. DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY STAGES IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W3 MAIN COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuan; Jiang Zhibo; Beuther, Henrik; Bik, Arjan; Zhang Qizhou; Rodon, Javier A.; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-08-01

    We observed three high-mass star-forming regions in the W3 high-mass star formation complex with the Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m telescope. These regions, i.e., W3 SMS1 (W3 IRS5), SMS2 (W3 IRS4) and SMS3, are in different evolutionary stages and are located within the same large-scale environment, which allows us to study rotation and outflows as well as chemical properties in an evolutionary sense. While we find multiple millimeter continuum sources toward all regions, these three subregions exhibit different dynamical and chemical properties, which indicate that they are in different evolutionary stages. Even within each subregion, massive cores of different ages are found, e.g., in SMS2, sub-sources from the most evolved ultracompact H II region to potential starless cores exist within 30,000 AU of each other. Outflows and rotational structures are found in SMS1 and SMS2. Evidence for interactions between the molecular cloud and the H II regions is found in the {sup 13}CO channel maps, which may indicate triggered star formation.

  6. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  7. Upper Minnesota River Subbasins Study (Public Law 87-639) (Draft) Reconnaissance Stage Report (Plan of Study).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    AD-A1 O 15 CORPS OF ENGINEERS ST PAUL MN ST PAUL DISTRICT F/6 13/2 UPPER MINNESOTA RIVER SUBBASINS STUDY (PUBLIC LAW 87-639) (ORAF--ETC(U...LAKE SCENE IN STUDY AREA, JULY* 1972 15 YELLOW MEDICINE RIVER , NORMANIA TOWNSHIP, YELLOW MEDICINE COuNTY, 1976 15 PICNIC AT CORPS OF ENGINEERS DAM ON THE...AREA UPPER MINNESOTA RIVER SURBIIASINS IMPLEMENTATION STUDY by the ~...CORPS OF ENGINEERS AND SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE e’ MINNESOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA

  8. Average Potential Temperature of the Upper Mantle and Excess Temperatures Beneath Regions of Active Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putirka, K. D.

    2006-05-01

    The question as to whether any particular oceanic island is the result of a thermal mantle plume, is a question of whether volcanism is the result of passive upwelling, as at mid-ocean ridges, or active upwelling, driven by thermally buoyant material. When upwelling is passive, mantle temperatures reflect average or ambient upper mantle values. In contrast, sites of thermally driven active upwellings will have elevated (or excess) mantle temperatures, driven by some source of excess heat. Skeptics of the plume hypothesis suggest that the maximum temperatures at ocean islands are similar to maximum temperatures at mid-ocean ridges (Anderson, 2000; Green et al., 2001). Olivine-liquid thermometry, when applied to Hawaii, Iceland, and global MORB, belie this hypothesis. Olivine-liquid equilibria provide the most accurate means of estimating mantle temperatures, which are highly sensitive to the forsterite (Fo) contents of olivines, and the FeO content of coexisting liquids. Their application shows that mantle temperatures in the MORB source region are less than temperatures at both Hawaii and Iceland. The Siqueiros Transform may provide the most precise estimate of TpMORB because high MgO glass compositions there have been affected only by olivine fractionation, so primitive FeOliq is known; olivine thermometry yields TpSiqueiros = 1430 ±59°C. A global database of 22,000 MORB show that most MORB have slightly higher FeOliq than at Siqueiros, which translates to higher calculated mantle potential temperatures. If the values for Fomax (= 91.5) and KD (Fe-Mg)ol-liq (= 0.29) at Siqueiros apply globally, then upper mantle Tp is closer to 1485 ± 59°C. Averaging this global estimate with that recovered at Siqueiros yields TpMORB = 1458 ± 78°C, which is used to calculate plume excess temperatures, Te. The estimate for TpMORB defines the convective mantle geotherm, and is consistent with estimates from sea floor bathymetry and heat flow (Stein and Stein, 1992), and

  9. An analytical model of the large neutral regions during the late stage of reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yidong; Yue, Bin; Chen, Xuelei; Su, Meng; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nature and distribution of large neutral regions during the late epoch of reionization. In the 'bubble model' of reionization, the mass distribution of large ionized regions ('bubbles') during the early stage of reionization is obtained by using the excursion set model, where the ionization of a region corresponds to the first up-crossing of a barrier by random trajectories. We generalize this idea and develop a method to predict the distribution of large-scale neutral regions during the late stage of reionization, taking into account the ionizing background after the percolation of H II regions. The large-scale neutral regions, which we call 'neutral islands', are not individual galaxies or minihalos, but larger regions where fewer galaxies formed and hence ionized later and they are identified in the excursion set model with the first down-crossings of the island barrier. Assuming that the consumption rate of ionizing background photons is proportional to the surface area of the neutral islands, we obtained the size distribution of the neutral islands. We also take the 'bubbles-in-island' effect into account by considering the conditional probability of up-crossing a bubble barrier after down-crossing the island barrier. We find that this effect is very important. An additional barrier is set to avoid islands being percolated through. We find that there is a characteristic scale for the neutral islands, while the small islands are rapidly swallowed up by the ionizing background; this characteristic scale does not change much as the reionization proceeds.

  10. The Calabrian in the Western Transcaucasian basin (Georgia): Paleomagnetic constraints from the Gurian regional stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscher, U.; Oms, O.; Bruch, A. A.; Shatilova, I.; Chochishvili, G.; Bachtadse, V.

    2017-03-01

    The precise Eurasian chronostratigraphy of the Neogene-Quaternary period is still hampered by the existence of numerous regional stages often lacking independent and absolute age constraints. Therefore, detailed paleoclimatic reconstructions of areas like the Caucasus are still poorly constrained and the influence of climate variability on faunal interchange between Africa and Eurasia in the late Neogene-Quaternary is still difficult to address. During the last decades, Quaternary sections from western Georgia have produced a wealth of paleoclimatic proxy data. Unfortunately, these sections do not have a robust age control. This is especially true for the Gurian stage which has been vaguely defined as being coeval with the lower Pleistocene on the basis of poorly documented bio- and magnetostratigraphic data. In order to constrain the age of the Gurian stage, a detailed magnetostratigraphic study has been carried out. All major sections with known Gurian sediments in the former Rioni bay (a marine restricted area to the southeast of the Major Caucasus) have been studied. Our results confirm for the first time the strict correlation between the Gurian succession and the Calabrian stage. In addition, our data provides further information on the tectonic setting of the Rioni bay during the Calabrian in this region: (1) in the north, Gurian sediments were unconformably deposited on older Meotian sediments in a piggy back basin, (2) in the south, Gurian sediments are conformably overlying Kujalnician (Plio-Pleistocene) strata, (3) magnetostratigraphic correlation among sections indicate drastic changes in sediment accumulation rates within the basin, (4) rock magnetic experiments reveal significant magnetomineralogical differences between Gurian and the underlying Miocene sediments likely documenting a transition related to changes in oxic conditions, supply of terrigenous material and sedimentation rate close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. These results provide a

  11. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  12. Regional variability in dust-on-snow processes and impacts in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skiles, S. McKenzie; Painter, Thomas H.; Belnap, Jayne; Holland, Lacey; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Lin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dust deposition onto mountain snow cover in the Upper Colorado River Basin frequently occurs in the spring when wind speeds and dust emission peaks on the nearby Colorado Plateau. Dust loading has increased since the intensive settlement in the western USA in the mid 1880s. The effects of dust-on-snow have been well studied at Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA) in the San Juan Mountains, CO, the first high-altitude area of contact for predominantly southwesterly winds transporting dust from the southern Colorado Plateau. To capture variability in dust transport from the broader Colorado Plateau and dust deposition across a larger area of the Colorado River water sources, an additional study plot was established in 2009 on Grand Mesa, 150 km to the north of SBBSA in west central, CO. Here, we compare the 4-year (2010–2013) dust source, deposition, and radiative forcing records at Grand Mesa Study Plot (GMSP) and Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), SBBSA's subalpine study plot. The study plots have similar site elevations/environments and differ mainly in the amount of dust deposited and ensuing impacts. At SASP, end of year dust concentrations ranged from 0.83 mg g−1 to 4.80 mg g−1, and daily mean spring dust radiative forcing ranged from 50–65 W m−2, advancing melt by 24–49 days. At GMSP, which received 1.0 mg g−1 less dust per season on average, spring radiative forcings of 32–50 W m−2 advanced melt by 15–30 days. Remote sensing imagery showed that observed dust events were frequently associated with dust emission from the southern Colorado Plateau. Dust from these sources generally passed south of GMSP, and back trajectory footprints modelled for observed dust events were commonly more westerly and northerly for GMSP relative to SASP. These factors suggest that although the southern Colorado Plateau contains important dust sources, dust contributions from other dust sources contribute to dust loading in this region

  13. Regional lidocaine anesthesia without exsanguination for outpatient management of upper extremity fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G. A.; Hayes, W. M.; Cornwal, R.

    1995-01-01

    The use of small dose intravenous lidocaine without exsanguination for upper extremity fractures in children and adults is described. A twenty-plus year experience with this technique in the outpatient setting has shown it to be effective and safe. Attention to detail is essential and inadvertent tourniquet release must be avoided. Images Figure 1 PMID:7634037

  14. FY 2007 Progress Report for Upper Columbia United Tribes' Regional Coordination.

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D.R.

    2008-12-15

    This report is a summary of activities conducted over the fiscal year 2007 contract period to fulfill requirements to coordinate Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT) interests within the Columbia River Basin. This coordination was specific to the implementation of portions of the Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program within the purview of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council and Bonneville Power Administration.

  15. Interannual Variability of the Upper Ocean in the Southeast Pacific Stratus Cloud Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 708–728. ——, T. Shinoda, L.-L. Fu, and J. P. McCreary , 2006: Impact of atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations on the...Climate, 11, 2668–2685. ——, and ——, 2001: Upper-ocean heat budget in response to the Madden– Julian oscillation in the western equatorial Pacific. J

  16. Prognostic Factors for Survival of Stage IB Upper Lobe Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-li; Wang, Zhi-qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify clinical and pathologic factors that were associated with the survival of stage IB upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods A retrospective study of 147 subjects who had undergone curative resection for stage IB upper lobe NSCLC was performed. Patients who had received any adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Survival function curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier procedure. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of potential prognostic factors were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Five factors, including age, tumor size, histologic grade of differentiation, number of removed superior mediastinal lymph node stations and presence of visceral pleura invasion, were significantly and independently associated with mortality risk. Adjusted HRs were 2.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.1-6.5] and 4.6 (95% CI: 1.9-11) for those aged 58−68 years and those >68 years, respectively, relative to those aged <58 years. HRs for those with poorly and moderately differentiated tumors were 6.4 (95% CI: 2.3-18) and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8), respectively. HRs for those with tumor size 3.1−5 cm and >5 cm (vs≤3.0 cm) were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-4.9) and 4.3 (95% CI: 1.9-10), respectively. The presence of visceral pleura invasion also increased the risk of mortality (HR=4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-12). Conclusion Advanced age, larger tumor size, poorly differentiated histology, smaller number of removed superior mediastinal lymph node stations, and presence of visceral pleura invasion were associated with poor survival of surgically treated stage IB upper lobe NSCLC patients. PMID:23359092

  17. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  18. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  19. Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas D.; Kynard, Michael .

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, reliable, affordable upper stage engine to power the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. The J-2X engine is being developed for that purpose, epitomizing NASA's philosophy of employing legacy knowledge, heritage hardware, and commonality to carry the next generation of explorers into low-Earth orbit and out into the solar system This presentation gives top-level details on accomplishments to date and discusses forward work necessary to bring the J-2X engine to the launch pad.

  20. Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

  1. Modeling Upper Airway Collapse by a Finite Element Model with Regional Tissue Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun; Brennick, Michael J.; Dougherty, Lawrence; Wootton, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a new computational system for modeling the upper airway in rats that combines tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tissue material properties to predict three-dimensional (3D) airway motion. The model is capable of predicting airway wall and tissue deformation under airway pressure loading up to airway collapse. The model demonstrates that oropharynx collapse pressure depends primarily on ventral wall (tongue muscle) elastic modulus and airway architecture. An iterative approach that involves substituting alternative possible tissue elastic moduli was used to improve model precision. The proposed 3D model accounts for stress-strain relationships in the complex upper airway that should present new opportunities for understanding pathogenesis of airway collapse, improving diagnosis and developing treatments. PMID:19747871

  2. Review of power operation and maintenance program. Mechanical features. Review report. Upper Colorado region

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, R.

    1997-02-01

    Fontenell Powerplant - The mechanical equipment here is generally in good condition and well maintained. During the review machine vibration signatures were taken at various loads. No significant problems were found during these tests, although a bearing rub was noted at the upper and lower generator guide bearings. Flaming Gorge - The mechanical equipment here is in good condition and well maintained. Machine vibration signatures were taken on units 1 and 2. Unit 3 was down for annual maintenace. The data from Unit 1 indicated no problems. The data from Unit 2 indicated a bearing rub on the upper and lower generator guide bearings. The bearing temperatures at both of these bearings are not excessive but they should be monitored for any unusal increases.

  3. Regional scale estimates of baseflow and factors influencing baseflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumsey, Christine; Miller, Matthew P.; Susong, David D.; Tillman, Fred D; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Results suggest that approximately half of the streamflow in the UCRB is baseflow derived from groundwater discharge to streams. Higher baseflow yields typically occur in upper elevation areas of the UCRB. PCA identified precipitation, snow, sand content of soils, elevation, land surface slope, percent grasslands, and percent natural barren lands as being positively correlated with baseflow yield; whereas temperature, potential evapotranspiration, silt and clay content of soils, percent agriculture, and percent shrublands were negatively correlated with baseflow yield.

  4. Middle and Upper Ordovician nautiloid cephalopods of the Cincinnati Arch region of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of 'Contributions to the Ordovician paleontology of Kentucky and nearby states' deals with the stratigraphic distribution, paleoecology, biogeography, and systematic paleontology of 50 species of nautiloid cephalopods from the Midcontinent. The species are placed in 30 genera. Most of the specimens are silicified and from Middle Ordovician rocks of Kentucky. The study is augmented by unsilicified material from the Upper Ordovician Cincinnatian Provincial Series from the tri-state area of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio.

  5. Battling regional (stage III) lung cancer: bumpy road of a cancer survivor in the immunotherapy age.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhonglin; Biddinger, Paul; Schroeder, Carsten; Tariq, Khurram

    2016-07-07

    A 58-year-old woman, a heavy smoker, was diagnosed with stage III squamous cell lung cancer. She was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with partial response. 2 months later, she had haemoptysis caused by brisk bleeding from the radiated right upper lobe. Fortunately, her bleed was self-limited. 4 months later, a rapidly enlarging renal mass was discovered and turned out to be metastatic from the lung primary. Second-line chemotherapy with docetaxel and ramucirumab did not have effects on the renal mass after 2 cycles. Despite not being eligible for a durvalumab trial because of lack of PD-L1 expression, she had a meaningful response to nivolumab. Once every 2 weeks, infusion of nivolumab resulted in rapid tumour shrinkage in multiple areas. In the next few months, she experienced a variety of side effects, some of which were potentially life-threatening. She had disease progression 9 months into treatment.

  6. Comparison of occurrence of upper urinary tract carcinomas in the region with endemic villages and non-endemic nephropathy region in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belicza, Mladen; Demirović, Alma; Tomić, Karla; Lenicek, Tanja; Pavić, Ivana; Jakovina, Krunoslav; Vukelić, Mato; Jakovina, Tratincica; Misić, Maja; Kruslin, Bozo

    2008-12-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease of a still unknown etiology, associated with an increased frequency of urothelial carcinoma, particularly of the upper urinary tract (UUT). The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of UUT carcinomas between Brodsko-Posavska Region (BPR) which is the region with endemic villages and the non-endemic region of Zagreb (ZG) in two six-year periods with a 20 year period separating the two, pointing out a possible difference in occurrence regarding war in Croatia (1991-1995). Comparing BPR and ZG regions we found a more then 5 times higher frequency of UUT carcinomas in BPR in the first period and more than 4.5 times higher frequency in the second period. Women in BPR were more frequently affected with UUT carcinomas.

  7. 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region

    SciTech Connect

    Schilly, M.M.; Smith, R.B.; Braile, L.W.; Ansorge, J.

    1982-04-10

    Eleven in-line refraction profiles, recorded to distances of 300 km, and one azimuthal fan plot were constructed from data recorded with a 150-station array in the Yellowstone National Park area during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiment. Interpretations of the data suggest that the crustal P wave velocity model for the Yellowstone region is characterized by (1) an averaged 10-km-thick upper crustal layer, V/sub p/ = 6.0 km/s, (2) an average crustal velocity of 6.3 km/s, and (3) a total crustal thickness of 44 km. Velocity models are presented for profiles that emphasize the upper crust and show (1) a decrease in the depth to the top of the upper crustal crystalline basement from 5 km in southwestern Yellowstone near Island Park to 1 km at the northeast side of the Yellowstone Plateau that is interpreted as a progressive thinning of the silicic surface volcanic layer to the northeast and (2) evidence for a large lateral inhomogeneity interpreted to be a low-velocity body, with a decrease of at least 10% in P wave velocity, located beneath the northeast corner of the Yellowstone Plateau. The low-velocity zone coincides with a local -30-mgal residual gravity anomaly and is located beneath part of the Sour Creek resurgent dome and part of the Hot Springs Basin, the largest hydrothermal system in Yellowstone. The low-velocity body has a maximum depth to the top of 3 km and a minimum depth to the bottom of 9 km and may represent a zone of partial melt. In comparison to the thermally undisturbed upper crust of the surrounding Rocky Mountains the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone plateau appears laterally inhomogeneous in velocity and layer thickness, suggesting effects of thermal and magma intrusion, whereas the lower crust appears relatively homogeneous.

  8. Validating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Hongjie; Sharif, Hatim; Zeitler, Jon

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis study examines the performance of the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and Stage III precipitation products, using a high-density rain gauge network located on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country. As point-area representativeness error of gauge rainfall is a major concern in assessment of radar rainfall estimation, this study develops a new method to automatically select uniform rainfall events based on coefficient of variation criterion of 3 by 3 radar cells. Only gauge observations of those uniform rainfall events are used as ground truth to evaluate radar rainfall estimation. This study proposes a new parameter probability of rain detection (POD) instead of the conditional probability of rain detection (CPOD) commonly used in previous studies to assess the capability that a radar or gauge detects rainfall. Results suggest that: (1) gauge observations of uniform rainfall better represent ground truth of a 4 × 4 km 2 radar cell than non-uniform rainfall; (2) the MPE has higher capability of rain detection than either gauge-only or Stage III; (3) the MPE has much higher linear correlation and lower mean relative difference with gauge measurements than the Stage III does; (4) the Stage III tends to overestimate precipitation (20%), but the MPE tends to underestimate (7%).

  9. Numerical investigation of regional particle deposition in the upper airway of a standing male mannequin in calm air surroundings.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Arash; Abouali, Omid; Ghalati, Pejman Farhadi; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2014-09-01

    A 3-D realistic computational model of the airway system integrated into a standing male mannequin was developed. The computational domain includes the regions around the mannequin and the inside of the airway passages. The simulation was performed for low activity breathing rates with calm air around the mannequin. The flowfield of the inhaled air was first obtained from solving the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. Then the particles were released in the domain around the mannequin and their trajectories were evaluated by using the Lagrangian approach for solving the particle equation of motion. The regional aerosols deposition was evaluated for different parts of the human airway system and the results were compared with those obtained from the separate modeling of the airway system without the interaction of the airflow with the mannequin external face. The results showed when the upper airway is integrated into the mannequin, the regional deposition of inhaled particles mainly changes in the airway system.

  10. Hydrologic Conditions that Influence Streamflow Losses in a Karst Region of the Upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.; Lewelling, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Peace River from Bartow to Fort Meade, Florida, is described as a groundwater recharge area, reflecting a reversal from historical groundwater discharge patterns that existed prior to the 1950s. The upper Peace River channel and floodplain are characterized by extensive karst development, with numerous fractures, crevasses, and sinks that have been eroded in the near-surface and underlying carbonate bedrock. With the reversal in groundwater head gradients, river water is lost to the underlying groundwater system through these karst features. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic conditions that influence streamflow losses in the karst region of the upper Peace River. The upper Peace River is located in a basin that has been altered substantially by phosphate mining and increases in groundwater use. These alterations have changed groundwater flow patterns and caused streamflow declines through time. Hydrologic factors that have had the greatest influence on streamflow declines in the upper Peace River include the lowering of the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer beneath the riverbed elevation due to below-average rainfall (droughts), increases in groundwater use, and the presence of numerous karst features in the low-water channel and floodplain that enhance the loss of streamflow. Seepage runs conducted along the upper Peace River, from Bartow to Fort Meade, indicate that the greatest streamflow losses occurred along an approximate 2-mile section of the river beginning about 1 mile south of the Peace River at Bartow gaging station. Along the low-water and floodplain channel of this 2-mile section, there are about 10 prominent karst features that influence streamflow losses. Losses from the individual karst features ranged from 0.22 to 16 cubic feet per second based on measurements made between 2002 and 2007. The largest measured flow loss for all the karst features was about 50 cubic

  11. Influence of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide fluxes across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for regional scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Desai Ankur R.; Noormets, Asko; Bolstad, Paul V; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, Bruce D; Davis, Kenneth; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Gough, Christopher M; Martin, Jonathan G; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Schmid, Hans Peter; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the region. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km2 regional flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER and GEP to be 290 89, 408, 48, and 698, 73 gC m-2, respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a regionally integrating 447m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted influence function and then reaggregated to a regional estimate, the resulting NEE, ER and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous regions such as the Upper Midwest, USA.

  12. Influence of Vegetation and Seasonal Forcing on Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for Regional Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Ankur R; Noormets, Asko; Bolstad, Paul V; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, Bruce D; Davis, Kenneth J; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Gough, Christopher; Martin, Jonathan G; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Schmid, Hans P; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Weiguo

    2008-02-13

    Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in the Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens, and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the region. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km2 regional flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER, and GEP to be -290 ± 89, 408 ± 48, and 698 ± 73 gC m-2, respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER, and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a regionally integrating 447 m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted influence function and then re-aggregated to a regional estimate, the resulting NEE, ER, and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error, and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous regions such as the Upper Midwest, USA.

  13. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Tereffe, Welela; Dogan, Basak E.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Caudle, Abigail S.; Valero, Vicente; Stauder, Michael C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Candelaria, Rosalind P.; Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regional nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.

  14. Lithology controls the regional distribution and morphological diversity of montane Mediterranean badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (eastern Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-11-01

    Badlands are pervasive in a wide range of environmental conditions across the Mediterranean region, including arid, semiarid, and humid environments. On montane (cold subhumid and humid) Mediterranean landscapes, harsh thermal conditions on north-facing hillslopes favour intense bedrock weathering by freezing and impose serious constraints on plant colonization. The above are the customary arguments to explain the high abundance of montane badlands on north-exposed shady aspects. We studied the distribution and morphological diversity of badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees, NE Spain), using remote sensing information (high-resolution orthophotos and complementary Landsat 8 imagery), digital elevation data, and regional information on lithology. Badlands extend over about 200 ha in the upper Llobregat basin and occur on two different parent materials, swelling (smectite-rich) continental Garumnian lutites of late Cretaceous age, and nonswelling (illitic) marine Eocene marls. Vegetation, assessed by remote-sensed vegetation greenness, is less developed on north-facing badland slopes. However, badland slope-aspect distribution varies considerably with lithology. While badlands on Eocene marls show preferential distribution on north-facing shady slopes, badland occurrence on Garumnian lutites does not reveal clear slope-aspect anisotropy patterns. Lithology also affects slope gradient, with badlands on Eocene marls showing rougher topography (30-40° average slope angle) than on Garumnian lutites (20-30°). Badland morphological differences induced by lithology are discussed in terms of the greater weathering susceptibility and slope instability of the swelling, smectite-rich Garumnian lutites than of the nonswelling Eocene marls. Elevation, which broadly controls annual precipitation and winter air temperature within the region, shows no clear influence on badland distribution. Overall, our results reveal lithology as the main factor controlling

  15. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Insoll, Timothy; Maclean, Rachel

    2010-12-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana.

