Locating and Modeling Regional Earthquakes with Broadband Waveform Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Y.; Zhu, L.; Helmberger, D.
2003-12-01
Retrieving source parameters of small earthquakes (Mw < 4.5), including mechanism, depth, location and origin time, relies on local and regional seismic data. Although source characterization for such small events achieves a satisfactory stage in some places with a dense seismic network, such as TriNet, Southern California, a worthy revisit to the historical events in these places or an effective, real-time investigation of small events in many other places, where normally only a few local waveforms plus some short-period recordings are available, is still a problem. To address this issue, we introduce a new type of approach that estimates location, depth, origin time and fault parameters based on 3-component waveform matching in terms of separated Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves. We show that most local waveforms can be well modeled by a regionalized 1-D model plus different timing corrections for Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves at relatively long periods, i.e., 4-100 sec for Pnl, and 8-100 sec for surface waves, except for few anomalous paths involving greater structural complexity, meanwhile, these timing corrections reveal similar azimuthal patterns for well-located cluster events, despite their different focal mechanisms. Thus, we can calibrate the paths separately for Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves with the timing corrections from well-determined events widely recorded by a dense modern seismic network or a temporary PASSCAL experiment. In return, we can locate events and extract their fault parameters by waveform matching for available waveform data, which could be as less as from two stations, assuming timing corrections from the calibration. The accuracy of the obtained source parameters is subject to the error carried by the events used for the calibration. The detailed method requires a Green_s function library constructed from a regionalized 1-D model together with necessary calibration information, and adopts a grid search strategy for both hypercenter and
Bredbeck, T; Rodgers, A; Walter, W
1999-07-23
The velocity structures and source parameters estimated by waveform modeling provide valuable information for CTBT monitoring. The inferred crustal and uppermost mantle structures advance understanding of tectonics and guides regionalization for event location and identification efforts. Estimation of source parameters such as seismic moment, depth and mechanism (whether earthquake, explosion or collapse) is crucial to event identification. In this paper we briefly outline some of the waveform modeling research for CTBT monitoring performed in the last year. In the future we will estimate structure for new regions by modeling waveforms of large well-observed events along additional paths. Of particular interest will be the estimation of velocity structure in aseismic regions such as most of Africa and the Former Soviet Union. Our previous work on aseismic regions in the Middle East, north Africa and south Asia give us confidence to proceed with our current methods. Using the inferred velocity models we plan to estimate source parameters for smaller events. It is especially important to obtain seismic moments of earthquakes for use in applying the Magnitude-Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC; Taylor et al., 1999) to regional body-wave amplitudes for discrimination and calibrating the coda-based magnitude scales.
Pacific slab beneath northeast China revealed by regional and teleseismic waveform modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
WANG, X.; Chen, Q. F.; Wei, S.
2015-12-01
Accurate velocity and geometry of the slab is essential for better understanding of the thermal, chemical structure of the mantle earth, as well as geodynamics. Recent tomography studies show similar morphology of the subducting Pacific slab beneath northeast China, which was stagnant in the mantle transition zone with thickness of more than 200km and an average velocity perturbation of ~1.5% [Fukao and Obayashi, 2013]. Meanwhile, waveform-modeling studies reveal that the Pacific slab beneath Japan and Kuril Island has velocity perturbation up to 5% and thickness up to 90km [Chen et al., 2007; Zhan et al., 2014]. These discrepancies are probably caused by the smoothing and limited data coverage in the tomographic inversions. Here we adopted 1D and 2D waveform modeling methods to study the fine structure of Pacific slab beneath northeast China using dense regional permanent and temporary broadband seismic records. The residual S- and P-wave travel time, difference between data and 1D synthetics, shows significant difference between the eastern and western stations. S-wave travel time residuals indicate 5-10s earlier arrivals for stations whose ray path lies within the slab, compared with those out of the slab. Teleseimic waveforms were used to rule out the major contribution of the possible low velocity structure above 200km. Furthermore, we use 2D finite-difference waveform modeling to confirm the velocity perturbation and geometry of the slab. Our result shows that the velocity perturbation in the slab is significantly higher than those reported in travel-time tomography studies. ReferencesChen, M., J. Tromp, D. Helmberger, and H. Kanamori (2007), Waveform modeling of the slab beneath Japan, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 112(B2), 19, doi:10.1029/2006jb004394.Fukao, Y., and M. Obayashi (2013), Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 118(11), 5920-5938, doi:10.1002/2013jb010466
Rupture model of the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake from teleseismic and regional waveforms
Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Zeng, Yuehua
2013-01-01
We independently invert teleseismic P waveforms and regional crustal phases to examine the finite fault slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. Theoretical and empirical Green's functions are used for the teleseismic and regional models, respectively. Both solutions show two distinct sources each about 2 km across and separated by 2.5 km. The source at the hypocenter is more localized in the regional model leading to a higher peak slip of 130 cm and higher average stress drop of 250 bars compared with 86 cm and 150 bars for the same source in the teleseismic model. Both sources are centered at approximately 8 km depth in the regional model, largely below the aftershock distribution. In the teleseismic model, the sources extend updip to approximately 6 km depth, into the depth range of the aftershocks. The rupture velocity is not well resolved but appears to be near 2.7 km/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swenson, Jennifer Lyn
We use broadband regional waveform modeling of earthquakes in the central Andes to determine seismic properties of the Altiplano crust. Properties of the shear-coupled P-wavetrain (SPL ) from intermediate-depth events provide particularly important information about the structure of the crust. We utilize broadband seismic data recorded at the BANJO and SEDA stations, and synthetic seismograms computed with a reflectivity technique to study the sensitivity of SPL to crustal and upper mantle parameters at regional distances. We find that the long-period SPL-wavetrain is most sensitive to crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios, average crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. A comprehensive grid search method developed to investigate these four parameters suggests that although trade-offs exist between model parameters, models of the Altiplano which provide the best fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust. We apply our grid search technique and sensitivity analysis results to model the full waveforms from 6 intermediate-depth and 2 shallow-focus earthquakes recorded at regional distances by BANJO and SEDA stations. Results suggest that the Altiplano crust is much thicker (55--65 km) and slower (5.75--6.25 km/s) than global average values. Low crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios together with the lack of evidence for a high-velocity lower crust suggests a bulk felsic crustal composition, resulting in an overall weak crust. Our results favor a model of crustal thickening involving large-scale tectonic shortening of a predominantly felsic crust. To better understand the mechanics of earthquake rupture along the South American subduction zone, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic P-waves and utilize single- and multi-station inversion techniques to constrain source characteristics for the 12 November 1996 Peru subduction zone earthquake. Aftershock locations, intensity reports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ökeler, Ahmet; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Steckler, Michael S.
2009-09-01
We investigate the crust and upper-mantle structures beneath the southern Apennine mountain chain using three-component seismograms from the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) array. Surface wave waveforms from three moderate-sized (Mw > 5.0) regional earthquakes are modelled using multiple frequencies (0.03-0.06 and 0.05-0.2 Hz) and both forward and linearized-inversion algorithms. Our best-fitting shear velocity models clearly reflect the major tectonic units where, for example, the average seismic structure at depths above 50 km beneath Apulia is substantially faster than beneath the Apennine mountain chain. We identify a prominent low-velocity channel under the mountain belt at depths below ~25-30 km and a secondary low-velocity zone at 6-12 km depth near Mt Vulture (a once active volcano). Speed variations between Love and Rayleigh waves provide further constraints on the fabric and dynamic processes. Our analysis indicates that the crustal low-velocity zones are highly anisotropic (maximum 14 per cent) and allow transversely polarized shear waves to travel faster than vertically polarized shear waves. The upper crustal anomaly reveals a layer of highly deformed rocks caused by past collisions and by the active normal faults cutting across the thrust sheets, whereas hot mantle upwelling may be responsible for a high-temperature, partially molten lower crust beneath the southern Apennines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikia, C. K.; Woods, B. B.; Thio, H. K.
-wave path to the surface and becomes critical, developing a head wave by S to P conversion is also indicative of depth. The detailed characteristic of this phase is controlled by the crustal waveguide. The key to calibrating regionalized crustal velocity structure is to determine depths for a set of master events by applying the above methods and then by modeling characteristic features that are recorded on the regional waveforms. The regionalization scheme can also incorporate mixed-path crustal waveguide models for cases in which seismic waves traverse two or more distinctly different crustal structures. We also demonstrate that once depths are established, we need only two-stations travel-time data to obtain reliable epicentral locations using a new adaptive grid-search technique which yields locations similar to those determined using travel-time data from local seismic networks with better azimuthal coverage.
Waveform Tomography of the North Atlantic Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celli, Nicolas Luca; Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Gaina, Carmen
2016-04-01
The enormous volumes of newly available, broadband seismic data and the continuing development of waveform tomography techniques present us with an opportunity to resolve the structure of North Atlantic at a new level of detail. Dynamics of the North Atlantic Ridge and the Iceland Hotspot, evolution of the passive margins on both sides of the ocean, and the nature of the upper-mantle flow beneath the region are some of the important fundamental problems that we can make progress on using new, more detailed and accurate models of seismic structure and anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We assemble a very large waveform dataset including all publicly available data in the region, from both permanent and temporary seismic networks and experiments conducted in Northern and Western Europe, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greenland and Russia. The tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations with respect to a 3D reference velocity model within an approximate sensitivity region between the source and the receiver. The equations are then combined into a large linear system and jointly inverted for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds reflect the temperature and composition at depth, offering important new information on both regional- and basin-scale lithospheric structure and evolution. Azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region, which can be interpreted together with other evidence from geological and geophysical data and recent plate kinematic models.
Seismic Waveform Tomography of the Iranian Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Jackson, J.
2001-05-01
Surprisingly little is known about the detailed velocity structure of Iran, despite the region's importance in the tectonics of the Middle East. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on fundamental mode surface wave dispersion measurements along isolated paths (e.g.~Asudeh, 1982; Cong & Mitchell, 1998; Ritzwoller et.~al, 1998), and the propagation characteristics of crust and upper mantle body waves (e.g. Hearn & Ni 1994; Rodgers et.~al 1997). We use the partitioned waveform inversion method of Nolet (1990) on several hundred regional waveforms crossing the Iranian region to produce a 3-D seismic velocity map for the crust and upper mantle of the area. The method consists of using long period seismograms from earthquakes with well determined focal mechanisms and depths to constrain 1-D path-averaged shear wave models along regional paths. The constraints imposed on the 1-D models by the seismograms are then combined with independent constraints from other methods (e.g.~Moho depths from reciever function analysis etc.), to solve for the 3-D seismic velocity structure of the region. A dense coverage of fundamental mode rayleigh waves at a period of 100~s ensures good resolution of lithospheric scale structure. We also use 20~s period fundamental mode rayleigh waves and some Pnl wavetrains to make estimates of crustal thickness variations and average crustal velocities. A few deeper events give us some coverage of higher mode rayleigh waves and mantle S waves, which sample to the base of the upper mantle. Our crustal thickness estimates range from 45~km in the southern Zagros mountains, to 40~km in central Iran and 35~km towards the north of the region. We also find inconsistencies between the 1-D models required to fit the vertical and the tranverse seismograms, indicating the presence of anisotropy.
Assessing Accuracy of Waveform Models against Numerical Relativity Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pürrer, Michael; LVC Collaboration
2016-03-01
We compare currently available phenomenological and effective-one-body inspiral-merger-ringdown models for gravitational waves (GW) emitted from coalescing black hole binaries against a set of numerical relativity waveforms from the SXS collaboration. Simplifications are used in the construction of some waveform models, such as restriction to spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, no inclusion of higher harmonics in the GW radiation, no modeling of eccentricity and the use of effective parameters to describe spin precession. In contrast, NR waveforms provide us with a high fidelity representation of the ``true'' waveform modulo small numerical errors. To focus on systematics we inject NR waveforms into zero noise for early advanced LIGO detector sensitivity at a moderately optimistic signal-to-noise ratio. We discuss where in the parameter space the above modeling assumptions lead to noticeable biases in recovered parameters.
Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.
1997-10-01
Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George
2000-01-01
We have modeled the full waveforms from six intermediate-depth and two shallow earthquakes recorded at regional distances by the BANJO Broadband Andean Joint Experiment (BANJO) and Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano (SEDA) portable seismic networks in the central Andes. In this study we utilize data from those BANJO and SEDA stations located within the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. We used reflectivity synthetic seismograms and a grid search to constrain four parameters of the Altiplano-Eastern Cordillera lithosphere: crustal thickness, average crustal velocity (Vp), and crustal and upper mantle Poisson's ratios (σcrust and σmantle). Using our grid search, we investigated the crustal and upper mantle structure along 36 individual event station paths and applied forward modeling to 56 event station paths. Robust models for the Altiplano that provide the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by an average Vp of 5.75-6.25 km/s, crustal thicknesses of 60-65 km, σcrust = 0.25, and σmantle = 0.27-0.29. We find a north-south variation in the structure of the Altiplano, with the crust south of the BANJO transect characterized by either lower than average crustal P wave velocities or a slightly higher σcrust relative to crust north of the BANJO transect. These results are consistent with a model of crustal thickening caused predominantly by tectonic shortening of felsic crust, rather than by underplating or magmatic intrusion from the mantle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggi, A.; Tromp, J.; Debayle, E.; Barruol, G.
2005-12-01
We present an anisotropic Sv-wave speed tomographic model for the Pacific Ocean region derived from multi-mode waveform inversion of more than 56,000 vertical component seismograms. Most of the data are from the Global Seismic Network, but we include important data from ten broadband seismographs deployed in French Polynesia as part of the Polynesian Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Experiment. This extra data has improved lateral resolution in the south Pacific region, leading to the identification of localized, vertically trending low velocity anomalies associated with the Society and Macdonald hot-spots. An age-dependent average cross-section of our tomographic model shows the lithosphere thickening and cooling with increasing age as predicted by a purely diffusive cooling mechanism. The tomography was performed assuming 2D frequency-independent Gaussian-shaped sensitivity kernels around the surface wave ray-paths, and ray-theoretical depth dependence of the surface wave sensitivity. We validate the 3D tomographic model by calculating full 3D synthetic seismograms using the spectral element method. We estimate the quality of our tomographic inversion by making multi-taper phase and amplitude measurements of the differences between observed seismograms and 3D synthetics. Preliminary inversion of such measurements made on fundamental mode surface waves indicates that the residual discrepancies between our 3D tomographic model and the real Earth structure are localized in regions of strong upper mantle heterogeneity (e.g. subduction zones), for which the ray-theoretical approximations made during the tomographic inversion are most likely to break down.
Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms
Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen
2014-01-01
The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3–5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.
Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen
2014-06-01
The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3-5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.
Seismic waveform modeling over cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.
Lamb, Frederick K.; Boutloukos, Stratos; Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Chamberlain, Robert T.; Lo, Ka Ho; Clare, Alexander; Yu Wenfei; Miller, M. Coleman
2009-11-20
We investigate further a model of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars we proposed earlier. In this model, the X-ray-emitting regions of these pulsars are near their spin axes but move. This is to be expected if the magnetic poles of these stars are close to their spin axes, so that accreting gas is channeled there. As the accretion rate and the structure of the inner disk vary, gas is channeled along different field lines to different locations on the stellar surface, causing the X-ray-emitting areas to move. We show that this 'nearly aligned moving spot model' can explain many properties of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, including their generally low oscillation amplitudes and nearly sinusoidal waveforms; the variability of their pulse amplitudes, shapes, and phases; the correlations in this variability; and the similarity of the accretion- and nuclear-powered pulse shapes and phases in some. It may also explain why accretion-powered millisecond pulsars are difficult to detect, why some are intermittent, and why all detected so far are transients. This model can be tested by comparing with observations the waveform changes it predicts, including the changes with accretion rate.
Modeling measured glottal volume velocity waveforms.
Verneuil, Andrew; Berry, David A; Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R; Ye, Ming; Berke, Gerald S
2003-02-01
The source-filter theory of speech production describes a glottal energy source (volume velocity waveform) that is filtered by the vocal tract and radiates from the mouth as phonation. The characteristics of the volume velocity waveform, the source that drives phonation, have been estimated, but never directly measured at the glottis. To accomplish this measurement, constant temperature anemometer probes were used in an in vivo canine constant pressure model of phonation. A 3-probe array was positioned supraglottically, and an endoscopic camera was positioned subglottically. Simultaneous recordings of airflow velocity (using anemometry) and glottal area (using stroboscopy) were made in 3 animals. Glottal airflow velocities and areas were combined to produce direct measurements of glottal volume velocity waveforms. The anterior and middle parts of the glottis contributed significantly to the volume velocity waveform, with less contribution from the posterior part of the glottis. The measured volume velocity waveforms were successfully fitted to a well-known laryngeal airflow model. A noninvasive measured volume velocity waveform holds promise for future clinical use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John
1999-01-01
In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.
Full-waveform inversion of the Japanese Islands region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SimutÄ--, SaulÄ--; Steptoe, Hamish; Cobden, Laura; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-05-01
We present a full-waveform tomographic model of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Japanese Islands region. This is based on the combination of GPU-accelerated spectral-element wavefield simulations, adjoint techniques, and nonlinear optimization. Our model explains complete seismic waveforms of events not used in the inversion in the period range from 20 to 80 s. Quantitative resolution analysis indicates that resolution lengths within the well-covered areas are around 150 km in the horizontal and around 30 km in the vertical directions. In addition to the high-velocity signatures of known lithospheric slabs in the region, our model reveals a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the volcanic island of Ulleung in the Sea of Japan, reaching -19% around 100 km depth. The Ulleung anomaly originates at or above the Pacific slab, rises vertically upward to the base of the Philippine Sea slab at ˜200 km depth, circumvents it in NW direction, and then significantly strengthens in the uppermost mantle above the Philippine Sea slab. Among the numerous hypotheses for the generation of low-velocity anomalies in subduction systems, those invoking instabilities before or when a slab enters the transition zone seem most likely. The age and fast subduction of the Pacific slab may facilitate the transport of fluids into the transition zone. This may promote the reduction in viscosity and the onset of convective upwelling, aided by ambient mantle flow, such as return flow within the mantle wedge.
Radar altimeter waveform modeled parameter recovery. [SEASAT-1 data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Satellite-borne radar altimeters include waveform sampling gates providing point samples of the transmitted radar pulse after its scattering from the ocean's surface. Averages of the waveform sampler data can be fitted by varying parameters in a model mean return waveform. The theoretical waveform model used is described as well as a general iterative nonlinear least squares procedures used to obtain estimates of parameters characterizing the modeled waveform for SEASAT-1 data. The six waveform parameters recovered by the fitting procedure are: (1) amplitude; (2) time origin, or track point; (3) ocean surface rms roughness; (4) noise baseline; (5) ocean surface skewness; and (6) altitude or off-nadir angle. Additional practical processing considerations are addressed and FORTRAN source listing for subroutines used in the waveform fitting are included. While the description is for the Seasat-1 altimeter waveform data analysis, the work can easily be generalized and extended to other radar altimeter systems.
Seismic Structure of India from Regional Waveform Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.
2003-12-01
We use a neighborhood adaptive grid search procedure and reflectivity synthetics to model regional distance range (500-2000~km) seismograms recorded in India and to determine the variation in the crust and uppermost mantle structure across the subcontinent. The portions of the regional waveform which are most influenced by the crust and uppermost mantle structure are the 10-100~s period Pnl and fundamental mode surface waves. We use the adaptive grid search algorithm to match both portions of the seismogram simultaneously. This procedure results in a family of 1-D path average crust and upper mantle velocity and attenuation models whose propagation characteristics closely match those of the real Earth. Our data set currently consist of ˜20 seismograms whose propagation paths are primarily confined to the Ganges Basin in north India and the East Dharwar Craton of south India. The East Dharwar Craton has a simple and uniform structure consisting of a 36+/-2 km thick two layer crust, and an uppermost mantle with a sub-Moho velocity of 4.5~km/s. The structure of northern India is more complicated, with pronounced low velocities in the upper crustal layer due to the large sediment thicknesses in the Ganges basin.
Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.
2001-12-01
Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations
An adaptive subspace trust-region method for frequency-domain seismic full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Huan; Li, Xiaofan; Song, Hanjie; Liu, Shaolin
2015-05-01
Full waveform inversion is currently considered as a promising seismic imaging method to obtain high-resolution and quantitative images of the subsurface. It is a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem, the main difficulty of which that prevents the full waveform inversion from widespread applying to real data is the sensitivity to incorrect initial models and noisy data. Local optimization theories including Newton's method and gradient method always lead the convergence to local minima, while global optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing are computationally costly. To confront this issue, in this paper we investigate the possibility of applying the trust-region method to the full waveform inversion problem. Different from line search methods, trust-region methods force the new trial step within a certain neighborhood of the current iterate point. Theoretically, the trust-region methods are reliable and robust, and they have very strong convergence properties. The capability of this inversion technique is tested with the synthetic Marmousi velocity model and the SEG/EAGE Salt model. Numerical examples demonstrate that the adaptive subspace trust-region method can provide solutions closer to the global minima compared to the conventional Approximate Hessian approach and the L-BFGS method with a higher convergence rate. In addition, the match between the inverted model and the true model is still excellent even when the initial model deviates far from the true model. Inversion results with noisy data also exhibit the remarkable capability of the adaptive subspace trust-region method for low signal-to-noise data inversions. Promising numerical results suggest this adaptive subspace trust-region method is suitable for full waveform inversion, as it has stronger convergence and higher convergence rate.