  16. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation in dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera): examination of life stages and body regions.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Amy; Hillier, Kirk Neil; Avery, Trevor S; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-09-01

    Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are an important component of both aquatic and terrestrial food webs and are vectors for methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnification. Variations in mercury content with life stage and body regions may affect the relative transfer of mercury to aquatic or terrestrial food webs; however, there has been little research on this subject. Also, little is known about mercury bioaccumulation in different body regions of dragonflies. To address these knowledge gaps, dragonfly naiads, adults, and exuviae were collected at 2 lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and mercury concentrations in different life stages and body regions were quantified. Mean whole body concentrations of MeHg were substantial in naiads (232 ± 112 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 66), emerging adults (236 ± 50 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 10), and mature adults (231 ± 74 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 20). Mean MeHg concentrations in exuviae (5.6 ± 4.3 ng g(-1), n = 32) were 40-fold lower than in naiads and adults. Emerging adults had 2-fold to 2.5-fold higher Hg(II) concentrations than naiads, mature adults, and exuviae. In body regions of both naiads and adults, some abdomens contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg(II) than heads or thoraces, and this trend was consistent across families. Across families, Aeshnidae had significantly higher concentrations of MeHg and total Hg than Gomphidae and Libellulidae, but not higher than Cordulidae. The Hg(II) concentrations were lower in Aeshnidae and Libellulidae than in Gomphidae and Cordulidae. Shedding of exuviae presents a possible mechanism for mercury detoxification, but mercury concentrations and burdens in exuviae are low in comparison with naiads and adults. Dragonfly adults retain a high potential for transferring substantial amounts of MeHg to their predators.

  18. Inversion of gravity and bathymetry in oceanic regions for long-wavelength variations in upper mantle temperature and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-wavelength variations in geoid height, bathymetry, and SS-S travel times are all relatable to lateral variations in the characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the upper mantle. The temperature and composition are in turn relatable to mantle convection and the degree of melt extraction from the upper mantle residuum. Thus the combined inversion of the geoid or gravity field, residual bathymetry, and seismic velocity information offers the promise of resolving fundamental aspects of the pattern of mantle dynamics. The use of differential body wave travel times as a measure of seismic velocity information, in particular, permits resolution of lateral variations at scales not resolvable by conventional global or regional-scale seismic tomography with long-period surface waves. These intermediate scale lengths, well resolved in global gravity field models, are crucial for understanding the details of any chemical or physical layering in the mantle and of the characteristics of so-called 'small-scale' convection beneath oceanic lithosphere. In 1991 a three-year project to the NASA Geophysics Program was proposed to carry out a systematic inversion of long-wavelength geoid anomalies, residual bathymetric anomalies, and differential SS-S travel time delays for the lateral variation in characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the oceanic upper mantle. The project was funded as a three-year award, beginning on 1 Jan. 1992.

  19. Upper mantle P velocity structure beneath the Baikal Rift from modeling regional seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2003-02-01

    Uppermost mantle P wave velocity structure beneath the Baikal rift and southern margin of the Siberian Platform has been investigated by using a grid search method to model Pnl waveforms from two moderate earthquakes recorded by station TLY at the southwestern end of Lake Baikal. The results yielded a limited number of successful models which indicate the presence of upper mantle P wave velocities beneath the rift axis and the margin of the platform that are 2-5% lower than expected. The magnitude of the velocity anomalies and their location support the presence of a thermal anomaly that extends laterally beyond the rift proper, possibly created by small-scale convection or a plume-like, thermal upwelling.

  20. The first record of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Upper Cretaceous of the Volga River Region.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, V S

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic position of the microproblematics previously considered to be Foraminifera or Calcisphaerulidae is established. The first record from Russia of calcareous cysts of Dinoflagellata is presented. The microfossils originate from the Maastrichtian siliceous clay of the Volga River Region.

  1. Vestas Pinaria Region: Original Basaltic Achondrite Material Derived from Mixing Upper and Lower Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Frigeri, Alessandro; Stephan, Katrin; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Krohn, Katrin; DeSanctis, Cristina M.; Reddy, Vishnu; LeCorre, Lucille; Nathues, Andreas; Pieters, Carle M.; Prettyman, Thomas; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Dawn mission shows that the Pinaria region of Vesta spanning a portion of the rim of the Rheasilvia basin is bright and anhydrous. Reflectance spectra, absorption band centers, and their variations, cover the range of pyroxenes from diogenite-rich to howardite and eucrite compositions, with no evidence of olivine in this region. By examining band centers and depths of the floor, walls and rims of six major craters in the region, we find a lane of diogenite-rich material next to howardite-eucrite material that does not follow the local topography. The source of this material is not clear and is probably ejecta from post-Rheasilvia impacts. Material of a howardite-eucrite composition originating from beyond the Rheasilvia basin is evident on the western edge of the region. Overall, the Pinaria region exposes the complete range of basaltic achondrite parent body material, with little evidence of contamination of non-basaltic achondrite material. With both high reflectance and low abundance of hydrated material, this region of Vesta may be considered the "Pinaria desert".

  2. Regional frequency analysis at ungauged sites using a two-stage resampling generalized ensemble framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad H.; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Chebana, Fateh

    2015-10-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) deals with the estimation of hydrological characteristics at sites where little or no data is available. Recently, machine learning applications to RFA have received considerable attention in terms of their flexibility in modeling as well as superior generalization ability compared to conventional approaches. The proper application of machine learning techniques, however, requires good understanding of the available information about system's dynamics, i.e. system variables. This paper presents two contributions to the literature. First, novel ensemble architecture, using a unique two-stage resampling approach, is proposed. The objective of the proposed ensemble model is to promote diversity within the individual learners and reduce over fitting. Second, the application of the proposed model is demonstrated in RFA case study to obtain improved regional flood quantile estimates at ungauged sites. A jackknife validation procedure is used for the evaluation of the model's performance. The method is applied to data from the province of Quebec, Canada. The model showed similar performance and generalization compared to major ensemble models in the literature, which were investigated in previous studies using the same data set. The proposed model confirmed the diversity requirement in ensemble modeling and, in the same time, validated the proposed model adherence to ensemble learning theory.

  3. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  4. Predicting the distribution of Upper Cretaceous aquifers using sea-level analysis and regional paleogeography, Alabama coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.T. Jr.; Skotnicki, M.C. )

    1991-03-01

    In the inner coastal plain of Alabama, Upper Cretaceous (i.e., Santonian-Maastrichtian) stratigraphic units containing key aquifers dip south at 7m/km; the aquifers consist mainly of porous and permeable barrier-island facies (including upper-shoreface and tidal-pass sands), barrier-related sand facies (including tidal deltas and lagoonal and marine tempestite beds), and shallow-marine sand facies (including offshore bars and conglomerate sandy turbidite tongues). Confining aquitard and aquiclude facies include lagoonal silty clays, shallow-marine glauconitic clays, clayey marls, and marine chalky marls. The gross geometry, thickness, and lateral and vertical distribution of aquifer sands in both the shallow-subsurface and outcrop (i.e., recharge) area is predictable based on regional paleogeographic reconstructions and the regional Late Cretaceous relative sea-level curve. At a local scale, facies maps and shallow-subsurface correlations provide essential data for aquifer exploration and recharge-area protection. For example, in the Eutaw Formation, barrier-island and barrier-related facies developed along a curved east-west striking shoreline; aquifers include shoreline facies, tempestite beds, and turbidite sands. In the younger, northwest-striking Blufftown-Cusseta and Ripley-Providence systems, aquifers are barrier-island and barrier-related (especially tidal-delta) facies.

  5. Dynamic 3D MR Visualization and Detection of Upper Airway Obstruction during Sleep using Region Growing Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Chul; Khoo, Michael C.K.; Davidson Ward, Sally L.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Goal We demonstrate a novel and robust approach for visualization of upper airway dynamics and detection of obstructive events from dynamic 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the pharyngeal airway. Methods This approach uses 3D region growing, where the operator selects a region of interest that includes the pharyngeal airway, places two seeds in the patent airway, and determines a threshold for the first frame. Results This approach required 5 sec/frame of CPU time compared to 10 min/frame of operator time for manual segmentation. It compared well with manual segmentation, resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.84 to 0.94, whereas the Dice Coefficients for two manual segmentations by the same observer were 0.89 to 0.97. It was also able to automatically detect 83% of collapse events. Conclusion Use of this simple semi-automated segmentation approach improves the workflow of novel dynamic MRI studies of the pharyngeal airway and enables visualization and detection of obstructive events. Significance Obstructive sleep apnea is a significant public health issue affecting 4-9% of adults and 2% of children. Recently, 3D dynamic MRI of the upper airway has been demonstrated during natural sleep, with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to non-invasively study patterns of airway obstruction in young adults with OSA. This work makes it practical to analyze these long scans and visualize important factors in an MRI sleep study, such as the time, site, and extent of airway collapse. PMID:26258929

  6. Solar Wind Acceleration from the Upper Chromosphere to the Corona in Coronal Hole Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Flow speeds derived in recent years from chromospheric/transition region and coronal observations suggest that the solar wind acceleration process might start at heights in the solar atmosphere much lower than previously imagined. The goal of the proposed investigation was to study atmospheric outflows in coronal hole regions from the chromosphere into the corona using observational and theoretical approaches. In addition to outflows, other plasma properties such as electron densities, and electron and ion temperatures were also included in the study. To investigate these plasma properties in the inner corona is important as they play a crucial role in placing limits on possible coronal heating and solar wind acceleration mechanisms.

  7. Genesis of a regionally widespread celadonitic chert ironstone bed overlying upper Lias manganese deposits, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polgari, Marta; Hein, J.R.; Toth, M.; Brukner-Wein, A.; Vigh, T.; Biro, L.; Cserhati, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mineralogy and chemical composition are presented for a chert-ironstone bed that overlies the ??rk??t Mn deposit. This bed is mottled green-brown in its lower and upper parts, which are composed of quartz, goethite and celadonite. These parts of the bed are interpreted to be strongly altered tuffs, reflecting oxidic, low-temperature alteration of a hydrated, Fe-rich, Al-poor tuff, and K and Mg uptake from seawater. The middle part of the bed is a mineralized bacterial mat (quartz, goethite). Textures resembling bacterial cells and colonies are common, with wavy, bulbous laminations composed of mounds overlying a mesh-work stromatolite-like texture constructed of micrometre-size Fe oxides. This bed is concordant with the underlying Mn deposit and marks the termination of Mn accumulation. Although no genetic connection exists between the two, the rocks adjacent to the contact record the oceanographic and bottom-water conditions extant when accumulation of one of the major Mn deposits of Europe ended, when the Transdanubian Range was located in the middle of the Adria-Apulian microcontinent between the Neotethys and Atlantic-Ligurian seaways. A pyroclastic origin for part of the bed has significance for the Toarcian of Central Europe because evidence of volcanism occurring at that time is otherwise sparse. ?? 2010 Geological Society of London.

  8. The fluvial system response to abrupt climate change during the last cold stage: the Upper Pleistocene River Thames fluvial succession at Ashton Keynes, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. G.; Maddy, D.; Scaife, R. G.

    2001-02-01

    The last interglacial-glacial cycle (125-10 ka BP) is characterised by numerous rapid shifts in global climate on sub-Milankovitch timescales, recorded in the ocean and ice core records. These climatic fluctuations are clearly recorded in those European terrestrial sedimentary sequences that span this time period without interruption. In the UK, only fragmentary Upper Pleistocene sequences exist, mainly within the fluvial archive of the major river systems such as the Thames. The response of the upper River Thames to abrupt fluctuations in climate is documented in the fluvial sediments beneath the Floodplain Terrace (Northmoor Member of the Upper Thames Formation) at Ashton Keynes, Wiltshire. A number of criteria are set out by which significant changes in the fluvial system may be established from the sedimentological, palaeoecological and geochronological information contained within the succession. The sedimentary succession is divisible into four facies associations, on the basis of their sedimentology and bounding surface characteristics. These represent distinct phases of fluvial activity at the site and allow changes in fluvial style to be inferred. Palaeoecological reconstructions from pollen analysis of peats within the sequence provides an indication of the nature and direction of Late Glacial environmental change and optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon dating methods provide chronological control on the sequence. These data suggest that major changes in fluvial style are recorded within the succession, which can be related to the climatic fluctuations that took place on the oxygen isotope stage 5a/4 transition (approximately 70 ka BP) and the Devensian Late Glacial climatic warm-cold-warm oscillation (13-11 ka BP). The changes in fluvial style are a result of variations in sediment supply to the river resulting from changes in slope stability, vegetation cover and cold-climate mass movement processes and variations in discharge regime

  9. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of applying flattening filter-free beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage upper thoracic carcinoma of oesophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wuzhe; Lin, Zhixiong; Yang, Zhining; Fang, Weisheng; Lai, Peibo; Lu, Jiayang; Wu, Vincent WC

    2015-06-15

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) radiation beams have recently become clinically available on modern linear accelerators in radiation therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric impact of using FFF beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer. Eleven patients with primary stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer were recruited. For each patient, two IMRT plans were computed using conventional beams (Con-P) and FFF beams (FFF-P), respectively. Both plans employed a five-beam arrangement and were prescribed with 64 Gy to (planning target volume) PTV1 and 54 Gy to PTV2 in 32 fractions using 6 MV photons. The dose parameters of the target volumes and organs at risks (OARs), and treatment parameters including the monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) for Con-P and FFF-P were recorded and compared. The mean D{sub 5} of PTV1 and PTV2 were higher in FFF-P than Con-P by 0.4 Gy and 0.3 Gy, respectively. For the OARs, all the dose parameters did not show significant difference between the two plans except the mean V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the lung in which the FFF-P was lower (46.7% vs. 47.3% and 39.1% vs. 39.6%, respectively). FFF-P required 54% more MU but 18.4% less irradiation time when compared to Con-P. The target volume and OARs dose distributions between the two plans were comparable. However, FFF-P was more effective in sparing the lung from low dose and reduced the mean TT compared with Con-P. Long-term clinical studies are suggested to evaluate the radiobiological effects of FFF beams.

  10. Variation in Langerhans cell number and morphology between the upper and lower regions of the human esophageal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Walther D; De Simone, Dino Sanchez; Sacerdote, Fabio L; Cavicchia, Juan C

    2002-12-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic components of stratified epithelia, presenting antigens to other cells of the immune system that play a crucial role in local defense. The paucity of information about their significance in the esophageal mucosa was addressed by studying their distribution and morphology in this particular location. LCs were identified by immunohistochemical detection of CD1a, a cell-specific marker, using a monoclonal antibody, as well as by electron microscopic identification of characteristic Birbeck granules, among other typical morphological features. Cell counts carried out at 25 and 35 cm distal to the dental arch demonstrated significant differences in number and size between the two locations. The upper region contained 10.4 +/- 0.8 cells (mean +/- SEM) vs. 18.4 +/- 1.4 cells in the lower region. Also, cells in the lower region were larger and appeared to have longer dendritic processes. To our knowledge this is the first report of regional differences in number and morphology of LCs in human esophageal mucosa.

  11. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  12. Structure of the upper mantle under the EPR from waveform inversion of regional events

    PubMed

    Webb; Forsyth

    1998-05-22

    Waveform inversions of seismograms recorded at the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment ocean bottom seismometer array from regional events with paths following the East Pacific Rise (EPR) require that low shear velocities (<3.7 km/s) extend to depths of more than 100 km below the rise axis. Velocities increase with average crustal age along ray paths. The reconciliation of Love and Rayleigh wave data requires that shear flow has aligned melt pockets or olivine crystals, creating an anisotropic uppermost mantle.

  13. Upper air relaxation in regional climate model improves resolved interannual variability of the surface mass balance of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, Willem Jan; Medley, Brooke; van Meijgaard, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The surface mass balance (SMB) determines the variability of the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice sheet on sub-decadal timescales. Since continent-wide SMB cannot be measured, it must be modeled and regional climate models (RCMs) generally outperform global reanalyses in the representation of total mass flux and the spatial distribution of SMB. However, if RCMs are only forced with reanalysis on their lateral boundaries, the representation of the interannual variability of SMB deteriorates significantly. In this study we show how to improve the resolved interannual variability in RCM modeled SMB. For this purpose we use annual SMB observations in the Thwaites drainage basin in Antarctica derived from airborne radar reflections and the RCM RACMO2. RACMO2, driven by ERA-Interim, better represents the mean spatial SMB pattern in this basin than ERA-Interim. However, without relaxation in the interior, RACMO2 poorly resolves the observed interannual SMB variability. If we gently relax the temperature and wind field in the upper atmosphere in RACMO2 to ERA-Interim, RACMO2 gets the best of both. Upper air relaxation little changes the mean SMB and spatial pattern compared to the original RACMO2 output, but allows RACMO2 to resolve the observed interannual SMB as good as ERA-Interim.

  14. Public health assessment for Upper Deerfield Township Sanitary Landfill, Upper Deerfield Township, Cmberland County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD980761399. addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    The Upper Deerfield Township Landfill (UDTL) consists of 14 acres in a 23 acre site belonging to Upper Deerfield Township, Cumberland County, New Jersey, located amidst a rural farming district. This public health assessment Addendum considers the site to have constituted a public health hazard in the past due to exposure to contaminated residential well water. A groundwater monitoring program is to be implemented by Upper Deerfield Township. Currently, the site poses an indeterminant hazard because of the possible migration off-site of soil gas toward homes adjacent to the site. The Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) determined that those persons exposed to benzene, through the consumption of contaminated drinking water, should be considered for the ATSDR benzene subregistry.

  15. Comparison of NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products with constraints from high quality and density of raingauge networks in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Wang, X.

    2006-05-01

    NEXRAD's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) product replaced the Stage III product started in October 2003 at the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) where includes most of the Texas and New Mexico. The MPE is an integrated product of rain gauge, NEXRAD, and satellite (GOES) precipitation estimates. The main objective of MPE is to reduce both areal-mean bias error and local bias error. The overall improved quality of MPE over Stage 3 is evident at the WGRFC. However, so far, there is no quantitative evaluation in a relative long period (one year or more) of a large area. In this study, high quality and density of 50 raingauge networks (6 minutes temporal resolution) in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas are used to evaluate both the Stage III (years 2001 and 2002) and MPE (year 2004) products. In this study, we propose two types of comparison (1) directly compare collocated radar cell and gauge of all rainfall events and (2) only compare collocated radar cell and gauge of homogeneous/uniform rainfall events. To find uniform rainfall events, 6-mintutes raingauge rainfall were used to calculate the correlation coefficient (CC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of a hour among one central gauge and its surrounding gauges (>= 4). For a particular rainfall hour, when CV is < 0.5 and CC is > 0.5, or CV is <0.1, the rainfall event of this hour is thus selected as a uniform or homogeneous rainfall event. Our preliminary results of CC from all rainfall events and homogeneous rainfall events for year 2004 (MPE) are 0.79 and 0.96, respectively. This indicates an overall good quality of MPE product in comparison with raingauge rainfall, especially for the homogeneous rainfall events. Work is in progress.

  16. Solar wind Acceleration from the Upper Chromosphere to the Corona in Coronal Hole Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the plasma in the chromosphere/transition region /inner corona is vital for the acceleration of the solar wind. With new theoretical descriptions of the solar atmosphere and corona, and the increased observational possibilities provided by the SOHO spacecraft, it is possible to conduct an integrated study of the solar atmosphere and corona using observational and theoretical approaches. Over the past few years a series of observational techniques have been used to estimate the solar wind densities, temperatures and flow speed in the inner corona. These estimates suggest that the solar wind has higher outflow speeds in the inner corona and lower densities than previously assumed. A comparison with densities derived from atmospheric models support these lower densities.

  17. Anisotropic Structure of the Upper Mantle in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region: From SKS Splitting data and Xenolith Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokelmann, G.; Qorbani, E.; Kovacs, I.; Falus, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Carpathian-Pannonian region (CPR) is the northeastern end of the Alpine mountain belt. This study is aimed at evaluating the seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle beneath the CPR concentrating on the eastward elongation of the fast anisotropic pattern of the Eastern Alps. We use data recorded by the temporary stations, set up for the Carpathian Basin Project (CBP) extending from the Vienna basin through Hungary into Serbia, together with the petrologic indicator of deformation in basalt-hosted upper mantle xenoliths from Szentbékkála. While some of the results agree with another recently published anisotropy analysis of the Eastern Alps and earlier results for the Pannonian basin, some don't. We reprocess data from 45 temporary CBP stations consisting recorded waveform of teleseismic events with magnitude greater than 6.0 Mw that have occurred in the distance range from 90° to 130° between 2005 and 2007. The dominant fast polarization orientation is NW-SE for the Hungarian part of the stations as well as at the stations located in the easternmost of the Pannonian Basin. This orientation matches well with the anisotropy structure under the Eastern Alps, which has been attributed to asthenospheric flow. The NW-SE trend turns more into WNW-ESE at the stations situated in Austria, mostly NW of the Vienna basin. Apart from predominately NW-SE fast orientation, there are a few measurements showing NE-SW and almost E-W trend. The SKS measurements most likely originate mainly from the asthenosphere and consequently past (Miocene) asthenospheric flow in the upper mantle may still have a significant contribution to the fast azimuth directions, however, the effect of other factors cannot be excluded. Xenoliths from the deeper lithospheric mantle have LPO structures of minerals as A-type of olivine in which the fast axis azimuth may correspond to the shear direction, possibly present-day asthenospheric flow in the upper mantle. Large delay times (>1.0 s) might also

  18. Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

    Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

  19. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  20. The occurrence of copper in deciduous teeth of girls and boys living in Upper Silesian Industry Region (Southern Poland).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Wiechuła, Danuta; Fischer, Tomasz; Loska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-25

    This work presents the results of a research concerning the copper content in different types of deciduous teeth (incisor, canine, molar) of boys and girls living in the Upper Silesian Industry Region (Southern Poland). The average copper concentration in deciduous teeth was 9.92 microg/g and was significantly higher in the deciduous teeth of boys (12.24 microg/g) in comparison to the deciduous teeth of girls (8.60 microg/g). The concentration of copper was statistically variable depending on the type of tooth (incisor, canine, molar). The results of the correlation analysis and cluster analysis indicate mainly the participation of lead, iron, manganese and chromium ions in the formation of copper content in hard tissue of deciduous teeth.

  1. Late stage Imbrium volcanism on the Moon: Evidence for two source regions and implications for the thermal history of Mare Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Zou, Y. L.

    2016-07-01

    Large open fissures or volcanic rifts can form in volcanic terrain and they are also conduits for magma ascending through the lunar crust. On the Moon, we investigated two volcanic source regions within Mare Imbrium by tracking surface morphologic features and compositional information. The Euler source region is situated at the southwest edge of the basin, while the Lambert source region lies off the south margin of the Imbrium mascon. Survey of dike surface manifestations in Euler source site suggest that dikes are the possible source of the local upper basaltic flows and the last lava phases with well developed scarps near the Euler crater, which extend northeast to the basin center. The Euler dike swarm are radial to the basin and reveal possible dike-to-conduit transition mechanism. They reveal radial subsurface fractures which may be tensional cracks preceding to the emplacement of the last stage of the mare fill. Of these, the largest dike has a more than 100 km length. The spatial arrangement of tectonic and volcanic features in Lambert source site is directly or indirectly controlled by the regional compression and extension stresses associated with flexure in response to mascon and basalt loading. In addition, compositional variation trends show a general southwest-to-northeast flooding direction of the exposed high-Ti basalts. This will have important implications for both the Imbrium basin's mare volcanism and for the thermal evolution of Mare Imbrium and the Moon.

  2. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, J.S.; Gross, E.A.; Joyner, D.R.; Godo, M.N.; Morgan, K.T. )

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  3. Regional disconformities in Turonian and Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) strata in Colorado, Wyoming, and adjoining states - Biochronological evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Siliciclastic and calcareous sedimentary rocks of early Late Cretaceous age in the Western Interior of the United States have been assigned to, in ascending order, the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Formation, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, and their lateral equivalents (including members of the Frontier Formation and overlying formations). This sequence of formations was deposited intermittently within and near an epicontinental seaway during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian stages of the Cretaceous. It encloses three conspicuous and widespread disconformities that reflect regional marine regressions and transgressions as well as moderate tectonism. The disconformities and associated lacunae occupy three large areas within Wyoming, Colorado, and adjoining states. In parts of that region, as in northwestern Wyoming, a lacuna can represent more than one period of erosion and more than a single disconformity. Evidence for these disconformities was obtained from about 175 collections of molluscan fossils and from sedimentological studies of outcrops and borehole logs, supplemented by previously published data.

  4. Chronology and ancient feeding ecology of two upper Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo França, Lucas; Trindade Dantas, Mário André; Bocchiglieri, Adriana; Cherckinsky, Alexander; de Souza Ribeiro, Adauto; Bocherens, Hervé

    2014-09-01

    In Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) fossil remains of the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) and of the proboscidean Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) are the most abundant among megaherbivores. However, the paleoecology of both species needs to be better understood to enlighten why these species disappear in the end of the Pleistocene, an issue that is still debated. During the last decades, the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes have been increasingly being used to obtain paleoecological information about extinct animals, although this information is in most cases dissociated from chronological data. Thus, the main objective of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about feeding ecology and chronology of E. laurillardi and N. platensis within BIR. For each fossil sample we performed stable isotopes analyses (δ13C/δ18O) and radiocarbon dating (14C with AMS). The results showed that N. platensis occurred between 12,125 and 19,594 cal yr BP and exhibited a grazer diet (δ13C = -1.1‰-1.3‰), while E. laurillardi lived between 11,084 and 27,690 cal yr BP, with a mixed feeder diet (C3/C4 plants; values ratio δ13C = -7.7‰ to -3.3‰). The δ18O values of N. platensis ranged between 2.20‰ and 3.60‰, while the values of E. laurillardi ranged between -3.10‰ and -1.10‰. Neither species did exhibit differences in its diet through time, which suggests that the vegetational composition of this locality did not vary in the late Pleistocene. Both species were living in an open environment, rich in herbaceous plants (C4 plants) and with tree and shrub with disjoint distribution, maybe similar to some parts of recent Caatinga, where they have partitioned the spatial and feeding niches.

  5. Antitruncated stellar light profiles in the outer regions of STAGES spiral galaxies: bulge or disc related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltby, David T.; Hoyos, Carlos; Gray, Meghan E.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Wolf, Christian

    2012-03-01

    We present a comparison of azimuthally averaged radial surface brightness μ(r) profiles and analytical bulge-disc decompositions (de Vaucouleurs, r1/4 bulge plus exponential disc) for spiral galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys V-band imaging from the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES). In the established classification scheme, antitruncated μ(r) profiles (Type III) have a broken exponential disc with a shallower region beyond the break radius rbrk. The excess light at large radii (r > rbrk) can either be caused by an outer exponential disc (Type III-d) or an extended spheroidal component (Type III-s). Using our comparisons, we determine the contribution of bulge light at r > rbrk for a large sample of 78 (barred/unbarred, Sa-Sd) spiral galaxies with outer disc antitruncations (?). In the majority of cases (˜85 per cent), evidence indicates that excess light at r > rbrk is related to an outer shallow disc (Type III-d). Here, the contribution of bulge light at r > rbrk is either negligible (˜70 per cent) or too little to explain the antitruncation (˜15 per cent). However in the latter cases, bulge light can affect the measured disc properties (e.g. μbrk, outer scalelength). In the remaining cases (˜15 per cent), light at r > rbrk is dominated by the bulge (Type III-s). Here, for most cases the bulge profile dominates at all radii and only occasionally (? galaxies, ˜5 per cent) extends beyond that of a dominant disc and explains the excess light at r > rbrk. We thus conclude that in the vast majority of cases antitruncated outer discs cannot be explained by bulge light and thus remain a pure disc phenomenon.

  6. Carbonate facies changes in the Upper Ordovician (Late Katian) of the Cincinnati Arch region: Implications for paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbach, C. E.; Brett, C. E.; Aucoin, C. D.; Dattilo, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Upper Ordovician Rowland Member (Drakes Formation) exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region displays a suite of unusual facies that appear to record an environmental transition during the Late Ordovician. The Rowland displays four well-defined lithofacies, each containing a distinct biofacies. Proximal facies consist of green to gray shaly lime mudstones (often dolomitized), with ripples and desiccation cracks; these facies are sparsely fossiliferous, but show an abundance of infaunal filter feeders indicated by glauconite-filled burrows. These facies pass downramp into pale medium-bedded argillaceous micritic limestones, which are also sparsely fossiliferous but locally contain abundant deposit feeding organisms including brachiopods, small bryozoans, mollusks, and non-calcified algae. Select horizons yield rugosan and large colonial corals. These micritic beds often interfinger with a series of thick skeletal grainstone lenses that represent tidally influenced high-energy shoals and are exceptionally rich in well-preserved gastropods. To the north, these grainstones pass abruptly into offshore gray shaly packstone facies more typical of the Cincinnatian and contain a higher diversity of epifaunal brachiopods and ramose bryozoans. Compared to upramp facies of older Cincinnatian cycles, those of the Rowland show a greater thickness, relatively more micrite and glauconite, and higher abundance of corals and gastropods. These changes appear to be associated with a strong transgression underlain by a regional (and possibly global) lowstand erosional surface, as well as the Waynesville carbon isotope excursion. Additionally, these facies are correlative with similar transgressive facies in other regions, which also overlie regional lowstand unconformities. Increased micrite production instead of skeletal carbonates and the abundance of herbivorous? gastropods rather than echinoderms and bryozoans may indicate large-scale eutrophication and algal production

  7. Anisotropic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle in the Taiwan region from local travel time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; Wu, Yih-Min

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan Island located in a contact zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, the tectonic processes in this area are mostly controlled by the relative kinematics of these two plates. In the east, the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward under the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu trench. Off the southern tip of Taiwan, the South China Sea subplate, part of the Eurasian plate, subducts eastward under the Philippine Sea plate underneath the Luzon Island. The Taiwan Island is located at the junction between these two subduction zones. Here we present anisotropic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle in the Taiwan region derived from local travel time tomography. We use more than 300 000 P and more than 150 000 S rays coming from 12910 earthquakes occurred in the Taiwan region and registered by 816 stations of different local Taiwanese seismic networks. The ANITA algorithm, for iterative nonlinear inversion of local earthquake data in orthorhombic anisotropic media with one predefined vertical orientation, was used for the tomographic inversion. This algorithm presumes anisotropy for only P velocity described as horizontally oriented ellipsoid. For S velocity we presume an isotropic model. Results show a good agreement with tectonic structure of the region. Obtained isotropic P and S velocity models show fit to each other. The most prominent features of the models are Philippine Sea plate characterized by increased velocities and decreased velocities observed along the Luzon and Ryukyu arcs. We observe that orientation of the fast velocity axis within the Philippine Sea plate coincides with direction of its displacement. Along the Luzon and Ryukyu arcs orientation of the fast velocities axis coincide with the arcs extension. The results show that upper mantle beneath the eastern Taiwan characterized by decreased velocities and N-S orientation of the fast velocity axis. The western Taiwan characterized by alteration of the relatively small negative

  8. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  9. Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), extensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.

  10. Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), exensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.

  11. Assessing regional hydrology and water quality implications of large-scale biofuel feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Yonas; Yan, Eugene; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    A recent U.S. Department of Energy study estimated that more than one billion tons of biofuel feedstock could be produced by 2030 in the United States from increased corn yield, and changes in agricultural and forest residue management and land uses. To understand the implications of such increased production on water resources and stream quality at regional and local scales, we have applied a watershed model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin, where most of the current and future crop/residue-based biofuel production is expected. The model simulates changes in water quality (soil erosion, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in streams) and resources (soil-water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) under projected biofuel production versus the 2006 baseline year and a business-as-usual scenario. The basin average results suggest that the projected feedstock production could change the rate of evapotranspiration in the UMRB by approximately +2%, soil-water content by about -2%, and discharge to streams by -5% from the baseline scenario. However, unlike the impacts on regional water availability, the projected feedstock production has a mixed effect on water quality, resulting in 12% and 45% increases in annual suspended sediment and total phosphorus loadings, respectively, but a 3% decrease in total nitrogen loading. These differences in water quantity and quality are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The basin responses are further analyzed at monthly time steps and finer spatial scales to evaluate underlying physical processes, which would be essential for future optimization of environmentally sustainable biofuel productions.

  12. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  13. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Indochina block and adjacent regions from shear wave splitting analysis of Vietnam array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Iidaka, T.; Kawakatsu, H.; Morita, Y.; Dzung, N.

    2007-12-01

    Indochina block is located at the junction of Eurasia, Indian and Pacific plates. It has a close relationship with the uplift of Tibet plateau and the spreading of South China Sea basin in the geological evolution histories. The anisotropy is considered to directly relate to deformation in the mantle, and therefore provide constraints on tectonic and geodynamic processes. In this study, we present upper mantle anisotropy beneath Indochina block and adjacent regions from shear wave splitting analysis of Vietnam array and IRIS data. The data used here recorded by Vietnam array during the period between February 2000 and October 2005. The array consists of 6 broadband seismometers. We employed a compact HDD for data storage, which enables long-term and stable observation. We also used data form three IRIS stations around Vietnam for the same period. All records are band-pass filtered between 0.02 and 1.0 Hz to eliminate background noise. The dominant time windows used are 10-15 s around SKS phases based on the predicted travel times from the iasp91 model. We used the methodology of Silver and Chan (1991) as modified by Walker (2004) to determine the fast polarization direction and the delay time between the fast and slow components. In order to find the best splitting parameters, a grid search over possible values is performed to linearize the shear wave particle motion when the effect of the anisotropy if removed. The error estimation of each combination of splitting parameters is given by 95 percent confidence level of F test. We are able to characterize the splitting patterns in greater detail because of the use of new data. The average value of delay times in Indochina block is about 1.35 s, larger than that in adjacent regions. Tomographic studies also revealed low velocity anomalies in upper mantle beneath study area (Lebedev and Nolet, 2003). We estimate that the Indochina block might be affected by the mantle convection produced by the spreading of the South

  14. Upper mantle velocity structure beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line region and implications for the formation of mantle hot lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A. N.; Wiens, D. A.; Euler, G. G.; Nyblade, A.; Shore, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a 1800km long feature, extending SW-NE from the Gulf of Guinea into Central Africa. Volcanism along the line does not display the typical age progression exhibited by hotspot-related volcanic tracks, leading to speculation over the geodynamic source of this intraplate feature. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the linear nature of the CVL in the absence of age progression, including laterally transported material from a single or multiple plumes, reactivation of the Central African Shear Zone, edge-flow convection associated with the neighboring Congo Craton, and convection driven by lithospheric instabilities at the edge of continental lithosphere. In this study, we calculate Rayleigh wave phase velocities and upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the continental portion of the CVL to investigate the geodynamic source of the CVL. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are measured at periods from 20 to 182 seconds following the two-plane wave methodology developed by Forsyth and Li (2005), and using data from the Cameroon Seismic Experiment, which consists of 32 broadband stations deployed between 2005 and 2007. These phase velocities are then inverted to build a model of shear wave velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath the CVL. We find that phase velocities beneath the CVL are reduced, while velocities beneath the Congo Craton to the south are elevated. This is observed for all periods, but the difference between regions decreases at the longest periods measured in the study. Shear wave velocity structure indicates a tabular low velocity anomaly directly beneath the CVL, extending from 50km to at least 200km depth, with a sharp vertical boundary with the faster velocities beneath the Congo Craton. These observations are most consistent with the edge convection or lithospheric instability models as the source of the continental CVL. Further study of offshore structure will aid in better characterizing

  15. Assessment of contamination based on trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes (Odonata: Insect) larvae of the Upper Tisza Region.

    PubMed

    Simon, E; Kis, O; Jakab, T; Kolozsvári, I; Málnás, K; Harangi, S; Baranyai, E; Miskolczi, M; Tóthmérész, B; Dévai, Gy

    2017-02-01

    Odonata larvae are frequently used to assess the contamination of aquatic systems, because they tolerate a wide range of chemical and biological conditions in freshwater systems. In early 2000, the sediments of the Hungarian section of the River Tisza and the River Szamos were strongly enriched with heavy metals by an accidental mining spill. Earlier studies demonstrated higher contamination levels in the Szamos than in the Tisza, based on sediment analysis. The aim of our study was to assess the contamination in the Upper Tisza Region, along the upper reach of the Tisza, and the lower reach of the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations of the Gomphus flavipes larvae. We collected 269 dragonfly specimens for the analyses. The Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn element contents were analysed in the dragonfly larvae by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). Significantly higher Ba and Cu concentrations were found in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. In spite of this, the Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn concentration was significantly lower in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. For all trace elements significant differences were found along the Tisza. Significant differences were also found in all trace element concentrations of dragonfly larvae among studied localities in the Szamos, except in the cases of Al and Ba. Our results demonstrated that the Szamos was more contaminated with Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn than the Tisza, but that the Tisza was more contaminated with Ba and Cu than the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes larvae, which was likely to have been caused by the tributaries of the Tisza. In summary, our results indicated a continuous pollution of the Tisza and the Szamos and their tributaries.

  16. Hydrological responses to land use/cover changes in the source region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldesenbet, Tekalegn Ayele; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Ribbe, Lars; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in distinctive land use/land cover (LULC) types influence the basin hydrology would greatly improve the predictability of the hydrological consequences of LULC dynamics for sustainable water resource management. As the main flow contributor to the River Nile, quantifying the effect of LULC change on water resources in the source regions is very important for the assessment of water resources availability and management downstream in the riparian states in general and the study watersheds in particular. In this study, an integrated approach comprising hydrological modeling and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to quantify the contributions of changes in individual LULC classes to changes in hydrological components. Two watersheds, namely Lake Tana and Beles in the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia, were considered for the conduction of hydrological modeling using LULC maps and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In the Tana sub-basin, it is found that expansion of cultivation land and decline in woody shrub are the major contributors to the rise in surface run-off and to the decline in the groundwater component. Similarly, decline of woodland and expansion of cultivation land are the major contributors to the increase in surface run-off and water yield in the Beles sub-basin. Increased run-off and reduced baseflow and actual evapotranspiration would have negative impacts on water resources, especially in relation to erosion and sedimentation in the upper Blue Nile River Basin. As a result, expansion of cultivation land and decline in woody shrub/woodland appear to be major environmental stressors affecting local water resources. The wider implications of the hydrological changes on the Easter Nile water resources are briefly discussed. The approach to assessing changes in basin hydrology could generally be applied to a variety of other watersheds for which temporal digital LULC maps are available.

  17. Regional profiles of the candidate tau PET ligand 18F-AV-1451 recapitulate key features of Braak histopathological stages.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Adam J; Yu, Peng; Miller, Bradley B; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Dickson, James; Navitsky, Michael; Joshi, Abhinay D; Devous, Michael D; Mintun, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    SEE THAL AND VANDENBERGHE DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW057 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-mortem Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau tangle topographical distribution is one of the core neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The recent development of positron emission tomography tracers targeting neurofibrillary tangles has enabled the distribution of tau pathology to be imaged in living subjects. Methods for extraction of classic Braak staging from in vivo imaging of neurofibrillary tau tangles have not yet been explored. Standardized uptake value ratio images were calculated from 80-100 minute (18)F-AV-1451 (also known as T807) positron emission tomography scans obtained from n = 14 young reference subjects (age 21-39 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29-30) and n = 173 older test subjects (age 50-95 years) comprising amyloid negative cognitively normal (n = 42), clinically-diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (amyloid positive, n = 47, and amyloid negative, n = 40) and Alzheimer's disease (amyloid positive, n = 28, and amyloid negative, n = 16). We defined seven regions of interest in anterior temporal lobe and occipital lobe sections corresponding closely to those used as decision points in Braak staging. An algorithm based on the Braak histological staging procedure was applied to estimate Braak stages directly from the region of interest profiles in each subject. Quantitative region-based analysis of (18)F-AV-1451 images yielded region of interest and voxel level profiles that mirrored key features of neuropathological tau progression including profiles consistent with Braak stages 0 through VI. A simple set of decision rules enabled plausible Braak stages corresponding to stereotypical progression patterns to be objectively estimated in 149 (86%) of test subjects. An additional 12 (7%) subjects presented with predefined variant profiles (relative sparing of the hippocampus and/or occipital lobe). The estimated Braak

  18. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  19. Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to lignocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia for upper limb surgery.

    PubMed

    Narang, S; Dali, J S; Agarwal, M; Garg, R

    2008-11-01

    Several additives have been combined with local anaesthetics for intravenous regional anaesthesia to improve block quality, analgesia and to decrease tourniquet pain. Magnesium sulphate is one potential additive. This prospective, randomised, double-blinded study was conducted in 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing upper limb surgery under tourniquet. In group L, patients received intravenous regional anaesthesia with lignocaine alone (9 ml of 2% lignocaine diluted with normal saline to total volume of 36 ml). Patients in group M received intravenous regional anaesthesia with lignocaine plus magnesium sulphate (6 ml of 25% magnesium sulphate plus 9 ml of 2% lignocaine diluted with normal saline to total volume of 36 ml). Assessment was by observing the response to injection of drug; sensory and motor block and tourniquet pain. The mean time of onset of sensory block was 12.40 and 3.47 minutes in groups L and M respectively (P < 0.001). The average times of onset of motor block in groups L and M were 17 and six minutes respectively (P < 0.001). Of the patients in group M, 66.7% reported moderate to severe pain while the drug was being injected, compared to 20% in group L (P=0.011). There was a statistically significant difference in visual analogue scale for tourniquet pain at 10 and 30 minutes after tourniquet inflation (lower in group M). These findings indicate that magnesium sulphate added as an adjuvant to lignocaine hastens the onset of sensory and motor block and decreases tourniquet pain. However there is increased incidence of transient pain on injection if magnesium sulphate is added.

  1. Variation in antioxidant attributes at three ripening stages of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit from different geographical regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gull, Javaria; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Naseer, Rehana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ashrafuzzaman, M

    2012-03-14

    The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4-247.9 mg 100 g⁻¹), Islamabad (89.7-149.7 mg 100 g⁻¹) and Bhakkar (73.1-129.5 mg 100 g⁻¹). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  2. Integrated biostratigraphy, stage boundaries and Paleoclimatology of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene successions in Kharga and Dakhala Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, H.; Al Sawy, S.

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene succession in the studied sections is divided into four rock units that arranged from base to top: the Dakhla, Tarawan, Esna and the Thebes formations. Detailed study of the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils has led to the recognition of 58 and 82 species, respectively. Based on planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils 8 planktonic foraminiferal biozones (CF4, P2, P3, P4, E1, E2, E3 and E4) have been recognized as well as 8 calcareous nannofossil biozones (CC25b, NP3, NP4, NP5, NP6, NP7/8, NP9, and NP10). At Gabal Teir/Tarawan section, Kharga Oasis, the Paleocene can be divided into three stages; Danian, Selandian and Thanetian. The Danian/Selandian boundary is placed at P3a/P3b zonal boundary (LO of Igorina albeari) which corresponds to the level of LO of Lithoptychius ulii, Fasciculithus pileatus, Fasciculithus involutus and Lithoptychius janii (upper part of Zone NP4). The Selandian/Thanetian boundary, on the other hand, can be traced within the foraminiferal Zone P4 (Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone) and between the nannofossil zones NP6 and NP7/8 (LO of Discoaster mohleri). At Gabal Ghanima section, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary is located within the lower part of the Esna Formation. It can be traced at the base of planktonic foraminiferal Zone E1 (LOs of Acarinina africana, A sibaiyaensis and Morozovella allinsoensis), and at the NP9a/NP9b subzonal boundary (LO of Rhomboaster spp). However, the lower Eocene succession seems to be condensed and punctuated by minor hiatus (absence of Subzone NP10a). The dominance of cool water nannofossil species in the late Maastrichtian and early Danian interval suggests a gradual decrease in the surface water paleotemperature. However, a slight warming condition prevailed around the Danian/Selandian transition as evidenced by the warm water nannofossil species. At the P/E boundary interval, the high abundance of warm-water taxa (e.g. Discoaster, Sphenolithus, Rhomboaster

  3. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. PMID:22242204

  4. Anisotropic structures of the upper mantle beneath the northern Philippine Sea region from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Montagner, J.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shito, A.; Kanazawa, T.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy can provide fundamental information on past and present-day deformation processes in the upper mantle. Using Rayleigh and Love waves recorded by land and seafloor broadband seismometers, we analyzed the isotropic and anisotropic shear wave velocity structure in the northern Philippine Sea region. We found that the fast directions of azimuthal anisotropy are parallel to the directions of ancient seafloor spreading in the lithosphere of the Shikoku and West Philippine Basins and Pacific Ocean, whereas they are parallel to the direction of the present-day absolute plate motion (APM) in the asthenosphere of the Shikoku Basin, and oblique to the direction of the APM in the Pacific Ocean (by ~30°) and in the northern part of the West Philippine Basin (by ~55°). In the subduction zones around the Philippine Sea plate, the fast direction of azimuthal anisotropy is trench-parallel in the Ryukyu arc, and oriented NW-SE in the Izu-Ogasawara island arc. The Philippine Sea plate, which is a single plate, shows very large lateral variations in azimuthal and radial anisotropies compared with the Pacific plate.

  5. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  6. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  7. Terrace Formation in the Upper Headwater Region of the Mattole River Watershed Across the Mendocino Triple Junction, Northwest California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M.; Flanagan, S., II; Hemphill-Haley, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mattole River, in northwestern California, is located in a tectonically active and geologically complex area, the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), where the North American, Pacific and Gorda plates meet. The Mattole River does not follow the classic river "concave-up" profile. Instead, the river headwaters have wide valleys of low gradient fill, cut and strath terraces with deeply incised active channels. In fact, the river has a "convex-up" profile with a low gradient headwater leading to a higher gradient midcourse. Terrace formation in the upper headwater region of the Mattole River records times of disequilibrium of channel profile and incision as the river responds to changes that are, in large part, due to the passage of the northwardly migrating, thermally buoyant MTJ. In order to investigate the distribution and relative ages of terraces, detailed surveys of terrace surfaces and bedrock strath positions were conducted along four headwater tributaries: Thompson Creek, Baker Creek, Lost River and Ancestor Creek. Additionally, across the terraces, hand borings were excavated to bedrock to provide a three dimensional image of terrace thickness. Terrace morphology and stratigraphy provide information on terrace forming mechanisms and timing. This study includes high-resolution geomorphic data regarding the relation of Mattole headwater terraces to the MTJ, as well as provides more temporal information about the fluvial system's response to the ongoing northward migration of the MTJ.

  8. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.

  9. Slab interactions in the Taiwan region based on the P- and S-velocity distributions in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Dobretsov, Nikolay; Jakovlev, Andrey; Zabelina, Irina; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Chervov, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model of P- and S-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath the Taiwan region based on the inversion of travel time data from the global International Seismological Center (ISC) catalog. We clearly observed the anomalies of high P- and S-velocities associated with the subducting plates beneath the Ryukyu and Luzon arcs. At depths in the range of 100-200 km, the anomalies related to both slabs seem to be connected, which might be evidence of the lithosphere collision of the two oppositely oriented subduction zones. This model has been carefully verified using different synthetic tests. Based on the derived seismic model, we propose a model of recent plate reconstructions in the region around Taiwan. Initially, we presume the existence of two oppositely oriented subduction zones underneath the Luzon Island and the Ryukyu arc, separated with a transform fault. The NW movement of the Philippine Sea Plate led to first a shortening and then a disappearance of this transform fault. As a result, the edge of the Luzon arc collided with the edge of the Ryukyu arc. Simple simulations indicate that in this edge area, very strong stresses and deformation might take place that result in significant shortening of the earth surface. We believe that the origin of the Taiwan island was caused by the collisional processes due to the interaction of the two subduction zones. Note that in this case, no other conditions, such as the existence of arcs and/or buoyant continental crustal blocks, are required to explain the origin of the thick, strongly shortened crust in Taiwan.

  10. Lessons learned from scaling up a community-based health program in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Sory, Elias Kavinah; Nyonator, Frank K; Phillips, James F; Wang, Chen; Schmitt, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ghana's Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) initiative is envisioned to be a national program to relocate primary health care services from subdistrict health centers to convenient community locations. The initiative was launched in 4 phases. First, it was piloted in 3 villages to develop appropriate strategies. Second, the approach was tested in a factorial trial, which showed that community-based care could reduce childhood mortality by half in only 3 years. Then, a replication experiment was launched to clarify appropriate activities for implementing the fourth and final phase—national scale up. This paper discusses CHPS progress in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana, where the pace of scale up has been much more rapid than in the other 9 regions of the country despite exceedingly challenging economic, ecological, and social circumstances. The UER employed 5 strategies that facilitated scale up: (1) nurse recruitment from their home districts to improve worker morale and cultural grounding, balanced with some social distance from the village community to ensure client confidentiality, particularly regarding family planning use; (2) prioritization of CHPS planning and continuous review in management meetings to make necessary modifications to the initiative's approach; (3) community engagement and advocacy to local politicians to mobilize resources for financing start-up costs; (4) a shared and consistent vision about CHPS among health administration leaders to ensure appropriate resources and commitment to the initiative; and (5) knowledge exchange visits between new and advanced CHPS implementers to facilitate learning and scale up within and between districts. PMID:25276522

  11. Bioelements and mineral matter in human livers from the highly industrialized region of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (Poland).