2007-09-01
successfully for global and regional mantle tomography at Berkeley since 1995. In the subregion of study, our “N-Born” model is parameterized at...waveforms, Geophys. J. Int. 143: 709–728. Panning, M. and B. Romanowicz (2004). Inferences on flow at the base of Earth’s mantle based on seismic...CALIBRATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL UPPER MANTLE STRUCTURE IN EURASIA USING REGIONAL AND TELESEISMIC FULL WAVEFORM SEISMIC DATA Barbara Romanowicz1
Adjoint Tomography of Taiwan Region: From Travel-Time Toward Waveform Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, H. H.; Lee, S. J.; Tromp, J.
2014-12-01
The complicated tectonic environment such as Taiwan region can modulate the seismic waveform severely and hamper the discrimination and the utilization of later phases. Restricted to the use of only first arrivals of P- and S-wave, the travel-time tomographic models of Taiwan can simulate the seismic waveform barely to a frequency of 0.2 Hz to date. While it has been sufficient for long-period studies, e.g. source inversion, this frequency band is still far from the applications to the community and high-resolution studies. To achieve a higher-frequency simulation, more data and the considerations of off-path and finite-frequency effects are necessary. Based on the spectral-element and the adjoint method recently developed, we prepared 94 MW 3.5-6.0 earthquakes with well-defined location and focal mechanism solutions from Real-Time Moment Tensor Monitoring System (RMT), and preformed an iterative gradient-based inversion employing waveform modeling and finite-frequency measurements of adjoint method. By which the 3-D sensitivity kernels are taken into account realistically and the full waveform information are naturally sought, without a need of any phase pick. A preliminary model m003 using 10-50 sec data was demonstrated and compared with previous travel-time models. The primary difference appears in the mountainous area, where the previous travel-time model may underestimate the S-wave speed in the upper crust, but overestimates in the lower crust.
Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel
2014-07-01
We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mcfit) online operations, where cfit denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m ≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 105M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in generating new waveforms with a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas; Hicks, Steve; Fuenzalida Velasco, Amaya; Casarotti, Emanuele; Spinuso, Alessandro
2015-04-01
The VERCE platform is an online portal that allows full waveform simulations to be run for any region where a suitable velocity model exists. We use this facility to simulate the waveforms from aftershock earthquakes from the 2014 Pisagua earthquake, and 2010 Maule earthquake that occurred at the subduction zone mega thrust in Northern and Central Chile respectively. Simulations are performed using focal mechanisms from both global earthquake catalogues, and regional earthquake catalogues. The VERCE platform supports specFEM Cartesian, and simulations are run using meshes produced by CUBIT. The full waveform modelling techniques supported on the VERCE platform are used to test the validity of a number of subduction zone velocity models from the Chilean subduction zone. For the Maule earthquake we use a 2D and 3D travel time tomography model of the rupture area (Hicks et al. 2011; 2014). For the Pisagua earthquake we test a 2D/3D composite velocity model based on tomographic studies of the region (e.g. Husen et al. 2000, Contreyes-Reyes et al. 2012) and slab1.0 (Hayes et al. 2012). Focal mechanisms from the cGMT catalogue and local focal mechanisms calculated using ISOLA (e.g. Agurto et al. 2012) are used in the simulations. The waveforms produced are directly compared to waveforms recorded on the temporary deployment for the Maule earthquake aftershocks, and waveforms recorded on the IPOC network for the Pisagua earthquake aftershocks. This work demonstrates how the VERCE platform allows waveforms from the full 3D simulations to be easily produced, allowing us to quantify the validity of both the velocity model and the source mechanisms. These simulations therefore provide an independent test of the velocity models produced synthetically and by travel time tomography studies. Initial results show that the waveform is reasonably well reproduced in the 0.05 - 0.25 frequency band using a refined 3D travel time tomography, and locally calculated focal mechanisms.
Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-26
One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.
A Study of Regional Waveform Calibration in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Luccio, F.; Pino, A.; Thio, H.
2002-12-01
We modeled Pnl phases from several moderate magnitude events in the eastern Mediterranean to test methods and to develop path calibrations for source determination. The study region spanning from the eastern part of the Hellenic arc to the eastern Anatolian fault is mostly interested by moderate earthquakes, that can produce relevant damages. The selected area consists of several tectonic environment, which produces increased level of difficulty in waveform modeling. The results of this study are useful for the analysis of regional seismicity and for seismic hazard as well, in particular because very few broadband seismic stations are available in the selected area. The obtained velocity model gives a 30 km crustal tickness and low upper mantle velocities. The applied inversion procedure to determine the source mechanism has been successful, also in terms of discrimination of depth, for the entire range of selected paths. We conclude that using the true calibration of the seismic structure and high quality broadband data, it is possible to determine the seismic source in terms of mechanism, even with a single station.
A radio-frequency sheath model for complex waveforms
Turner, M. M.; Chabert, P.
2014-04-21
Plasma sheaths driven by radio-frequency voltages occur in contexts ranging from plasma processing to magnetically confined fusion experiments. An analytical understanding of such sheaths is therefore important, both intrinsically and as an element in more elaborate theoretical structures. Radio-frequency sheaths are commonly excited by highly anharmonic waveforms, but no analytical model exists for this general case. We present a mathematically simple sheath model that is in good agreement with earlier models for single frequency excitation, yet can be solved for arbitrary excitation waveforms. As examples, we discuss dual-frequency and pulse-like waveforms. The model employs the ansatz that the time-averaged electron density is a constant fraction of the ion density. In the cases we discuss, the error introduced by this approximation is small, and in general it can be quantified through an internal consistency condition of the model. This simple and accurate model is likely to have wide application.
Preliminary Results of Full Seismic Waveform Tomography for Sea of Marmara Region (NW Turkey)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ÇUBUK, Y.; Fichtner, A.; Taymaz, T.
2014-12-01
The Marmara and Northwestern Anatolia regions are known to be a transition zone from the strike-slip tectonics to the extensional tectonics. Although, the Sea of Marmara has been subjected to several active and passive seismic investigations, the accurate knowledge on the heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the study area still remains enigmatic. On small-scale tomography problems, seismograms strongly reflect the effects of heterogeneities and the scattering properties of the Earth. Thus, the knowledge of high-resolution seismic imaging with an improved 3D radially anisotropic crustal model of the Northwestern Anatolia will enable better localization of earthquakes, identification of faults as well as the improvement of the seismic hazard assessment. For this purpose, 3D non-linear full waveform inversion methodology has been used to obtain an accurate image of the lithosphere and the upper-most mantle structure over an area of 37.5˚-42˚ N and 25˚-32˚ E and down to a depth of 471 km. The earthquake data were principally obtained from the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and Earthquake Research Center (AFAD-DAD) database. In addition to this, some of the seismic waveform data extracted from the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) stations that are located within our study region were also used in this study. We have selected and simulated the waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ≥ 4 occurred in the period of 2007-2014. In total, 3002 three-component regional seismograms from 95 events were used. The initial 3D earth model for the study region has been implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). The synthetic seismograms were computed with forward modeling of seismic wave propagation by using spectral elements method (SEM). The complete waveforms were filtered at 8-100 seconds. The adjoint method is used to compute sensitivity kernels. The differences between
Depths of Intraplate Indian Ocean Earthquakes from Waveform Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baca, A. J.; Polet, J.
2014-12-01
The Indian Ocean is a region of complex tectonics and anomalous seismicity. The ocean floor in this region exhibits many bathymetric features, most notably the multiple inactive fracture zones within the Wharton Basin and the Ninetyeast Ridge. The 11 April 2012 MW 8.7 and 8.2 strike-slip events that took place in this area are unique because their rupture appears to have extended to a depth where brittle failure, and thus seismic activity, was considered to be impossible. We analyze multiple intraplate earthquakes that have occurred throughout the Indian Ocean to better constrain their focal depths in order to enhance our understanding of how deep intraplate events are occurring and more importantly determine if the ruptures are originating within a ductile regime. Selected events are located within the Indian Ocean away from major plate boundaries. A majority are within the deforming Indo-Australian tectonic plate. Events primarily display thrust mechanisms with some strike-slip or a combination of the two. All events are between MW5.5-6.5. Event selections were handled this way in order to facilitate the analysis of teleseismic waveforms using a point source approximation. From these criteria we gathered a suite of 15 intraplate events. Synthetic seismograms of direct P-waves and depth phases are computed using a 1-D propagator matrix approach and compared with global teleseismic waveform data to determine a best depth for each event. To generate our synthetic seismograms we utilized the CRUST1.0 software, a global crustal model that generates velocity values at the hypocenter of our events. Our waveform analysis results reveal that our depths diverge from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) depths, which underestimate our deep lithosphere events and overestimate our shallow depths by as much as 17 km. We determined a depth of 45km for our deepest event. We will show a comparison of our final earthquake depths with the lithospheric thickness based on
A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Daniel; Huerta, Eliu; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela
2017-01-01
We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model for black hole binaries with mass-ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. We use this model to show that the gravitational wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914 <= 0 . 15 and e0GW 151226 <= 0 . 1 .
Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan
2016-01-01
In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.
Full waveform modelling and misfit calculation using the VERCE platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, Thomas; Spinuso, Alessandro; Casarotti, Emanuele; Magnoni, Federica; Krischner, Lion; Igel, Heiner; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Frank, Anton; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Rietbrock, Andreas
2016-04-01
In recent years the increasing resolution of seismic imagining by full waveform inversion has opened new research perspectives and practices. These methods rely on harnessing the computational power of large supercomputers and new storage capabilities, to run large parallel codes to simulate the seismic wave field in three-dimensional geological settings. The VERCE platform is designed to make these full waveform techniques accessible to a far wider spectrum of the seismological community. VERCE empowers a broad base of seismology researchers to harvest the new opportunities provided by well-established high-performance wave simulation codes such as SPECFEM3D. It meets a range of seismic research needs by eliminating the technical difficulties associated with using these codes, allowing users to focus on their research questions. VERCE delivers this power to seismologists through its science gateway, supporting wave simulation codes on each of the provided computing resources. Users can design their waveform simulation scenarios making use of a library of pre-loaded meshes and velocity models, and services for selecting earthquake focal mechanisms, seismic stations and recorded waveforms from existing catalogues, such as the GCMT catalogue, and FDSN data sources. They can also supply their own mesh, velocity model, earthquake catalogue and seismic observations. They can submit the simulations onto different computing resources, where VERCE provides codes that are tuned and supported for those resources. The simulations can currently be run on a range of European supercomputers in the PRACE network, including superMUC at LRZ, GALILEO at CINECA and on selected resources like Drachenfels at SCAI and within the EGI network. The gateway automates and looks after all these stages, but supplies seismologists with a provenance system that allows them to manage a large series of runs, review progress, and explore the results. The platform automates misfit analysis between
A study of regional waveform calibration in the eastern Mediterranean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Luccio, F.; Pino, N. A.; Thio, H. K.
2003-06-01
We modeled P nl phases from several moderate magnitude earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean to test methods and develop path calibrations for determining source parameters. The study region, which extends from the eastern part of the Hellenic arc to the eastern Anatolian fault, is dominated by moderate earthquakes that can produce significant damage. Our results are useful for analyzing regional seismicity as well as seismic hazard, because very few broadband seismic stations are available in the selected area. For the whole region we have obtained a single velocity model characterized by a 30 km thick crust, low upper mantle velocities and a very thin lid overlaying a distinct low velocity layer. Our preferred model proved quite reliable for determining focal mechanism and seismic moment across the entire range of selected paths. The source depth is also well constrained, especially for moderate earthquakes.
Modelling Sensor and Target effects on LiDAR Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosette, J.; North, P. R.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Suárez, J.
2010-12-01
The aim of this research is to explore the influence of sensor characteristics and interactions with vegetation and terrain properties on the estimation of vegetation parameters from LiDAR waveforms. This is carried out using waveform simulations produced by the FLIGHT radiative transfer model which is based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport (North, 1996; North et al., 2010). The opportunities for vegetation analysis that are offered by LiDAR modelling are also demonstrated by other authors e.g. Sun and Ranson, 2000; Ni-Meister et al., 2001. Simulations from the FLIGHT model were driven using reflectance and transmittance properties collected from the Howland Research Forest, Maine, USA in 2003 together with a tree list for a 200m x 150m area. This was generated using field measurements of location, species and diameter at breast height. Tree height and crown dimensions of individual trees were calculated using relationships established with a competition index determined for this site. Waveforms obtained by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were used as validation of simulations. This provided a base from which factors such as slope, laser incidence angle and pulse width could be varied. This has enabled the effect of instrument design and laser interactions with different surface characteristics to be tested. As such, waveform simulation is relevant for the development of future satellite LiDAR sensors, such as NASA’s forthcoming DESDynI mission (NASA, 2010), which aim to improve capabilities of vegetation parameter estimation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank scientists at the Biospheric Sciences Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in particular to Jon Ranson and Bryan Blair. This work forms part of research funded by the NASA DESDynI project and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F021437/1). REFERENCES NASA, 2010, DESDynI: Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice. http
Analysis of ICESat/GLAS waveform data for characterizing forests in a hilly region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilbert, Claudia; Schmullius, Christiane; Zink, Manfred
2011-10-01
ICESat/GLAS data for a temperate forest in a hilly region were analysed regarding the potential to retrieve maximum canopy height using a direct approach. The GLAS height was derived by calculating the range of the waveform Signal Begin and the Ground Peak. The comparison with an inventory data base and airborne lidar based heights revealed that the GLAS height overestimates the reference heights by on average 5 m and 7 m, respectively (Std=6 m and Std=5 m). The GLAS waveforms were further investigated regarding the canopy structure and the ground surface topography. It was found that the waveforms are most influenced by the ground surface topography. The topography clearly affects the waveform shape and therefore also the accuracy of the GLAS height estimation. Waveforms corresponding to footprints with a mean slope up to 10° have a high potential to derive tree height. The correlation between the GLAS and reference heights is still fair for waveforms of moderate slope 10-15°. Higher slopes clearly challenge the analysis of the waveform structure and the derivation of forest parameters.
multi-scale approaches for full waveform difference inversion and tomographic model analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Y.; Simons, F. J.; Luo, Y.
2012-12-01
Tomographic Earth models are solutions to mixed-determined inverse problems, which are formulated to minimize some measure of difference between synthetics and observed data. Typically, the measurement takes the form of a cross-correlation travel-time difference, or it might be the norm of the difference between the entire waveforms, in which case every wiggle is being used to extract information from the data. Full-waveform difference tomography suffers from a slow convergence rate and a danger of converging to local minima. In this presentation, we explore several routes to improving full-waveform inversion strategies for global and regional seismic tomography. First, we will discuss a wavelet-based multi-scale approach that works progressively from low to higher scales, step-by-step involving more details of the waveform. Second, we will discuss a hybrid misfit strategy that combines cross-correlation traveltime and waveform-difference measurements. We will discuss the making of multiscale sensitivity kernels using wavelet decompositions of the seismogram. Lastly, we move to the model space to conduct a multi-scale analysis of global tomographic models using a class of 3-D spherical wavelet bases that are implemented on the ``cubed ball'', the 3-D extension of the ``cubed sphere''. Using this novel transform we study the sparsity of global seismic tomographic models via thresholded reconstruction, and characterize the relative importance and patterns of features in the Earth models via individual and cumulative reconstructions of their wavelet coefficients. Whether on the side of the data, the sensitivity kernels, or in the model space, tomographic inverse problems have much to gain from the flexibility of the wavelet decomposition in one, two and three dimensions, and this on a global, regional or exploration scale, as we show by example. Full waveform difference inversion. The first figure shows our target model with two anomalous regions. The red stars
Coupling hydrodynamic and wave propagation modeling for waveform modeling of SPE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmat, C. S.; Steedman, D. W.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Bradley, C. R.
2015-12-01
The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. This paper presents effort to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave propagation from the hydrodynamic/plastic source region to the elastic/anelastic far field thanks to numerical modeling. The challenge is to couple the prompt processes that take place in the near source region to the ones taking place later in time due to wave propagation in complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of first-principles simulations coupling hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Abaqus and CASH model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. LANL has been recently employing a Coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability. This has allowed the testing of a new phenomenological model for modeling stored shear energy in jointed material. This unique modeling capability has enabled highfidelity modeling of the explosive, the weak grout-filled borehole, as well as the surrounding jointed rock. SPECFEM3D is based on the Spectral Element Method, a direct numerical method for full waveform modeling with mathematical accuracy (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998, 2002) thanks to its use of the weak formulation of the wave equation and of high-order polynomial functions. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed from output of CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests conducted so far, with a special focus on effect of the local topography.
Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of the Tibetan Plateau
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Xueyang; Shen, Yang
2016-04-01
Accurate velocity models are essential for both the determination of earthquake locations and source moments and the interpretation of Earth structures. With the increasing number of three-dimensional velocity models, it has become necessary to assess the models for accuracy in predicting seismic observations. Six models of the crustal and uppermost mantle structures in Tibet and surrounding regions are investigated in this study. Regional Rayleigh and Pn (or Pnl) waveforms from two ground truth events, including one nuclear explosion and one natural earthquake located in the study area, are simulated by using a three-dimensional finite-difference method. Synthetics are compared to observed waveforms in multiple period bands of 20-75 s for Rayleigh waves and 1-20 s for Pn/Pnl waves. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography best predicts Rayleigh waves throughout the data set, as well as Pn/Pnl waves traveling from the Tarim Basin to the stations located in central Tibet. In general, the models constructed from P wave tomography are not well suited to predict Rayleigh waves, and vice versa. Possible causes of the differences between observed and synthetic waveforms, and frequency-dependent variations of the "best matching" models with the smallest prediction errors are discussed. This study suggests that simultaneous prediction for body and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory
2017-01-01
Extracting astrophysical parameters and testing general relativity from gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers requires high-fidelity signal predictions. The effective-one-body model and phenomenological waveform models have been shown to work well for a subset of the possible parameter space. They could be insufficiently accurate for estimating the parameters of a loud gravitational wave detection in other regions of the parameter space. Numerical relativity (NR) surrogate models attempt to rapidly and accurately interpolate the waveforms from a set of NR simulations over a subset of parameter space. Using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), we have built NR surrogate models for precessing binaries with a restricted spin direction on the smaller black hole, and are actively working on extending this to the full 7d parameter space of non-eccentric binaries. The NR surrogate models typically perform an order of magnitude better than other waveform models when compared to NR waveforms which were not included in the surrogate training set, and can be used in gravitational wave parameter estimation.
Modeling Gravitational Radiation Waveforms from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, J. G.; Centrelia, J. M.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; VanMeter, J.
2006-01-01
Gravitational radiation from merging binary black hole systems is anticipated as a key source for gravitational wave observations. Ground-based instruments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) may observe mergers of stellar-scale black holes, while the space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) observatory will be sensitive to mergers of massive galactic-center black holes over a broad range of mass scales. These cataclysmic events may emit an enormous amount of energy in a brief time. Gravitational waves from comparable mass mergers carry away a few percent of the system's mass-energy in just a few wave cycles, with peak gravitational wave luminosities on the order of 10^23 L_Sun. Optimal analysis and interpretation of merger observation data will depend on developing a detailed understanding, based on general relativistic modeling, of the radiation waveforms. We discuss recent progress in modeling radiation from equal mass mergers using numerical simulations of Einstein's gravitational field equations, known as numerical relativity. Our simulations utilize Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to allow high-resolution near the black holes while simultaneously keeping the outer boundary of the computational domain far from the black holes, and making it possible to read out gravitational radiation waveforms in the weak-field wave zone. We discuss the results from simulations beginning with the black holes orbiting near the system's innermost stable orbit, comparing the recent simulations with earlier "Lazarus" waveform estimates based on an approximate hybrid numerical/perturbative technique.
Assessment of brain compliance using ICP waveform analysis in water intoxication rat model.
Oshio, Kotaro; Onodera, Hidetaka; Uchida, Masashi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Takuo
2013-01-01
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been used widely for patients with intracranial hypertension. However, the data of mean ICP do not reflect various brain conditions correctly. Therefore, we performed ICP -waveform analysis to assess brain compliance. Data for ICP -waveform analysis were obtained by stereotactic intraventricle puncture. ICP waveform is expressed as a three-phase wave. Analyzed differential waveforms in a water intoxication model and continuous infusion models were evaluated respectively. In the water intoxication models, the second wave (P2) known to reflect compliance is elevated. ICP waveform analysis will be valuable for the assessment of the pathological condition of the brain.
Finite Element and Plate Theory Modeling of Acoustic Emission Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, W. H.; Hamstad, M. A.; Gary, J.; OGallagher, A.
1998-01-01
A comparison was made between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates. A normal mode solution method for Mindlin plate theory was used to predict the response of the flexural plate mode to a point source, step-function load, applied on the plate surface. The second approach used a dynamic finite element method to model the problem using equations of motion based on exact linear elasticity. Calculations were made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials. For simulations of anisotropic plates, propagation along multiple directions was evaluated. In general, agreement between the two theoretical approaches was good. Discrepancies in the waveforms at longer times were caused by differences in reflections from the lateral plate boundaries. These differences resulted from the fact that the two methods used different boundary conditions. At shorter times in the signals, before reflections, the slight discrepancies in the waveforms were attributed to limitations of Mindlin plate theory, which is an approximate plate theory. The advantages of the finite element method are that it used the exact linear elasticity solutions, and that it can be used to model real source conditions and complicated, finite specimen geometries as well as thick plates. These advantages come at a cost of increased computational difficulty, requiring lengthy calculations on workstations or supercomputers. The Mindlin plate theory solutions, meanwhile, can be quickly generated on personal computers. Specimens with finite geometry can also be modeled. However, only limited simple geometries such as circular or rectangular plates can easily be accommodated with the normal mode solution technique. Likewise, very limited source configurations can be modeled and plate theory is applicable only to thin plates.
Complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ren, Wei; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2017-01-01
We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are nonspinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third-order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to nonlinear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant TaylorT4 at third post-Newtonian order in the zero-eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasicircular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a catalog of numerical relativity simulations. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model of Ref. [Y. Pan et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, 061501 (2014)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.061501] for quasicircular black hole binaries with mass ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero-eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. Using a set of eccentric numerical relativity simulations, not used during calibration, we show that our new eccentric model reproduces the true features of eccentric compact binary coalescence throughout merger. We use this model to show that the gravitational-wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational-wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914≤0.15 and e0GW 151226≤0.1 . We also find that varying the spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monteiller, Vadim; Beller, Stephen; Operto, Stephane; Virieux, Jean
2015-04-01
The current development of dense seismic arrays and high performance computing make feasible today application of full-waveform inversion (FWI) on teleseismic data for high-resolution lithospheric imaging. In teleseismic configuration, the source is often considered to first order as a planar wave that impinges the base of the lithospheric target located below the receiver array. Recently, injection methods coupling global propagation in 1D or axisymmetric earth model with regional 3D methods (Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, Spectral elements methods or finite differences) allow us to consider more realistic teleseismic phases. Those teleseismic phases can be propagated inside 3D regional model in order to exploit not only the forward-scattered waves propagating up to the receiver but also second-order arrivals that are back-scattered from the free-surface and the reflectors before their recordings on the surface. However, those computation are performed assuming simple global model. In this presentation, we review some key specifications that might be considered for mitigating the effect on FWI of heterogeneities situated outside the regional domain. We consider synthetic models and data computed using our recently developed hybrid method AxiSEM/SEM. The global simulation is done by AxiSEM code which allows us to consider axisymmetric anomalies. The 3D regional computation is performed by Spectral Element Method. We investigate the effect of external anomalies on the regional model obtained by FWI when one neglects them by considering only 1D global propagation. We also investigate the effect of the source time function and the focal mechanism on results of the FWI approach.
Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of Tibet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, X.; Shen, Y.
2015-12-01
High-resolution tomographic models are essential for understanding the physical and compositional properties in the lithosphere and obtaining accurate earthquake source locations and moment tensors. Yet, there are significant disagreements in recent three-dimensional velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle in Tibet. Question also remains as to whether models constructed from one type of seismic waves (body or surface waves) can be used to predict travel times and waveforms of another. In this study, six global or regional models are selected for Tibet, most of which became publically available in the past five years. A three-dimensional finite-difference method in the spherical coordinates is applied to simulate full-wave propagation of regional Pn (with periods longer than 1 second) and Rayleigh waves (20-75 s period) for ground-truth events located at regional distances. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography by Shen and Zhang (2012) consistently produces the best predictions for Rayleigh waves throughout the dataset and the Pn waves for the paths from the Tarim Basin to central Tibet. LITHO1.0, inverted from surface wave dispersions, shows a relatively stable but intermediate performance in predicting Pn and Rayleigh waves. None of the models provide the best matches to both waves throughout the region. Furthermore, the models constructed from surface waves are not well suited to predict Pn, and vice versa. We attribute this mainly to lack of accurate constraints on radial anisotropy and Vp/Vs ratios in the upper mantle, and Moho topography. We conclude that simultaneous prediction for P, S, and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy and attenuation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Hee-Suk
2015-11-01
The phenomenological gravitational waveform models, which we refer to as PhenomA, PhenomB, and PhenomC, generate full inspiral, merger, and ringdown (IMR) waveforms of coalescing binary back holes (BBHs). These models are defined in the Fourier domain, thus can be used for fast matched filtering in the gravitational wave search. PhenomA has been developed for nonspinning BBH waveforms, while PhenomB and PhenomC were designed to model the waveforms of BBH systems with nonprecessing (aligned) spins, but can also be used for nonspinning systems. In this work, we study the validity of the phenomenological models for nonspinning BBH searches at low masses, {m}{1,2}≥slant 4{M}⊙ and {m}1+{m}2\\equiv M≤slant 30{M}⊙ , with Advanced LIGO. As our complete signal waveform model, we adopt EOBNRv2, which is a time-domain IMR waveform model. To investigate the search efficiency of the phenomenological template models, we calculate fitting factors (FFs) by exploring overlap surfaces. We find that only PhenomC is valid to obtain FFs better than 0.97 in the mass range of M\\lt 15{M}⊙ . Above 15{M}⊙ , PhenomA is most efficient in symmetric mass region, PhenomB is most efficient in highly asymmetric mass region, and PhenomC is most efficient in the intermediate region. Specifically, we propose an effective phenomenological template family that can be constructed by employing the phenomenological models in four subregions individually. We find that FFs of the effective templates are better than 0.97 in our entire mass region and mostly greater than 0.99.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotchenova, Svetlana Y.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Davis, Anthony B.; Dubayah, Ralph; Myneni, Ranga B.
2003-08-01
Large footprint waveform-recording laser altimeters (lidars) have demonstrated a potential for accurate remote sensing of forest biomass and structure, important for regional and global climate studies. Currently, radiative transfer analyses of lidar data are based on the simplifying assumption that only single scattering contributes to the return signal, which may lead to errors in the modeling of the lower portions of recorded waveforms in the near-infrared spectrum. In this study we apply time-dependent stochastic radiative transfer (RT) theory to model the propagation of lidar pulses through forest canopies. A time-dependent stochastic RT equation is formulated and solved numerically. Such an approach describes multiple scattering events, allows for realistic representation of forest structure including foliage clumping and gaps, simulates off-nadir and multiangular observations, and has the potential to provide better approximations of return waveforms. The model was tested with field data from two conifer forest stands (southern old jack pine and southern old black spruce) in central Canada and two closed canopy deciduous forest stands (with overstory dominated by tulip poplar) in eastern Maryland. Model-simulated signals were compared with waveforms recorded by the Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) over these regions. Model simulations show good agreement with SLICER signals having a slow decay of the waveform. The analysis of the effects of multiple scattering shows that multiply scattered photons magnify the amplitude of the reflected signal, especially that originating from the lower portions of the canopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.
2006-12-01
As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.
Pulsar average waveforms and hollow cone beam models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backer, D. C.
1975-01-01
An analysis of pulsar average waveforms at radio frequencies from 40 MHz to 15 GHz is presented. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the observer sees one cut of a hollow-cone beam pattern and that stationary properties of the emission vary over the cone. The distributions of apparent cone widths for different observed forms of the average pulse profiles (single, double/unresolved, double/resolved, triple and multiple) are in modest agreement with a model of a circular hollow-cone beam with random observer-spin axis orientation, a random cone axis-spin axis alignment, and a small range of physical hollow-cone parameters for all objects.
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
Anetai, Yusuke Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi
2015-09-15
Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodgers, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Susan Y.
We report low average crustal P-wave velocities (5.9-6.1 km/s, Poisson's ratio 0.23-0.27, thickness 68-76 km) in southern Tibet from modelling regional Pnl waveforms recorded by the 1991-1992 Tibetan Plateau Experiment. We also find that the mantle lithosphere beneath the Indus-Tsangpo Suture and the Lhasa Terrane is shield-like (Pn velocity 8.20-8.25 km/s, lid thickness 80-140 km, positive velocity gradient 0.0015-0.0025 s-1). Analysis of relative Pn travel time residuals requires a decrease in the mantle velocities beneath the northern Lhasa Terrane, the Banggong-Nujiang Suture and the southern Qiangtang Terrane. Tectonic and petrologic considerations suggest that low bulk crustal velocities could result from a thick (50-60 km) felsic upper crust with vertically limited and laterally pervasive partial melt. These results are consistent with underthrusting of Indian Shield lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau to at least the central Lhasa Terrane.
Waveform tomography of crustal structure in the south San Francisco Bay region
Pollitz, F.F.; Fletcher, J.P.
2005-01-01
We utilize a scattering-based seismic tomography technique to constrain crustal tructure around the southern San Francisco Bay region (SFBR). This technique is based on coupled traveling wave scattering theory, which has usually been applied to the interpretation of surface waves in large regional-scale studies. Using fully three-dimensional kernels, this technique is here applied to observed P, S, and surface waves of intermediate period (3-4 s dominant period) observed following eight selected regional events. We use a total of 73 seismograms recorded by a U.S. Geological Survey short-period seismic array in the western Santa Clara Valley, the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the Northern California Seismic Network. Modifications of observed waveforms due to scattering from crustal structure include (positive or negative) amplification, delay, and generation of coda waves. The derived crustal structure explains many of the observed signals which cannot be explained with a simple layered structure. There is sufficient sensitivity to both deep and shallow crustal structure that even with the few sources employed in the present study, we obtain shallow velocity structure which is reasonably consistent with previous P wave tomography results. We find a depth-dependent lateral velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault (SAF), with higher velocities southwest of the SAF in the shallow crust and higher velocities northeast of the SAF in the midcrust. The method does not have the resolution to identify very slow sediment velocities in the upper approximately 3 km since the tomographic models are smooth at a vertical scale of about 5 km. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Seismic waveform inversion best practices: regional, global and exploration test cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modrak, Ryan; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-09-01
Reaching the global minimum of a waveform misfit function requires careful choices about the nonlinear optimization, preconditioning and regularization methods underlying an inversion. Because waveform inversion problems are susceptible to erratic convergence associated with strong nonlinearity, one or two test cases are not enough to reliably inform such decisions. We identify best practices, instead, using four seismic near-surface problems, one regional problem and two global problems. To make meaningful quantitative comparisons between methods, we carry out hundreds of inversions, varying one aspect of the implementation at a time. Comparing nonlinear optimization algorithms, we find that limited-memory BFGS provides computational savings over nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in a wide range of test cases. Comparing preconditioners, we show that a new diagonal scaling derived from the adjoint of the forward operator provides better performance than two conventional preconditioning schemes. Comparing regularization strategies, we find that projection, convolution, Tikhonov regularization and total variation regularization are effective in different contexts. Besides questions of one strategy or another, reliability and efficiency in waveform inversion depend on close numerical attention and care. Implementation details involving the line search and restart conditions have a strong effect on computational cost, regardless of the chosen nonlinear optimization algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung
2011-04-01
We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.
Waveform model of a laser altimeter for an elliptical Gaussian beam.
Yue, Ma; Mingwei, Wang; Guoyuan, Li; Xiushan, Lu; Fanlin, Yang
2016-03-10
The current waveform model of a laser altimeter is based on the Gaussian laser beam of the fundamental mode, whose cross section is a circular spot, whereas some of the cross sections of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System lasers are closer to elliptical spots. Based on the expression of the elliptical Gaussian beam and the waveform theory of laser altimeters, the primary parameters of an echo waveform were derived. In order to examine the deduced expressions, a laser altimetry waveform simulator and waveform processing software were programmed and improved under the circumstance of an elliptical Gaussian beam. The result shows that all the biases between the theoretical and simulated waveforms were less than 0.5%, and the derived model of an elliptical spot is universal and can also be used for the conventional circular spot. The shape of the waveforms is influenced by the ellipticity of the laser spot, the target slope, and the "azimuth angle" between the major axis and the slope direction. This article provides the waveform theoretical basis of a laser altimeter under an elliptical Gaussian beam.
Structure of the upper mantle under the EPR from waveform inversion of regional events
Webb; Forsyth
1998-05-22
Waveform inversions of seismograms recorded at the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment ocean bottom seismometer array from regional events with paths following the East Pacific Rise (EPR) require that low shear velocities (<3.7 km/s) extend to depths of more than 100 km below the rise axis. Velocities increase with average crustal age along ray paths. The reconciliation of Love and Rayleigh wave data requires that shear flow has aligned melt pockets or olivine crystals, creating an anisotropic uppermost mantle.
Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; Bonal, Nedra; Daily, David; Young, Christopher; Richards, Paul
2016-06-28
Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, M_{s} 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 events than were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.
Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; ...
2016-06-28
Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, Ms 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 events thanmore » were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.
1999-01-01
The upcoming generation of laser altimeters record the interaction of emitted laser radiation with terrestrial surfaces in the form of a digitized waveform. We model these laser altimeter return waveforms as the sum of the reflections from individual surfaces within laser footprints, accounting for instrument-specific properties. We compare over 1000 modeled and recorded waveform pairs using the Pearson correlation. We show that we reliably synthesize the vertical structure information for vegetation canopies contained in a medium-large diameter laser footprint from a high-resolution elevation data set.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louvari, E.; Kiratzi, A.; Papazachos, B.; Hatzidimitriou, P.
- Source parameters for thirteen earthquakes in the SE Adriatic region have been determined using P and SH body-waveform inversion. The results of this modeling are combined with eleven other earthquakes with M>=5 whose focal mechanisms have been determined mainly by waveform modeling. The results confirm that movement on mainly low-angle reverse faults causes the deformation in coastal southern Yugoslavia through Albania up to the Lefkada Island in NW Greece. This zone of thrusting has a NW-SE trend (N34°W), follows the coastline, and dips towards the continent. The slip vectors of these events trend at N229° along the Dalmatian coasts, to N247° along Albania and NW Greece. The deformation is attributed to the continental collision between the Adriatic block to the west and Eurasia to the east. Along the mountain line in eastern Albania (Albanides Mts.) and in NW Greece (Hellenides Mts.), E-W extension is occurring. The E-W extension associated with the orogenic belt could be attributed to a variety of models such as: gravity, internal deformation of the thrust wedge, a probable down bulge of the dense lithosphere of the Adriatic block beneath the Eurasian lithospheric plate in combination with the compressional stresses applied along the collision belt.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarado, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.
2011-04-01
We investigate the seismic properties of modern crustal seismicity in the northwestern Sierras Pampeanas of the Andean retroarc region of Argentina. We modelled the complete regional seismic broadband waveforms of two crustal earthquakes that occurred in the Sierra de Velasco on 28 May 2002 and in the Sierra de Ambato on 7 September 2004. For each earthquake we obtained the seismic moment tensor inversion (SMTI) and tested for its focal depth. Our results indicate mainly thrust focal mechanism solutions of magnitudes Mw 5.8 and 6.2 and focal depths of 10 and 8 km, respectively. These results represent the larger seismicity and shallower focal depths in the last 100 years in this region. The SMTI 2002 and 2004 solutions are consistent with previous determinations for crustal seismicity in this region that also used seismic waveform modelling. Taken together, the results for crustal seismicity of magnitudes ≥5.0 in the last 30 years are consistent with an average P-axis horizontally oriented by an azimuth of 125° and T-axis orientation of azimuth 241° and plunge 58°. This modern crustal seismicity and the historical earthquakes are associated with two active reverse faulting systems of opposite vergences bounding the eastern margin of the Sierra de Velasco in the south and the southwestern margin of the Sierra de Ambato in the north. Strain recorded by focal mechanisms of the larger seismicity is very consistent over this region and is in good agreement with neotectonic activity during the last 11,000 years by Costa (2008) and Casa et al. (in press); this shows that the dominant deformation in this part of the Sierras Pampeanas is mainly controlled by contraction. Seismic deformation related to propagation of thrusts and long-lived shear zones of this area permit to disregard previous proposals, which suggested an extensional or sinistral regime for the geomorphic evolution since Pleistocene.
Connolly, Mark; He, Xing; Gonzalez, Nestor; Vespa, Paul; DiStefano, Joe; Hu, Xiao
2014-01-01
Due to the inaccessibility of the cranial vault, it is difficult to study cerebral blood flow dynamics directly. A mathematical model can be useful to study these dynamics. The model presented here is a novel combination of a one-dimensional fluid flow model representing the major vessels of the circle of Willis (CoW), with six individually parameterized auto-regulatory models of the distal vascular beds. This model has the unique ability to simulate high temporal resolution flow and velocity waveforms, amenable to pulse-waveform analysis, as well as sophisticated phenomena such as auto-regulation. Previous work with human patients has shown that vasodilation induced by CO2 inhalation causes 12 consistent pulse-waveform changes as measured by the Morphological Clustering and Analysis of Intracranial Pressure algorithm. To validate this model, we simulated vasodilation and successfully reproduced 9 out of the 12 pulse-waveform changes. A subsequent sensitivity analysis found that these 12 pulse-waveform changes were most affected by the parameters associated with the shape of the smooth muscle tension response and vessel elasticity, providing insight into the physiological mechanisms responsible for observed changes in the pulse-waveform shape. PMID:24389244
Connolly, Mark; He, Xing; Gonzalez, Nestor; Vespa, Paul; DiStefano, Joe; Hu, Xiao
2014-03-01
Due to the inaccessibility of the cranial vault, it is difficult to study cerebral blood flow dynamics directly. A mathematical model can be useful to study these dynamics. The model presented here is a novel combination of a one-dimensional fluid flow model representing the major vessels of the circle of Willis (CoW), with six individually parameterized auto-regulatory models of the distal vascular beds. This model has the unique ability to simulate high temporal resolution flow and velocity waveforms, amenable to pulse-waveform analysis, as well as sophisticated phenomena such as auto-regulation. Previous work with human patients has shown that vasodilation induced by CO2 inhalation causes 12 consistent pulse-waveform changes as measured by the morphological clustering and analysis of intracranial pressure algorithm. To validate this model, we simulated vasodilation and successfully reproduced 9 out of the 12 pulse-waveform changes. A subsequent sensitivity analysis found that these 12 pulse-waveform changes were most affected by the parameters associated with the shape of the smooth muscle tension response and vessel elasticity, providing insight into the physiological mechanisms responsible for observed changes in the pulse-waveform shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; SXS Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
We are now in the advanced detector era of gravitational wave astronomy, and the merger of two black holes (BHs) is one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves that could be detected on earth. To infer the BH masses and spins, the observed signal must be compared to waveforms predicted by general relativity for millions of binary configurations. Numerical relativity (NR) simulations can produce accurate waveforms, but are prohibitively expensive to use for parameter estimation. Other waveform models are fast enough but may lack accuracy in portions of the parameter space. Numerical relativity surrogate models attempt to rapidly predict the results of a NR code with a small or negligible modeling error, after being trained on a set of input waveforms. Such surrogate models are ideal for parameter estimation, as they are both fast and accurate, and have already been built for the case of non-spinning BHs. Using 250 input waveforms, we build a surrogate model for waveforms from the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) for a subspace of precessing systems.
Very long-period GPS waveforms. What can GPS bring to Earth seismic velocity models?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelevitz, K.; Houlie, N.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Boschi, L.; Giardini, D.; Rothacher, M.
2014-12-01
It is now admitted that high rate GPS observations can provide reliable surface displacement waveforms. For long-period (T > 5s) transients, it was shown that GPS and seismometer (STS-1) displacements are in agreement at least for vertical component [Houlié et al., 2011]. We propose here to supplement existing long-period seismic networks with high rate (>= 1Hz) GPS data in order to improve the resolution of global seismic velocity models. We aim at extending the use of GPS measurements beyond the range of STS-1 in the low frequency end (T>1000s). We present the results of the processing of 1Hz GPS records of the Hokkaido, Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (25th of September, 2003, Mw = 8.3; 26th of December, 2004, Mw = 8.9; 11th of March, 2011, Mw = 9.1, respectively). 3D waveforms phase time-series have been used to recover the ground motion histories at the GPS sites. Through the better resolution of inversion of the GPS phase observations, we determine displacement waveforms of periods ranging from 30 seconds to 1300 seconds for a selection of sites. We compare inverted GPS waveforms with STS-1 waveforms, superconducting gravity waveforms and synthetic waveforms computed using 3D global wave propagation with SPECFEM. We find that the GPS waveforms are in agreement with the SPECFEM synthetic data and are able to fill the period-gap between the broadband seismometer STS-1 data and the normal mode period range detected by the superconducting gravimeters. References: Houlié, N., G. Occhipinti, T. Blanchard, N. Shapiro, P. Lognonne, and M. Murakami (2011), New approach to detect seismic surface waves in 1Hz-sampled GPS time series, Scientific reports, 1, 44.
Hamilton, Robert B; Baldwin, Kevin; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao
2012-01-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse waveform morphology and selected hydrodynamic metrics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement using a novel method for ICP pulse pressure regional analysis based on the Morphological Clustering and Analysis of Continuous Intracranial Pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, M. A.