    PubMed

    Lewińska-Preis, Lucyna; Jabłońska, Mariola; Fabiańska, Monika J; Kita, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    Contents of mineral substance, silica, and a range of bioelements and toxic elements (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cr, P Al, Cd, Mn Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, Fe) in 38 livers of donors from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (southern Poland) are presented. Elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with the exception of silica that was estimated colorimetrically. Concentrations, concentration variability, and correlations between selected liver components determined for the total population are related to donor age, gender, and lesion occurrence. Correlations between particular elements were found using correlation coefficient values and the Fisher transformation. Mineral substance in the livers lies in the range 0.40-5.03 wt%. With increasing donor age, mineral-matter content decreases to a minimum for the 40-60 years of age range. Microbioelement contents show a similar tendency, while microbioelements and toxic elements reach maximum contents in donors aged 60-80 years. All elements show content decreases in livers from the oldest group (>80 years). Silica contents increase with age. Variability of element contents is lowest in the older subpopulations. Livers with lesions show lower element contents and variability. The results are compared to literature data for regions of Poland assumed to be of low pollution and to data from comparable regions in Japan and Hungary. Up to our knowledge, this paper is the first work describing the total contents, as distinct from contents of selected elements, of mineral substance in human livers.

  12. Evaluating Local and Regional Sources of Trace Element Contamination in a Rural Sub Estuary of the Upper Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahforst, C.; Hartman, S.; Sherman, L.; Kehm, K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, W, Pb and U) along with Al and Fe and other sediment characteristics in surface sediment and sediment cores from the Chester River - a sub estuary of the Chesapeake Bay located in a predominantly agricultural watershed of Maryland's upper Eastern Shore, USA - have been determined in order to add to the understanding of contaminant transport and fate and inform management strategies designed to maintain or improve the ecological condition of estuaries. These analyses coupled with the comparison of elemental analysis of 210Pb - dated sediment cores, main stem water quality surveys, and a review of recent EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment sediment data from Chesapeake Bay provide added information about the roles of local and region scale processes on ecosystem condition. The high amount of suspended sediment in the Chester River (5-20 mg L-1) is an important factor controlling water quality conditions of the Chester River and a prime focus for environmental management of this system. Sources of suspended matter include local runoff, atmospheric deposition, local resuspension, and exchange with the Chesapeake Bay. In principle, each of these sources could be distinguished on the basis of chemical composition of surface sediment. Preliminary results from multivariate analytic models indicate that many of the elements investigated display significant covariance with Al (and other predominantly crustal signatures) which may indicate limited exogenic sources of contamination for sediments of this watershed. For example total Pb concentrations are mostly below the NOAA's low toxic effects level and lower than the median value of NCCA data for the upper Chesapeake suggesting that sediments have significant sources from within the watershed. Further, significant higher concentrations of Sn and Cu coincide with sediment collected in or near marinas and point to localized anthropogenic

  13. Upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the West Antarctic Rift System and surrounding region from shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, Natalie J.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hernandez, Stephen; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Huerta, Audrey; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Wilson, Terry; Heeszel, David S.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    2014-07-01

    Amundsen Sea appear to be radial to the dome and may indicate radial horizontal mantle flow associated with an MBL plume head and low upper mantle velocities in this region, or alternatively to lithospheric features associated with the complex Cenozoic tectonics at the far-eastern end of the WARS.

  14. Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, eastern Mexico: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal; Rosalez-Hoz, Leticia; Lee, Yong Il; Balaram, Vysetti; Cruz-Martínez, Adriana; Avila-Ramírez, Gladis

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the Jurassic (Huayacocotla and Pimienta Formations) and Upper Cretaceous (Méndez Formation) shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, Mexico. In this article, we discuss the mineralogy, major, and trace element geochemistry of the Mesozoic shales of Mexico. The goal of this study is to constrain the provenance of the shales, which belong to two different periods of the Mesozoic Era and to understand the weathering conditions and tectonic environments of the source region.

  15. Quantity of Soil Organic Matter in the Upper 3 m of Soil in the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugelius, G.; Tarnocai, C.

    2012-12-01

    The current estimate for soil organic carbon (SOC) quantity in the northern circumpolar permafrost region (Tarnocai et al., 2009) is 191 Pg for topsoil (0-30 cm depth), 496 Pg for the upper 100 cm of soil and SOC mass to 300 cm soil depth is estimated to be 1024 Pg. In addition, storage in deeper (> 300 cm) Yedoma deposits (407 Pg) and deltaic deposits (241 Pg) brings the total estimate to 1672 Pg, of which 1466 Pg is stored in perennially frozen ground. The estimate for 0-1 m depth SOC mass is based on the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), a geospatial database which links 1647 pedons from the northern permafrost regions to several digitized regional/national soil maps with a combined circumpolar coverage. This database has recently been published online and the data is available in several different file formats, including gridded files with different spatial resolutions. Files adapted for use in GIS or modeling applications (shape-files, TIFF-rasters and NetCDF files) are available for separate regions or with merged circumpolar coverage. Estimates for the 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm depth ranges based on the NCSCD are unlikely to be significantly changed or refined in the coming years. However, the emergence of high quality geospatial datasets with circumpolar coverage as well as applications of spatially distributed regression/kriging techniques in periglacial environments (e.g. Mishra and Riley, 2012) point towards complementary approaches that may significantly increase our knowledge of circumpolar SOC distribution. The present estimates of SOC mass in the 0-300 cm depth range is based on very limited field data (46 Canadian pedons), is accorded low to very low confidence and is not included in the spatially distributed NCSCD (Tarnocai et al., 2009). However, a compilation of additional pedon data is underway and an updated version of the NCSCD will be complemented with spatially distributed estimates of 100-200 cm and 200-300 cm depth SOCM based

  16. Survival and fates of staging juvenile, female mallards in the Vermont / Quebec border region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Bunck, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We alternately marked 80 juvenile, female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), half with transmitters and bands and half with only bands in 1990 and 1991. Survival of radio-marked ducks was monitored daily and then summarized weekly for the periods 31 August - 6 December, 1990 (weeks 5-18) and 11 September - 6 December, 1991) (weeks 6-18). The pattern of survival throughout the staging period did not differ (P = 0.785) between 1990 and 1991. Survival at the end of the staging period (week 18) was low in both years (0.379 in 1990; 0.282 in 1991; and 0.337 for a combined estimate). Only 2.5% (1990) and 7.5% (1991) of the bands of the banded-only sample were recovered. Fates of the ducks were associated with hunter opportunity and are evaluated as related to body mass, flock size and duck behavior as determined from hunter questionnaires.

  17. Two-stage Keypoint Detection Scheme for Region Duplication Forgery Detection in Digital Images.

    PubMed

    Emam, Mahmoud; Han, Qi; Zhang, Hongli

    2017-03-02

    In digital image forensics, copy-move or region duplication forgery detection became a vital research topic recently. Most of the existing keypoint-based forgery detection methods fail to detect the forgery in the smooth regions, rather than its sensitivity to geometric changes. To solve these problems and detect points which cover all the regions, we proposed two steps for keypoint detection. First, we employed the scale-invariant feature operator to detect the spatially distributed keypoints from the textured regions. Second, the keypoints from the missing regions are detected using Harris corner detector with nonmaximal suppression to evenly distribute the detected keypoints. To improve the matching performance, local feature points are described using Multi-support Region Order-based Gradient Histogram descriptor. Based on precision-recall rates and commonly tested dataset, comprehensive performance evaluation is performed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme has better detection and robustness against some geometric transformation attacks compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Productivity of Stored Water in Some Selected Multiple Use Small Reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annor, F. O.; Yamoah-Antwi, D.; Odai, S. N.; Adjei, K. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana is a water stressed area with agriculture as the main occupation of the inhabitants. The importance of small reservoirs for the sustenance of the livelihood of the people in this part of the country during the dry season cannot be over emphasized. Most of these small reservoirs were constructed, in the 1960s, mainly with the aim of providing water for domestic use and livestock watering during the dry periods of the year. Over the years, however, these small reservoirs have been put to a variety of uses, some of which accelerate the depletion of the stored water. The reservoirs are therefore most times, unable to serve the purposes for which they were constructed. To address this situation, a study was conducted to determine the productivity of stored water in small reservoirs to better inform policy makers and water managers in the allocation of water especially in the dry season. Water productivity can be thought of as the output (product) that can be obtained per unit volume of water used or applied for either crop or livestock production. Data on crops and livestock were obtained through questionnaire administration, interviews, focus group discussions, physical measurements as well as field observations from nine reservoirs in the UER. The research findings show that donkeys have the highest productivity of about US90 followed by cattle with US70. These high productivity values are as a result of the variety of products and services rendered by donkeys and cattle. For crop, tomatoes have the highest productivity value compared with pepper and leafy vegetables. Despite the fact that donkeys had the highest productivity and hence priority over all uses, it is prudent to note that, inhabitants of the study area aside the sale of livestock for money (income) keep livestock for prestige. Therefore in the allocation of stored water in small multiple use reservoirs, the allocation criteria should consider the views, values and

  19. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  20. Differential displaying of mRNAs from the atrioventricular region of developing chicken hearts at stages 15 and 21.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Z; Hu, X; Lin, J L; Kitten, G T; Solursh, M; Lin, J J

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to isolate novel genes that may be involved in the development of the cardiac cushions and then the formation of cardiac valves and septa, we utilized the differential mRNA display method in conjunction with the whole-mount in situ hybridization. The total RNAs used to differentially display were prepared from atrioventricular (AV) canal regions of stage 15 and stage 21 chicken hearts because critical events known to be important for the AV valve and septum formation occur during this period of the development. We have successfully obtained 14 potential candidate genes. Three examples, 15H16 (phospholamban), E13 (skeletal alpha-tropomyosin) and 21C (a novel gene), are discussed here. Levels of mRNA expression in developing hearts were determined by Northern blot analysis and their expression patterns were revealed and compared using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Both phospholamban and skeletal alpha-tropomyosin messages in the myocardium of the AV canal region showed significant decrease during this period of the development. The 21C differential display product detects a novel 9.5 Kb message whose expression is cardiac-specific at early stages of development. The expression level of the 21C gene appeared to be increased from stage 15 to stages 21 and 25 as determined by both Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. From these data, we demonstrate that the differential display method together with the whole-mount in situ hybridization could be an effective means for the isolation of novel and differentially expressed genes.

  1. Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    by the radiocarbon method applied to pieces of charcoal found in the same sedimentary unit as the gastropod. The other subsets consider dates, or bracketed dates, obtained from other dating techniques (TL, OSL, Uranium series) or even stratigraphic criteria. Preliminary results show that Torres et al. (1997) calibration algorithm estimates ages as much as ten times older than the most likely one. We think that this result is due to a strong bias on the way the algorithm was obtained, based mostly in Lower Pleistocene/Pliocene samples. Hence, the new data presented here could be used to constraint better the Torres et al. (1997) function towards Upper Pleistocene and Holocene dates. This type of calibration model would be very valuable in determining ages of recent deposits in the Murcia Region, a matter that is critical in paleoseismological research.

  2. Remote Sensing-based Estimates of Potential Evapotranspiration for Hydrologic Modeling in the Upper Colorado River Basin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Muhammad Ghulam

    Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) is used as a common input to calculate evaporative demand in hydrological, ecological and biological modeling. Dynamic and distributed measurement of PET is important for improved hydrologic predictions at the watershed scale since PET varies with time and space. In this work, an advanced dynamic PET estimation is proposed by integrating geostationary satellite products into a currently existing remote sensing-based PET algorithm and evaluated in the framework of operational hydrologic forecasting modeling. The development work is approached through a series of studies. At first, a previously developed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based PET (MODIS-PET) product applied over several flux towers and basins in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) to determine its applicability and predictive ability in comparison to other ground based distributed PET methods. Results from this primary study indicate the MODIS-PET is an improved PET estimation method compared to the other two contemporary distributed PET products that were tested over this geographically complex study region. In addition to elevation and cloud cover, uncertainties are associated with the MODIS-PET algorithm pertaining from three model variables; land surface temperature, air temperature and surface emissivity. The crude hypothetical sinusoidal curve considered in the conversion of instantaneous MODIS-PET to the daily PET estimation can potentially be replaced with satellite data with improved temporal resolution. Hence, integration of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), a series of geostationary satellites with frequent observations, data in the MODIS-PET algorithm is performed in the second part. The coupling of GOES within the MODIS-PET algorithm shows significant improvement over the previously developed stand-alone MODIS-PET product, especially for cloudy days and high temperature pixels. Finally, evaluation of these

  3. A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential

  4. Earth’s Interaction Region: Plasma-Neutral Interactions in the Weakly Ionized gas of Earth’s High Latitude Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude regions of Earth’s upper atmosphere are strongly influenced by plasma-neutral interactions. These interactions couple electrodynamic processes of the ionosphere with hydrodynamic processes of the more abundant thermosphere neutral gas, consequently connecting the high-latitude upper atmosphere to distant regions of the geoplasma environment. This produces a complex spatial and temporal interplay of competing processes that results in a myriad of physical and chemical responses and a rich array of neutral and plasma morphologies that constitute the high-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The altitude extent from the lower thermosphere to the upper ionosphere (90km - 1000km) can be considered Earth’s space-atmosphere interaction region - likened to the solar chromosphere’s interaction region where radiative processes and hydrodynamic waves from the dense lower atmosphere produce a cold lower boundary that quickly transitions over a few 100 kilometers to neutral and plasma temperatures that are five times hotter. A thousand or more kilometers further in altitude, Earth's upper atmosphere becomes a hot, collisionless, geomagnetically controlled protonosphere whose neutral and plasma population originates from the thermosphere and ionosphere. A grand challenge in the study of Earth’s interaction region is how the collision-dominated thermosphere/ionosphere system exchanges energy, mass and momentum with the collisionless magnetosphere. This talk will focus primarily on collision-dominated processes of the high-latitude ionosphere and the electromagnetic energy transfer processes that lead to frictional heating of ions and neutrals, and plasma instability phenomenon that leads to extreme electron heating. Observations of the ionosphere response to these processes will be illustrated using incoherent scatter radar measurements. Relevance to the solar chromosphere will be identified where appropriate and outstanding issues in Earth

  5. Evaluation of NEXRDA Stage III precipitation data over Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge: a semiarid region in Central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Zhou, X.; Hendrickx, J.; Guan, H.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines NEXRAD Stage III product (hourly, cell size 4 km by 4 km) for its ability in estimating precipitation over Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge: a semiarid region in Central New Mexico. A GIS-based NEXRAD data processing and visualization method is also presented. A comparison between Stage III and a network of gauge precipitation estimates during 1995 to 2001 indicates that Stage III (1) overestimates the hourly conditional mean precipitation (CM) by 33 percent in monsoon season and 55 percent in non-monsoon season; (2) overestimates the hourly CM for concurrent radar-gauge pairs (non-zero value) by 13 percent in monsoon season and 6 percent in non-monsoon season; (3) overestimates the seasonal precipitation accumulation by 11 to 88 percent in monsoon season and underestimates by 18 to 89 percent in non- monsoon season; and (4) either overestimates annual precipitation accumulation up to 28.2 percent or underestimates it up to 11.9 percent. More caution is suggested in using Stage III data for nonmonsoonal (stratiform) rainfall events (prior to the truncation fixed algorithm deployed in 2002), as the truncation error can be a significant drawback. While overestimates may suppress the truncation caused underestimates in the monsoon seasons.

  6. Stage III Melanoma in the Axilla: Patterns of Regional Recurrence After Surgery With and Without Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkham, Mark B.; Foote, Matthew C.; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Thomas, Janine; Meakin, Janelle; Smithers, B. Mark; Burmeister, Bryan H.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To describe the anatomic distribution of regionally recurrent disease in patients with stage III melanoma in the axilla after curative-intent surgery with and without adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A single-institution, retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 277 patients undergoing curative-intent treatment for stage III melanoma in the axilla between 1992 and 2012 was completed. For patients who received radiation therapy and those who did not, patterns of regional recurrence were analyzed, and univariate analyses were performed to assess for potential factors associated with location of recurrence. Results: There were 121 patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy because their clinicopathologic features conferred a greater risk of regional recurrence. There were 156 patients who received no radiation therapy. The overall axillary control rate was 87%. There were 37 patients with regional recurrence; 17 patients had received adjuvant radiation therapy (14%), and 20 patients (13%) had not. The likelihood of in-field nodal recurrence was significantly less in the adjuvant radiation therapy group (P=.01) and significantly greater in sites adjacent to the axilla (P=.02). Patients with high-risk clinicopathologic features who did not receive adjuvant radiation therapy also tended to experience in-field failure rather than adjacent-field failure. Conclusions: Patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy were more likely to experience recurrence in the adjacent-field regions rather than in the in-field regions. This may not simply reflect higher-risk pathology. Using this data, it may be possible to improve outcomes by reducing the number of adjacent-field recurrences after adjuvant radiation therapy.

  7. Effects of simulated daily precipitation patterns on annual plant populations depend on life stage and climatic region

    PubMed Central

    Köchy, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the understanding of consequences of climate change for annual plant communities, I used a detailed, grid-based model that simulates the effect of daily rainfall variability on individual plants in five climatic regions on a gradient from 100 to 800 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). The model explicitly considers moisture storage in the soil. I manipulated daily rainfall variability by changing the daily mean rain (DMR, rain volume on rainy days averaged across years for each day of the year) by ± 20%. At the same time I adjusted intervals appropriately between rainy days for keeping the mean annual volume constant. In factorial combination with changing DMR I also changed MAP by ± 20%. Results Increasing MAP generally increased water availability, establishment, and peak shoot biomass. Increasing DMR increased the time that water was continuously available to plants in the upper 15 to 30 cm of the soil (longest wet period, LWP). The effect of DMR diminished with increasing humidity of the climate. An interaction between water availability and density-dependent germination increased the establishment of seedlings in the arid region, but in the more humid regions the establishment of seedlings decreased with increasing DMR. As plants matured, competition among individuals and their productivity increased, but the size of these effects decreased with the humidity of the regions. Therefore, peak shoot biomass generally increased with increasing DMR but the effect size diminished from the semiarid to the mesic Mediterranean region. Increasing DMR reduced via LWP the annual variability of biomass in the semiarid and dry Mediterranean regions. Conclusion More rainstorms (greater DMR) increased the recharge of soil water reservoirs in more arid sites with consequences for germination, establishment, productivity, and population persistence. The order of magnitudes of DMR and MAP overlapped partially so that their combined effect is important for

  8. Magnetic susceptibility and cyclostratigraphy of upper Jurassic marly formations (ANDRA, underground research laboratory, Bure, Eastern Paris Basin): Record of Milankovitch cycles, sedimentary gaps, and implications for regional correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilia, H.; Bruno, G.; Pierre-Yves, C.; Slah, B.; Pascal, E.; Linda, H.; Christian, R.

    2006-05-01

    This study integrates research conducted by ANDRA at the Underground Research Laboratory of Bure (Meuse, France) to investigate the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository in clay for high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of this study is to detect possible sedimentary gaps in the upper Callovian-lower Oxfordian homogeneous marly formation where the laboratory is located, and to estimate the duration of stages and biostratigraphic zonation by comparison with a basin sequence from the southeast of France that is presumed to have accumulated continuously. The search for hiatuses was made using a high resolution cyclostratigraphic approach based on the study of magnetic susceptibility (MS) fluctuations. Four ANDRA boreholes (EST 342, EST 322, EST 103 and EST 312) oriented on a SW-NE transect (40 kilometers) were analyzed. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were made on core samples with a Bartington Instruments MS2E1 sensor every 4 centimeters. Sedimentological data suggest that variations of the clay content influence the long term evolution of MS. The high frequency variations in MS were subjected to spectral analysis. Composite cycles of 0.5, 1 and 2.5 m thickness were recognized on the basis of frequency ratio and correspond to the frequency ratio of orbital Milankovitch cycles. The duration of the Mariae ammonite zone in the Paris Basin was estimated by counting the cycles, to be between 2.4 and 2.6 My ± 0.3 ky (borehole EST 322 & EST 103). The amplitude spectrum shows (1) sedimentation rate variations in particular in the lower Oxfordian and (2) interruptions in cycle evolution correlated to sequential limits. We interpret these zones as short condensed levels. The same methods were applied to sections from the southeast of France (Aspres-sur-Buëch, Thuoux), and the Mariae ammonite zone estimated to be between 2.3 and 2.8 My of age. By comparison of this biostratigraphic zone between the two studied regions

  9. Human papillomavirus type 16 long control region and E6 variants stratified by cervical disease stage

    PubMed Central

    Marongiu, Luigi; Godi, Anna; Parry, John V.; Beddows, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Certain intra-type variants of HPV16 have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of developing high grade cervical disease, but their potential association is confounded by apparent geographic and phylogenetic lineage dependency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV16 sequence variants and cervical disease stage in monospecific infection samples from a single lineage (European, EUR) in England. Methods One hundred and twelve women singly infected with HPV16 and displaying normal and abnormal cytology grades were selected. An 1187 bp fragment encompassing the entire LCR and a portion of the E6 open reading frame was sequenced to identify intra-type variants. Intra-type diversity was estimated using Shannon entropy. Results Almost all samples (110/112; 98%) were assigned to the EUR lineage, one sample was classified as European-Asian (EAS) and another African (Afr1a). The mean pairwise distance of the EUR sequences in this study was low (0.29%; 95%CI 0.13–0.45%) but there were nevertheless several sites in the LCR (n = 5) and E6 (n = 2) that exhibited a high degree of entropy. None of these sites, however, including the T350G non-synonymous (L83V) substitution in E6, alone or in combination, were found to be associated with cervical disease stage. Conclusions Despite using single infection samples and samples from a single variant lineage, intra-type variants of HPV16 were not differentially associated with cervical disease. Monitoring intra-lineage, site-specific variants, such as T350G, is unlikely to be of diagnostic value. PMID:24823962

  10. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary.

  11. Characterization of mesostasis regions in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its influence on apatite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source regions of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis regions in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis regions vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis regions, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little influence on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis regions. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.

  12. Prognostic Factors for Local, Loco-regional and Systemic Recurrence in Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, A; Kümmel, S; Barinoff, J; Heitz, F; Holtschmidt, J; Weikel, W; Lorenz-Salehi, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Traut, A; Blohmer, J U; Ataseven, B

    2015-07-01

    Aim: The risk of recurrence in breast cancer depends on factors such as treatment but also on the intrinsic subtype. We analyzed the risk factors for local, loco-regional and systemic recurrence, evaluated the differences and analyzed the risk of recurrence for different molecular subtypes. Material and Methods: A total of 3054 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant treatment at HSK hospital or Essen Mitte Hospital between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed. Based on immunohistochemical parameters, cancers were divided into the following subgroups: luminal A, luminal B (HER2-), luminal B (HER2+), HER2+ and TNBC (triple negative breast cancer). Results: 67 % of tumors were classified as luminal A, 13 % as luminal B (HER2-), 6 % as luminal B (HER2+), 3 % as HER2+ and 11 % as TNBC. After a median follow-up time of 6.6 years there were 100 local (3.3 %), 32 loco-regional (1 %) and 248 distant recurrences (8 %). Five-year recurrence-free survival for the overall patient collective was 92 %. On multivariate analysis, positive nodal status, TNBC subtype and absence of radiation therapy were found to be independent risk factors for all forms of recurrence. Age < 50 years, tumor size, luminal B (HER2-) subtype and breast-conserving therapy were additional risk factors for local recurrence. Compared to the luminal A subtype, the risk of systemic recurrence was higher for all other subtypes; additional risk factors for systemic recurrence were lymphatic invasion, absence of systemic therapy and mastectomy. Conclusion: Overall, the risk of local and loco-regional recurrence was low. In addition to nodal status, subgroup classification was found to be an important factor affecting the risk of recurrence.

  13. A Report On Eight Early-Stage State And Regional Projects Testing Value-Based Payment

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas; Grembowski, David; Gibbons, Claire; Marcus-Smith, Miriam; Hernandez, Susan E.; Chang, Judy; Renz, Anne; Lau, Bernard; Cruz, Erin dela

    2014-01-01

    To help contain health care spending and improve the quality of care, practitioners and policy makers are trying to move away from fee-for-service toward value-based payment, which links providers’ reimbursement to the value, rather than the volume, of services delivered. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, eight grantees across the country are designing and implementing value-based payment reform projects. For example, in Salem, Oregon, the Physicians Choice Foundation is testing “Program Oriented Payments,” which include incentives for providers who follow a condition-specific program of care designed to meet goals set jointly by patient and provider. In this article we describe the funding rationale and the specific objectives, strategies, progress, and early stages of implementation of the eight projects. We also share some early lessons and identify prerequisites for success, such as ensuring that providers have broad and timely access to data so they can meet patients’ needs in cost-effective ways. PMID:23650332

  14. Distinct 3'-untranslated region elements regulate stage-specific mRNA accumulation and translation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    McNicoll, François; Müller, Michaela; Cloutier, Serge; Boilard, Nathalie; Rochette, Annie; Dubé, Marthe; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2005-10-21

    We recently characterized a large developmentally regulated gene family in Leishmania encoding the amastin surface proteins. While studying the regulation of these genes, we identified a region of 770 nucleotides (nt) within the 2055-nt 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) that regulates stage-specific gene expression at the level of translation. An intriguing feature of this 3'-UTR regulatory region is the presence of a approximately 450-nt element that is highly conserved among several Leishmania mRNAs. Here we show, using a luciferase reporter system and polysome profiling experiments, that the 450-nt element stimulates translation initiation of the amastin mRNA in response to heat shock, which is the main environmental change that the parasite encounters upon its entry into the mammalian host. Deletional analyses depicted a second region of approximately 100 nucleotides located at the 3'-end of several amastin transcripts, which also activates translation in response to elevated temperature. Both 3'-UTR regulatory elements act in an additive manner to stimulate amastin mRNA translation. In addition, we show that acidic pH encountered in the phagolysosomes of macrophages, the location of parasitic differentiation, triggers the accumulation of amastin transcripts by a distinct mechanism that is independent of the 450-nt and 100-nt elements. Overall, these important findings support the notion that stage-specific post-transcriptional regulation of the amastin mRNAs in Leishmania is complex and involves the coordination of distinct mechanisms controlling mRNA stability and translation that are independently triggered by key environmental signals inducing differentiation of the parasite within macrophages.

  15. Multi-stage uplift of the Rocky Mountains: new age constraints on the Telluride Conglomerate and regional compilation of apatite fission track ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, M. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Gonzales, D. A.; Pecha, M.; McKeon, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Telluride Conglomerate, exposed on the western flanks of Oligocene caldera complexes of the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has historically been considered an Eocene alluvial deposit overlying the "Rocky Mountain erosion surface" and pre-dating Oligocene volcanism. Measured sections show that the Telluride preserves an unroofing sequence with basal units dominated by Paleozoic sedimentary clasts transitioning into upper units dominated by locally derived Proterozoic basement mixed with previously unrecognized andesitic Oligocene volcanics. Paleoflow directions and thicknesses of the preserved unit indicate the Telluride Conglomerate was deposited by a large, high-energy WNW- flowing braided river system. Detrital zircon analysis indicates minimum ages for individual grains within the Telluride Conglomerate of 28.0 to 31.5 Ma. This, plus the entrained volcanic clasts, redefines the unit as being of Oligocene age and indicates that conglomeratic deposition overlapped with regional San Juan volcanism and just predated major caldera eruptions at 28.4 Ma (San Juan and Uncompahgre) and 27.6 Ma (Silverton). We interpret the deposition of the Telluride Conglomerate to be the depositional response to regional uplift and erosion related to early stages of San Juan magmatism. These units have undergone significant post-depositional tectonism: the Telluride Conglomerate is found at ~9,000ft elevation near Telluride, CO, but is at ~13,000' at its westernmost exposure at Mt. Wilson. We attribute this differential uplift to be associated with faulting, pluton emplacement, and additional mantle driven uplift associated with the emplacement and cooling of the Wilson Stock in the last 20-22 Ma as documented by Miocene cooling seen in apatite helium (AHe) ages. This cooling fits into our regional compilation of published apatite fission track (AFT) and AHe data showing temporally and spatially partitioned Cenozoic cooling indicative of multistage uplift of the Rocky Mountain

  16. The lithosphere-asthenosphere and crust-mantle boundaries in the region of the Upper Rhine Graben as seen by S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, J. R. R.; Seiberlich, C.; Wawerzinek, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben is a branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System and is characterised by a clear rift structure which stretches more than 300 km from Basel to Frankfurt. Since 2004 we study the deep structure of the Upper Rhine Graben within the TIMO project, using the mobile seismic broadband stations of the KArlsruhe BroadBand Array (KABBA). The data are complemented with recordings from permanent stations (BFO, ECH, STU, TNS and WLF). Here we present the results from shear wave receiver function (S-RF) modelling. S-RF are waveforms which should contain only S-to-P converted phases which were generated at seismic discontinuities inside the Earth. The stacked S-RF contain clear signals from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) under the study region. After a depth migration the Moho topography varies between 25 km and 28 km underneath the Upper Rhine Graben region; within the error limits of 5 km there is no difference between the graben itself and its shoulders. In the southern part of the graben there is an indication for a thinning of the crust to about 23 km. After the Moho signals there is a second phase with opposite polarity in the S-RF. We interpret this signal as conversion from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). A depth migration results in LAB depths of 70-80 km under the Upper Rhine Graben; the graben itself does not show a specific anomaly. The most shallow LAB depths are found in the region of the Eifel (about 60 km), where a small mantle plume is active.

  17. Inferring the Evolutionary Stages of High-mass Star-forming Regions from Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Siyi; Beuther, H.; Henning, T.; Semenov, D.; Linz, H.; InstituteAstronomy, Max-Planck

    2014-01-01

    The earliest phases of the high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs) have so many extremely complicated astrophysical processes, such as infall, outflows, and fragmentations that kinematic studies are not enough to understand all the mysteries, therefore, chemistry has developed into a powerful tool in probing the nature of them. Using PdBI at 1.3 mm, we observed two typical HMSFRs, NGC 7538 S and NGC 7538 IRS. Continuums are presented, the spectra from different substructures in each source are extracted and the intensity-integrated distribution maps for different species are imaged. We then calculate their column densities, and abundances in each identified substructure, assuming local thermal equilibrium, optically thin and uniform widths lines for all species. With spatial resolution of 0.4'' (800 AU), NGC 7538 S fragmentations into at least three cores, having similar continuum flux densities but different kinematic temperatures nor line properties, and exhibiting evolutionary sequence from northeast to southwest: MM1 is more evolved, and is a typical hot molecular core, associated with an accretion disk and several outflows, which enhance certain molecular abundances in the projected direction; MM2 is a high mass protostar object, where majority of molecules have abundances lower than in MM1, except for the lower temperature tracers, e.g., ketene, formaldehyde; whereas MM3 is still a cold starless core, and the spectral emissions in this substructure are only from molecules with low vibration temperatures. Since they are embedded in the same cluster but behave different properties, they should have the similar ages but different warm-up timescales. In comparison, IRS1 remains unresolved, though, large amount of complex organic molecules indicates it as the most evolved hot core in all the substructures here we studied. Absorption feature only appears on the spectrum extracted from the continuum peak, and that may come from its precession accretion disk

  18. Evidence for the correlation of the upper part of the Llewellyn Formation (Pennsylvania Anthracite region), with the Monongahela Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, J.R.; Wnuk, C.; Edmunds, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    A plant fossil assemblage from the roof shale of the No. 25 anthracite bed in Pennsylvania indicates that the upper part of the Llewellyn Formation is much younger than the lower part of the Allegheny Group or Conemaugh Group correlation that was indicated by Read and Mamay (1960). These results confirm the conclusions of Fontaine and White (1880), White (1900), and Darrah (1969) who suggested that the highest coals of the Llewellyn Formation could be equivalent to the Monongahela Group.

  19. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  20. Radiotherapy With 8-MHz Radiofrequency-Capacitive Regional Hyperthermia for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Radiofrequency-Output Power Correlates With the Intraesophageal Temperature and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ohguri, Takayuki Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita; Terashima, Hiromi; Korogi, Yukunori

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with regional hyperthermia (HT) guided by radiofrequency (RF)-output power and intraesophageal temperature and evaluate the potential contribution of HT to clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with Stage III NSCLC treated with RT plus regional HT were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-two of the 35 patients underwent intraesophageal temperature measurements. Patients with subcutaneous fat of 2.5 cm or greater, older age, or other serious complications did not undergo this therapy. The 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating device was applied, and in all patients, both the upper and lower electrodes were 30 cm in diameter, placed on opposite sides of the whole thoracic region, and treatment posture was the prone position. The HT was applied within 15 minutes after RT once or twice a week. Results: All thermal parameters, minimum, maximum, and mean of the four intraesophageal temperature measurements at the end of each session and the proportion of the time during which at least one of the four intraesophageal measurements was 41{sup o}C or higher in the total period of each session of HT, of the intraesophageal temperature significantly correlated with median RF-output power. Median RF-output power ({>=}1,200 W) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall, local recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: The RT combined with regional HT using a higher RF-output power could contribute to better clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III NSCLC. The RF-output power thus may be used as a promising parameter to assess the treatment of deep regional HT if deep heating using this device is performed with the same size electrodes and in the same body posture.

  1. Seismic stratigraphy in the South Cretan fault valley system: A comparison with the upper Quaternary gravitative sedimentation of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasakis, G.; Kelling, G.

    1988-08-01

    A synthesis of the sedimentation processes as deduced from the seismic stratigraphy and the deduced facies associations suggests the following. Small fans developed along the northern major fault line of the SCFVS and contains sediment fed directly from Crete through a series of small canyons, most of which trend perpendicular to the coast. However, the main east-west-trending valley transects the mid- and lower fan sectors and contains several intravalley basinal areas, converging toward the main Messara basin. Thus much of the suprafan sediment is reworked and longitudinally transported into the deeper basins. In these deeper intrabasinal and main basinal areas the thickness of the post-Messinian sediments generally exceeds 800 m and in places exceeds 1,500 m. Toward the south the SCFVS receives additional sediment from the Ptolemy Mountains and the Gavdos rise. Cores recovered along the SCFVS contain a remarkable association of sedimentary sequences which are interpreted as deposits transported largely by gravity-induced mass-flow processes. Calculated Holocene sedimentation rates in these cores range from 6 to more than 40 cm/1,000 years, while late Pleistocene rates were greater than 9 cm/1,000 yr. Good agreement exists between the sedimentation rates calculated from cores and observed on the seismic profiles of the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments. This is a strong indication that the depositional mechanisms affecting the nature of the upper Quaternary sediments could be representative of the upper Cenozoic column.

  2. Upper limits for stereoselective photodissociation of free amino acids in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C 1s edge

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemper, Georg; Viefhaus, Jens; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Rolles, Daniel; Gessner, Oliver; Lischke, Toralf; Hentges, Rainer; Wienberg, Christian; Mahler, Willy; Becker, Uwe; Langer, Burkhard; Prosperi, Tommaso; Zema, Nicola; Turchini, Stefano; Zada, Birgitt; Senf, Fred

    2004-06-01

    We measured the total and partial ion yields of the two chiral amino acids alanine and serine in the gas phase both in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C(1s) edge using circularly polarized light. We did not detect any circular dichroism asymmetry larger than 1x10{sup -3}. A similar measurement of fixed-in-space amino acids yielded an upper limit of 1x10{sup -2} for the stereoselective effect of circularly polarized light. The results obtained are relevant for quantitative models of stereoselective photodecomposition of amino acids that try to explain the homochirality of life.

  3. A Methology for Assessing the Regional Transportation Energy Demands of Different Spatial Residential Development Scenarios: a Case Study for the Upper Housatonic River Basin, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oski, J. A.; Fabos, J. G.; Gross, M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is suggested whereby regional landscape planning efforts can be aided by the use of a geographic information system to determine sites for more energy efficient residential and mixed use developments within a study area. The location of land parcels suited for residential and mixed land use developments in the Upper Housatonic River Basin Study Area in Berkshire County, Massachusetts is described as well as the three development options. Significant steps in the procedure are discussed and the computation of the transportation energy requirement is elaborated.

  4. Regional paleoclimatic and stratigraphic implications of paleosols and fluvial/overbank architecture in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Timothy M.; Currie, Brian S.; Nicoll, Kathleen A.

    2004-05-01

    Paleosols in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) from the Western Interior and Colorado Plateau regions occur in fluvial/overbank and marginal-lacustrine depositional facies associated with aggradational settings, and at sequence-bounding unconformities that mark divisions between major aggradational and degradational successions. Pedogenic features within these horizons preserve important contextual information about the local and regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in which the soils formed. Floodplain and lake-margin paleosols show evidence that most of the Morrison basin was characterized by a semi-arid to tropical wet-dry paleoclimate with fluctuating groundwater conditions, a low precipitation to evaporation ratio, and weak to moderately seasonal precipitation. Paleosol ichnofauna show evidence of a diverse and opportunistic flora and fauna that exploited changing conditions and existing nutrient and moisture regimes. Changes in paleosol type and degree of development over the basin indicate the overall regional paleoclimate was drier in the western and southern portions of the basin. Vertical trends indicate paleoclimatic conditions over the basin became steadily more humid through time. Laterally continuous, well-developed, deeply weathered paleosols formed during times of little or no deposition and mark regional unconformities. The paleosols at these sequence-bounding unconformities serve as useful regional stratigraphic markers to trace genetic packages across the Morrison depositional basin and to determine regional accommodation trends.

  5. Future hydrological regimes and glacier cover in the Everest region: The case study of the upper Dudh Koshi basin.

    PubMed

    Soncini, Andrea; Bocchiola, Daniele; Confortola, Gabriele; Minora, Umberto; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Shrestha, Dibas; Senese, Antonella; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-09-15

    Assessment of future water resources under climate change is required in the Himalayas, where hydrological cycle is poorly studied and little understood. This study focuses on the upper Dudh Koshi river of Nepal (151km(2), 4200-8848ma.s.l.) at the toe of Mt. Everest, nesting the debris covered Khumbu, and Khangri Nup glaciers (62km(2)). New data gathered during three years of field campaigns (2012-2014) were used to set up a glacio-hydrological model describing stream flows, snow and ice melt, ice cover thickness and glaciers' flow dynamics. The model was validated, and used to assess changes of the hydrological cycle until 2100. Climate projections are used from three Global Climate Models used in the recent IPCC AR5 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Flow statistics are estimated for two reference decades 2045-2054, and 2090-2099, and compared against control run CR, 2012-2014. During CR we found a contribution of ice melt to stream flows of 55% yearly, with snow melt contributing for 19%. Future flows are predicted to increase in monsoon season, but to decrease yearly (-4% vs CR on average) at 2045-2054. At the end of century large reduction would occur in all seasons, i.e. -26% vs CR on average at 2090-2099. At half century yearly contribution of ice melt would be on average 45%, and snow melt 28%. At the end of century ice melt would be 31%, and snow contribution 39%. Glaciers in the area are projected to thin largely up to 6500ma.s.l. until 2100, reducing their volume by -50% or more, and their ice covered area by -30% or more. According to our results, in the future water resources in the upper Dudh Koshi would decrease, and depend largely upon snow melt and rainfall, so that adaptation measures to modified water availability will be required.

  6. Geochemistry, palynology, and regional geology of worldclass Upper Devonian source rocks in the Madre de Dios basin, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Conrad, K.T.; Carpenter, D.G.; Wagner, J.B.

    1996-08-01

    Recent exploration drilling indicates the existence of world-class source rock in the Madre de Dios basin, Bolivia. In the Pando-1 X and -2X wells, over 200 m of poorly bioturbated, organic-rich (TOC = 3-16 wt.%) prodelta to shelf mudstones in the Frasnian-Famennian Tomachi Formation contain oil-prone organic matter (hydrogen index = 400-600 mg HC/g TOC). Our calculated source prolificity indices for this interval in these wells (SPI = 15-18 tons of hydrocarbons per square meter of source rock) exceed that for the Upper Jurassic in Central Saudi Arabia. The Tomachi interval is lithologically equivalent to the Colpacucho Formation in the northern Altiplano, the Iquiri Formation in the Cordillera Oriental, and is coeval with other excellent source rocks in North America, Africa, and Eurasia. All of these rocks were deposited under conditions favorable for accumulation of organic matter, including a global highstand and high productivity. However, the Madre de Dios basin was situated at high latitude during the Late Devonian and some of the deposits are interpreted to be of glacial origin, indicating conditions not generally associated with organic-rich deposition. A biomarker and palynological study of Upper Devonian rocks in the Pando-1X well suggests deposition under conditions similar to certain modern fjords. High productivity resulted in preservation of abundant organic matter in the bottom sediments despite a cold, toxic water column. Low-sulfur crude oil produced from the Pando-1X well is geochemically similar to, but more mature than, extracts from associated organic-rich Tomachi samples, and was generated from deeper equivalents of these rocks.

  7. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Huang, Ya-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Fang-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p = 0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients' age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p = 0.027; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p = 0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19) [corrected].Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  8. Regional brain activity during early-stage intense romantic love predicted relationship outcomes after 40 months: an fMRI assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Brown, Lucy; Aron, Arthur; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Acevedo, Bianca; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-09-20

    Early-stage romantic love is associated with activation in reward and motivation systems of the brain. Can these localized activations, or others, predict long-term relationship stability? We contacted participants from a previous fMRI study of early-stage love by Xu et al. [34] after 40 months from initial assessments. We compared brain activation during the initial assessment at early-stage love for those who were still together at 40 months and those who were apart, and surveyed those still together about their relationship happiness and commitment at 40 months. Six participants who were still with their partners at 40 months (compared to six who had broken up) showed less activation during early-stage love in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, right subcallosal cingulate and right accumbens, regions implicated in long-term love and relationship satisfaction [1,2]. These regions of deactivation at the early stage of love were also negatively correlated with relationship happiness scores collected at 40 months. Other areas involved were the caudate tail, and temporal and parietal lobes. These data are preliminary evidence that neural responses in the early stages of romantic love can predict relationship stability and quality up to 40 months later in the relationship. The brain regions involved suggest that forebrain reward functions may be predictive for relationship stability, as well as regions involved in social evaluation, emotional regulation, and mood.

  9. [Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ren-sheng; Song, Yao-xuan; Liu, Jun-feng; Han, Chun-tan; Liu, Zhang-wen

    2013-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region' s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable.

  10. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  11. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace

  12. Upper mantle structure beneath the Society hotspot and surrounding region using broadband data from ocean floor and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isse, Takehi; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shiobara, Hajime; Reymond, Dominique; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2016-02-01

    We determined the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure beneath the South Pacific superswell down to a depth of 200 km by analyzing fundamental Rayleigh wave records from permanent and temporary land-based and seafloor seismometers in the Pacific Ocean. Data from the Tomographic Investigation by seafloor ARray Experiment for the Society hotspot (TIARES) project yield excellent spatial resolution of velocity anomalies in the central part of the superswell, near the Society hotspot. Localized slow anomalies are found near hotspots in the upper mantle, but the vertical profiles of the anomalies vary from location to location: Slow anomalies near the Samoa, Macdonald, Pitcairn, and Society hotspots extend to at least 200 km depth, while a slow anomaly near the Marquesas hotspot extends only to ~150 km depth. Owing to the recently deployed seafloor array, horizontal resolutions of slow anomalies near the Society hotspot are substantially improved: The slow anomalies are about 300 km in lateral extent and have velocity anomalies as low as -6 %. The lithosphere thickness is estimated to be ~70 km in the vicinity of all hotspots, which may indicate thermal erosion by mantle plumes.

  13. Simulation of Runoff Changes Caused by Cropland to Forest Conversion in the Upper Yangtze River Region, SW China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengtao; Wang, Yanhui; Coles, Neil; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The "Grain for Green Project" is a country-wide ecological program to converse marginal cropland to forest, which has been implemented in China since 2002. To quantify influence of this significant vegetation change, Guansihe Hydrological (GSH) Model, a validated physically-based distributed hydrological model, was applied to simulate runoff responses to land use change in the Guansihe watershed that is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in Southwestern China with an area of only 21.1 km2. Runoff responses to two single rainfall events, 90 mm and 206 mm respectively, were simulated for 16 scenarios of cropland to forest conversion. The model simulations indicated that the total runoff generated after conversion to forest was strongly dependent on whether the land was initially used for dry croplands without standing water in fields or constructed (or walled) paddy fields. The simulated total runoff generated from the two rainfall events displayed limited variation for the conversion of dry croplands to forest, while it strongly decreased after paddy fields were converted to forest. The effect of paddy terraces on runoff generation was dependent on the rainfall characteristics and antecedent moisture (or saturation) conditions in the fields. The reduction in simulated runoff generated from intense rainfall events suggested that afforestation and terracing might be effective in managing runoff and had the potential to mitigate flooding in southwestern China.

  14. PHACE without face? Infantile hemangiomas of the upper body region with minimal or absent facial hemangiomas and associated structural malformations.

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Milgraum, Sandy S; Hess, Christopher P; Mancini, Anthony J; Krol, Alfons; Frieden, Ilona J

    2011-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas can be associated with congenital anomalies such as PHACE syndrome with facial hemangiomas and genitourinary and spinal anomalies in the setting of lower body hemangiomas. We describe five infants in whom segmental hemangiomas involving the upper torso and extremities with absent or small facial hemangiomas were associated with structural anomalies similar to those reported with PHACE syndrome, including three with structural arterial anomalies of the subclavian arteries, three with aortic arch anomalies (right sided or narrowed arch), two with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect; tetralogy of Fallot), one with a retinal scar, and one with a sternal defect (scar). Two of five had small facial hemangiomas of the lower lip, but none had large segmental hemangiomas of the face. Three of five would have met diagnostic criteria for PHACE but lacked a facial hemangioma of 5 cm in diameter or greater. Patients with segmental arm and thorax hemangiomas may have associated structural abnormalities with overlapping features of PHACE, suggesting that a similar syndrome can occur in this clinical setting.

  15. Development of a regionally consistent geospatial dataset of agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buto, Susan G.; Gold, Brittany L.; Jones, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation in arid environments can alter the natural rate at which salts are dissolved and transported to streams. Irrigated agricultural lands are the major anthropogenic source of dissolved solids in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Understanding the location, spatial distribution, and irrigation status of agricultural lands and the method used to deliver water to agricultural lands are important to help improve the understanding of agriculturally derived dissolved-solids loading to surface water in the UCRB. Irrigation status is the presence or absence of irrigation on an agricultural field during the selected growing season or seasons. Irrigation method is the system used to irrigate a field. Irrigation method can broadly be grouped into sprinkler or flood methods, although other techniques such as drip irrigation are used in the UCRB. Flood irrigation generally causes greater dissolved-solids loading to streams than sprinkler irrigation. Agricultural lands in the UCRB mapped by state agencies at varying spatial and temporal resolutions were assembled and edited to represent conditions in the UCRB between 2007 and 2010. Edits were based on examination of 1-meter resolution aerial imagery collected between 2009 and 2011. Remote sensing classification techniques were used to classify irrigation status for the June to September growing seasons between 2007 and 2010. The final dataset contains polygons representing approximately 1,759,900 acres of agricultural lands in the UCRB. Approximately 66 percent of the mapped agricultural lands were likely irrigated during the study period.