1999-01-01
The upcoming generation of operational spaceborne laser altimeters (i.e VCL and GLAS) record the interaction of emitted laser radiation with terrestrial surfaces in the form of a digitized waveform. We show that we can accurately model return laser altimeter waveforms as the sum of the reflections from individual surfaces within laser footprints. In one case, we predict return waveforms using high resolution elevation data generated by a small-footprint laser altimeter in a dense tropical forest. We compare over 3000 modeled and recorded waveform pairs using the Pearson correlation. The modeled and recorded waveforms are highly correlated, with a mean correlation of 0.90 and a median of 0.95. The mean correlation is highly dependent on the relative positions of the data sets. By shifting the relative locations of the two compared data sets, we infer that the data are colocated to within 0.4$\\sim$m horizontally and 0.12$\\sim$m vertically. The high degree of correlation shows that we can reliably synthesize the vertical structure information measured by medium-large footprint laser altimeters for complex, dense vegetation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Yanqiu; Qiu, Sai; Ding, Jianhua; Tian, Jing
2016-06-01
Estimation of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is a critical challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle because it dominates the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system has a unique capability for estimating accurately forest canopy height, which has a direct relationship and can provide better understanding to the forest AGB. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is the first polarorbiting LiDAR instrument for global observations of Earth, and it has been widely used for extracting forest AGB with footprints of nominally 70 m in diameter on the earth's surface. However, the GLAS footprints are discrete geographically, and thus it has been restricted to produce the regional full coverage of forest AGB. To overcome the limit of discontinuity, the Hyper Spectral Imager (HSI) of HJ-1A with 115 bands was combined with GLAS waveforms to predict the regional forest AGB in the study. Corresponding with the field investigation in Wangqing of Changbai Mountain, China, the GLAS waveform metrics were derived and employed to establish the AGB model, which was used further for estimating the AGB within GLAS footprints. For HSI imagery, the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) method was used to decrease noise and reduce the dimensionality of spectral bands, and consequently the first three of MNF were able to offer almost 98% spectral information and qualified to regress with the GLAS estimated AGB. Afterwards, the support vector regression (SVR) method was employed in the study to establish the relationship between GLAS estimated AGB and three of HSI MNF (i.e. MNF1, MNF2 and MNF3), and accordingly the full covered regional forest AGB map was produced. The results showed that the adj.R2 and RMSE of SVR-AGB models were 0.75 and 4.68 t hm-2 for broadleaf forests, 0.73 and 5.39 t hm-2 for coniferous forests and 0.71 and 6.15 t hm-2 for mixed forests respectively. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitov, Ivan; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail; Johansson, Peder
2013-04-01
Waveform cross correlation substantially improves detection, phase association, and event building procedures at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. There were 50% to 100% events extra to the official Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) were found in the aftershock sequences of small, middle size, and very big earthquakes. Several per cent of the events reported in the REB were not found with cross correlation even when all aftershocks were used as master events. These REB events are scrutinized in interactive analysis in order to reveal the reason of the cross correlation failure. As a corroborative method, we use detailed regional catalogues, which often include aftershocks with magnitudes between 2.0 and 3.0. Since the resolution of regional networks is by at least one unit of magnitude higher, the REB events missed from the relevant regional catalogues are considered as bogus. We compare events by origin time and location because the regional networks and the International Monitoring System are based on different sets of seismic stations and phase comparison is not possible. Three intracontinental sequences have been studied: after the March 20, 2008 earthquake in China (mb(IDC)=5.4), the May 20, 2012 event in Italy (mb(IDC)=5.3), and one earthquake (mb(IDC)=5.6) in Virginia, USA (August 23, 2011). Overall, most of the events not found by cross correlation are missing from the relevant regional catalogues. At the same time, these catalogues confirm most of additional REB events found only by cross correlation. This observation supports all previous findings of the improved quality of events built by cross correlation.
Model-Based Analysis and Design of Waveforms for Efficient Neural Stimulation
Grill, Warren M.
2016-01-01
The design space for electrical stimulation of the nervous system is extremely large, and because the response to stimulation is highly non-linear, the selection of stimulation parameters to achieve a desired response is a challenging problem. Computational models of the response of neurons to extracellular stimulation allow analysis of the effects of stimulation parameters on neural excitation and provide an approach to select or design optimal parameters of stimulation. Here, I review the use of computational models to understand the effects of stimulation waveform on the energy efficiency of neural excitation and to design novel stimulation waveforms to increase the efficiency of neural stimulation. PMID:26541380
Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A; Wong, Alexander
2016-12-01
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors. The extraction problem is posed as a Bayesian least squares fusion problem, and solved using a novel probabilistic pulsatility model that incorporates both physiologically derived spectral and spatial waveform priors to identify pulsatility characteristics in the scene. Evaluation was performed on a 24-participant sample with various ages (9-60 years) and body compositions (fat% 30.0 ± 7.9, muscle% 40.4 ± 5.3, BMI 25.5 ± 5.2 kg·m(-2)). Experimental results show stronger matching to the ground-truth blood pulse waveform signal compared to the FaceMeanPPG (p < 0.001) and DistancePPG (p < 0.001) methods. Heart rates predicted using FusionPPG correlated strongly with ground truth measurements (r(2) = 0.9952). A cardiac arrhythmia was visually identified in FusionPPG's waveform via temporal analysis.
Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander
2016-01-01
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors. The extraction problem is posed as a Bayesian least squares fusion problem, and solved using a novel probabilistic pulsatility model that incorporates both physiologically derived spectral and spatial waveform priors to identify pulsatility characteristics in the scene. Evaluation was performed on a 24-participant sample with various ages (9–60 years) and body compositions (fat% 30.0 ± 7.9, muscle% 40.4 ± 5.3, BMI 25.5 ± 5.2 kg·m−2). Experimental results show stronger matching to the ground-truth blood pulse waveform signal compared to the FaceMeanPPG (p < 0.001) and DistancePPG (p < 0.001) methods. Heart rates predicted using FusionPPG correlated strongly with ground truth measurements (r2 = 0.9952). A cardiac arrhythmia was visually identified in FusionPPG’s waveform via temporal analysis. PMID:28018712
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A
2015-09-18
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo; van Driel, Martin; Becker, Thorsten; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Sigloch, Karin; Hosseini-zad, Kasra; Giardini, Domenico
2014-05-01
In a recent study (Auer et al. 2013, in revision) we have devised a novel tomography approach to image radially anisotropic shear-velocity variations in the Earth's mantle. By applying our tomography toolbox to a comprehensive compilation of surface-wave phase delays from fundamental modes up to the 6th overtone and cross-correlation traveltimes of major body-wave phases, we derived the multi-resolution tomography model SAVANI, which is one of the first whole-mantle models of radial S-wave anisotropy. Here we illustrate the first steps towards the second iteration of our model ("SAVANI2"), in which we define Europe and the surrounding regions as the target area for a higher-resolution regional revision of our initial model. To this end, we augment our global database with additional teleseismic and regional broadband measurements recorded within the last five years. We download raw waveforms from the Orfeus and IRIS data centers in a fully automated way with a python based toolbox and extract multiple-frequency traveltime delays in the period range between 5 and 25 s employing the method of Sigloch et al. (2006). Furthermore, we replace the crustal model CRUST2.0 with its successor CRUST1. Importantly, waveform observations will be interpreted using Fréchet sensitivity kernels computed with AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al., 2007), which is an efficient visco-elastic spectral element solver for axisymmetric background models. The main idea behind SAVANI2 is to keep semi-approximate (ray) theory where appropriate (global long-wavelength structure, surface wave dispersion), but to revert to a full-waveform interpretation where necessary (regional scale, non-geometrical wave phenomena). Our hybrid approach to waveform inversion has multi-scale capabilities and is essentially equivalent to the first iteration step of a Gauss-Newton type inverse problem, thus allowing full access to the model resolution matrix. The set of algorithms we are developing represent a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tseng, Tai-Lin; Hsu, Hsin-Chih; Jian, Pei-Ru; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Chung, Sun-Lin
2016-11-01
The continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia created large strike-slip faults in Turkey as well as mountains in the Caucasus and the volcanic plateau between them. In this study, we use regional waveforms of a new seismic array deployed between 2008 and 2012 to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of small to moderate sized earthquakes occurring in the western part of the Central Caucasus and northeast Turkey. The distribution of aftershocks and the twelve focal mechanisms involved in the sequence of the 2009 earthquake in Racha are clearly a reactivation of a deeper segment of the 1991 M7 Racha rupture zone. The deeper segment is not well connected to the shallower décollement separating the basement and sedimentary basin. The earthquakes we determined in northeastern Turkey and southern Georgia are related to the strike-slip fault system. We further combined all of the reliably determined focal mechanisms over the last 30 years to investigate the current stress status of the crust in three areas: Racha in the western Greater Caucasus, Javakheti near the Lesser Caucasus and in Northeast Turkey. Our results show that the directions of maximum compressional stress consistently fall within - 2 to 14°N throughout the entire study region. This appears to be controlled by the continental collision. Nonetheless, the minimum compression switches from vertical (in the Greater Caucasus) to the east-west direction (in northeastern Turkey), due to the westward extrusion of the Anatolia block, which is driven partly by the Hellenic subduction. The transition of the stress field is close to the Javakheti volcanic plateau in the Lesser Caucasus, where the relative magnitude between the principal stresses appears to be strongly variable.
Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion for the 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Jungkyun; Shin, Changsoo; Calandra, Henri
2016-06-01
Laplace-domain waveform inversion reconstructs long-wavelength subsurface models by using the zero-frequency component of damped seismic signals. Despite the computational advantages of Laplace-domain waveform inversion over conventional frequency-domain waveform inversion, an acoustic assumption and an iterative matrix solver have been used to invert 3D marine datasets to mitigate the intensive computing cost. In this study, we develop a Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion algorithm for 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media by using a parallel sparse direct solver library (MUltifrontal Massively Parallel Solver, MUMPS). We precisely simulate a real marine environment by coupling the 3D acoustic and elastic wave equations with the proper boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface. In addition, we can extract the elastic properties of the Earth below the sea bottom from the recorded acoustic pressure datasets. As a matrix solver, the parallel sparse direct solver is used to factorize the non-symmetric impedance matrix in a distributed memory architecture and rapidly solve the wave field for a number of shots by using the lower and upper matrix factors. Using both synthetic datasets and real datasets obtained by a 3D wide azimuth survey, the long-wavelength component of the P-wave and S-wave velocity models is reconstructed and the proposed modeling and inversion algorithm are verified. A cluster of 80 CPU cores is used for this study.
A New Database of Digitized Regional Seismic Waveforms from Nuclear Explosions in Eurasia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolova, I. N.; Richards, P. G.; Kim, W. Y.; Mikhailova, N. N.
2014-12-01
Seismology is an observational science. Hence, the effort to understand details of seismic signals from underground nuclear explosions requires analysis of waveforms recorded from past nuclear explosions. Of principal interest, are regional signals from explosions too small to be reliably identified via teleseismic recording. But the great majority of stations operated today, even those in networks for nuclear explosion monitoring, have never recorded explosion signals at regional distances, because most stations were installed long after the period when most underground nuclear explosions were conducted; and the few nuclear explosions since the early 1990s were mostly recorded only at teleseismic distances. We have therefore gathered thousands of nuclear explosion regional seismograms from more than 200 analog stations operated in the former Soviet Union. Most of them lie in a region stretching approximately 6000 km East-West and 2000 km North-South and including much of Central Asia. We have digitized them and created a modern digital database, including significant metadata. Much of this work has been done in Kazakhstan. Most of the explosions were underground, but several were conducted in the atmosphere. This presentation will characterize the content and overall quality of the new database for signals from nuclear explosions in Eurasia, which were conducted across substantial ranges of yield and shot-point depth, and under a great variety of different geological conditions. This work complements a 20-year collaborative effort which made the original digital recordings of the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, openly available in a modern format (see http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/). For purposes of characterizing explosive sources, it would be of assistance to have seismogram archives from explosions conducted in all regions including the Pacific, North Africa, and the United States (including the Aleutians). Openly available
Barbara Romanowicz; Mark Panning
2005-04-23
Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenders, A. J.; Pratt, R. G.
2007-01-01
A comprehensive validation of 2-D, frequency-domain, acoustic wave-equation tomography was undertaken in a `blind test', using third-party, realistic, elastic wave-equation data. The synthetic 2-D, wide-angle seismic data were provided prior to a recent workshop on the methods of controlled source seismology; the true model was not revealed to the authors until after the presentation of our waveform tomography results. The original model was specified on a detailed grid with variable P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density and viscoelastic Q-factor structure, designed to simulate a section of continental crust 250 km long and 40 km deep. Synthetic vertical and horizontal component data were available for 51 shot locations (spaced every 5 km), recorded at 2779 receivers (spaced every 90 m), evenly spread along the surface of the model. The data contained energy from 0.2 to 15 Hz. Waveform tomography, a combination of traveltime tomography and 2-D waveform inversion of the early arrivals of the seismic waveforms, was used to recover crustal P-velocity structure from the vertical component data, using data from 51 sources, 1390 receivers and frequencies between 0.8 and 7.0 Hz. The waveform tomography result contained apparent structure at wavelength-scale resolution that was not evident on the traveltime tomography result. The predicted (acoustic) waveforms in the final result matched the original elastic data to a high degree of accuracy. During the workshop, the exact model was revealed; over much of the model the waveform tomography results provided a good correspondence with the true model, from large- to intermediate-(wavelength) scales, with a resolution limit on the order of 1 km. A significant, near-surface low-velocity zone, invisible to traveltime methods, was correctly recovered; the results also provided a high-resolution image of the complex structure of the entire crust, and the depth and nature of the crust-mantle transition. Some inaccuracies were
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Luijten, E.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Milde, S.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moesta, P.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S. S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yang, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügmann, B.; Buchman, L. T.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Etienne, Z. B.; Hannam, M.; Healy, J.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Laguna, P.; Liu, Y. T.; London, L.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; MacDonald, I.; Marronetti, P.; Mösta, P.; Müller, D.; Mundim, B. C.; Nakano, H.; Paschalidis, V.; Pekowsky, L.; Pollney, D.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Ponce, M.; Pürrer, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Reisswig, C.; Santamaría, L.; Scheel, M. A.; Shapiro, S. L.; Shoemaker, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sperhake, U.; Szilágyi, B.; Taylor, N. W.; Tichy, W.; Tsatsin, P.; Zlochower, Y.
2014-06-01
The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave (GW) astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect GWs emitted from merging binary black holes (BBH) and recover their parameters with next-generation GW observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete BBH hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a ‘blind injection challenge’ similar to that conducted in recent Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo science runs, we added seven hybrid waveforms to two months of data recoloured to predictions of Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo (AdV) sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analysed by GW detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered with false alarm rates smaller than 1 in a thousand years. Parameter-estimation algorithms were run on each of these waveforms to explore the ability to constrain the masses, component angular momenta and sky position of these waveforms. We find that the strong degeneracy between the mass ratio and the BHs’ angular momenta will make it difficult to precisely estimate these parameters with aLIGO and AdV. We also perform a large-scale Monte Carlo study to assess the ability to recover each of the 60 hybrid waveforms with early aLIGO and AdV sensitivity curves. Our results predict that early aLIGO and AdV will have a volume-weighted average sensitive distance of 300 Mpc (1 Gpc) for 10M⊙ + 10M⊙ (50M⊙ + 50M⊙) BBH coalescences. We demonstrate that neglecting the component angular momenta in the waveform models used in matched-filtering will result in a reduction in sensitivity for systems with large component angular momenta. This
Hamschin, Brandon M; Loughlin, Patrick J
2015-11-01
This work considers the design of optimal, energy-constrained transmit signals for active sensing for the case when the designer has incomplete or uncertain knowledge of the target and/or environment. The mathematical formulation is that of a multi-objective optimization problem, wherein one can incorporate a plurality of potential targets, interference, or clutter models and in doing so take advantage of the wide range of results in the literature related to modeling each. It is shown, via simulation, that when the objective function of the optimization problem is chosen to maximize the minimum (i.e., maxmin) probability of detection among all possible model combinations, the optimal waveforms obtained are advantageous. The advantage results because the maxmin waveforms judiciously allocate energy to spectral regions where each of the target models respond strongly and each of the environmental models affect minimal detection performance degradation. In particular, improved detection performance is shown compared to linear frequency modulated transmit signals and compared to signals designed with the wrong target spectrum assumed. Additionally, it is shown that the maxmin design yields performance comparable to an optimal design matched to the correct target/environmental model. Finally, it is proven that the maxmin problem formulation is convex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Fullea, J.; Pease, V.
2015-12-01
Thermal structure of the lithosphere is reflected in the values of seismic velocities within it. Our new tomographic models of the crust and upper mantle of the Arctic are constrained by an unprecedentedly large global waveform dataset and provide substantially improved resolution, compared to previous models. The new tomography reveals lateral variations in the temperature and thickness of the lithosphere and defines deep boundaries between tectonic blocks with different lithospheric properties and age. The shape and evolution of the geotherm beneath a tectonic unit depends on both crustal and mantle-lithosphere structure beneath it: the lithospheric thickness and its changes with time (these determine the supply of heat from the deep Earth), the crustal thickness and heat production (the supply of heat from within the crust), and the thickness and thermal conductivity of the sedimentary cover (the insulation). Detailed thermal structure of the basins can be modelled by combining seismic velocities from tomography with data on the crustal structure and heat production, in the framework of computational petrological modelling. The most prominent lateral contrasts across the Arctic are between the cold, thick lithospheres of the cratons (in North America, Greenland and Eurasia) and the warmer, non-cratonic blocks. The lithosphere of the Canada Basin is cold and thick, similar to old oceanic lithosphere elsewhere around the world; its thermal structure offers evidence on its lithospheric age and formation mechanism. At 150-250 km depth, the central Arctic region shows a moderate low-velocity anomaly, cooler than that beneath Iceland and N Atlantic. An extension of N Atlantic low-velocity anomaly into the Arctic through the Fram Strait may indicate an influx of N Atlantic asthenosphere under the currently opening Eurasia Basin.
Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: A gravitational waveform amplitude model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D.; Shibata, Masaru
2015-10-01
The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, and "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave detection, to extract information on the equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates, and to determine the conditions under which these systems are plausible candidates as central engines of gamma-ray bursts and macronovae/kilonovae.
Perception of stochastically undersampled sound waveforms: a model of auditory deafferentation
Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Barrios, Pablo
2013-01-01
Auditory deafferentation, or permanent loss of auditory nerve afferent terminals, occurs after noise overexposure and aging and may accompany many forms of hearing loss. It could cause significant auditory impairment but is undetected by regular clinical tests and so its effects on perception are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize and test a neural mechanism by which deafferentation could deteriorate perception. The basic idea is that the spike train produced by each auditory afferent resembles a stochastically digitized version of the sound waveform and that the quality of the waveform representation in the whole nerve depends on the number of aggregated spike trains or auditory afferents. We reason that because spikes occur stochastically in time with a higher probability for high- than for low-intensity sounds, more afferents would be required for the nerve to faithfully encode high-frequency or low-intensity waveform features than low-frequency or high-intensity features. Deafferentation would thus degrade the encoding of these features. We further reason that due to the stochastic nature of nerve firing, the degradation would be greater in noise than in quiet. This hypothesis is tested using a vocoder. Sounds were filtered through ten adjacent frequency bands. For the signal in each band, multiple stochastically subsampled copies were obtained to roughly mimic different stochastic representations of that signal conveyed by different auditory afferents innervating a given cochlear region. These copies were then aggregated to obtain an acoustic stimulus. Tone detection and speech identification tests were performed by young, normal-hearing listeners using different numbers of stochastic samplers per frequency band in the vocoder. Results support the hypothesis that stochastic undersampling of the sound waveform, inspired by deafferentation, impairs speech perception in noise more than in quiet, consistent with auditory aging effects. PMID:23882176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; Chua, Alvin; George, Daniel; Haas, Roland; Hinder, Ian; Kumar, Prayush; Moore, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Harald
2017-01-01
We recently constructed an inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) waveform model to describe the dynamical evolution of compact binaries on eccentric orbits, and used this model to constrain the eccentricity with which the gravitational wave transients currently detected by LIGO could be effectively recovered with banks of quasi-circular templates. We now present the second generation of this model, which is calibrated using a large catalog of eccentric numerical relativity simulations. We discuss the new features of this model, and show that its enhance accuracy makes it a powerful tool to detect eccentric signals with LIGO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J. R.; Mani, R.; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.
2011-06-01
Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data—a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis—with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques.
Jacobs, Jonathan B; Dell'Osso, Louis F
2004-07-27
Attempts to simulate dysfunction within ocular motor system (OMS) models capable of exhibiting known ocular motor behavior have provided valuable insight into the structure of the OMS required for normal visual function. The pendular waveforms of congenital nystagmus (CN) appear to be quite complex, composed of a sustained sinusoidal oscillation punctuated by braking saccades and foveating saccades followed by periods of extended foveation. Previously, we verified that these quick phases are generated by the same mechanism as voluntary saccades. We propose a computer model of the ocular motor system that simulates the responses of individuals with pendular CN (including its variable waveforms) based on the instability exhibited by the normal pursuit subsystem and its interaction with other components of the normal ocular motor control system. Fixation data from subjects with CN using both infrared and magnetic search coil oculography were used as templates for our simulations. Our OMS model simulates data from individuals with CN during fixation and in response to complex stimuli. The use of position and velocity efference copy to suppress oscillopsia is the key element in allowing for normal ocular motor behavior. The model's responses to target steps, pulse-steps, ramps, and step-ramps support the hypothetical explanation for the conditions that result in sustained pendular oscillation and the rules for the corrective saccadic responses that shape this underlying oscillation into the well-known family of pendular CN waveforms: pendular (P), pseudopendular (PP), pendular with foveating saccades (Pfs), and pseudopendular with foveating saccades (PPfs). Position error determined the saccadic amplitudes of foveating saccades, whereas stereotypical braking saccades were not dependent on visual information. Additionally, we propose a structure and method of operation for the fixation subsystem, and use it to prolong the low-velocity intervals immediately following
Hall, Marshall V
2015-08-01
An analytical model has been developed for the pile vibration and consequent sound pressure and particle velocity radiated underwater when an offshore cylindrical pile is struck by a drop hammer. The model, which is based on the coupled equations of motion for axial and radial vibration of a thin cylindrical shell, yields frequency-dependent phase velocity and attenuation of these vibrations. The amplitude of the pulse of axial and radial displacement that travels down a pile following an axial impact is described in terms of the hammer properties. Solutions are obtained for the radiated sound pressure and particle velocity, using Junger and Feit's Transform Formulation of the Pressure Field of Cylindrical Radiators [(Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1993), p. 216]. The model is applied to published data on radiated noise from offshore driving of a steel pile. The modeled pressure waveforms at 12-m horizontal range and at 9 hydrophone depths correlate significantly with the measured waveforms. The modeled pressures of the initial positive peaks (appropriately low-pass filtered) agree with data to within 1 dB. The initial negative peaks however exceed the data by up to 7 dB, and as hydrophone depth increases, the model negative peaks have a maximum at 7 m, whereas the data have a maximum at 9 m.