  16. Simulation of Runoff Changes Caused by Cropland to Forest Conversion in the Upper Yangtze River Region, SW China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pengtao; Wang, Yanhui; Coles, Neil; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The "Grain for Green Project" is a country-wide ecological program to converse marginal cropland to forest, which has been implemented in China since 2002. To quantify influence of this significant vegetation change, Guansihe Hydrological (GSH) Model, a validated physically-based distributed hydrological model, was applied to simulate runoff responses to land use change in the Guansihe watershed that is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in Southwestern China with an area of only 21.1 km2. Runoff responses to two single rainfall events, 90 mm and 206 mm respectively, were simulated for 16 scenarios of cropland to forest conversion. The model simulations indicated that the total runoff generated after conversion to forest was strongly dependent on whether the land was initially used for dry croplands without standing water in fields or constructed (or walled) paddy fields. The simulated total runoff generated from the two rainfall events displayed limited variation for the conversion of dry croplands to forest, while it strongly decreased after paddy fields were converted to forest. The effect of paddy terraces on runoff generation was dependent on the rainfall characteristics and antecedent moisture (or saturation) conditions in the fields. The reduction in simulated runoff generated from intense rainfall events suggested that afforestation and terracing might be effective in managing runoff and had the potential to mitigate flooding in southwestern China. PMID:26192181

  17. Implementation of equity in resource allocation for regional earthquake risk mitigation using two-stage stochastic programming.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R; Peyghaleh, Elnaz

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new methodology to implement the concept of equity in regional earthquake risk mitigation programs using an optimization framework. It presents a framework that could be used by decisionmakers (government and authorities) to structure budget allocation strategy toward different seismic risk mitigation measures, i.e., structural retrofitting for different building structural types in different locations and planning horizons. A two-stage stochastic model is developed here to seek optimal mitigation measures based on minimizing mitigation expenditures, reconstruction expenditures, and especially large losses in highly seismically active countries. To consider fairness in the distribution of financial resources among different groups of people, the equity concept is incorporated using constraints in model formulation. These constraints limit inequity to the user-defined level to achieve the equity-efficiency tradeoff in the decision-making process. To present practical application of the proposed model, it is applied to a pilot area in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Building stocks, structural vulnerability functions, and regional seismic hazard characteristics are incorporated to compile a probabilistic seismic risk model for the pilot area. Results illustrate the variation of mitigation expenditures by location and structural type for buildings. These expenditures are sensitive to the amount of available budget and equity consideration for the constant risk aversion. Most significantly, equity is more easily achieved if the budget is unlimited. Conversely, increasing equity where the budget is limited decreases the efficiency. The risk-return tradeoff, equity-reconstruction expenditures tradeoff, and variation of per-capita expected earthquake loss in different income classes are also presented.

  18. [Effects of biological soil crust at different succession stages in hilly region of Loess Plateau on soil CO2 flux].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Ming, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a compact complex layer of soil, which has photosynthetic activity and is one of the factors affecting the CO2flux of soil-atmosphere interface. In this paper, the soil CO, flux under the effects of biocrust at different succession stages on the re-vegetated grassland in the hilly region of Loess Plateau was measured by a modified LI-8100 automated CO, flux system. Under light condition, the soil CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust was significantly decreased by 92% and 305%, respectively, as compared with the flux without the effects of the biocrusts. The decrement of the soil CO, flux by the biocrusts was related to the biocrusts components and their biomass. Under the effects of dark colored cyanobacteria crust and moss crust, the soil CO2 flux was decreased by 141% and 484%, respectively, as compared with that in bare land. The diurnal curve of soil CO2 flux under effects of biocrusts presented a trend of 'drop-rise-drop' , with the maximum carbon uptake under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust being 0.13 and -1.02 micromol CO2.m-2.s-1 and occurred at about 8:00 and 9:00 am, respectively, while that in bare land was unimodal. In a day (24 h) , the total CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust was increased by 7.7% , while that under effects of moss crust was decreased by 29.6%, as compared with the total CO2 flux in bare land. This study suggested that in the hilly region of Loess Plateau, biocrust had significant effects on soil CO2 flux, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the carbon budget of the 'Grain for Green' eco-project.

  19. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water

  20. The Expression of GHS-R in Primary Neurons Is Dependent upon Maturation Stage and Regional Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tonna, Noemi; Casnici, Claudia; Benfante, Roberta; Fornasari, Diego; Bianco, Fabio; Longhi, Renato; Marelli, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone with a crucial role in the regulation of appetite, regulation of inflammation, glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. In the brain ghrelin neurons are located in the cortex (sensorimotor area, cingular gyrus), and the fibres of ghrelin neurons in hypothalamus project directly to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). Ghrelin binds the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) a G-protein-coupled receptor with a widespread tissue distribution, indeed these receptors are localized both in nonnervous, organs/tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, myocardium, adrenals, gonads, lung, liver, arteries, stomach, pancreas, thyroid, and kidney) as well as in central nervous system (CNS) and higher levels of expression in the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus and lower levels of expression in other organs, including brain. A GHS-R specific monoclonal antibody has been developed and characterized and through it we demonstrate that GHS-R is expressed in primary neurons and that its expression is dependent upon their developmental stage and shows differences according to the brain region involved, with a more pronounced expression in hippocampal rather than cortical neurons. A characterization of GHS-R within the central nervous system is of extreme importance in order to gain insights on its role in the modulation of neurodegenerative events such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23755116

  1. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper miocene, cabo de gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  2. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  3. Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

    1964-12-18

    Seismic refraction, gravity, phase velocity, and magnetic data, coupled with the geologic record, are all approximately satisfied by the structure shown in Fig. 9. A 20-kilometer crust under the Coast Ranges and Great Valley thickens to more than 30 kilometers under the Sierra Nevada and parts of the Basin and Range province; this whole area is underlain by an anomalous upper mantle with a velocity and density about 3 percent less than normal. It is not likely that the anomalous mantle extends much deeper than 50 kilometers, and the lower boundary may be gradational. The thicker crust or "root" under the Sierran highland region (Sierra Nevada and western Basin Ranges) is not limited to the Sierra Nevada proper. The root and the voluminous plustonic rocks originated in the Mesozoic era, and they constitute the now consolidated core of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. But it must not be supposed that the root has persisted unchanged. The great mountain-building uplifts in the Cenozoic era must have been accompanied by large changes in the root and adjacent mantle. A zone of positive gravity and magnetic anomalies extending the length of the Great Valley is associated with mafic rocks of the western Sierra greenstone belt, an element of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. Belts of maficto-intermediate lavas, accompanied by mafic and ultramafic intrusions, are marked by similar anomalies in other ancient geosynclines. An anomalous upper mantle of plagioclase peridotite, an expanded phase of the normal mantle, could explain about 1 kilometer of the uplift that took place over much of the region in Cenozoic time. To explain all of the Cenozoic uplift in the Sierra Nevada and Basin Ranges by this means would require the hypothesis of a separation of the anomalous mantle into crust and normal mantle fractions, followed by a renewal of the anomalous mantle through the action of regional convection currents or local overturning in the upper mantle. The low-velocity zones for

  4. Upper crustal structure of Alabama from regional magnetic and gravity data: Using geology to interpret geophysics, and vice versa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steltenpohl, Mark G.; Horton, J. Wright; Hatcher, Robert D.; Zietz, Isidore; Daniels, David L.; Higgins, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data sets obtained for Alabama (United States) have been digitally merged and filtered to enhance upper-crustal anomalies. Beneath the Appalachian Basin in northwestern Alabama, broad deep-crustal anomalies of the continental interior include the Grenville front and New York–Alabama lineament (dextral fault). Toward the east and south, high-angle discordance between the northeast-trending Appalachians and the east-west–trending wedge of overlapping Mesozoic and Cenozoic Gulf Coastal Plain sediments reveals how bedrock geophysical signatures progressively change with deeper burial. High-frequency magnetic anomalies in the Appalachian deformed domain (ADD) correspond to amphibolites and mylonites outlining terranes, while broader, lower-amplitude domains include Paleozoic intrusive bodies and Grenville basement gneiss. Fundamental ADD structures (e.g., the Alexander City, Towaliga, and Goat Rock–Bartletts Ferry faults) can be traced southward beneath the Gulf Coastal Plain to the suture with Gondwanan crust of the Suwannee terrane. Within the ADD, there is clear magnetic distinction between Laurentian crust and the strongly linear, high-frequency magnetic highs of peri-Gondwanan (Carolina-Uchee) arc terranes. The contact (Central Piedmont suture) corresponds to surface exposures of the Bartletts Ferry fault. ADD magnetic and gravity signatures are truncated by the east-west–trending Altamaha magnetic low associated with the Suwannee suture. Arcuate northeast-trending magnetic linears of the Suwannee terrane reflect internal structure and Mesozoic failed-rift trends. Geophysical data can be used to make inferences on surface and subsurface geology and vice versa, which has applicability anywhere that bedrock is exposed or concealed beneath essentially non-magnetic sedimentary cover.

  5. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed.

  6. The Structure and Dynamics of the Upper Chromosphere and Lower Transition Region as Revealed by the Subarcsecond VAULT Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-28

    the crucial interface between the solar chromosphere and the corona by observing the strongest line in the solar spectrum, the Lyα line at 1216Å. In...chromosphere and the corona by observing the strongest line in the solar spectrum, the Ly line at 1216 A. In Two Flights, VAULT succeeded in...first solar imaging space missions that this so-called temperature transition region (TR) between the chromosphere and the corona , is also where the

  7. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome.

  8. Differentiation in the fertility of Inceptisols as related to land use in the upper Solimões river region, western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Ferreira, Daniel Furtado; Pérez, Daniel Vidal

    2009-12-20

    The Upper Solimões river region, western Amazon, is the homeland of indigenous populations and contains small-scale agricultural systems that are important for biodiversity conservation. Although traditional slash-and-burn agriculture is being practiced over many years, deforestation there is relatively small compared to other Amazon regions. Pastures are restricted to the vicinity of cities and do not spread to the small communities along the river. Inceptisols are the main soil order (>90%) in the area and have unique attributes including high Al content and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) due to the enrichment of the clay fraction with 2:1 secondary aluminosilicates. Despite its importance, few studies have focussed on this soil order when considering land use effects on the fertility of Amazon soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil fertility of representative land use systems (LUSs) in the Upper Solimões region, namely: primary rainforest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry, pasture and agriculture. LUSs were significantly differentiated by the chemical attributes of their topsoil (0-20 cm). Secondary forests presented soil chemical attributes more similar to primary rainforest areas, while pastures exhibited the highest dissimilarity from all the other LUSs. As a whole, soil chemical changes among Inceptisols dominated LUSs showed patterns that were distinct from those reported from other Amazon soils like Oxisols and Ultisols. This is probably related to the presence of high-activity clays enriched in exchangeable aluminum that heavily influenced the soil chemical reactions over the expected importance of organic matter found in most studies conducted over Oxisol and Ultisol.

  9. Interaction between gastric and upper small intestinal hormones in the regulation of hunger and satiety: ghrelin and cholecystokinin take the central stage.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2011-06-01

    Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake.

  10. Prognostic significance and the role in TNM stage of extranodal metastasis within regional lymph nodes station in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Lin-Yong; Xue, Lian; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The role of extranodal metastasis (ENM) in TNM stage in gastric carcinoma (GC) is controversial. This study was aimed to make a detailed investigation of the prognostic significance and the role in TNM stage of ENM in GC. The patients with primary GC, who underwent gastrectomy with curative intention in West China Hospital from January 2005 to December 2011, were retrospectively enrolled. The prognosis and clinicopathological traits were compared between ENM positive (ENMP) and negative (ENMN) groups in all patients, TNM I-II, III and IV stages, respectively. The significance of the number and the role in TNM stage of ENM were also assessed. In our study, 1457 patients were enrolled, with 1324 (90.9%) in ENMN group and 133 (9.1%) in ENMP group. ENMP group had significantly more advanced GC and worse prognosis (all p<0.05) than ENMN group in all patients, TNM I-II stages and TNM III stage. ENM>2 subgroup had remarkably larger tumor size (p=0.002) and more advanced N stage (p=0.016) than ENM=1-2 subgroup. The number of ENM was an independent prognostic factor in ENMP group (p=0.029). The prognosis of ENM>2 in TNM I-III stages was significantly worse than ENMN patients in TNM III stage. The C-index of TNM stage plus the number of ENM was significantly higher than that of current TNM stage alone (p=0.005). In conclusion, the patients in ENMP subgroup had more advanced GC and worse prognosis than those in ENMN subgroup. It might be more reasonable to categorize ENM>2 into TNM IV stage. PMID:27563811

  11. Shear wave velocities in the Pampean flat-slab region from Rayleigh wave tomography: Implications for slab and upper mantle hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ryan; Gilbert, Hersh; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; Warren, Linda; Calkins, Josh; Alvarado, Patricia; Anderson, Megan

    2012-11-01

    The Pampean flat-slab region, located in central Argentina and Chile between 29° and 34°S, is considered a modern analog for Laramide flat-slab subduction within western North America. Regionally, flat-slab subduction is characterized by the Nazca slab descending to ˜100 km depth, flattening out for ˜300 km laterally before resuming a more "normal" angle of subduction. Flat-slab subduction correlates spatially with the track of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, and is associated with the inboard migration of deformation and the cessation of volcanism within the region. To better understand flat-slab subduction we combine ambient-noise tomography and earthquake-generated surface wave measurements to calculate a regional 3D shear velocity model for the region. Shear wave velocity variations largely relate to changes in lithology within the crust, with basins and bedrock exposures clearly defined as low- and high-velocity regions, respectively. We argue that subduction-related hydration plays a significant role in controlling shear wave velocities within the upper mantle. In the southern part of the study area, where normal-angle subduction is occurring, the slab is visible as a high-velocity body with a low-velocity mantle wedge above it, extending eastward from the active arc. Where flat-slab subduction is occurring, slab velocities increase to the east while velocities in the overlying lithosphere decrease, consistent with the slab dewatering and gradually hydrating the overlying mantle. The hydration of the slab may be contributing to the excess buoyancy of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, helping to drive flat-slab subduction.

  12. Regional ground-water discharge to large streams in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Meadows, R.S.; Patterson, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Base flow was computed to estimate discharge from regional aquifers for six large streams in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina and Georgia. Aquifers that sustain the base flow of both large and small streams are stratified into shallow and deep flow systems. Base-flow during dry conditions on main stems of large streams was assumed to be the discharge from the deep groundwater flow system. Six streams were analyzed: the Savannah, South and North Fork Edisto, Lynches, Pee Dee, and the Luber Rivers. Stream reaches in the Upper Coastal Plain were studied because of the relatively large aquifer discharge in these areas in comparison to the lower Coastal Plain. Estimates of discharge from the deep groundwater flow system to the six large streams averaged 1.8 cu ft/sec/mi of stream and 0.11 cu ft/sec/sq mi of surface drainage area. The estimates were made by subtracting all tributary inflows from the discharge gain between two gaging stations on a large stream during an extreme low-flow period. These estimates pertain only to flow in the deep groundwater flow system. Shallow flow systems and total base flow are > flow in the deep system. (USGS)

  13. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28

    Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in

  14. Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Romanowicz; Mark Panning

    2005-04-23

    Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.

  15. Gold mining impact on riverine heavy metal transport in a sparsely monitored region: the upper Lake Baikal Basin case.

    PubMed

    Thorslund, Josefin; Jarsjö, Jerker; Chalov, Sergey R; Belozerova, Ekaterina V

    2012-10-26

    Mining and ore excavation can cause the acidification and heavy metal pollution of downstream water systems. It can be difficult to assess the load contributions from individual mining areas, which is commonly required for environmental impact assessments. In the current study, we quantified the net impact of the unmonitored mining activities in the Zaamar Goldfield (Mongolia) on heavy metal transport in the downstream Tuul River-Selenga River-Lake Baikal water systems. We also noted that the Zaamar site shares the conditions of limited monitoring with many rapidly developing regions of the world. The heavy metal concentrations and flow data were obtained from historical measurement campaigns, long-term monitoring, and a novel field campaign. The results indicate that natural mass flows of heavy metals in dissolved form increased by an order of magnitude because of mining. Prevailing alkaline conditions in the vicinity of Zaamar can limit the dissolution, maintaining the on-site concentrations below health-risk based guideline values. However, suspended river concentrations are much higher than the dissolved concentrations. The placer gold mining at the Zaamar site has increased the total riverine mass flows of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn by 44.300, 30.1, 65.7, 47.800, 1.480, 76.0 and 65.0 tonnes per year respectively. We suggest that local to regional transformation and enrichment processes in combination with suspended sediment transport from numerous existing upstream mining areas contribute to high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in downstream parts of the Selenga River, including its delta area at Lake Baikal. Furthermore, single hydrological events can increase the suspended load concentrations by at least one order of magnitude. Overall, the Selenga River Basin, which drains into Lake Baikal, should be recognised as one of the world's most impacted areas with regard to heavy metal loads, and it contributes to 1% and 3% of the world flux of

  16. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  17. Gaseous and particulate pollutants in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) of the Asian Monsoon region simulated by the CCM EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brühl, Christoph; Tost, Holger; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Results of a transient simulation for 2002 to 2011 using the chemistry climate model EMAC with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol processes are presented. The simulation includes anthropogenic gaseous emissions based on EDGAR but also more than 100 volcanic SO2 injections into the UTLS using estimates from satellite data. The lower boundary conditions for the different aerosol types are based on AEROCOM. We demonstrate that in the Asian monsoon region CO and organic and black carbon are strongly enhanced in the UTLS. We also show that the monsoon circulation transports anthropogenic SO2, originating in China, to the lower stratosphere, as well as volcanic SO2 injected into the upper troposphere in East Africa and Indonesia. The results are compared with MIPAS/ENVISAT observations.

  18. S-2 stage 1/25 scale model base region thermal environment test. Volume 1: Test results, comparison with theory and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; French, E. P.; Sexton, H.

    1973-01-01

    A 1/25 scale model S-2 stage base region thermal environment test is presented. Analytical results are included which reflect the effect of engine operating conditions, model scale, turbo-pump exhaust gas injection on base region thermal environment. Comparisons are made between full scale flight data, model test data, and analytical results. The report is prepared in two volumes. The description of analytical predictions and comparisons with flight data are presented. Tabulation of the test data is provided.

  19. Inferring local to regional changes in forest composition from Holocene macrofossils and pollen of a small lake in central Upper Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stephen T.; Booth, Robert K.; Reeves, Kelly; Andersen, Jennifer Jewell; Minckley, Thomas A.; Jones, Rachel A.

    2014-08-01

    Vegetational response to climatic change involves processes of population and community dynamics within local stands, which scale up to landscape-level changes in vegetation composition and broad-scale changes in species distributions. Understanding these dynamics poses a critical challenge to paleoecological explanation, because of the broad range of scales at which these dynamics take place and interact. We present an 8600-year paleoecological record of local and regional changes in forest composition from a small (2.6 ha) lake in central Upper Michigan. Plant macrofossils provide a spatially precise record of local forest composition, while pollen data provide a spatially integrated record of regional vegetational changes. Temporal patterns among different macrofossil types within species show overall coherence, indicating that changes in macrofossil abundance generally record changes in local tree abundance. Temporal patterns in macrofossil sequences correspond to patterns in pollen sequences, indicating that local changes contributed to the large-scale changes in the surrounding region. The pollen and macrofossil records show nearly continuous turnover in vegetation composition throughout the past 8600 years; the longest period without major compositional change was ca 1600 years, and dynamics at multidecadal to multicentennial scales are observed during many periods. Coordinated application of temporally precise sequences of pollen and macrofossil data at multiple sites can support inferences concerning vegetation dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and test mechanistic hypotheses.

  20. Characterization of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region, USA: implications for nuclear waste isolation. [Wisconsin, Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Edgar, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Minnesota) contains 41 Precambrian crystalline rock complexes comprising 64 individual but related rock bodies with known surface exposures. Each complex has a map area greater than 78 km/sup 2/. About 54% of the rock complexes have areas of up to 500 km/sup 2/, 15% fall between 500 km/sup 2/ and 1000 km/sup 2/, 19% lie between 1000 km/sup 2/ and 2500 km/sup 2/, and 12% are over 2500 km/sup 2/. Crystalline rocks of the region vary widely in composition, but they are predominantly granitic. Repeated thermo-tectonic events have produced early Archean gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites with highly tectonized fabrics that impart a heterogeneous and anisotropic character to the rocks. Late Archean rocks are usually but not invariably gneissose and migmatitic. Proterozoic rocks of the region include synorogenic (foliated) granitic rocks, anorogenic (non-foliated) granites, and the layered gabbro-anorthosite-troctolite intrusives of the rift-related Keweenawan igneous activity. Compared with the Archean rocks of the region, the Proterozoic bodies generally lack highly tectonized fabrics and have more definable contacts where visible. Anorogenic intrusions are relatively homogeneous and isotropic. On the basis of observed geologic characteristics, postorogenic and anorogenic crystalline rock bodies located away from recognized tectonic systems have attributes that make them relatively more desirable as a possible site for a nuclear waste repository in the region. This study was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy through the Office of Crystalline Repository Development at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. 84 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Upper mantle structure of shear-waves velocities and stratification of anisotropy in the Afar Hotspot region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.-P.; Cara, M.; Stutzmann, E.; Debayle, E.; Lépine, J.-C.; Lévêque, J.-J.; Beucler, E.; Sebai, A.; Roult, G.; Ayele, A.; Sholan, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Afar area is one of the biggest continental hotspots active since about 30 Ma. It may be the surface expression of a mantle "plume" related to the African Superswell. Central Africa is also characterized by extensive intraplate volcanism. Around the same time (30 Ma), volcanic activity re-started in several regions of the African plate and hotspots such as Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar and Mount Cameroon, characterized by a significant though modest volcanic production. The interactions of mantle upwelling with asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust remain unclear and seismic anisotropy might help in investigating these complex interactions. We used data from the global seismological permanent FDSN networks (GEOSCOPE, IRIS, MedNet, GEO- FON, etc.), from the temporary PASSCAL experiments in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia and a French deployment of 5 portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. A classical two-step tomographic inversion from surface waves performed in the Horn of Africa with selected Rayleigh wave and Love wave seismograms leads to a 3D-model of both S V velocities and azimuthal anisotropy, as well as radial SH/ SV anisotropy, with a lateral resolution of 500 km. The region is characterized by low shear-wave velocities beneath the Afar Hotspot, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and East of the Tanzania Craton to 400 km depth. High velocities are present in the Eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The results of this study enable us to rule out a possible feeding of the Central Africa hotspots from the "Afar plume" above 150-200 km. The azimuthal anisotropy displays a complex pattern near the Afar Hotspot. Radial anisotropy, although poorly resolved laterally, exhibits S H slower than S V waves down to about 150 km depth, and a reverse pattern below. Both azimuthal and radial anisotropies show a stratification of anisotropy at depth, corresponding to different physical processes. These results suggest that the Afar hotspot has a different and

  2. Burial diagenesis in the Upper Devonian reef complexes of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.W. ); Kerans, C. ); Playford, P.E. ); McManus, A. )

    1991-06-01

    The Devonian carbonates of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, have undergone a long and complex diagenetic history that began in Devonian seawater with extensive marine cementation of platform-margin lithologies. Devonian-Lower Carboniferous burial diagenesis was the most important porosity occluding episode because almost all primary porosity was destroyed by equant calcite cements during this interval. Dolomitization and consequent secondary porosity development also occurred during early burial diagenesis. The distribution and geochemistry of the major calcite cements and dolomite types are consistent with these phases having been precipitated from connate marine or basinal brines. Karstification and minor calcite cementation took place during late Carboniferous subaerial exposure. Minor calcite cementation occurred during Permian-Cenozoic burial, predominantly in secondary porosity within pervasively dolomitized lithologies. Karstification, dedolomitization, and calcite recrystallization took place in association with Cenozoic meteoric diagenesis. Secondary moldic and intercrystalline porosity within the completely dolomitized lithologies were the longest lived porosity types in the carbonates. Some secondary porosity escaped both Devonian-Carboniferous and Permian-Cenozoic burial cementation, probably due to a lack of nucleation sites for calcite cements within completely dolomitized lithologies.

  3. Regional distribution of wave- and fluvial-dominated deltaic deposits of Olmos formation (upper Cretaceous) in Maverick basin, southwest Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.; Tyler, N.

    1984-04-01

    Regional subsurface analysis in southwest Texas indicates that the Olmos Formation (Gulfian) was deposited by a complex of wave- and fluvial-dominated delta systems in two depocenters. Sediment influx was from the north and northwest. Five deltaic submits, A through E, were deposited in the western depocenter. Three other deltaic wedges (F, G, H) formed the second depocenter farther east in present-day Frio and LaSalle Counties. Subsidence was greater in the western half of the Maverick basin where thickest (1,300 ft; 395 m) deltaic sediments were deposited. Lower Olmos strata represent a succession from wave-reworked, strike-elongate deltas of subunit A, similar to those of the underlying San Miguel Formation, to fluvial-dominated, dip-elongate deltas of subunits B and C. Extensive (1200 mi/sup 2/ or 3100 km/sup 2/ in Texas) aggradational floodplain deposits of B and C are characterized by diverse electric-log patterns; variation in log character is a response to complex depositional facies on the delta platform. Downdip, toward the Cretaceous shelf edge, delta-plain facies merge with upward-coarsening delta-front sandstones. Uppermost subunits D and E were deposited by a prograding barrier-island system in an interdeltaic embayment marginal to high constructive deltas of the easter depocenter. Lagoonal and fluvial-channel deposits are recognized from cores. Eastward migration of deposition was accompanied by an abrupt change of depositional style in the western depocenter from deltaic to coastal-interdeltaic.