Improved Analysis of GW150914 Using a Fully Spin-Precessing Waveform Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, C.; Casentini, J.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; Vano-Vinuales, A.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügmann, B.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, M.; Haas, R.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; Ossokine, S.; Pan, Y.; Röver, C.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-10-01
This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015 [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).]. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).] presented parameter estimation of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom) and an 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB) model calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations, which forces spin alignment (nonprecessing EOBNR). Here, we present new results that include a 15-dimensional precessing-spin waveform model (precessing EOBNR) developed within the EOB formalism. We find good agreement with the parameters estimated previously [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).], and we quote updated component masses of 35-3+5 M⊙ and 3 0-4+3 M⊙ (where errors correspond to 90% symmetric credible intervals). We also present slightly tighter constraints on the dimensionless spin magnitudes of the two black holes, with a primary spin estimate <0.65 and a secondary spin estimate <0.75 at 90% probability. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).] estimated the systematic parameter-extraction errors due to waveform-model uncertainty by combining the posterior probability densities of precessing IMRPhenom and nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we find that the two precessing-spin models are in closer agreement, suggesting that these systematic errors are smaller than previously quoted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierre, C.
2015-12-01
The Earthscope TA deployment across the continental United-State (US) has reached its eastern part, providing the opportunity for high-resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere across the entire north-American continent (NA). Previously (Yuan et al., 2014), we presented a 3D radially anisotropic shear wave (Vs) model of North America (NA) lithospheric mantle based on full waveform tomography, combining teleseismic and regional distance data sampling the NA. Regional wavefield computations were performed numerically, using a regional Spectral Element code (RegSEM, Cupillard et al., 2012), while teleseismic computations were performed approximately, using non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1995). For both datasets, the inversion was performed iteratively, using a Gauss-Newton scheme, with kernels computed using either NACT or the surface wave, path average approximation (PAVA), depending on the source-station distance. We here present a new radially anisotropic lithospheric/asthenospheric model of Vs for NA based entirely on SEM-based numerical waveforms from an augmented dataset of 155 regional events and 70 teleseismic events. The forward wavefield computations are performed using RegSEM down to 40s, starting from our most recent whole mantle 3D radially anisotropic Vs model (SEMUCB-wm1, French and Romanowicz, 2014). To model teleseismic wavefields within our regional computational domain, we developed a new modeling technique which allows us to replace a distant source by virtual sources at the boundary of the computational domain (Masson et al., 2014). Computing virtual sources requires one global simulation per teleseismic events.We then compare two models obtained: one using NACT/PAVA kernels as in our previous work, and another using hybrid kernels, where the Hessian is computed using NACT/PAVA, but the gradient is computed numerically from the adjoint wavefield, providing more accurate kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Obayashi, M.; Tono, Y.
2013-12-01
May 24, 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake (Mw 8.3, depth 640km NEIC) is not only one of the largest events in this general region but also one of the largest deep earthquakes ever recorded. We apply the waveform inversion technique (Kikuchi & Kanamori, 1991) to obtain slip distribution in the source fault of this earthquake in the same manner as our previous work (Nakamura et al., 2010). We use 57 broadband seismograms of IRIS GSN seismic stations with epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees. The broadband original data are integrated into ground displacement and band-pass filtered in the frequency band 0.002-1 Hz. Assuming 1D velocity model and the fault size of 135 x 135 km (along strike and dip, respectively), we obtain source rupture model for both nodal planes with high dip angle (81 degree) and low dip angle (10 degree). In order to determine which source rupture model would explain the observations, we calculate broadband synthetic seismograms with these source models for a realistic 3D Earth model using the spectral-element method (Komatitsch & Tromp, 2001). We performed the simulations on 24,576 processors in 3072 nodes of the K-computer in RIKEN. We use a mesh with 200 million spectral-elements, for a total of 13 billion global integration grid points. This translates into an approximate grid spacing of 2.0 km along the Earth's surface. On this number of nodes, a simulation of 50 minutes of wave propagation accurate at periods of 4.5 seconds and longer requires about 5 hours of CPU time. The comparison of the synthetic waveforms with the observation shows that the source rupture model with the low dip angle fault plane better explains the observation especially at stations, which locate south of the epicenter. Our results indicate that the source rupture of this deep earthquake occurred along the horizontal fault plane inside the subducting pacific plate.
Etchemendy, Pablo E; Eguia, Manuel C; Mesz, Bruno
2014-03-01
In this work, the overall perceived pitch (principal pitch) of pure tones modulated in frequency with an asymmetric waveform is studied. The dependence of the principal pitch on the degree of asymmetric modulation was obtained from a psychophysical experiment. The modulation waveform consisted of a flat portion of constant frequency and two linear segments forming a peak. Consistent with previous results, significant pitch shifts with respect to the time-averaged geometric mean were observed. The direction of the shifts was always toward the flat portion of the modulation. The results from the psychophysical experiment, along with those obtained from previously reported studies, were compared with the predictions of six models of pitch perception proposed in the literature. Even though no single model was able to predict accurately the perceived pitch for all experiments, there were two models that give robust predictions that are within the range of acceptable tuning of modulated tones for almost all the cases. Both models point to the existence of an underlying "stability sensitive" mechanism for the computation of pitch that gives more weight to the portion of the stimuli where the frequency is changing more slowly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satake, Kenji; Nishimura, Yuichi; Putra, Purna Sulastya; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Sunendar, Haris; Fujii, Yushiro; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Latief, Hamzah; Yulianto, Eko
2013-09-01
The 2010 Mentawai earthquake (magnitude 7.7) generated a destructive tsunami that caused more than 500 casualties in the Mentawai Islands, west of Sumatra, Indonesia. Seismological analyses indicate that this earthquake was an unusual "tsunami earthquake," which produces much larger tsunamis than expected from the seismic magnitude. We carried out a field survey to measure tsunami heights and inundation distances, an inversion of tsunami waveforms to estimate the slip distribution on the fault, and inundation modeling to compare the measured and simulated tsunami heights. The measured tsunami heights at eight locations on the west coasts of North and South Pagai Island ranged from 2.5 to 9.3 m, but were mostly in the 4-7 m range. At three villages, the tsunami inundation extended more than 300 m. Interviews of local residents indicated that the earthquake ground shaking was less intense than during previous large earthquakes and did not cause any damage. Inversion of tsunami waveforms recorded at nine coastal tide gauges, a nearby GPS buoy, and a DART station indicated a large slip (maximum 6.1 m) on a shallower part of the fault near the trench axis, a distribution similar to other tsunami earthquakes. The total seismic moment estimated from tsunami waveform inversion was 1.0 × 1021 Nm, which corresponded to Mw 7.9. Computed coastal tsunami heights from this tsunami source model using linear equations are similar to the measured tsunami heights. The inundation heights computed by using detailed bathymetry and topography data and nonlinear equations including inundation were smaller than the measured ones. This may have been partly due to the limited resolution and accuracy of publically available bathymetry and topography data. One-dimensional run-up computations using our surveyed topography profiles showed that the computed heights were roughly similar to the measured ones.
Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: A model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru
2013-10-01
Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case—considered in this paper—in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, “mild,” and “strong” tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates in second- and third-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We plan to extend and improve the model as longer and more accurate gravitational waveforms become available, and we will make it publicly available online as a Mathematica package. We also present in the Appendix analytical fits of the projected KAGRA noise spectral density, which should be useful in data analysis applications.
Gomberg, J.S.; Masters, T. Guy
1988-01-01
We have developed algorithms for modelling seismic waveforms to constrain regional Earth structure. The seismogram is represented as a sum of locked-mode travelling waves in a layered medium. This representation is convenient as it allows us to model structures with slowly varying heterogeneity and to construct differential seismograms. Describes the techniques we have implemented that enable us to compute synthetic and differential seismograms in an efficient and stable manner. The computational methods are sufficiently rapid that many modes can be included and in some cases the entire seismogram may be modified. These algorithms are applied to model a set of seismograms of southern Mexican earthquakes recorded in northern Mexico. The frequency bandwidth of these data is centred at 0.067 Hz and we demonstrate that even at these relatively high frequencies, many features of the seismogram can be successfully modelled. Our results suggest that the structure within the recording array in northern Mexico is resolvably different from that to the south. We find that the average shear velocity of the lower lithosphere of southern Mexico is very low, approximately 4.3 km s-1. If the low-velocity region is confined to the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, the shear velocities between 20-80 km depth are approximately 3.3 km s-1. This may be correlated with partial melt and is consistent with the active volcanism and high heat flow found in the region. -Authors
Propagation of Impulse-Like Waveforms Through the Ionosphere Modeled by Cold Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri, D. V.; Dvorak, S. L.
In this chapter, we have studied the propagation of short, impulse-like pulses propagating through the ionosphere. The ionosphere is modeled by simple, cold plasma. The impulse response of such a plasma model is known to consist of two terms. The first term is the impulse itself and the second term contains a Bessel function of first order. This means that the impulse propagates as an impulse followed by a long, oscillatory tail. The numerical example studied here is that of the prototype impulse radiating antenna (IRA). Closed-form expressions are developed for the prototype IRA waveform propagation through the cold-plasma model of the ionosphere. The results are cross-checked with numerical evaluation via a convolution process that uses the known impulse response.
Waveform prediction with travel time model LLNL-G3D assessed by Spectral-Element simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, C.; Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.
2013-12-01
Seismic monitoring requires accurate prediction of travel times, amplitudes, and whole waveforms. As a first step towards developing a model that is suited to seismic monitoring, LLNL developed the LLNL-G3D P-wave travel time model (Simmons et al., 2012, JGR) to improve seismic event location accuracy. LLNL-G3D fulfills the need to predict travel times from events occurring anywhere in the globe to stations ranging from local to teleseismic distances. Prediction over this distance range requires explicit inclusion of detailed 3-dimensional structure from Earths surface to the core. An open question is how well a model optimized to fit P-wave travel time data can predict waveforms? We begin to address this question by using the P-wave velocities in LLNL-G3D as a proxy for S-wave velocity and density, then performing waveform simulations via the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE spectral-element code. We assess the ability of LLNL-G3D to predict waveforms and draw comparisons to other 3D models available in SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package and widely used in the scientific community. Although we do not expect the P-wave model to perform as well as waveform based models, we view our effort as a first step towards accurate prediction of time times, amplitudes and full waveforms based on a single model. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Helmberger, Don; Wei, Shengji; Huang, Yihe; Graves, Robert W.
2015-12-01
Results from the 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake display a complex rupture pattern, with most of the high-frequency energy radiated from the downdip edge of the seismogenic zone and very little from the large shallow rupture. Current seismic results of smaller earthquakes in this region are confusing due to disagreements among event catalogs on both the event locations (>30 km horizontally) and mechanisms. Here we present an in-depth study of a series of intraslab earthquakes that occurred in a localized region near the downdip edge of the main shock. We explore the validity of 1D velocity model and refine earthquake source parameters for selected key events by performing broadband waveform modeling combining regional networks. These refined source parameters are then used to calibrate paths and further simulate secondary source properties, such as rupture directivity and fault dimension. Calculation of stress changes caused by the main event indicate that the region where these intraslab events occurred are prone to thrust events. This group of intraslab earthquakes suggest the reactivation of a subducted normal fault, and are potentially useful in enhancing our understanding on the downdip shear zone and large outer-rise events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dziewonski, A. M.; Chou, T.-A.; Woodhouse, J. H.
1981-04-01
It is possible to use the waveform data not only to derive the source mechanism of an earthquake but also to establish the hypocentral coordinates of the `best point source' (the centroid of the stress glut density) at a given frequency. Thus two classical problems of seismology are combined into a single procedure. Given an estimate of the origin time, epicentral coordinates and depth, an initial moment tensor is derived using one of the variations of the method described in detail by Gilbert and Dziewonski (1975). This set of parameters represents the starting values for an iterative procedure in which perturbations to the elements of the moment tensor are found simultaneously with changes in the hypocentral parameters. In general, the method is stable, and convergence rapid. Although the approach is a general one, we present it here in the context of the analysis of long-period body wave data recorded by the instruments of the SRO and ASRO digital network. It appears that the upper magnitude limit of earthquakes that can be processed using this particular approach is between 7.5 and 8.0; the lower limit is, at this time, approximately 5.5, but it could be extended by broadening the passband of the analysis to include energy with periods shorter that 45 s. As there are hundreds of earthquakes each year with magnitudes exceeding 5.5, the seismic source mechanism can now be studied in detail not only for major events but also, for example, for aftershock series. We have investigated the foreshock and several aftershocks of the Sumba earthquake of August 19, 1977; the results show temporal variation of the stress regime in the fault area of the main shock. An area some 150 km to the northwest of the epicenter of the main event became seismically active 49 days later. The sense of the strike-slip mechanism of these events is consistent with the relaxation of the compressive stress in the plate north of the Java trench. Another geophysically interesting result of our
Probabilistic terrain models from waveform airborne LiDAR: AutoProbaDTM project results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalobeanu, A.; Goncalves, G. R.
2012-12-01
The main objective of the AutoProbaDTM project was to develop new methods for automated probabilistic topographic map production using the latest LiDAR scanners. It included algorithmic development, implementation and validation over a 200 km2 test area in continental Portugal, representing roughly 100 GB of raw data and half a billion waveforms. We aimed to generate digital terrain models automatically, including ground topography as well as uncertainty maps, using Bayesian inference for model estimation and error propagation, and approaches based on image processing. Here we are presenting the results of the completed project (methodological developments and processing results from the test dataset). In June 2011, the test data were acquired in central Portugal, over an area of geomorphological and ecological interest, using a Riegl LMS-Q680i sensor. We managed to survey 70% of the test area at a satisfactory sampling rate, the angular spacing matching the laser beam divergence and the ground spacing nearly equal to the footprint (almost 4 pts/m2 for a 50cm footprint at 1500 m AGL). This is crucial for a correct processing as aliasing artifacts are significantly reduced. A reverse engineering had to be done as the data were delivered in a proprietary binary format, so we were able to read the waveforms and the essential parameters. A robust waveform processing method has been implemented and tested, georeferencing and geometric computations have been coded. Fast gridding and interpolation techniques have been developed. Validation is nearly completed, as well as geometric calibration, IMU error correction, full error propagation and large-scale DEM reconstruction. A probabilistic processing software package has been implemented and code optimization is in progress. This package includes new boresight calibration procedures, robust peak extraction modules, DEM gridding and interpolation methods, and means to visualize the produced uncertain surfaces (topography
2007-11-02
This paper was trying to find out a suitable hydraulic model for studying the frequency characteristics between blood pressure waveforms and systemic...were used as organs. We used two kinds of tubes to test the hydraulic model and tried to find out suitable material to stimulate the aorta and its
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mégnin, Charles; Romanowicz, Barbara
1999-08-01
Most global tomographic models to date are derived using a combination of surface wave (or normal-mode) data and body wave traveltime data. The traveltime approach limits the number of phases available for inversion by requiring them to be isolated on the seismogram. This may ultimately result in limiting the resolution of 3-D structure, at least in some depth ranges in the mantle. In a previous study, we successfully derived a degree 12 whole-mantle SH-velocity tomographic model (SAW12D) using exclusively waveform data. In that inversion, a normal-mode formalism suitable for body waveforms, the non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), was combined with a body wave windowing scheme, referred to as the `individual wavepacket' (IW) technique, which allows one to assign individual weights to different body wave energy packets. We here compare the relative merits of this choice of theoretical formalism and windowing scheme at different depth ranges in the mantle. Choosing as the reference a model obtained using 7500 transverse-component body wave and 8000 surface wave seismograms and the NACT and IW approaches, we discuss the relative performance of the path average approximation (PAVA), a zeroth-order theoretical approximation appropriate for single-mode surface waves, relative to NACT, and compare the IW windowing scheme with a more standard `full window' (FW) approach, in which a single time window is considered from the first body wave arrival to the fundamental-mode surface waves. The combination PAVA/FW is often used in global tomography to supplement the traveltime data. We show that although the quality of the image derived under the PAVA/FW formalism is very similar to that derived under NACT/IW in the first 300 km of the upper mantle, where the resolution is dominated by surface waves, it deteriorates at greater depths. Images of the lower mantle are shown to be strongly sensitive to the theoretical formalism. In contrast, the resolution of structure
Idealized digital models for conical reed instruments, with focus on the internal pressure waveform.
Kergomard, J; Guillemain, P; Silva, F; Karkar, S
2016-02-01
Two models for the generation of self-oscillations of reed conical woodwinds are presented. The models use the fewest parameters (of either the resonator or the exciter), whose influence can be quickly explored. The formulation extends iterated maps obtained for lossless cylindrical pipes without reed dynamics. It uses spherical wave variables in idealized resonators, with one parameter more than for cylinders: the missing length of the cone. The mouthpiece volume equals that of the missing part of the cone, and is implemented as either a cylindrical pipe (first model) or a lumped element (second model). Only the first model adds a length parameter for the mouthpiece and leads to the solving of an implicit equation. For the second model, any shape of nonlinear characteristic can be directly considered. The complex characteristic impedance for spherical waves requires sampling times smaller than a round trip in the resonator. The convergence of the two models is shown when the length of the cylindrical mouthpiece tends to zero. The waveform is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. It is concluded that the oscillations of the positive episode of the mouthpiece pressure are related to the length of the missing part, not to the reed dynamics.
Chen, Yu; Gao, Kai; Huang, Lianjie; Sabin, Andrew
2016-03-31
Accurate imaging and characterization of fracture zones is crucial for geothermal energy exploration. Aligned fractures within fracture zones behave as anisotropic media for seismic-wave propagation. The anisotropic properties in fracture zones introduce extra difficulties for seismic imaging and waveform inversion. We have recently developed a new anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion method using a modified total-variation regularization scheme and a wave-energy-base preconditioning technique. Our new inversion method uses the parameterization of elasticity constants to describe anisotropic media, and hence it can properly handle arbitrary anisotropy. We apply our new inversion method to a seismic velocity model along a 2D-line seismic data acquired at Eleven-Mile Canyon located at the Southern Dixie Valley in Nevada for geothermal energy exploration. Our inversion results show that anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion has potential to reconstruct subsurface anisotropic elastic parameters for imaging and characterization of fracture zones.
Direct Waveform Inversion: a New Recursive Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Y.
2015-12-01
The goal of the full-waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an Earth's model such that the synthetic waveforms computed using the model fit the observed ones. In practice, such a model is found in the context of the perturbation approach in an iterative fashion. Specifically, to find such a model, one starts from an initial global velocity model and perform model updating iteratively based on the Frechet derivative or single scattering by adjoint methods to minimize some cost function. However, this process often leads to local minima for the nonlinear cost function in the optimization and slow or no convergence when the starting model is far from the true model. To solve for the initial-model dependence and the convergence issue, we show a new direct waveform inversion (DWI) idea to directly invert the waveform data recursively by explicitly enforcing the causality principle. The DWI offers the advantage of assuming no global initial model and no iteration is needed for the model updating. Starting from the source-receiver region, the DWI builds the model outward recursively by fitting the earliest part of the reflection waveforms and the DWI process is always convergent. The DWI combines seismic imaging and velocity model building into one single process and this is in contrast to many industrial applications where seismic imaging/migration and velocity modeling building are done alternatively. The DWI idea is applicable to one-, two-, and three-dimensional spaces. We show numerical examples to support our idea using full waveform data including both free-surface and inter-bed multiples. Using reflection seismic data, we show that the DWI can invert for both velocity and density, separately.
Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring
2008-09-01
velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and...ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D...existing models perform in predicting the various regional phases, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and Pnl waves. Previous events from this Basin-and-Range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.
2006-12-01
Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Igel, H.; Bunge, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.
2006-12-01
For solving inverse problems, forward modeling is needed to obtain predictions for a current set of model parameters. The sophisticated numerical full waveform modeling tools, which are available for several years now, are still not fully applicable to seismological inversions. Thus, the question remains of how we can make use of such tools to learn more about the structure, physics and composition of the Earth. We demonstrate an approach to obtain earth-like seismograms from pure forward modeling. 3D global wave propagation is simulated for a geodynamically derived mantle model (mantle circulation modeling, Bunge et al. 2002). Temperatures from the geodynamic modeling are converted to seismic velocities using a thermodynamically self-consistent mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite) our mineralogic modeling algorithm computes the stable phases at each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Through the same equations of state (EOS) that model the Gibbs free energy of phases, we compute elastic moduli and density. For this we built a mineral physics database based on calorimetric experiments (enthalpy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and equation of state parameters. The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity models independently from seismological observations but based on physical grounds. The resulting seismograms are therefore "physically plausible" and can be compared directly to real data. In this way, one can test various hypothesis about the deep mantle. Additionally, this approach may provide a means to identify new observables of the wave field which are sensitive to geodynamical or physical parameters.
Ikuma, Takeshi; Kunduk, Melda; McWhorter, Andrew J
2012-09-01
High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) enables the observation and measurement of vibratory behaviors of vocal folds by capturing the laryngeal imagery at high frame rates. The frame rates of commercially available HSVs, however, are still limited to carry out sample-based time-domain objective analyses. To mitigate the resulting lack of temporal resolution, existing studies have employed sum-of-harmonics parametric models to evaluate temporal vocal-fold behaviors. This paper focuses on the other weakness of HSV: its inherent susceptibility to temporal aliasing. Aliasing occurs when there are substantial harmonics above the Nyquist frequency of the HSV camera, and video cameras offer very little means to filter out these harmonics. Although the aliasing effect in HSV data minimally affects many of the laryngeal objective parameter measurements, some parameters, such as harmonics-to-noise ratio and derivative-based parameters, are sensitive to the aliased content. The use of a parametric model with a careful selection of the number of harmonics enables classification of the aliased harmonics as a part of the harmonic signal. Glottal area waveform examples are included to illustrate the modeling capability for cases of normal and disordered vocal folds.