  4. Post-disposal orbital evolution of satellites and upper stages used by the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations: The long-term impact on the Medium Earth Orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The long-term evolution and environmental impact in MEO of all the abandoned spacecraft and upper stages associated with the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations were analyzed. The orbits of the disposed objects, as of 1 May 2011, were propagated for 200 years and snapshots of their evolving distribution were obtained, together with an estimation of the changing collision probability with the spacecraft of the operational navigation systems existing or planned in MEO, i.e., GLONASS, GPS, Beidou and Galileo. The probability that the abandoned objects considered will collide with the operational spacecraft of the navigation constellations is very low, even taking into account the intrinsic eccentricity instability of the disposal orbits. Assuming the present or envisaged configuration of the constellations in MEO, the probability of collision, integrated over 200 years, would be <1/300 with a GLONASS spacecraft, <1/15,000 with a GPS or Beidou spacecraft, and <1/250,000 with a Galileo spacecraft. The worst disposal strategy consists in abandoning satellites and upper stages close to the altitude of the operational constellation (GLONASS), while a re-orbiting a few hundred km away (GPS) is able to guarantee an effective long-term dilution of the collision risk, irrespective of the eccentricity instability due to geopotential and luni-solar perturbations. The disposal strategies applied so far to the GPS satellites should be able to guarantee for at least a few centuries a sustainable MEO environment free of collisions among intact objects. Consequently, there would be no need to adopt disposal schemes targeting also the optimal value of the eccentricity vector. However, it should be pointed out that the GPS disposal strategy was devised well in advance of the Beidou constellation announcement, so most of the abandoned satellites were re-orbited fairly close to the altitude of the new Chinese system. A new re-orbiting approach will be therefore needed in the future.

  5. Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated

  6. Impact of river stage prediction methods on stream-aquifer exchanges in a hydro(geo)logical model at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, F.; Flipo, N.; de Fouquet, C.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a realistic simulation of river stage in regional river networks in order to improve the quantification of stream-aquifer exchanges and better assess the associated aquifer responses that are often impacted by the magnitude and the frequency of the river stage fluctuations. The study focuses on the Oise basin (17 000 km2, part of the 65 000 km2 Seine basin in Northern France) where stream-aquifer exchanges cannot be assessed directly by experimental methods. Nowadays numerical methods are the most appropriate approaches for assessing stream-aquifer exchanges at this scale. A regional distributed process-based hydro(geo)logical model, Eau-Dyssée, is used, which aims at the integrated modeling of the hydrosystem to manage the various elements involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water resources. Eau-Dyssée simulates pseudo 3D flow in aquifer systems solving the diffusivity equation with a finite difference numerical scheme. River flow is simulated with a Muskingum model. In addition to the in-stream discharge, a river stage estimate is needed to calculate the water exchange at the stream-aquifer interface using the Darcy law. Three methods for assessing in-stream river stages are explored to determine the most appropriate representation at regional scale over 25 years (1980-2005). The first method consists in defining rating curves for each cell of a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model. The second method consists in interpolating observed rating curves (at gauging stations) onto the river cells of the hydro(geo)logical model. The interpolation technique is based on geostatistics. The last method assesses river stage using Manning equation with a simplified rectangular cross-section (water depth equals the hydraulic radius). Compared to observations, the geostatistical and the Manning methodologies lead to slightly less accurate (but still acceptable) results offering a low computational cost opportunity

  7. Aeolian Dust Dynamics and Synoptic Atmospheric Circulation Patterns in the Black Sea Region Since Marine Isotope Stage 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, C.; Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Markovic, S.; Endlicher, W.

    2010-12-01

    The aeolian dust record of the loess sequences in the Dobrogea, Romania, provides a unique terrestrial climate archive in proximity to the Black Sea, enabling us to reconstruct glacial-interglacial climate variability and past atmospheric circulation patterns from marine oxygen-isotope stage (MIS) 15 to the last glacial period. During the Pleistocene aeolian mineral dust was mainly derived from the floodplain of the Danube and the (exposed) coastal shelf of the Black Sea, and got deposited on the pseudo-plain of the upheaval complex of the Dobrogea. Presently located at the interface between Mediterranean and continental climates of central and eastern Europe, the loess record of Dobrogea offers insight into long-term paleoenvironmental oscillations triggered by the reciprocity of Mediterranean and continental atmospheric circulation patterns across central and eastern Europe. The 35m thick loess sequence at Mircea Voda shows a well exposed sequence of loess-paleosol couplets that can be traced laterally across a few hundred meters, suggesting a semi-continuous paleoclimate record since MIS 15. In order to assess the loess record of aeolian dynamics and associated past-synoptic atmospheric circulation modes, high resolution particle size analyses have been carried out using a Beckman-Coulter LS 13320 laser analyzer. With support of amino acid geochronology data the highly resolved proxy record of the SE European loess sequences reveals clear shifts in the aeolian dust dynamics and a general paleoclimatic trend from subtropical (MIS 15) to more continental climates (MIS 1). In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed long trends in the aeolian dust record and the general tendency of a progressive aridification since the Middle Pleistocene reflect a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of

  8. Aeolian dust dynamics and synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns in the Black Sea Region since marine isotope stage 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, C.; Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The aeolian dust record of the loess sequences in the Dobrogea, Romania, provides a unique terrestrial climate archive in proximity to the Black Sea, enabling us to reconstruct glacial-interglacial climate variability and past atmospheric circulation patterns from marine oxygen-isotope stage (MIS) 15 to the last glacial period. During the Pleistocene aeolian mineral dust was mainly derived from the floodplain of the Danube and the (exposed) coastal shelf of the Black Sea, and got deposited on the pseudo-plain of the upheaval complex of the Dobrogea. Presently located at the interface between Mediterranean and continental climates of central and eastern Europe, the loess record of Dobrogea offers insight into long-term paleoenvironmental oscillations triggered by the reciprocity of Mediterranean and continental atmospheric circulation patterns across central and eastern Europe. The 35m thick loess sequence at Mircea Voda shows a well exposed sequence of loess-paleosol couplets that can be traced laterally across a few hundred meters, suggesting a semi-continuous paleoclimate record since MIS 15. In order to assess the loess record of aeolian dynamics and associated past-synoptic atmospheric circulation modes, high resolution particle size analyses have been carried out using a Beckman-Coulter LS 13-320 laser analyzer. With support of amino acid geochronology data the highly resolved proxy record of the SE European loess sequences reveals clear shifts in the aeolian dust dynamics and a general paleoclimatic trend from subtropical (MIS 15) to more continental climates (MIS 1). In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed long trends in the aeolian dust record and the general tendency of a progressive aridification since the Middle Pleistocene reflect a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of

  9. A Pan-STARRS1 Proper-Motion Survey for Young Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and the Upper Scorpius Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Liu, Michael C.; Best, William M. J.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly Mei

    2017-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs are of prime importance to investigate the universality of the initial mass function (IMF) and to understand the physical connections between substellar and planetary-mass objects. Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey (δ ≥ -30○) is finished and has obtained stacked images reaching down to the planetary regime (≤ 13 MJup) in nearby star-forming regions, thus providing an innovative tool to search for brown dwarfs. Using photometry and astrometry from PS1, WISE, 2MASS and UKIDSS, we are performing the widest and deepest brown dwarf survey in Taurus (≈370 deg2, ˜1 Myr) and Upper Scorpius (USco, ≈450 deg2, ˜10 Myr), which are among the closest star-forming regions. Our work is the first to measure proper motions, a robust proxy of membership, for Taurus and USco brown dwarf candidates over such large area and long time baseline (˜13 yr by combining PS1 and 2MASS). Our spectroscopic follow-up has found the lowest-mass objects in both regions (Taurus: ≈ 6 MJup USco: ≈ 14 MJup), and has yielded a success rates of ≈ 80% and ≈ 90% in Taurus and USco, respectively, far better than any previous searches (≤ 50%). Our newly confirmed members have already added ≈ 60% more brown dwarfs in USco and more than doubled the number of L-type members (≤ 20 MJup) in both regions. Upon completion, our discoveries will be a significant addition to the substellar regimes of the Taurus and the USco IMF and will provide more benchmarks to investigate the compositions of substellar and planetary atmospheres.

  10. Influence of outflow from the Gulf of Mexico region on NMHC composition of the free and upper troposphere over Europe and the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container; www.caribic-atmospheric.com) involves the deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a passenger jet, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600. Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. A suite of 20 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from the whole air samples, along with greenhouse gas and halocarbon measurements. As all flights originate in and return to Frankfurt, Germany, the free and upper troposphere (FT/UT) over Europe and the North Atlantic are probed on nearly every flight, and the composition was found to be strongly influenced by air masses from the Gulf of Mexico region. Over 75% of air samples collected during flight had backwards trajectories which passed over the region, and nearly half of these had passed through the lower troposphere and boundary layer, affording CARIBIC a "bird's-eye view" of emissions from the Gulf region. Measurements of NMHCs, and also methane, show distinct fossil fuel extraction signatures for Gulf region outflow, namely relatively large enhancements in C2-C4 alkanes coupled with unique ratios between species. Here we discuss the impact of these emissions and their subsequent chemical transformations on FT/UT composition. We also investigate the possible influence of these emissions on the increase in C2-C4 alkanes observed in the FT/UT by CARIBIC over the last 7 years.

  11. Damage by Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Pentatomidae) to Upland Rice Cultivated in Amazon Rainforest Region (Brazil) at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Krinski, D; Foerster, L A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the damage caused in the field by Tibraca limbativentris Stål adults at different levels of infestation (0, 1, 2, and 4 stink bugs) per three rice plants during three growth stages (V8, V13, and R4 stages) of upland rice cultivated in southwestern of Pará State, Amazon Rainforest region, Brazil. Heading time (panicle exertion) was affected by T. limbativentris infestations mainly in the vegetative stage and the whiteheads percentage in treatments ranged from 18.2 to 38%. The dead hearts percentages varied between 0 and 21.5%, and the mean number of primary branches (ramifications) ranged from 5.9 ± 0.4 to 12.3 ± 0.2. The number of empty spikelets was only affected in infestations with four insects/three plants, while the quantity of filled grains per panicle was affected only when infestations occurred during the vegetative stage. The total number of spikelets (filled + empty) per panicle decreased significantly in all phenological stages, and the percentage of damage ranged from 17 to 44% among treatments. Based on the proportion of damage observed, we suggest doubling the number of insects presently used as action threshold to 2 and 4 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled for the vegetative stage, and of 1 or 2 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled at the beginning of reproductive stage (R3/R4). Also, the field should be monitored during the entire vegetative stage, since most damage was observed in this phenological stage.

  12. Upper Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Drainage Stent Placement Stricture Dilation Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & ...

  13. Regional contemporaneity of eustatic, subsidence, and tectonic events in the Middle-Upper Ordovician of the Appalachians and Ouachita orogens and the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, S.C.; Bergstroem, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    On-going graptolite and conodont studies in the Southern Appalachians, the Ouachitas, and the Arbuckle Mountains have revealed contemporaneity of important geological events of regional significance. Reassessment of previous graptolite biostratigraphy has resulted in a revised zonation that has solved some correlation problems and is tied to the Midcontinent and North Atlantic conodont zonations. These zonations are used to date significant geological events in geographically separate regions during two time intervals in the Middle-Upper Ordovician. The base of the graptolite shale succession (Athens) in the Southern Appalachians (Alabama-Tennessee) belongs to the G. teretiusculus Zone, or locally (Georgia) possibly a slightly older unit, and marks the initial shelf-basin development and uplift of source areas to the east reflecting a phase of the Taconic Orogeny. The bases of the Womble and Woods Hollow shales in the Ouachita Orogen represent about the same level. Slightly younger N. gracilis Zone strata tend to be transgressive throughout the world and appear to represent a global eustatic event. In the Arbuckle Mountains this event is reflected by the Tulip Creek Shale. A major subsidence event in the Oklahoma aulacogen, contemporaneous with the regression, produced a transgressive lithofacies sequence represented by the lower Viola Springs Formation in the Arbuckle Mountains. The regressive and subsidence events appear to have been coeval with the emplacement of the Taconic allochthon and Hamburg Klippe in the Northern Appalachians.

  14. Imaging upper mantle structures in regional, continental and global scales using long-period surface waves (50-300 sec) from ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Xie, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of ambient noise tomography studies performed to date exploit surface waves at periods shorter than 40/50 sec. Two natural questions one may ask are (1) whether longer-period surface wave (>50 s) can also be extracted from ambient noise and (2) whether long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise are accurate enough for tomography to constrain upper-mantle structures. In this study, we investigate the capability of using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional-, continental- and global-scale surface wave tomography and also evaluate the accuracy of long-period dispersion measurements at periods up to 300 sec. For regional and continental scale studies, we process ambient noise data from USArray to extract inter-station long-period surface wave dispersion curves and then perform surface wave tomography using the dispersion curves. For the global scale studies, we process ambient noise data from more than 1000 stations distributed around the globe, including both permanent FDSN stations and a number of PASSCAL transportable arrays. We observe clear, strong, and coherent long-period surface waves at 50-300 sec periods at both regional and teleseismic inter-station distances. Using long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise, we generate phase velocity maps at 50-300 sec periods and then compare them with those generated from earthquake data. The results show that long-period dispersion measurements from ambient noise are compatible with those from earthquake data and phase velocity maps from ambient noise data and earthquake data are similar to each other, verifying the feasibility and validity of using long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional, continental and global surface wave tomography. Long-period surface waves from ambient noise are complementary to those from earthquakes. The inclusion of them in regional and global surface wave tomography could significantly increase both lateral and azimuthal path

  15. Acetone-CO enhancement ratios in the upper troposphere based on 7 years of CARIBIC data: new insights and estimates of regional acetone fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Bönisch, Harald; Neumaier, Marco; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Orphal, Johannes; Brito, Joel; Becker, Julia; Sprung, Detlev; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) are two important trace gases controlling the oxidation capacity of the troposphere; enhancement ratios (EnRs) are useful in assessing their sources and fate between emission and sampling, especially in pollution plumes. In this study, we focus on in situ data from the upper troposphere recorded by the passenger-aircraft-based IAGOS-CARIBIC (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory over the periods 2006-2008 and 2012-2015. This dataset is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial variation of acetone-CO EnRs. Furthermore, we utilize a box model accounting for dilution, chemical degradation and secondary production of acetone from precursors. In former studies, increasing acetone-CO EnRs in a plume were associated with secondary production of acetone. Results of our box model question this common presumption and show increases of acetone-CO EnR over time without taking secondary production of acetone into account. The temporal evolution of EnRs in the upper troposphere, especially in summer, is not negligible and impedes the interpretation of EnRs as a means for partitioning of acetone and CO sources in the boundary layer. In order to ensure that CARIBIC EnRs represent signatures of source regions with only small influences by dilution and chemistry, we limit our analysis to temporal and spatial coherent events of high-CO enhancement. We mainly focus on North America and Southeast Asia because of their different mix of pollutant sources and the good data coverage. For both regions, we find the expected seasonal variation in acetone-CO EnRs with maxima in summer, but with higher amplitude over North America. We derive mean (± standard deviation) annual acetone fluxes of (53 ± 27) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 and (185 ± 80) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 for North America and Southeast Asia, respectively. The derived flux for North America

  16. Effects of the Laramide Structures on the Regional Distribution of Tight-Gas Sandstone in the Upper Mesaverde Group, Uinta Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaula, R. P.; Aschoff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Regional-scale sequence stratigraphic correlation, well log analysis, syntectonic unconformity mapping, isopach maps, and depositional environment maps of the upper Mesaverde Group (UMG) in Uinta basin, Utah suggest higher accommodation in northeastern part (Natural Buttes area) and local development of lacustrine facies due to increased subsidence caused by uplift of San Rafael Swell (SRS) in southern and Uinta Uplift in northern parts. Recently discovered lacustrine facies in Natural Buttes area are completely different than the dominant fluvial facies in outcrops along Book Cliffs and could have implications for significant amount of tight-gas sand production from this area. Data used for sequence stratigraphic correlation, isopach maps and depositional environmental maps include > 100 well logs, 20 stratigraphic profiles, 35 sandstone thin sections and 10 outcrop-based gamma ray profiles. Seven 4th order depositional sequences (~0.5 my duration) are identified and correlated within UMG. Correlation was constructed using a combination of fluvial facies and stacking patterns in outcrops, chert-pebble conglomerates and tidally influenced strata. These surfaces were extrapolated into subsurface by matching GR profiles. GR well logs and core log of Natural Buttes area show intervals of coarsening upward patterns suggesting possible lacustrine intervals that might contain high TOC. Locally, younger sequences are completely truncated across SRS whereas older sequences are truncated and thinned toward SRS. The cycles of truncation and thinning represent phases of SRS uplift. Thinning possibly related with the Uinta Uplift is also observed in northwestern part. Paleocurrents are consistent with interpretation of periodic segmentation and deflection of sedimentation. Regional paleocurrents are generally E-NE-directed in Sequences 1-4, and N-directed in Sequences 5-7. From isopach maps and paleocurrent direction it can be interpreted that uplift of SRS changed route of

  17. Moderate geomagnetic storms of January 22-25, 2012 and their influences on the wave components in ionosphere and upper stratosphere-mesosphere regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Abraha, Gebregiorgis

    2014-11-01

    Moderate geomagnetic storms occurred during January 22-25, 2012 period. The geomagnetic storms are characterized by different indices and parameters. The SYM-H value on January 22 increased abruptly to 67 nT at sudden storm commencement (SSC), followed by a sharp decrease to -87 nT. A second SSC on January 24 followed by a shock on January 25 was also observed. These SSCs before the main storms and the short recovery periods imply the geomagnetic storms are CME-driven. The sudden jump of solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF Bz are also consistent with occurrence of CMEs. This is also reflected in the change in total electron content (TEC) during the storm relative to quiet days globally. The response of the ionospheric to geomagnetic storms can also be detected from wave components that account for the majority of TEC variance during the period. The dominant coherent modes of TEC variability are diurnal and semidiurnal signals which account upto 83% and 30% of the total TEC variance over fairly exclusive ionospheric regions respectively. Comparison of TEC anomalies attributed to diurnal (DW1) and semidiurnal (SW2) tides, as well as stationary planetary waves (SPW1) at 12 UTC shows enhancement in the positive anomalies following the storm. Moreover, the impact of the geomagnetic storms are distinctly marked in the daily time series of amplitudes of DW1, SW2 and SPW1. The abrupt changes in amplitudes of DW1 (5 TECU) and SW2 (2 TECU) are observed within 20°S-20°N latitude band and along 20°N respectively while that of SPW1 is about 3 TECU. Coherent oscillation with a period of 2.4 days between interplanetary magnetic field and TEC was detected during the storm. This oscillation is also detected in the amplitudes of DW1 over EIA regions in both hemispheres. Eventhough upward coupling of quasi two day wave (QTDWs) of the same periodicity, known to have caused such oscillation, are detected in both ionosphere and upper stratosphere, this one can likely be attributed to

  18. Tracking the Progress of EarthScope/USArray: The crust and upper mantle beneath the transition region between tectonic western US and cratonic eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Lin, F.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The transition region between the tectonic western US and the cratonic eastern US contains numerous significant geological regions (e.g., the Rocky Mountains, the Colorado Plateau, and the Rio Grande Rift), and also, unknowns (e.g, the location or extent of the east-west US dichotomy, the compensation of the high topography of the western Great Plains, the extensional mechanics of the Rio Grande Rift, and the structure of the mantle beneath the Colorado Plateau). The answers to these questions and others are critical to an understanding of the tectonics and tectonic history of this region and its impact on the cratonic eastern US. The recent deployments of seismic stations, particularly the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA), provide an opportunity to construct a detailed 3-D structural model of the crust and upper mantle beneath this transition region, and thus allow us to address some of the questions listed above. We present results from ambient noise tomography (ANT) and teleseismic earthquake tomography by using data from TA stations within the western and central US. We processed continuous seismic noise data from ~600 TA stations from August 2008 to March 2010, which after data selection produces a data set with ~100,000 inter-station paths. Rayleigh wave phase speed maps between 6 and 40 sec period and Love wave phase speed maps between 8 and 30 sec with a resolution of ~60 km are constructed using eikonal tomography. In addition, we applied eikonal tomography (ET) to about 300 teleseismic earthquakes to obtain long-period (30 - 100 sec) Rayleigh wave phase speed maps and Love wave phase speeds maps (30 - 60 sec). By jointly inverting Rayleigh and Love phase speeds maps from ANT and earthquake tomography, we constructed a 3-D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle to ~150 km depth together with model uncertainties constrained by a Monte-Carlo inversion. The 3-D isotropic model reveals a variety of

  19. Cycles of seismic activity in the second half of the holocene in the Western Caucasus and their correlation with stages of civilization development: A case study of the upper reach of the Mzymta River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsuchenko, A. N.; Menshikov, M. Yu.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The results of comprehensive research into the area of the upper reach of the Mzymta River (Western Caucasus) are presented. The evidence of strong earthquakes that struck the study area throughout history is studied. The periods when mud flows and rockslides associated with the earthquakes are identified to fall between 3100-4000 and 700-1200 years ago. Paleoseismological results are correlated to the results of archeological excavations. As a result, it is revealed that the periods of tectonic disasters coincided with the onsets of the period when the area was uninhabited (abandoned) by people. The results of the present comprehensive research provide additional information to specify the seismic hazard and the chronology of human habitation in the region.

  20. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Indochina block and adjacent regions from shear-wave splitting analysis of Vietnam broadband seismograph array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ling; Iidaka, Takashi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Morita, Yuichi; Dzung, N. Q.

    2009-09-01

    The Indochina block is located at the junction of four major plates. It has a close relationship with the uplift of Tibet plateau and the sea-floor spreading of the South China Sea in the geological evolution histories. We deployed a temporary broadband seismograph array in Vietnam from February 2000 to October 2005, and measured shear-wave splitting of core-refracted phases to investigate the upper mantle anisotropy beneath the Indochina block and adjacent regions. The observed delay times of up to 1.5 s are large, indicating a mantle source for the anisotropy. Two distinct regimes of seismic anisotropy are revealed. The fast polarization directions in the northern Indochina block with a main trend of N100°E are almost consistent with the direction of both the surface displacement and the absolute plate motion. These observations suggest the anisotropy is possibly generated by the present-day asthenospheric flow caused by the India-Eurasia collision. The fast polarization directions in the southern Indochina block and the Hainan island are nearly N60°E. The anisotropy in this area may reflect a combination of the India-Eurasia collision and the past orogenies in the lithosphere, or an abrupt variation in the asthenospheric flow.

  1. Seismicity and S-wave velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle in the Baikal rift and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredkina, Alena; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir; Melnikova, Valentina; Solovey, Oksana

    2016-12-01

    Correlations between seismicity, seismotectonic deformation (STD) field and velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle in the Baikal rift and the adjacent areas of the Siberian platform and the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt have been investigated. The 3D S-wave velocity structure up to the depths of 500 km has been modeled using a representative sample of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves (about 3200 paths) at periods from 10 to 250 s. The STD pattern has been reconstructed from mechanisms of large earthquakes, and is in good agreement with GPS and structural data. Analysis of the results has shown that most of large shallow earthquakes fall in regions of low S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle (western Mongolia and areas of recent mountain building in southern Siberia) and in zones of their relatively high lateral variations (northeastern flank of the Baikal rift). In the first case the dominant STD regime is compression manifested in a mixture of thrust and strike-slip deformations. In the second case we observe a general predominance of extension.

  2. Distribution and origin of regional coal fracture (cleat) domains in Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation coal: Possible effects on coalbed stimulation and methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Laubach, S.E. ); Tremain, C.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Fracture permeability is of primary importance to producibility of coalbed methane. To evaluate controls on fracture (cleat) patterns in coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan basin, the authors studied fractures in the coal and adjacent sandstones in 11 cores and 90 outcrop stations along the basin margin and mapped fractures in selected areas. Cleats are perpendicular to bedding, planar, usually uniform in strike within an outcrop or core, and arranged in closely spaced subparallel sets. Face cleats are the first formed (and generally most prominent) fractures; butt cleats formed later, and most cases strike perpendicular to the face cleat. Timing of cleat development is constrained by the age of cleats relative to dated folds and the burial history of the Fruitland Formation. Where beds ar reoriented by folds, cleats remain orthogonal to bedding, indicating that they formed prior to fold development during the early Tertiary. Cleat crosscuts bedding-parallel coal compaction fabrics, indicating that cleat formed later. Cleat development was contemporaneous with orogenesis in the Cordilleran belt, in progress during late Campanian time. Patterns reflect lateral stresses associated with northeast- and southeast-directed Cordilleran orogenic movements. Domains may represent separate deformation events or contemporaneous paleostress provinces. Contrasts in cleat development in individual domains can affect hydraulic fracture treatment or cavity completion. The prevalence of strongly developed face and butt cleat in the domain-boundary region and resulting increased coal friability may increase the success of cavity completions in this areas.