An automated local and regional seismic event location method based on waveform stacking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.
2013-12-01
Seismic event location using automated procedures is a very important task in microseismic monitoring as well as within early warning applications. Increasingly large datasets recorded by dense network has recently favoured the development of different automated location methods. These methods are requested to be noise robust, since microseismic records are often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the aforementioned standard automated location routines rely on automated phase picking and seismic phases identification (generally only P and S) and are generally based on the minimization of the residuals between the theoretical and observed arrival times of the main seismic phases. While different developed approaches allow to accurately pick P onsets, the automatic picking of the S onsets is still challenging, and posing a significant limit to the location performance. We present here a picking free location method based on the use of different characteristic functions, able to identify P and S phases. Both characteristic functions are based on the Short-Term-Average/Long-Term-Average (STA/LTA) traces. For P phases, we use as characteristic function the STA/LTA trace of the vertical energy function, whereas for the S phases we use the STA/LTA traces of a function obtained using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In order to locate a seismic event, the space of possible locations is scanned and both P and S characteristic functions are stacked along travel time surfaces corresponding to the selected hypocenter. Iterating this procedure on a three-dimensional grid we retrieve a multidimensional matrix whose absolute maximum corresponds tot he coordinates of the seismic event. We show the performance of our method with different applications, at different scales: 1) s set of low magnitude events recorded by a local network in southern Italy and 2) a set of seismic events recorded by a regional seismic network in Turkey. This work has
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hongchao; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Suyuan
2017-04-01
Full waveform airborne Light Detection And Ranging(LiDAR) data contains abundant information which may overcome some deficiencies of discrete LiDAR point cloud data provided by conventional LiDAR systems. Processing full waveform data to extract more information than coordinate values alone is of great significance for potential applications. The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm is a traditional method used to estimate parameters of a Gaussian model when Gaussian decomposition of full waveform LiDAR data is performed. This paper employs the generalized Gaussian mixture function to fit a waveform, and proposes using the grouping LM algorithm to optimize the parameters of the function. It is shown that the grouping LM algorithm overcomes the common drawbacks which arise from the conventional LM for parameter optimization, such as the final results being influenced by the initial parameters, possible algorithm interruption caused by non-numerical elements that occurred in the Jacobian matrix, etc. The precision of the point cloud generated by the grouping LM is evaluated by comparing it with those provided by the LiDAR system and those generated by the conventional LM. Results from both simulation and real data show that the proposed algorithm can generate a higher-quality point cloud, in terms of point density and precision, and can extract other information, such as echo location, pulse width, etc., more precisely as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinonen, S.; Heinonen, M.; Koivisto, E.
2012-04-01
Reflection seismic data acquired in hard-rock terrains are often difficult to interpret due to complex geological architecture of the target areas. Even fairly simple geological structures, such as folds, can be difficult to identify from the seismic profiles because the reflection method is only able to image the sub-horizontal fold hinges, and no reflections arise from the steep fold limbs. Furthermore, typically acquisition lines in the hard-rock areas are crooked, and the data can rarely be acquired perpendicular to the strikes of the structures, if the strikes are even known. These further complicate the interpretation, because conventional processing techniques fail to compensate for the associated distortions in the ray paths. Full waveform seismic forward modeling can be used to facilitate the interpretations, to help to find optimal processing algorithms for specific structures, and also to guide the planning of a seismic survey. Recent increases in computational power and development of softwares make full wavefield forward modeling possible also for more complex, realistic geological models. In this study, we use Sofi3D-software for seismic forward modeling of 2D reflection seismic data acquired along a crooked acquisition line over a 3D fold structure. The model presents the structures previously interpreted in the Pyhäsalmi VHMS deposit, central Finland. Density, P and S-wave velocities required for the modeling are derived from in-situ drill hole logging data from the Pyhäsalmi mining camp, and Paradigm GoCad is used to build the geological 3D models. Meaningful modeling results require a sufficiently dense modeling grid, however, increasing the grid density comes at the cost of increased running time of the Sofi3D. Thus, careful parameter selection needs to be done before running the forward modeling. The results of the forward modeling aim to facilitate the interpretation of the 2D reflection seismic data available from Pyhäsalmi mining camp. The
Anisotropic Elastic-Waveform Modeling for Fracture Characterization in EGS Reservoirs
Gao, Kai; Huang, Lianjie
2015-01-28
Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) contain newly created fractures in addition to possible existing fractures. Accurate characterization and monitoring of EGS reservoirs are crucial for optimal placement of new wells and effective extraction of geothermal heat. The fractured reservoirs behave as anisotropic media where seismic waves propagate with different velocities along different directions. In addition, the anisotropic properties of fluid-filled fracture zones could be different from those of dry fracture zones. We develop an optimized rotated staggered-grid elastic-wave finite-difference method for simulating seismic-wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media. Our new method uses a few extra grid points and optimized finite-difference coefficients based on the space-time dispersion relation, and reduce numerical dispersion of the conventional rotated staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. We validate our new method using synthetic vertical-seismic-profiling (VSP) data for an anisotropic geophysical model built with geologic features found at the Raft River EGS reservoir. This improved and optimized rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method provides an essential tool for analyzing VSP data, reverse-time migration, and elastic-waveform inversion in anisotropic, fractured reservoirs.
Al Hatib, F; Trendafilova, E; Daskalov, I
2000-02-01
The transthoracic electrical impedance is an important defibrillation parameter, affecting the defibrillating current amplitude and energy, and therefore the defibrillation efficiency. A close relationship between transthoracic impedance and defibrillation success rate was observed. Pre-shock measurements (using low amplitude high frequency current) of the impedance were considered a solution for selection of adequate shock voltages or for current-based defibrillation dosage. A recent approach, called 'impedance-compensating defibrillation' was implemented, where the pulse duration was controlled with respect to the impedance measured during the initial phase of the shock. These considerations raised our interest in reassessment of the transthoracic impedance characteristics and the corresponding measurement methods. The purpose of this work is to study the variations of the transthoracic impedance by a continuous measurement technique during the defibrillation shock and comparing the data with results obtained by modelling. Voltage and current impulse waveforms were acquired during cardioversion of patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter. The same type of defibrillation pulse was taken from dogs after induction of fibrillation. The electrodes were located in the anterior position, for both the patients and animals.
Effects of Forest Disturbances on Forest Structural Parameters Retrieval from Lidar Waveform Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ranson, K, Lon; Sun, G.
2011-01-01
The effect of forest disturbance on the lidar waveform and the forest biomass estimation was demonstrated by model simulation. The results show that the correlation between stand biomass and the lidar waveform indices changes when the stand spatial structure changes due to disturbances rather than the natural succession. This has to be considered in developing algorithms for regional or global mapping of biomass from lidar waveform data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
The SOLAR TRANSITION REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The transition region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the transition regi...
Modeling the transition region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, Bart A.
1994-04-01
The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the transition region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the transition region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better transition-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the transition region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the transitional flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the transition region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for transitional flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ocasio, W. C.; Rigney, D. R.; Clark, K. P.; Mark, R. G.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)
1993-01-01
We describe the theory and computer implementation of a newly-derived mathematical model for analyzing the shape of blood pressure waveforms. Input to the program consists of an ECG signal, plus a single continuous channel of peripheral blood pressure, which is often obtained invasively from an indwelling catheter during intensive-care monitoring or non-invasively from a tonometer. Output from the program includes a set of parameter estimates, made for every heart beat. Parameters of the model can be interpreted in terms of the capacitance of large arteries, the capacitance of peripheral arteries, the inertance of blood flow, the peripheral resistance, and arterial pressure due to basal vascular tone. Aortic flow due to contraction of the left ventricle is represented by a forcing function in the form of a descending ramp, the area under which represents the stroke volume. Differential equations describing the model are solved by the method of Laplace transforms, permitting rapid parameter estimation by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Parameter estimates and their confidence intervals are given in six examples, which are chosen to represent a variety of pressure waveforms that are observed during intensive-care monitoring. The examples demonstrate that some of the parameters may fluctuate markedly from beat to beat. Our program will find application in projects that are intended to correlate the details of the blood pressure waveform with other physiological variables, pathological conditions, and the effects of interventions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wei; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean
2015-09-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims to reconstruct high-resolution subsurface models from the full wavefield, which includes diving waves, post-critical reflections and short-spread reflections. Most successful applications of FWI are driven by the information carried by diving waves and post-critical reflections to build the long-to-intermediate wavelengths of the velocity structure. Alternative approaches, referred to as reflection waveform inversion (RWI), have been recently revisited to retrieve these long-to-intermediate wavelengths from short-spread reflections by using some prior knowledge of the reflectivity and a scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the reflectivity. This study presents a unified formalism of FWI, named as Joint FWI, whose aim is to efficiently combine the diving and reflected waves for velocity model building. The two key ingredients of Joint FWI are, on the data side, the explicit separation between the short-spread reflections and the wide-angle arrivals and, on the model side, the scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the short-scale impedance model. The velocity model and the impedance model are updated in an alternate way by Joint FWI and waveform inversion of the reflection data (least-squares migration), respectively. Starting from a crude velocity model, Joint FWI is applied to the streamer seismic data computed in the synthetic Valhall model. While the conventional FWI is stuck into a local minimum due to cycle skipping, Joint FWI succeeds in building a reliable velocity macromodel. Compared with RWI, the use of diving waves in Joint FWI improves the reconstruction of shallow velocities, which translates into an improved imaging at deeper depths. The smooth velocity model built by Joint FWI can be subsequently used as a reliable initial model for conventional FWI to increase the high-wavenumber content of the velocity model.
Renormalized scattering series for frequency-domain waveform modelling of strong velocity contrasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakobsen, M.; Wu, R. S.
2016-08-01
An improved description of scattering and inverse scattering processes in reflection seismology may be obtained on the basis of a scattering series solution to the Helmoltz equation, which allows one to separately model primary and multiple reflections. However, the popular scattering series of Born is of limited seismic modelling value, since it is only guaranteed to converge if the global contrast is relatively small. For frequency-domain waveform modelling of realistic contrasts, some kind of renormalization may be required. The concept of renormalization is normally associated with quantum field theory, where it is absolutely essential for the treatment of infinities in connection with observable quantities. However, the renormalization program is also highly relevant for classical systems, especially when there are interaction effects that act across different length scales. In the scattering series of De Wolf, a renormalization of the Green's functions is achieved by a split of the scattering potential operator into fore- and backscattering parts; which leads to an effective reorganization and partially re-summation of the different terms in the Born series, so that their order better reflects the physics of reflection seismology. It has been demonstrated that the leading (single return) term in the De Wolf series (DWS) gives much more accurate results than the corresponding Born approximation, especially for models with high contrasts that lead to a large accumulation of phase changes in the forward direction. However, the higher order terms in the DWS that are associated with internal multiples have not been studied numerically before. In this paper, we report from a systematic numerical investigation of the convergence properties of the DWS which is based on two new operator representations of the DWS. The first operator representation is relatively similar to the original scattering potential formulation, but more global and explicit in nature. The second
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fichtner, Andreas; De Wit, Maarten; van Bergen, Manfred
2010-09-01
We provide new insight into the subduction of old continental lithosphere to depths of more than 100 km beneath the Banda arc, based on a spatial correlation of full waveform tomographic images of its lithosphere with He, Pb, Nd and Sr isotope signatures in its arc volcanics. The thickness of the subducted lithosphere of around 200 km coincides with the thickness of Precambrian lithosphere as inferred from surface wave tomography. While the deep subduction of continental material in continent-continent collisions is widely recognised, the analogue process in the arc-continent collision of the Banda region is currently unique. The integrated data suggest that the late Jurassic ocean lithosphere north of the North Australian craton was capable of entraining large volumes of continental lithosphere. The Banda arc example demonstrates that continental lithosphere in arc-continent collisions is not generally preserved, thus increasing the complexity of tectonic reconstructions. In the particular case of Timor, the tomographic images indicate that this island is not located directly above the northern margin of the North Australian craton, and that decoupled oceanic lithosphere must be located at a considerable distance north of Timor, possibly as far north as the northern margin of the volcanically extinct arc sector. The tomographic images combined with isotope data suggest that subduction of the continental lithosphere did not lead to the delamination of its complete crust. A plausible explanation involves delamination within the continental crust, separating upper from lower crustal units. This interpretation is consistent with the existence of a massive accretionary complex on Timor island, with evidence from Pb isotope analysis for lower-crust involvement in arc volcanism; and with the approximate gravitational stability of the subducted lithosphere as inferred from the tomographic images. The subduction of continental lithosphere including crustal material beneath
1977-08-01
For either target model and fixed trans - mit energy, the radar performance decreases as bandwidth increases. The performance decrease with bandwidth...Active Jamming From a radar waveform viewpoint, the wideband barrage jamming environment Is essentially Identical to the thermal noise...nificant radar energy is detected. A quantitative measure of the improvement achievable by wideband techniques is obtained by considering the case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao
Consideration of azimuthal anisotropy, at least to an orthorhombic symmetry is important in exploring the naturally fractured and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Full waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data can, in principle, provide more robust estimates of subsurface elastic parameters and density than the inversion of single component (P wave) seismic data. In addition, azimuthally dependent anisotropy can only be resolved by carefully studying the multicomponent seismic displacement data acquired and processed along different azimuths. Such an analysis needs an inversion algorithm capable of simultaneously optimizing multiple objectives, one for each data component along each azimuth. In this dissertation, I propose a novel multiobjective methodology using a parallelized version of NSGA II for waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data along two azimuths. The proposed methodology is also an improvement of the original NSGA II in overall computational efficiency, preservation of population diversity, and rapid sampling of the model space. Next, the proposed methodology is applied on wide azimuth and multicomponent vertical seismic profile (VSP) data to provide reliable estimation of subsurface anisotropy at and near the well location. Prestack waveform inversion was applied to the wide-azimuth multicomponent VSP data acquired at the Wattenberg Field, located in Denver Basin of northeastern Colorado, USA, to characterize the Niobrara formation for azimuthal anisotropy. By comparing the waveform inversion results with an independent study that used a joint slowness-polarization approach to invert the same data, we conclude that the waveform inversion is a reliable tool for inverting the wide-azimuth multicomponent VSP data for anisotropy estimation. Last but not least, an anisotropic elastic three-dimensional scheme for modeling the elastodynamic wavefield is developed in order to go beyond the 1D layering assumption being used in previous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Alessandro, Antonino; Mangano, Giorgio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Luzio, Dario
2013-09-01
In 2009 December, the OBSLab-INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) deployed an Ocean Bottom Seismometer with Hydrophone (OBS/H) near the epicentral area of the main shock of the Palermo seismic sequence of 2002. The monitoring activity had a total duration of about 8 months. During this experiment, the OBS/H recorded 247 very local microearthquakes, whose local magnitude is between -0.5 and 2.5 and TS - TP delay time between 0.2 and 5 s, almost all of which were undetected by the Italian National Seismic Network. This local microseismicity has been analysed using an innovative clustering technique that exploits the similarity between the waveforms generated by different events. The clustering technique implemented, based on hierarchical agglomerative algorithms, nearest neighbour technique and dendrogram representation, allowed us to identify nine distinct multiplets characterized by a high degree of similarity between the waveforms. The microevents were located through an improved single-station location (SSL) technique based on the polarization analysis of the 3C signals and on the estimation of the TS - TP time. In the new SSL technique, an unbiased covariance matrix was defined and a ray tracer-based determination of the epicentral distance and hypocentral depth was proposed. All the multiplets were generated by events with hypocentres that were very close to each other. However, not all the identified clusters are also clustered in the time-magnitude domain. It was also observed that some multiplets have clouds of hypocentres overlapping each other. These clusters, indistinguishable without the application of a waveforms clustering technique, show differences in the waveforms that must be attributed to differences in the focal mechanisms which generated the waveforms. The local seismic events recorded are typical of a seismicity generated by a volume characterized by a highly complex fracturing pattern and by an important role in the dynamics
Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen
2015-07-01
In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.
Chua, Yansong; Morrison, Abigail; Helias, Moritz
2015-01-01
Modeling the layer 5 pyramidal neuron as a system of three connected isopotential compartments, the soma, proximal, and distal compartment, with calcium spike dynamics in the distal compartment following first order kinetics, we are able to reproduce in-vitro experimental results which demonstrate the involvement of calcium spikes in action potentials generation. To explore how calcium spikes affect the neuronal output in-vivo, we emulate in-vivo like conditions by embedding the neuron model in a regime of low background fluctuations with occasional large synchronous inputs. In such a regime, a full calcium spike is only triggered by the synchronous events in a threshold like manner and has a stereotypical waveform. Hence, in such a regime, we are able to replace the calcium dynamics with a simpler threshold triggered current of fixed waveform, which is amenable to analytical treatment. We obtain analytically the mean somatic membrane potential excursion due to a calcium spike being triggered while in the fluctuating regime. Our analytical form that accounts for the covariance between conductances and the membrane potential shows a better agreement with simulation results than a naive first order approximation. PMID:26283954
Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang
2013-04-01
We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Blanchard, T. D.; Wang, G.-L.; Yuan, S.-Y.; Garcia, A.
2016-04-01
Extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs induces changes in pore pressure, leading not only to geomechanical changes, but also perturbations in seismic velocities and hence observable seismic attributes. Time-lapse seismic analysis can be used to estimate changes in subsurface hydromechanical properties and thus act as a monitoring tool for geological reservoirs. The ability to observe and quantify changes in fluid, stress and strain using seismic techniques has important implications for monitoring risk not only for petroleum applications but also for geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste scenarios. In this paper, we integrate hydromechanical simulation results with rock physics models and full-waveform seismic modelling to assess time-lapse seismic attribute resolution for dynamic reservoir characterization and hydromechanical model calibration. The time-lapse seismic simulations use a dynamic elastic reservoir model based on a North Sea deep reservoir undergoing large pressure changes. The time-lapse seismic traveltime shifts and time strains calculated from the modelled and processed synthetic data sets (i.e. pre-stack and post-stack data) are in a reasonable agreement with the true earth models, indicating the feasibility of using 1-D strain rock physics transform and time-lapse seismic processing methodology. Estimated vertical traveltime shifts for the overburden and the majority of the reservoir are within ±1 ms of the true earth model values, indicating that the time-lapse technique is sufficiently accurate for predicting overburden velocity changes and hence geomechanical effects. Characterization of deeper structure below the overburden becomes less accurate, where more advanced time-lapse seismic processing and migration is needed to handle the complex geometry and strong lateral induced velocity changes. Nevertheless, both migrated full-offset pre-stack and near-offset post-stack data image the general features of both the overburden and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, S.; Nakamura, T.; Miyoshi, T.
2015-12-01
May 30, 2015 Bonin Islands, Japan earthquake (Mw 7.8, depth 679.9km GCMT) was one of the deepest earthquakes ever recorded. We apply the waveform inversion technique (Kikuchi & Kanamori, 1991) to obtain slip distribution in the source fault of this earthquake in the same manner as our previous work (Nakamura et al., 2010). We use 60 broadband seismograms of IRIS GSN seismic stations with epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees. The broadband original data are integrated into ground displacement and band-pass filtered in the frequency band 0.002-1 Hz. We use the velocity structure model IASP91 to calculate the wavefield near source and stations. We assume that the fault is squared with the length 50 km. We obtain source rupture model for both nodal planes with high dip angle (74 degree) and low dip angle (26 degree) and compare the synthetic seismograms with the observations to determine which source rupture model would explain the observations better. We calculate broadband synthetic seismograms with these source propagation models using the spectral-element method (Komatitsch & Tromp, 2001). We use new Earth Simulator system in JAMSTEC to compute synthetic seismograms using the spectral-element method. The simulations are performed on 7,776 processors, which require 1,944 nodes of the Earth Simulator. On this number of nodes, a simulation of 50 minutes of wave propagation accurate at periods of 3.8 seconds and longer requires about 5 hours of CPU time. Comparisons of the synthetic waveforms with the observation at teleseismic stations show that the arrival time of pP wave calculated for depth 679km matches well with the observation, which demonstrates that the earthquake really happened below the 660 km discontinuity. In our present forward simulations, the source rupture model with the low-angle fault dipping is likely to better explain the observations.
Partitioned Waveform Inversion Applied to Eurasia and Northern Africa
bedle, H; Matzel, E; Flanagan, M
2006-07-27
This report summarizes the data analysis achieved during Heather Bedle's eleven-week Technical Scholar internship at Lawrence Livermore National Labs during the early summer 2006. The work completed during this internship resulted in constraints on the crustal and upper mantle S-velocity structure in Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Europe, through the fitting of regional waveform data. This data extends current raypath coverage and will be included in a joint inversion along with data from surface wave group velocity measurements, S and P teleseismic arrival time data, and receiver function data to create an improved velocity model of the upper mantle in this region. The tectonic structure of the North African/Mediterranean/Europe/Middle Eastern study region is extremely heterogeneous. This region consists of, among others, stable cratons and platforms such as the West Africa Craton, and Baltica in Northern Europe; oceanic subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean Sea where the African and Eurasian plate collide; regions of continental collision as the Arabian Plate moves northward into the Turkish Plate; and rifting in the Red Sea, separating the Arabian and Nubian shields. With such diverse tectonic structures, many of the waveforms were difficult to fit. This is not unexpected as the waveforms are fit using an averaged structure. In many cases the raypaths encounter several tectonic features, complicating the waveform, and making it hard for the software to converge on a 1D average structure. Overall, the quality of the waveform data was average, with roughly 30% of the waveforms being discarded due to excessive noise that interfered with the frequency ranges of interest. An inversion for the 3D S-velocity structure of this region was also performed following the methodology of Partitioned Waveform Inversion (Nolet, 1990; Van der Lee and Nolet, 1997). The addition of the newly fit waveforms drastically extends the range of the model
3-D Waveform Modeling of the 11 September 2001 World Trade Center Collapse Events in New York City
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, S.; Rhie, J.; Kim, W.
2010-12-01
The seismic signals from collapse of the twin towers of World Trade Center (WTC), NYC were well recorded by the seismographic stations in the northeastern United States. The building collapse can be represented by a vertical single force which does not generate tangential component seismic signals during the source process. The waveforms recorded by the Basking Ridge, NJ (BRNJ) station located due west of the WTC site show that the amplitude on tangential component is negligible and indicates that a vertical single force assumption is valid and the velocity structure is more or less homogeneous along the propagation path. However, 3-component seismograms recorded at Palisades, NY (PAL), which is located 33.8 km due north of the WTC site along the Hudson River (azimuth = 15.2°), show abnormal features. The amplitude on tangential component is larger than on vertical- or on radial-component. This observation may be attributable to the complex energy conversion between Rayleigh and Love waves due to the strong low velocity anomaly associated with unconsolidated sediments under the Hudson River. To test the effects of the low velocity anomaly on the enhanced amplitude in tangential component, we developed a 3D velocity model by considering local geology such as unconsolidated sediment layer, Palisades sill, Triassic sandstone, and crystalline basement and simulated waveforms at PAL. The preliminary synthetic results show that 3D velocity structure can significantly enhance the amplitude in tangential component but it is not as large as the observation. Although a more precise 3D model is required to better explain the observations, our results confirm that the low velocity layer under the Hudson River can enhance the amplitude in tangential component at PAL. This result suggests that a good understanding of the amplitude enhancements for specific event-site pairs may be important to evaluate seismic hazard of metropolitan New York City.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, M. C.; Rümpker, G.; Tilmann, F.; Yuan, X.; Giese, J.; Rindraharisaona, E. J.
2016-09-01
Madagascar occupies a key position in the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. It has been used in numerous geological studies to reconstruct its original position within Gondwana and to derive plate kinematics. Seismological observations in Madagascar to date have been sparse. Using a temporary, dense seismic profile across southern Madagascar, we present the first published study of seismic anisotropy from shear wave splitting analyses of teleseismic phases. The splitting parameters obtained show significant small-scale variation of fast polarization directions and delay times across the profile, with fast polarization rotating from NW in the center to NE in the east and west of the profile. The delay times range between 0.4 and 1.5 s. A joint inversion of waveforms at each station is applied to derive hypothetical one-layer splitting parameters. We use finite-difference, full-waveform modeling to test several hypotheses about the origin and extent of seismic anisotropy. Our observations can be explained by asthenospheric anisotropy with a fast polarization direction of 50°, approximately parallel to the absolute plate motion direction, in combination with blocks of crustal anisotropy. Predictions of seismic anisotropy as inferred from global mantle flow models or global anisotropic surface wave tomography are not in agreement with the observations. Small-scale variations of splitting parameters require significant crustal anisotropy. Considering the complex geology of Madagascar, we interpret the change in fast-axis directions as a 150 km wide zone of ductile deformation in the crust as a result of the intense reworking of lithospheric material during the Pan-African orogeny. This fossil anisotropic pattern is underlain by asthenospheric anisotropy induced by plate motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulik, P.; Ekström, G.
2014-12-01
We use normal-mode splitting functions in addition to surface wave phase anomalies, body wave traveltimes and long-period waveforms to construct a 3-D model of anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modelling approach inverts for mantle velocity and anisotropy as well as transition-zone discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the non-linear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+M, is an update to the earlier model S362ANI, which did not include normal-mode splitting functions in its derivation. The new model has stronger isotropic velocity anomalies in the transition zone and slightly smaller anomalies in the lowermost mantle, as compared with S362ANI. The differences in the mid- to lowermost mantle are primarily restricted to features in the Southern Hemisphere. We compare the isotropic part of S362ANI+M with other recent global tomographic models and show that the level of agreement is higher now than in the earlier generation of models, especially in the transition zone and the lower mantle. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+M is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle and is similar to S362ANI. When radial anisotropy is allowed throughout the mantle, large-scale anisotropic patterns are observed in the lowermost mantle with vSV > vSH beneath Africa and South Pacific and vSH > vSV beneath several circum-Pacific regions. The transition zone exhibits localized anisotropic anomalies of ˜3 per cent vSH > vSV beneath North America and the Northwest Pacific and ˜2 per cent vSV > vSH beneath South America. However, small improvements in fits to the data on adding anisotropy at depth leave the question open on whether large-scale radial anisotropy is required in the transition zone and in the lower mantle. We demonstrate the potential of mode-splitting data in reducing the trade-offs between isotropic velocity and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhode, Kawal; Lambrou, Tryphon; Seifalian, Alexander M.; Hawkes, David J.
2002-04-01
We have developed a waveform shape model-based algorithm for the extraction of blood flow from dynamic arterial x-ray angiographic images. We have carried out in-vitro validation of this technique. A pulsatile physiological blood flow circuit was constructed using an anthropomorphic cerebral vascular phantom to simulate the cerebral arterial circulation with whole blood as the fluid. Instantaneous recording of flow from an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) provided the gold standard measurement. Biplane dynamic digital x-ray images of the vascular phantom with injection of contrast medium were acquired at 25 fps using a PC frame capture card with calibration using a Perspex cube. Principal component analysis was used to construct a shape model by collecting 434 flow waveforms from the EMF under varying flow conditions. Blood flow waveforms were calculated from the angiographic data by using our previous concentration-distance curve matching (ORG) algorithm and by using the new model-based (MB) algorithm. Both instantaneous and mean flow values calculated using the MB algorithm showed greater correlation, less bias, and lower variability than those calculated using the ORG algorithm when compared to the EMF values. We have successfully demonstrated that use of a priori waveform shape information can improve flow measurements from dynamic x-ray angiograms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
A computational fluid dynamic study is carried out to investigate gas transport in patient specific human lung models (based on CT scans) during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Different pressure-controlled waveforms and various ventilator frequencies are studied to understand the effect of flow transport and gas mixing during these processes. Three different pressure waveforms are created by solving the equation of motion subjected to constant lung wall compliance and flow resistance. Sinusoidal, exponential and constant waveforms shapes are considered with three different frequencies 6, 10 and 15 Hz and constant tidal volume 50 ml. The velocities are calculated from the obtained flow rate and imposed as inlet flow conditions to represent the mechanical ventilation waveforms. An endotracheal tube ETT is joined to the model to account for the effect of the invasive management device with the peak Reynolds number (Re) for all the cases ranging from 6960 to 24694. All simulations are performed using high order LES turbulent model. The gas transport near the flow reversal will be discussed at different cycle phases for all the cases and a comparison of the secondary flow structures between different cases will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pürrer, Michael
2016-03-01
I provide a frequency domain reduced order model (ROM) for the aligned-spin effective-one-body model "SEOBNRv2" for data analysis with second- and third-generation ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. SEOBNRv2 models the dominant mode of the GWs emitted by the coalescence of black hole binaries. The large physical parameter space (dimensionless spins -1 ≤χi≤0.99 and symmetric mass ratios 0.01 ≤η ≤0.25 ) requires sophisticated reduced order modeling techniques, including patching in the parameter space and in frequency. I find that the time window over which the inspiral-plunge and the merger-ringdown waveform in SEOBNRv2 are connected has a discontinuous dependence on the parameters when the spin parameter χ =0.8 or the symmetric mass ratio η ˜0.083 . This discontinuity increases resolution requirements for the ROM. The ROM can be used for compact binary systems with total masses of 2 M⊙ or higher for the Advanced LIGO design sensitivity and a 10 Hz lower cutoff frequency. The ROM has a worst mismatch against SEOBNRv2 of ˜1 %, but in general mismatches are better than ˜0.1 %. The ROM is crucial for key data analysis applications for compact binaries, such as GW searches and parameter estimation carried out within the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
Simple Waveforms, Simply Described
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2008-01-01
Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.
Modeling Regional Seismic Waves
1991-03-25
velocity gradients in the mantle are obtained from Pnl and Snj. This Particular crustal model has a thickness of 35 km with a sharp moho and a substantial...mantle are obtained from Pnl and Sni. This Particular crustal model has a thickness of 35 km with a sharp moho and a substantial gradient in the top 20...Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, 3, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Zhang, Zh. M., J. G. Liou, and R. G. Coleman , 1984. An outline of the plate tec
Reconstruction of audio waveforms from spike trains of artificial cochlea models
Zai, Anja T.; Bhargava, Saurabh; Mesgarani, Nima; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Spiking cochlea models describe the analog processing and spike generation process within the biological cochlea. Reconstructing the audio input from the artificial cochlea spikes is therefore useful for understanding the fidelity of the information preserved in the spikes. The reconstruction process is challenging particularly for spikes from the mixed signal (analog/digital) integrated circuit (IC) cochleas because of multiple non-linearities in the model and the additional variance caused by random transistor mismatch. This work proposes an offline method for reconstructing the audio input from spike responses of both a particular spike-based hardware model called the AEREAR2 cochlea and an equivalent software cochlea model. This method was previously used to reconstruct the auditory stimulus based on the peri-stimulus histogram of spike responses recorded in the ferret auditory cortex. The reconstructed audio from the hardware cochlea is evaluated against an analogous software model using objective measures of speech quality and intelligibility; and further tested in a word recognition task. The reconstructed audio under low signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions (SNR < –5 dB) gives a better classification performance than the original SNR input in this word recognition task. PMID:26528113
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabien-Ouellet, Gabriel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Giroux, Bernard
2017-03-01
Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) aims at recovering the elastic parameters of the Earth by matching recordings of the ground motion with the direct solution of the wave equation. Modeling the wave propagation for realistic scenarios is computationally intensive, which limits the applicability of FWI. The current hardware evolution brings increasing parallel computing power that can speed up the computations in FWI. However, to take advantage of the diversity of parallel architectures presently available, new programming approaches are required. In this work, we explore the use of OpenCL to develop a portable code that can take advantage of the many parallel processor architectures now available. We present a program called SeisCL for 2D and 3D viscoelastic FWI in the time domain. The code computes the forward and adjoint wavefields using finite-difference and outputs the gradient of the misfit function given by the adjoint state method. To demonstrate the code portability on different architectures, the performance of SeisCL is tested on three different devices: Intel CPUs, NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon PHI. Results show that the use of GPUs with OpenCL can speed up the computations by nearly two orders of magnitudes over a single threaded application on the CPU. Although OpenCL allows code portability, we show that some device-specific optimization is still required to get the best performance out of a specific architecture. Using OpenCL in conjunction with MPI allows the domain decomposition of large models on several devices located on different nodes of a cluster. For large enough models, the speedup of the domain decomposition varies quasi-linearly with the number of devices. Finally, we investigate two different approaches to compute the gradient by the adjoint state method and show the significant advantages of using OpenCL for FWI.
Waveform modeling of the seismic response of a mid-ocean ridge axial melt sill
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Min; Stephen, R. A.; Canales, J. Pablo
2017-02-01
Seismic reflections from axial magma lens (AML) are commonly observed along many mid-ocean ridges, and are thought to arise from the negative impedance contrast between a solid, high-speed lid and the underlying low-speed, molten or partially molten (mush) sill. The polarity of the AML reflection (P AML P) at vertical incidence and the amplitude vs offset (AVO) behavior of the AML reflections (e.g., P AML P and S-converted P AML S waves) are often used as a diagnostic tool for the nature of the low-speed sill. Time-domain finite difference calculations for two-dimensional laterally homogeneous models show some scenarios make the interpretation of melt content from partial-offset stacks of P- and S-waves difficult. Laterally heterogeneous model calculations indicate diffractions from the edges of the finite-width AML reducing the amplitude of the AML reflections. Rough seafloor and/or a rough AML surface can also greatly reduce the amplitude of peg-leg multiples because of scattering and destructive interference. Mid-crustal seismic reflection events are observed in the three-dimensional multi-channel seismic dataset acquired over the RIDGE-2000 Integrated Study Site at East Pacific Rise (EPR, cruise MGL0812). Modeling indicates that the mid-crustal seismic reflection reflections are unlikely to arise from peg-leg multiples of the AML reflections, P-to-S converted phases, or scattering due to rough topography, but could probably arise from deeper multiple magma sills. Our results support the identification of Marjanović et al. (Nat Geosci 7(11):825-829, 2014) that a multi-level complex of melt lenses is present beneath the axis of the EPR.
Modeling digital pulse waveforms by solving one-dimensional Navier-stokes equations.
Fedotov, Aleksandr A; Akulova, Anna S; Akulov, Sergey A
2016-08-01
Mathematical modeling for composition distal arterial pulse wave in the blood vessels of the upper limbs was considered. Formation of distal arterial pulse wave is represented as a composition of forward and reflected pulse waves propagating along the arterial vessels. The formal analogy between pulse waves propagation along the human arterial system and the propagation of electrical oscillations in electrical transmission lines with distributed parameters was proposed. Dependencies of pulse wave propagation along the human arterial system were obtained by solving the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a few special cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigelow, Timothy A.; O'Brien, William D.
2005-08-01
Accurate estimates of the ultrasound pressure and/or intensity incident on the developing fetus on a patient-specific basis could improve the diagnostic potential of medical ultrasound by allowing the clinician to increase the transmit power while still avoiding the potential for harmful bioeffects. Neglecting nonlinear effects, the pressure/intensity can be estimated if an accurate estimate of the attenuation along the propagation path (i.e., total attenuation) can be obtained. Herein, a method for determining the total attenuation from the backscattered power spectrum from the developing fetus is proposed. The boundaries between amnion and either the fetus' skull or soft tissue are each modeled as planar impedance boundaries at an unknown orientation with respect to the sound beam. A mathematical analysis demonstrates that the normalized returned voltage spectrum from this model is independent of the planes orientation. Hence, the total attenuation can be estimated by comparing the location of the spectral peak in the reflection from the fetus to the location of the spectral peak in a reflection obtained from a rigid plane in a water bath. The independence of the attenuation estimate and plane orientation is then demonstrated experimentally using a Plexiglas plate, a rat's skull, and a tissue-mimicking phantom.
Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.
2007-12-01
Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ω to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation
Automatic detection of echolocation clicks based on a Gabor model of their waveform.
Madhusudhana, Shyam; Gavrilov, Alexander; Erbe, Christine
2015-06-01
Prior research has shown that echolocation clicks of several species of terrestrial and marine fauna can be modelled as Gabor-like functions. Here, a system is proposed for the automatic detection of a variety of such signals. By means of mathematical formulation, it is shown that the output of the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO) applied to Gabor-like signals can be approximated by a Gaussian function. Based on the inferences, a detection algorithm involving the post-processing of the TKEO outputs is presented. The ratio of the outputs of two moving-average filters, a Gaussian and a rectangular filter, is shown to be an effective detection parameter. Detector performance is assessed using synthetic and real (taken from MobySound database) recordings. The detection method is shown to work readily with a variety of echolocation clicks and in various recording scenarios. The system exhibits low computational complexity and operates several times faster than real-time. Performance comparisons are made to other publicly available detectors including pamguard.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taasan, Shlomo; Zhang, Hong
1993-01-01
Waveform multigrid method is an efficient method for solving certain classes of time dependent PDEs. This paper studies the relationship between this method and the analogous multigrid method for steady-state problems. Using a Fourier-Laplace analysis, practical convergence rate estimates of the waveform multigrid iterations are obtained. Experimental results show that the analysis yields accurate performance prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drilleau, M.; Dubois, A.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.
2015-12-01
In 2016, the InSight mission will provide the very first seismic records from Mars after installing a seismometer on the surface of the Red Planet. Obtaining information on the deep 1-D seismic structure of Mars using a single geophysical station will be challenging. However, successful test inversions using body and surface waves have been presented in a preliminary study by Panning et al. (2015). Future investigations need now to focus on inversions making a complete use of the seismic waveform. An important challenge is to investigate the effects of 3-D lateral variations of seismic velocity structures on seismograms. The HOPT (Higher Order Perturbation Theory) code originally developed by P. Lognonné and E. Clévédé (Lognonné, 1991 ; Lognonné and Clévédé, 2002) and based on the perturbation theory allows for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a 3-D Earth. We adapted the code for Mars and computed surface wave synthetics in a 3-D planet, initially only considering the effects of the planet's ellipticity as well as the lateral variations in the depth of the Moho which are known through gravity measurements (e.g. Neumann et al., 2004). Additional constraints from lateral variations in topography will be the focus of future work. These synthetics can be compared to future seismic data in order to identify a suite of Martian internal structure models that best match the data. To do so, we first need to estimate the resolvable parameters concerning the Mars deep interior while considering the 3-D effects, which is the main goal of this study. Furthermore, in preparation for the InSight mission data return phase, the computation of these synthetic (but realistic) seismograms is primordial to test the softwares developed by the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services (in charge of locating the seismic events, and using them to assess the internal structure of Mars).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera
2012-01-01
The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater
Analysis and Application of LIDAR Waveform Data Using a Progressive Waveform Decomposition Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, X.; Li, Z.
2011-09-01
Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, the analysis of full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1) the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS) algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM) algorithm. 2) pulse detection method—Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm—Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD) method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysis of the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.
JTRS/SCA and Custom/SDR Waveform Comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oldham, Daniel R.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.
2007-01-01
This paper compares two waveform implementations generating the same RF signal using the same SDR development system. Both waveforms implement a satellite modem using QPSK modulation at 1M BPS data rates with one half rate convolutional encoding. Both waveforms are partitioned the same across the general purpose processor (GPP) and the field programmable gate array (FPGA). Both waveforms implement the same equivalent set of radio functions on the GPP and FPGA. The GPP implements the majority of the radio functions and the FPGA implements the final digital RF modulator stage. One waveform is implemented directly on the SDR development system and the second waveform is implemented using the JTRS/SCA model. This paper contrasts the amount of resources to implement both waveforms and demonstrates the importance of waveform partitioning across the SDR development system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uebbing, Bernd; Roscher, Ribana; Kusche, Jürgen
2016-04-01
Satellite radar altimeters allow global monitoring of mean sea level changes over the last two decades. However, coastal regions are less well observed due to influences on the returned signal energy by land located inside the altimeter footprint. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave height or wind speed. However, in coastal areas the shape of the waveform is significantly influenced by return signals from land, located in the altimeter footprint, leading to peaks which tend to bias the estimated parameters. Recently, several approaches dealing with this problem have been published, including utilizing only parts of the waveform (sub-waveforms), estimating the parameters in two steps or estimating additional peak parameters. We present a new approach in estimating sub-waveforms using conditional random fields (CRF) based on spatio-temporal waveform information. The CRF piece-wise approximates the measured waveforms based on a pre-derived dictionary of theoretical waveforms for various combinations of the geophysical parameters; neighboring range gates are likely to be assigned to the same underlying sub-waveform model. Depending on the choice of hyperparameters in the CRF estimation, the classification into sub-waveforms can either be more fine or coarse resulting in multiple sub-waveform hypotheses. After the sub-waveforms have been detected, existing retracking algorithms can be applied to derive water heights or other desired geophysical parameters from particular sub-waveforms. To identify the optimal heights from the multiple hypotheses, instead of utilizing a known reference height, we apply a Dijkstra-algorithm to find the "shortest path" of all
Seismic Structure of Southeast Asia from Full Waveform Seismic Ambient Noise Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummins, P. R.; Saygin, E.; Fichtner, A.; Masturyono, M.
2015-12-01
We image the lower crust and upper-mantle structure of Southeast Asia with a 3D full waveform adjoint inversion scheme by directly inverting Green's functions retrieved from interstation seismic noise correlations. Synthetic Green's functions are computed at a period range between 10 and 40 s to simulate the wave propagation in the region. Misfits between observed and synthetic waveforms are reduced by iteratively updating model parameters using sensitivity kernels with a conjugate-gradient optimization method. The final model is verified via comparing the simulated waveforms with the recorded earthquakes in the region. The balanced coverage of rays in the region enabled us to image complex structure. The Australian plate is characterized with higher velocities for most of the crust, where most of Indonesia, and its surroundings show complex structure with low velocities. The transition from the oceanic part of the Australian Plate to the continental crust adjacent to the Banda Arc is clearly imaged.