  3. Chapter 1: Executive Summary - 2003 Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups, Western Gulf Province, Gulf Coast Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups in the Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast region (fig. 1) as part of a national oil and gas assessment effort (USGS Navarro and Taylor Groups Assessment Team, 2004). The assessment of the petroleum potential of the Navarro and Taylor Groups was based on the general geologic elements used to define a total petroleum system (TPS), including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five assessment units (AU) in the Navarro and Taylor Groups as parts of a single TPS, the Smackover-Austin-Eagle Ford Composite TPS: Travis Volcanic Mounds Oil AU, Uvalde Volcanic Mounds Gas and Oil AU, Navarro-Taylor Updip Oil and Gas AU, Navarro-Taylor Downdip Gas and Oil AU, and Navarro-Taylor Slope-Basin Gas AU (table 1).

  4. Analysis of the pX region of bovine leukemia virus in different clinical stages of Enzootic Bovine Leukemia in Argentine Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Serena, María Soledad; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Bravi, María Emilia; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL). About 30% of infected cattle develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a 0.1-5% develops tumors, and a 70% remains asymptomatic in an aleukemic stage (AL). Regulatory genes of BLV (Tax, Rex, R3 and G4) are located in a region known as pX(BLV). The variability of those genes had been postulated with the progression of the disease. The aim of this work was to compare the wild-type proviral pX(BLV) region at different stages of BLV natural infected cattle from Argentine Holstein. Pairs of primers were designed to amplify the proviral pX region of 12 cattle by PCR, and products were then sequenced, aligned and compared both with each other and with the reference sequence. Results show a divergence percentage from 0 to 6.1 for the Tax gene, from 0 to 9.4% for the Rex gene, from 0 to 12.1% for the R3 gene and finally from 0 to 6.5% for the G4 gene. Results obtained with hierarchical clustering showed two clusters well differentiated, where the members of each cluster are cattle that had tumor, PL and AL, not allowing differentiate those two cluster by clinical stage.

  5. SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

  6. Small Upper Stage Basic Program Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-27

    structural design environments: random vibration (3.2.5.2.2), acoustics (3.2.5.2.3), pyroshock (3.2.5.2.4) and linear acceleration (3.2.5.2.5) and two...superimposed on random vibration(simulates limit load condition) and LV pyroshock . The LV pyrosnoLk testing may be replaced by SUS separation subsystem induced... pyroshock testing if it is shown to be more sevec. (Note: SUS induced pyroshock will be measured during development) The performance verification

  7. Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

  8. Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

  9. 101 Things to Do for Your Bicentennial: A Program for the American Issues Forum. A Teaching Guide for the Cultural History and Geography of the Western Frontier and Upper Missouri Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Bruce G.; Hoover, Herbert T.

    The junior-high-level teaching guide incorporates historical, geographical, social, political, and cultural materials that cover the heritage of the society of the Western Frontier and Upper Missouri region: Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Montana. The purpose is to acquaint students with culture of…

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  11. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  12. Holocene paleovegetation reconstructed from a fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River (Caucasus region) using leaf-wax biomarkers - local vs. catchment information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Marcel; Zech, Roland; von Suchodoletz, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Due to its small-scale pattern of different climatic and ecologic regions and a long-lasting history of human land-use since ca. 8 ka, the Caucasus region is of particular interest with regard to Holocene climatic and paleoenvironmental changes. However, there only exists a limited number of paleoenvironmental reconstructions from that region yet. This study aims at reconstructing Holocene vegetational and paleoenvironmental changes using leaf-wax n-alkanes, n-carboxylic acids and compound specific δ13C and δD isotopes from a fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River in eastern Georgia. Phases of sedimentation and pedogenesis between >8 until ca. 1.7 cal. ka BP reflect alternating periods of geomorphic stability (pedogenesis) with reduced flooding activity due to more arid conditions, and periods of geomorphic activity (sedimentation) with increased flooding and erosion in the humid catchment area due to enhanced precipitation. Thus, biomarkers derived from non-pedogenetic sediments should be mostly derived from the catchment area located in the southern Greater Caucasus Mountains, whereas due to pedogenetic accumulation of organic matter biomarkers derived from the (paleo-)soils should mostly show the local signal of the sampling site located in the piedmont area. Long-chain leaf wax-derived n-alkanes are present in all samples: Paleosols are mostly dominated by high contributions from grass vegetation (C31 and C33), indicating a local dominance of grass vegetation throughout the Holocene. This could be caused by relatively arid conditions and/or by agricultural use that is documented at this site by potsherds from ca. 8 cal. ka BP. Non-pedogenetic sediment layers show a higher abundance of grass-derived n-alkanes during the early Holocene and the Caucasian Holocene climate optimum around 5 cal. ka BP, whereas deciduous trees (C27 and C29) may have dominated after that period. However, it is not clear yet whether this vegetation change

  13. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  14. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  15. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  16. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600

    PubMed Central

    Howey, Meghan C. L.; Sullivan, Franklin B.; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000–1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  17. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  18. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600.

    PubMed

    Howey, Meghan C L; Sullivan, Franklin B; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000-1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  19. Global and regional kinematics of the cervical spine during upper cervical spine manipulation: a reliability analysis of 3D motion data.

    PubMed

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benoît; Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    Studies reporting spine kinematics during cervical manipulation are usually related to continuous global head-trunk motion or discrete angular displacements for pre-positioning. To date, segmental data analyzing continuous kinematics of cervical manipulation is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation in vitro. This paper reports an inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Integration of kinematics into specific-subject 3D models has been processed as well for providing anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. Three unembalmed specimens were included in the study. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone of interest (skull, C1-C4 and sternum). During manipulation, bone motion data was computed using an optoelectronic system. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three experimented practitioners performing two trials of 3 repetitions on two separate days. During UCS manipulation, average global head-trunk motion ROM (±SD) were 14 ± 5°, 35 ± 7° and 14 ± 8° for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For regional ROM (C0-C2), amplitudes were 10 ± 5°, 30 ± 5° and 16 ± 4° for the same respective motions. Concerning the reliability, mean RMS ranged from 1° to 4° and from 3° to 6° for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. The present results confirm the limited angular displacement during manipulation either for global head-trunk or for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Additionally, kinematics variability was low confirming intra- and inter-practitioners consistency of UCS manipulation achievement.

  20. Occupational and environmental mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners in the Talensi-Nabdam District of Ghana's Upper East region.

    PubMed

    Paruchuri, Yasaswi; Siuniak, Amanda; Johnson, Nicole; Levin, Elena; Mitchell, Katherine; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2010-11-15

    Mercury use in small-scale gold mining is ubiquitous across Ghana but little is known about the extent to which such activities have contaminated community residents and miners. Here, occupational exposures to elemental mercury (via urine sampling) and dietary exposures to methylmercury (via hair sampling) were assessed among 120 participants recruited from a mining community located in the Talensi-Nabdam District of Ghana's Upper East region during summer 2009. More than one-fifth of the participants had moderately high levels of urinary mercury (>10μg/L) and 5% had urine mercury levels that exceeded the WHO guideline value of 50μg/L. When participants were stratified according to occupation, those active in the mining industry had the highest mercury levels. Specifically, individuals that burned amalgam had urine mercury levels (median: 43.8μg/L; mean ± SD: 171.1±296.5μg/L; n=5) significantly higher than median values measured in mechanical operators (11.6μg/L, n=4), concession managers/owners (5.6μg/L, n=11), excavators that blast and chisel ore (4.9μg/L, n=33), individuals that sift and grind crushed ore (2.2μg/L, n=47), support workers (0.5μg/L, n=14), and those with no role in the mining sector (2.5μg/L, n=6). There was a significant positive Spearman correlation between fish consumption and hair mercury levels (r=0.30) but not with urine mercury (r=0.18) though further studies are needed to document which types of fish are consumed as well as portion sizes. Given that 200,000 people in Ghana are involved in the small-scale gold mining industry and that the numbers are expected to grow in Ghana and many other regions of the world, elucidating mercury exposure pathways in such communities is important to help shape policies and behaviors that may minimize health risks.

  1. The upper mantle structure of the central Rio Grande rift region from teleseismic P and S wave travel time delays and attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

    1996-01-01

    The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

  2. [Specific features of the development of pathology of the upper respiratory tracts in the workers employed in the ore mining industry in the subarctic regions].

    PubMed

    Fedina, I N; Sineva, E L

    2009-01-01

    Criteria for the risk of development of occupational pathology of the upper respiratory tracts in the workers employed in the ore mining industry have been proposed based on the results of evaluation of the occurrence of pathological changes, morpho-functional characteristics of upper respiratory tract mucosa, and immunological properties. These criteria provide a basis for the development of differential approach to the choice of priority hygienic and medical preventive measures designed to a lower the risk of respiratory organ pathology.

  3. The 11,600-MW protein encoded by region E3 of adenovirus is expressed early but is greatly amplified at late stages of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tollefson, A E; Scaria, A; Saha, S K; Wold, W S

    1992-01-01

    We have reported that an 11,600-MW (11.6K) protein is coded by region E3 of adenovirus. We have now prepared two new antipeptide antisera that have allowed us to characterize this protein further. The 11.6K protein migrates as multiple diffuse bands having apparent Mws of about 14,000, 21,000, and 31,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblotting as well as virus mutants with deletions in the 11.6K gene were used to show that the various gel bands represent forms of 11.6K. The 11.6K protein was synthesized in very low amounts during early stages of infection, from the scarce E3 mRNAs d and e which initiate from the E3 promoter. However, 11.6K was synthesized very abundantly at late stages of infection, approximately 400 times the rate at early stages, from new mRNAs termed d' and e'. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA blot experiments indicated that mRNAs d' and e' had the same body (the coding portion) and the same middle exon (the y leader) as early E3 mRNAs d and e, but mRNAs d' and e' were spliced at their 5' termini to the major late tripartite leader which is found in all mRNAs in the major late transcription unit. mRNAs d' and e' and the 11.6K protein were the only E3 mRNAs and protein that were scarce early and were greatly amplified at late stages of infection. This suggests that specific cis- or trans-acting sequences may function to enhance the splicing of mRNAs d' and e' at late stages of infection and perhaps to suppress the splicing of mRNAs d and e at early stages of infection. We propose that the 11.6K gene be considered not only a member of region E3 but also a member of the major late transcription unit. Images PMID:1316473

  4. Reconnaissance of Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation ichnofossils, Rocky Mountain Region, USA: paleoenvironmental, stratigraphic, and paleoclimatic significance of terrestrial and freshwater ichnocoenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiotis, Stephen T.

    2004-05-01

    of perennial, freshwater bivalve traces are abundant in the Tidwell and Brushy Basin Members but to a lesser extent in the Salt Wash Member. Shallow crayfish burrows, indicating a water-table level close to the surface (<1 m), are restricted to channel bank and proximal alluvial deposits in the Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members. Sauropod, theropod, pterosaur, and other vertebrate tracks occur throughout the Morrison Formation associated with alluvial, lacustrine, and transitional-marine shoreline deposits. Ichnofossils and co-occurring paleosols in the Morrison reflect the local and regional paleohydrologic settings, which record the annual soil moisture budget and were largely controlled by the climate in the basin. Contributions to near-surface biologic systems by groundwater from distant sources were minor, except where the water table perennially, seasonally, or ephemerally intersected the ground-surface. The Jurassic Morrison Formation in the southern portion of the basin experienced a mosaic of seasonal climates that varied from a drier (Tidwell/Windy Hill deposition) to a wetter (lower and middle Salt Wash deposition) and slightly drier (upper Salt Wash deposition) tropical wet-dry climate, returning to a wetter tropical wet-dry climate near the end of Morrison deposition (Brushy Basin deposition). The northern part of the basin experienced similar trends across a mosaic of Mediterranean climate types. The range and mosaic pattern of wet-dry Morrison climates is analogous to the range of climates (and their seasonal variability) that dominates the African savanna today.

  5. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.

  6. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff.

  7. A Lymph Node Ratio of 10% Is Predictive of Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer: A French Regional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between “good prognosis” and “poor prognosis” colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P = 0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P = 0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P = 0.02) and DFS (P = 0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff. PMID:25058763

  8. The highly conserved aspartic acid residue between hypervariable regions 1 and 2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is important for early stages of virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W K; Essex, M; Lee, T H

    1995-01-01

    Between hypervariable regions V1 and V2 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 lies a cluster of relatively conserved residues. The contribution of nine charged residues in this region to virus infectivity was evaluated by single-amino-acid substitutions in an infectious provirus clone. Three of the HIV-1 mutants studied had slower growth kinetics than the wild-type virus. The delay was most pronounced in a mutant with an alanine substituted for an aspartic acid residue at position 180. This aspartic acid is conserved by all HIV-1 isolates with known nucleotide sequences. Substitutions with three other residues at this position, including a negatively charged glutamic acid, all affected virus infectivity. The defect identified in these mutants suggests that this aspartic acid residue is involved in the early stages of HIV-1 replication. PMID:7983752

  9. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  10. Fine Scale Modeling and Forecasts of Upper Atmospheric Turbulence for Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-30

    radiological dispersion. 15. SUBJECT TERMS numerical weather prediction, modeling, atmospheric processes, turbulence, gravity waves, upper troposphere... Weather Center Digital Data Service (ADDS) fhttp://www.aviationweather.gov/adds, http://weather.aero/1 Graphical Turbulence Guidance product, GTG-2.5...wraps up in summary. Supplementary material is located in the appendices. The first-stage of processing takes existing global or regional weather

  11. Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy with regional lymph node dissection for early-stage ampullary carcinoma: A case control study using propensity scoring methods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong-Jiu; Yan, Lu-Nan; You, Sheng-Yi; Lau, Wan-Yee; Sun, Hao-Ran; Yan, Shi-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes of pancreas-sparing duodenectomy (PSD) with regional lymph node dissection vs pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS: Between August 2001 and June 2014, 228 patients with early-stage ampullary carcinoma (Amp Ca) underwent surgical treatment (PD, n = 159; PSD with regional lymph node dissection, n = 69). The patients were divided into two groups: the PD group and the PSD group. Propensity scoring methods were used to select patients with similar disease statuses. A total of 138 matched cases, with 69 patients in each group, were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: The median operative time was shorter among the patients in the PSD group (435 min) compared with those in the PD group (481 min, P = 0.048). The median blood loss in the PSD group was significantly less than that in the PD group. The median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients in the PSD group vs the PD group. The incidence of pancreatic fistula was higher among patients in the PD group vs the PSD group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates for patients in the PSD group were 83%, 70%, 44% and 73%, 61%, 39%, respectively, and these values were not different than compared with those in the PD group (P = 0.625). CONCLUSION: PSD with regional lymph node dissection presents an acceptable morbidity in addition to its advantages over PD. PSD may be a safe and feasible alternative to PD in the treatment of early-stage Amp Ca. PMID:25987771

  12. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  13. Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnell, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

  14. Magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope stratigraphy of an Upper Miocene drill core from the Salé Briqueterie (northwestern Morocco): A high-resolution chronology for the Messinian stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kent, Dennis V.; Boersma, Anne; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

    1994-12-01

    We report a high-resolution stable isotope, carbonate, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic record from a 175-m drill core from the Salé Briqueterie, which is part of the Bou Regreg section in northwestern Morocco. The Salé drill core spans the interval from paleomagnetic Chron C4n partim to C3r (earliest Gilbert), which represents the time leading up to and including the isolation and desiccation of the Mediterranean (i.e., the Messinian salinity crisis). During Chrons C3An and C3Ar (6.935 to 5.894 Ma) the isotope and carbonate signals display quasi-periodic variations with estimated periods of 40 and 100 kyr, respectively. We interpret the 40-kyr δ18O variations as reflecting changes in global ice volume caused by obliquity-induced changes (41 kyr) in solar insolation in polar regions. The 100-kyr carbonate variations probably represent long-term modulation of the amplitude of the precessional cycle (˜21 kyr), which is not resolved by our sampling frequency. The cyclic nature of the oxygen isotope signal permits us to extend the isotope nomenclature of Shackleton et al. (1994a) from stage TG24 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert) to stage C3Ar.δ18O.18 at the base of Chron C3Ar (6.935 Ma). A major change in paleoceanographic conditions is recorded across the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, which we correlate to Chron C3Bn at 7.04 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O values increased by an average of 0.4‰ in two steps at 7.17 Ma and 6.8 Ma and δ13C values decreased by 0.7-0.8‰ between 7.1 and 6.8 Ma, representing the late Miocene carbon shift. The first step in δ18O values coincides with an inferred reversal in deep water circulation through the Rifian Corridor, and the second correlates with the base of the Tripoli Formation and onset of "crisis conditions" in the Mediterranean. We suggest that the increase in δ18O values represents, at least in part, an increase in global ice volume that lowered sea level and contributed to the establishment of a negative

  15. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  16. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  17. Calpionellid zonation of the Jurassic Cretaceous transition in North-Atlasic Tunisia. Updated Upper Jurassic stratigraphy of the `Tunisian trough' and regional correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Sallouhi, Houaïda; Maâlaoui, Kamel; Soussi, Mohamed; Cordey, Fabrice

    2006-12-01

    The analysis of calpionellid associations from jebels Amar and Jédidi sections in North-Atlasic Tunisia provides, for the first time, a precise biozonation of the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition succession. In the light of the new data obtained and considering recently published results, the age of Upper Jurassic formations is clarified, allowing correlations with the Tunisian 'Dorsale' and the North-South Axis successions. Within the Maghrebides' range, sections from the external zones correlated to the Tunisian successions are quite distinctive from their equivalent in the internal zones. Both have evolved in different palaeogeographic domains related to the early structuration of the northwestern and southwestern Tethys margins. To cite this article: M. Boughdiri et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  18. MML 53: a new low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary in the Upper Centaurus-Lupus region discovered by SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, L.; Stempels, H. C.; Aigrain, S.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pollacco, D.; Street, R. A.; Wilson, D. M.; Stassun, K. G.

    2010-11-01

    We announce the discovery of a new low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary, MML 53. Previous observations of MML 53 found it to be a pre-main sequence spectroscopic multiple associated with the 15-22 Myr Upper Centaurus-Lupus cluster. We identify the object as an eclipsing binary for the first time through the analysis of multiple seasons of time series photometry from the SuperWASP transiting planet survey. Re-analysis of a single archive spectrum shows MML 53 to be a spatially unresolved triple system of young stars which all exhibit significant lithium absorption. Two of the components comprise an eclipsing binary with period, P = 2.097891(6) ± 0.000005 and mass ratio, q ~ 0.8. Here, we present the analysis of the discovery data.

  19. Regional porosity trends of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in southwestern Alabama and vicinity, with comparisons to formations of other basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.; Schenk, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone porosity of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation decreases systematically as depth and thermal maturity increase over a wide range. Median porosity is about 25% where equivalent vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is slightly over 0.7% in the northern part of the study area (Clarke County, Mississippi). Median porosity is reduced to 8% where Ro approaches 2.7% in the southern part of the study area. Based on the comparisons at similar Ro levels, median (50th-percentile) Norphlet porosity exceeds porosities of "typical' sandstones in other basins by more than a factor of two throughout the study area. Even the lower (10th-percentile) Norphlet porosities are higher than median porosities of sandstones in general. -from Authors

  20. The 3'-terminal region of the mRNAs for VSG and procyclin can confer stage specificity to gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Berberof, M; Vanhamme, L; Tebabi, P; Pays, A; Jefferies, D; Welburn, S; Pays, E

    1995-06-15

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin are the respective major surface antigens of the bloodstream and the procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei. These proteins and their mRNAs are both the most abundant and absolutely characteristic of their respective life cycle stages. We show that the 3'-terminal region of these mRNAs regulates expression of a reporter gene in an inverse manner, depending on the developmental form of the parasite. In the case of VSG mRNA, the 97 nt sequence upstream from the polyadenylation site is responsible for these effects. The regulation occurs through a variation of mRNA abundance which is not due to a change in primary transcription. In the bloodstream form this effect is manifested by an increase in RNA stability, whereas in the procyclic form it seems to be related to a reduction in the efficiency of mRNA maturation. The 3'-end of VSG mRNA can obviate the 5- to 10-fold stimulation of transcription driven by the procyclin promoter during differentiation from the bloodstream to the procyclic form. The predominance of posttranscriptional over transcriptional controls is probably linked to the organization of the trypanosome genome in polycistronic transcription units.

  1. Radionuclides And Heavy Metals Pollution Of The Bottom Sediments Of The Reservoir At Dzierzno Duze Near The Upper Silesia Region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelany, A.; Tuszynski, M.; Kostecki, M.

    2007-02-01

    The Dzierzno Duze lake is big artificial reservoir on Klodnica river which goes through the Silesia region, the most industrial area in Poland. The mine waters and other industrial pollution were collected in the sediments in this lake for years. There are plan to give people of the region clean and beautiful lake for leisure activities, so, the global chemical, biological and radiological measurements were done for the reservoir. These samples have been taken from water, bottom sediments (7 points). The concentration of radionuclides was measured by high sensitive gamma spectrometry technique with semiconductor detector HPGe type. The heavy metals were evaluated by ASA method.

  2. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  3. Analysis of spatial pattern Change of LU/LC over the upper Tarim River region since 1990 using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L. Y.; Feng, J. Z.; Ma, Y. X.; Ran, Q. Y.; Wang, K.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The upper reaches of Tarim River (URTR) is an important port of trade between China and central Asia. The development of the URTR is thus significant for the SREB initiative. The LU/LC data in the URTR from 1990 to 2015 were used to quantitatively explore the dynamics of LU/LC changes, and its driving force was discussed from two aspects of nature and human. Results showed that the unused land and grassland were the main land use types in this area, accounting for more than 79%. Compared with the data of 1990, the areas of woodland, water, farmland, and building land of 2015 increased with 3.24%, 6.53%, 10.57%, and 0.40%, respectively, and the areas of unused land and grassland decreased, which accounted for 53.25% and 26.01%, respectively. The increases of the woodland and farmland areas mainly is originated from grassland and unused land. The woodland increased sharply around 2000 due to the abundant water during the period between 1998 and 2000. Subsequently, part of the woodland was shifted into the farmland. The extension of building land wasn’t obvious, but showed a salient feature of population urbanization. It was essential that the LU/LC patterns of the URTR were deeply influenced by human farming and living activities.

  4. Regional porosity trends of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in southwestern Alabama and vicinity, with comparisons to formations of other basins

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoker, J.W.; Schenk, C.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Sandstone porosity of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in southwestern Alabama and vicinity decreases systematically as depth and thermal maturity increase over a wide range. Median porosity is about 25% where equivalent vitrinite reflectance (R[sub o]) is slightly over 0.7% in the northern part of the study area (Clarke County, Mississippi). Median porosity is reduced to 8% where R[sub o] approaches 2.7% in the southern part of the study area (state waters of Mobile Bay). Porosity of the cemented, tight zone at the top of the Norphlet in downdip locations is roughly 10% lower than porosities of facies underlying the tight zone, but nevertheless is slightly above the norm for other sandstones at similar R[sub o] levels. Porosity of dune facies is consistently 2-5% higher than that of interdune facies, other factors being equal. Our data show 3-6% higher porosity in chlorite-dominated intervals relative to intervals where illite is the dominant clay mineral. Norphlet porosity has little or no correlation with position relative to the present-day hydrocarbon-water contact. Based on comparisons at similar R[sub o] levels, median (50th-percentile) Norphlet porosity exceeds porosities of [open quotes]typical[close quotes] sandstones in other basins by more than a factor of two throughout the study area. Even the lower (10th-percentile) Norphlet porosities are higher than median porosities of sandstones in general. 48 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Late glacial 10Be ages for glacial landforms in the upper region of the Taibai glaciation in the Qinling Mountain range, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liang; Chen, Yixin; Liu, Beibei; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Glacial landforms are well preserved on Taibai Mountain (3767 m), the main peak of the Qinling mountain range located south of the Loess Plateau and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The timing and extent of Quaternary glaciation in the study area is important for reconstructing Quaternary environmental change however numerical ages for glaciation in this study area have not previously been well resolved. Using terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides we dated four samples collected from two glacially eroded rock steps in the upper part of a valley near the main peak, in an area previously identified as havin