Refined Local and Regional Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Models from Finite-Frequency Waveforms
2008-09-30
the velocities and quality factors of P and S waves specified on a l°xl ° horizontal grid and at 24 depths from 0 to 660 km. Figure 3 shows a few map...Technologies VPHf*"d VPh 0,a Xbr. dgo,u am 42SO 404 30 30 MW 3500 go am a’-s 42 5000 2 40 44o55 s50 0 45 s 6 o 4 35 4500 40 400 24 39 42 rNO 34400 am St
2.5D real waveform and real noise simulation of receiver functions in 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, Bo; Balling, Niels
2014-05-01
There are several reasons why a real-data receiver function differs from the theoretical receiver function in a 1D model representing the stratification under the seismometer. Main reasons are ambient noise, spectral deficiencies in the impinging P-waveform, and wavefield propagation in laterally varying velocity variations. We present a rapid "2.5D" modelling approach which takes these aspects into account, so that a given 3D velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle can be tested more realistically against observed recordings from seismometer arrays. Each recorded event at each seismometer is simulated individually through the following steps: A 2D section is extracted from the 3D model along the direction towards the hypocentre. A properly slanted plane or curved impulsive wavefront is propagated through this 2D section, resulting in noise free and spectrally complete synthetic seismometer data. The real vertical component signal is taken as a proxy of the real impingent wavefield, so by convolution and subsequent addition of real ambient noise recorded just before the P-arrival we get synthetic vertical and horizontal component data which very closely match the spectral signal content and signal to noise ratio of this specific recording. When these realistic synthetic data undergo exactly the same receiver function estimation and subsequent graphical display we get a much more realistic image to compare to the real-data receiver functions. We applied this approach to the Central Fjord area in East Greenland (Schiffer et al., 2013), where a 3D velocity model of crust and uppermost mantle was adjusted to receiver functions from 2 years of seismometer recordings and wide angle crustal profiles (Schlindwein and Jokat, 1999; Voss and Jokat, 2007). Computationally this substitutes tens or hundreds of heavy 3D computations with hundreds or thousands of single-core 2D computations which parallelize very efficiently on common multicore systems. In perspective
Altimeter waveform software design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayne, G. S.; Miller, L. S.; Brown, G. S.
1977-01-01
Techniques are described for preprocessing raw return waveform data from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. Topics discussed include: (1) general altimeter data preprocessing to be done at the GEOS-3 Data Processing Center to correct altimeter waveform data for temperature calibrations, to convert between engineering and final data units and to convert telemetered parameter quantities to more appropriate final data distribution values: (2) time "tagging" of altimeter return waveform data quantities to compensate for various delays, misalignments and calculational intervals; (3) data processing procedures for use in estimating spacecraft attitude from altimeter waveform sampling gates; and (4) feasibility of use of a ground-based reflector or transponder to obtain in-flight calibration information on GEOS-3 altimeter performance.
Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R
2014-12-01
The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration.
Low frequency AC waveform generator
Bilharz, Oscar W.
1986-01-01
Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamczyk, A.; Malinowski, M.; Malehmir, A.
2014-06-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an iterative optimization technique that provides high-resolution models of subsurface properties. Frequency-domain, acoustic FWI was applied to seismic data acquired over a known quick-clay landslide scar in southwest Sweden. We inverted data from three 2-D seismic profiles, 261-572 m long, two of them shot with small charges of dynamite and one with a sledgehammer. To our best knowledge this is the first published application of FWI to sledgehammer data. Both sources provided data suitable for waveform inversion, the sledgehammer data containing even wider frequency spectrum. Inversion was performed for frequency groups between 27.5 and 43.1 Hz for the explosive data and 27.5-51.0 Hz for the sledgehammer. The lowest inverted frequency was limited by the resonance frequency of the standard 28-Hz geophones used in the survey. High-velocity granitic bedrock in the area is undulated and very shallow (15-100 m below the surface), and exhibits a large P-wave velocity contrast to the overlying normally consolidated sediments. In order to mitigate the non-linearity of the inverse problem we designed a multiscale layer-stripping inversion strategy. Obtained P-wave velocity models allowed to delineate the top of the bedrock and revealed distinct layers within the overlying sediments of clays and coarse-grained materials. Models were verified in an extensive set of validating procedures and used for pre-stack depth migration, which confirmed their robustness.
Hybrid regional air pollution models
Drake, R.L.
1980-03-01
This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.
Genetic algorithm reveals energy-efficient waveforms for neural stimulation.
Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M
2009-01-01
Energy consumption is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) that mimics biological evolution to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to NEURON using a model of extracellular stimulation of a mammalian myelinated axon. Stimulation waveforms represented the organisms of a population, and each waveform's shape was encoded into genes. The fitness of each waveform was based on its energy efficiency and ability to elicit an action potential. After each generation of the GA, waveforms mated to produce offspring waveforms, and a new population was formed consisting of the offspring and the fittest waveforms of the previous generation. Over the course of the GA, waveforms became increasingly energy-efficient and converged upon a highly energy-efficient shape. The resulting waveforms resembled truncated normal curves or sinusoids and were 3-74% more energy-efficient than several waveform shapes commonly used in neural stimulation. If implemented in implantable neural stimulators, the GA optimized waveforms could prolong battery life, thereby reducing the costs and risks of battery-replacement surgery.
Do regional climate models represent regional climate?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin
2014-05-01
When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges
Georgia tech catalog of gravitational waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jani, Karan; Healy, James; Clark, James A.; London, Lionel; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2016-10-01
This paper introduces a catalog of gravitational waveforms from the bank of simulations by the numerical relativity effort at Georgia Tech. Currently, the catalog consists of 452 distinct waveforms from more than 600 binary black hole simulations: 128 of the waveforms are from binaries with black hole spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, and 324 are from precessing binary black hole systems. The waveforms from binaries with non-spinning black holes have mass-ratios q = m 1/m 2 ≤ 15, and those with precessing, spinning black holes have q ≤ 8. The waveforms expand a moderate number of orbits in the late inspiral, the burst during coalescence, and the ring-down of the final black hole. Examples of waveforms in the catalog matched against the widely used approximate models are presented. In addition, predictions of the mass and spin of the final black hole by phenomenological fits are tested against the results from the simulation bank. The role of the catalog in interpreting the GW150914 event and future massive binary black-hole search in LIGO is discussed. The Georgia Tech catalog is publicly available at einstein.gatech.edu/catalog.
Low frequency ac waveform generator
Bilharz, O.W.
1983-11-22
Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.
Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina
2016-12-01
Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.
Platform for Postprocessing Waveform-Based NDE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, Don
2008-01-01
Taking advantage of the similarities that exist among all waveform-based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods, a common software platform has been developed containing multiple- signal and image-processing techniques for waveforms and images. The NASA NDE Signal and Image Processing software has been developed using the latest versions of LabVIEW, and its associated Advanced Signal Processing and Vision Toolkits. The software is useable on a PC with Windows XP and Windows Vista. The software has been designed with a commercial grade interface in which two main windows, Waveform Window and Image Window, are displayed if the user chooses a waveform file to display. Within these two main windows, most actions are chosen through logically conceived run-time menus. The Waveform Window has plots for both the raw time-domain waves and their frequency- domain transformations (fast Fourier transform and power spectral density). The Image Window shows the C-scan image formed from information of the time-domain waveform (such as peak amplitude) or its frequency-domain transformation at each scan location. The user also has the ability to open an image, or series of images, or a simple set of X-Y paired data set in text format. Each of the Waveform and Image Windows contains menus from which to perform many user actions. An option exists to use raw waves obtained directly from scan, or waves after deconvolution if system wave response is provided. Two types of deconvolution, time-based subtraction or inverse-filter, can be performed to arrive at a deconvolved wave set. Additionally, the menu on the Waveform Window allows preprocessing of waveforms prior to image formation, scaling and display of waveforms, formation of different types of images (including non-standard types such as velocity), gating of portions of waves prior to image formation, and several other miscellaneous and specialized operations. The menu available on the Image Window allows many further image
Analog device simulates physiological waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hickman, D. M.
1964-01-01
An analog physiological simulator generates representative waveforms for a wide range of physiological conditions. Direct comparison of these waveforms with those from telemetric inputs permits quick detection of signal parameter degradation.
Genetic Algorithm Reveals Energy-Efficient Waveforms for Neural Stimulation
Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.
2013-01-01
Energy consumption is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) that mimics biological evolution to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to NEURON using a model of extracellular stimulation of a mammalian myelinated axon. Stimulation waveforms represented the organisms of a population, and each waveform’s shape was encoded into genes. The fitness of each waveform was based on its energy efficiency and ability to elicit an action potential. After each generation of the GA, waveforms mated to produce offspring waveforms, and a new population was formed consisting of the offspring and the fittest waveforms of the previous generation. Over the course of the GA, waveforms became increasingly energy-efficient and converged upon a highly energy-efficient shape. The resulting waveforms resembled truncated normal curves or sinusoids and were 3–74% more energy-efficient than several waveform shapes commonly used in neural stimulation. If implemented in implantable neural stimulators, the GA optimized waveforms could prolong battery life, thereby reducing the costs and risks of battery-replacement surgery. PMID:19964233
Hsieh, Chi-Hsuan; Chiu, Yu-Fang; Shen, Yi-Hsiang; Chu, Ta-Shun; Huang, Yuan-Hao
2016-02-01
This paper presents an ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radio radar signal processing platform used to analyze human respiratory features. Conventional radar systems used in human detection only analyze human respiration rates or the response of a target. However, additional respiratory signal information is available that has not been explored using radar detection. The authors previously proposed a modified raised cosine waveform (MRCW) respiration model and an iterative correlation search algorithm that could acquire additional respiratory features such as the inspiration and expiration speeds, respiration intensity, and respiration holding ratio. To realize real-time respiratory feature extraction by using the proposed UWB signal processing platform, this paper proposes a new four-segment linear waveform (FSLW) respiration model. This model offers a superior fit to the measured respiration signal compared with the MRCW model and decreases the computational complexity of feature extraction. In addition, an early-terminated iterative correlation search algorithm is presented, substantially decreasing the computational complexity and yielding negligible performance degradation. These extracted features can be considered the compressed signals used to decrease the amount of data storage required for use in long-term medical monitoring systems and can also be used in clinical diagnosis. The proposed respiratory feature extraction algorithm was designed and implemented using the proposed UWB radar signal processing platform including a radar front-end chip and an FPGA chip. The proposed radar system can detect human respiration rates at 0.1 to 1 Hz and facilitates the real-time analysis of the respiratory features of each respiration period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesca, Simone; Heimann, Sebastian; Kriegerowski, Marius; Dahm, Torsten
2016-04-01
Regional and teleseismic full waveform moment tensor inversion are nowadays routinely performed to derive moment tensors for moderate to large earthquakes. The extension of moment tensor inversion to weak events and microseismicity is limited by low amplitude of seismic signals and noise contamination. Noise contaminated low frequency seismic signals are hardly usable, while high frequency seismic signals are difficult to model at larger distances, because they are affected by unresolved small scale velocity anomalies and the strong physical attenuation of amplitudes at high frequencies. Waveform matching and signal classification methods help to reveal similar rupture processes and increase the event detection rate. We discuss here a novel inversion approach, which combines waveform clustering method, waveform stacking procedures and full waveform moment tensor inversion to resolve moment tensors beyond the current lower magnitude treshold. The method applies to similar events, with similar locations and focal mechanisms, and provides a single moment tensor for a cluster of similar events. This condition is met upon the waveform correlation analysis at a reference station at close epicentral distance, which helps to recognise similar events, estimate interevent times and relative magnitudes. Through the stack of similar waveforms, we enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of full waveform signals, and are able to perform moment tensor inversion at larger distances and/or at lower frequencies. The performance of a low frequency full waveform moment tensor inversion on stacked, similar waveforms provides a stable moment tensor for the cluster of similar events. The resulting cumulative scalar moment can be used to infer the scalar moment of single events, taking advantage of the scaling of similar waveforms at the reference local station. We demonstrate the method using both synthetic and real data from the 2014/2015 collapse of the Bárðarbunga caldera, Iceland.
Harmonic minimization waveforms for modulated heating experiments at HAARP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.
2012-11-01
Modulated High Frequency (few MHz) heating of the D-region ionosphere under the auroral electrojet is capable of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves in the few kilohertz range by affecting the conductivity of the D-region. The HF heating is nonlinear and results in the generation of harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency with ∼1% of the total power outside the fundamental when sinusoidal amplitude modulation is applied to the HF carrier. For the purpose of harmonic minimization, we present a modulation scheme designed to create a sinusoidal change in the Hall conductivity at a particular altitude in the ionosphere. The modulation waveform is generated by inverting a numerical HF heating model, starting from the desired conductivity time series, and obtaining the HF power envelope at the bottom of the ionosphere. The inverted envelopes (referred to as inv-sin waveforms) are highly sensitive to the assumed ionospheric density profile and simulations indicate that these waveforms have less harmonic distortion compared to sinusoidal modulation when the actual ionospheric density is similar to or less dense than the one assumed. Experimental results indicate that sinusoidal amplitude modulation may still be preferred since it is more robust to the highly variable ionospheric profile while square wave modulation is more efficient in generation of ELF waves when harmonic distortion is not important. The inv-sin waveforms are more efficient than sinusoidal modulation while still suffering from less harmonic distortion than square wave modulation suggesting a tradeoff between harmonic distortion and ELF generation efficiency.
Walter, W.R.
1995-06-01
The Treaty Verification Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has made good progress during fiscal year 1995 on devising and testing whole seismic waveform modeling methods to identify seismic events using only a few stations. This research is carried out under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research and Development Program (CTBTR and D) under task S4.3.4. For regions where the path is calibrated, this modeling can potentially identify and discriminate between clandestine underground nuclear events and other sources of seismic waves such as earthquakes and mine collapses. In regions where the path is not calibrated but is seismically active, the author is investigating the use of moderate to large earthquakes to obtain the necessary path calibration. Research has focused on improving whole waveform techniques for determining the source mechanism of moderate (magnitude greater than about 3.5) seismic events from a few three-component broadband sensors in regions where the paths are calibrated. Presently the author is also using these waveform techniques in new regions to test and improve path calibrations as well as to identify events. As part of this work, he has applied these waveform techniques to events of high monitoring interest with excellent results. In this report he discusses fitting three main types of events, explosions, earthquakes and mine collapses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Tatsuya; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Iinuma, Takeshi; Ohta, Yusaku; Suzuki, Syuichi; Suzuki, Kensuke
2017-01-01
We estimated the coseismic slip distribution associated with the Mw 7.2 and 6.5 foreshocks of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on analysis of the tsunami waveform records obtained just above their focal areas. The results show that the main rupture areas of each of the foreshocks do not overlap with each other, and show a distribution that is complementary to the postseismic slip area of the first Mw 7.2 foreshock as well as to the epicenters of smaller earthquakes during foreshock activity. After the second largest foreshock, seismicity increased in the area between the rupture area of the second largest foreshock and the mainshock epicenter, suggesting propagation of aseismic slip towards the mainshock epicenter. The calculated stress drop of the second largest foreshock was smaller than the largest one, implying strength reduction during the postseismic period of the largest foreshock. Based on a comparison of coastal tsunami records, it is suggested that the asperity ruptured in the M 7.0 earthquake in 1981 ruptured again during the largest foreshock in 2011, but it expanded to the updip side of the 1981 rupture area and became larger in magnitude, exemplifying the irregularity of earthquake recurrence in the area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikia, C. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Kayal, J. R.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Shukla, A. K.
2001-12-01
The March 28, 1999 Chamoli earthquake (Mw 6.8) in northwest India generated a large sequence of aftershocks (M_ w> 4.0) which were recorded by a temporary network ofshort-period stations deployed by various organizations, namely India Meteorological Department (IMD), Geological Survey of India (GSI), National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) and Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG) in India. We inverted the local P- and S-wave arrival times from about 20 local stations jointly for all available aftershocks implementing a technique which optimizes both earthquake locations and crustal velocity model. Of these, seven events were recorded by more than 5 stations locating within 5o of the epicenters withazimuthal gap not greater than 90o. We used these events to compute the station correctionsfor local stations and applied these station corrections to relocate the entire sequence of the Chamoli aftershocks. The relocation vectors which indicate the direction toward which the events would move from the reference locations (in this case the GSI locations) suggest that for the majority of the seismic events they show movement towards the epicentral locations of the mainshock. The new locations of these events also show improvements in the error ellipse measurements. We have also investigated variations in crustal models using regional broadband seismograms from the mainshock recorded by the IMD stations in India (IMD, 2000). Using a crustal model developed earlier by Bhattacharya using surface-wave dispersion for northern India as a starting model, we conducted a systematic analysis of surface-wave dispersion characteristics recorded at these broadband stations. We synthesized f-k seismograms andexamined the relative amplitude of the Pnl waves to the surface waves and their absolutetravel-time differences. We used focal mechanism and depth that were independently determined by modeling teleseismic depth phases, pP and sP, and by modeling regional seismograms
Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer
Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.
2003-09-02
A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.
Parameter Estimation using Numerical Merger Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, J. I.; McWilliams, S.; Kelly, B.; Fahey, R.; Arnaud, K.; Baker, J.
2008-01-01
Results: Developed parameter estimation model integrating complete waveforms and improved instrumental models. Initial results for equal-mass non-spinning systems indicate moderate improvement in most parameters, significant improvement in some Near-term improvement: a) Improved statistics; b) T-channel; c) Larger parameter space coverage. Combination with other results: a) Higher harmonics; b) Spin precession; c) Instrumental effects.
SCA Waveform Development for Space Telemetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortensen, Dale J.; Kifle, Multi; Hall, C. Steve; Quinn, Todd M.
2004-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing suitable reconfigurable radio architectures for future NASA missions. This effort is examining software-based open-architectures for space based transceivers, as well as common hardware platform architectures. The Joint Tactical Radio System's (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA) is a candidate for the software approach, but may need modifications or adaptations for use in space. An in-house SCA compliant waveform development focuses on increasing understanding of software defined radio architectures and more specifically the JTRS SCA. Space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power. This waveform development effort is key to evaluating tradeoffs with the SCA for space applications. Existing NASA telemetry links, as well as Space Exploration Initiative scenarios, are the basis for defining the waveform requirements. Modeling and simulations are being developed to determine signal processing requirements associated with a waveform and a mission-specific computational burden. Implementation of the waveform on a laboratory software defined radio platform is proceeding in an iterative fashion. Parallel top-down and bottom-up design approaches are employed.
Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.
2012-12-01
East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS
STEREO database of interplanetary Langmuir electric waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briand, C.; Henri, P.; Génot, V.; Lormant, N.; Dufourg, N.; Cecconi, B.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Goetz, K.
2016-02-01
This paper describes a database of electric waveforms that is available at the Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/). This database is specifically dedicated to waveforms of Langmuir/Z-mode waves. These waves occur in numerous kinetic processes involving electrons in space plasmas. Statistical analysis from a large data set of such waves is then of interest, e.g., to study the relaxation of high-velocity electron beams generated at interplanetary shock fronts, in current sheets and magnetic reconnection region, the transfer of energy between high and low frequencies, the generation of electromagnetic waves. The Langmuir waveforms were recorded by the Time Domain Sampler (TDS) of the WAVES radio instrument on board the STEREO mission. In this paper, we detail the criteria used to identify the Langmuir/Z-mode waves among the whole set of waveforms of the STEREO spacecraft. A database covering the November 2006 to August 2014 period is provided. It includes electric waveforms expressed in the normalized frame (B,B × Vsw,B × (B × Vsw)) with B and Vsw the local magnetic field and solar wind velocity vectors, and the local magnetic field in the variance frame, in an interval of ±1.5 min around the time of the Langmuir event. Quicklooks are also provided that display the three components of the electric waveforms together with the spectrum of E∥, together with the magnitude and components of the magnetic field in the 3 min interval, in the variance frame. Finally, the distribution of the Langmuir/Z-mode waves peak amplitude is also analyzed.
Optimal radar waveform design for moving target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Binqi; Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao
2016-07-01
An optimal radar waveform-design method is proposed to detect moving targets in the presence of clutter and noise. The clutter is split into moving and static parts. Radar-moving target/clutter models are introduced and combined with Neyman-Pearson criteria to design optimal waveforms. Results show that optimal waveform for a moving target is different with that for a static target. The combination of simple-frequency signals could produce maximum detectability based on different noise-power spectrum density situations. Simulations show that our algorithm greatly improves signal-to-clutter plus noise ratio of radar system. Therefore, this algorithm may be preferable for moving target detection when prior information on clutter and noise is available.
An Improved Cryosat-2 Sea Ice Freeboard Retrieval Algorithm Through the Use of Waveform Fitting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, Nathan T.; Galin, N.; Studinger, M.
2014-01-01
We develop an empirical model capable of simulating the mean echo power cross product of CryoSat-2 SAR and SAR In mode waveforms over sea ice covered regions. The model simulations are used to show the importance of variations in the radar backscatter coefficient with incidence angle and surface roughness for the retrieval of surfaceelevation of both sea ice floes and leads. The numerical model is used to fit CryoSat-2 waveforms to enable retrieval of surface elevation through the use of look-up tables and a bounded trust region Newton least squares fitting approach. The use of a model to fit returns from sea ice regions offers advantages over currently used threshold retrackingmethods which are here shown to be sensitive to the combined effect of bandwidth limited range resolution and surface roughness variations. Laxon et al. (2013) have compared ice thickness results from CryoSat-2 and IceBridge, and found good agreement, however consistent assumptions about the snow depth and density of sea ice werenot used in the comparisons. To address this issue, we directly compare ice freeboard and thickness retrievals from the waveform fitting and threshold tracker methods of CryoSat-2 to Operation IceBridge data using a consistent set of parameterizations. For three IceBridge campaign periods from March 20112013, mean differences (CryoSat-2 IceBridge) of 0.144m and 1.351m are respectively found between the freeboard and thickness retrievals using a 50 sea ice floe threshold retracker, while mean differences of 0.019m and 0.182m are found when using the waveform fitting method. This suggests the waveform fitting technique is capable of better reconciling the seaice thickness data record from laser and radar altimetry data sets through the usage of consistent physical assumptions.
An improved algorithm for inferring neutron star masses and radii using NICER waveform data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman
2015-01-01
We have developed a new, faster Bayesian analysis algorithm that enables us to use energy-resolved waveforms of X-ray burst oscillations, like those that will be obtained using NICER, to estimate quickly the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars and determine the uncertainties in these estimates. We use the oblate-Schwarzschild (OS) approximation, which Cadeau et al. (2007) showed provides a very accurate description of the waveforms produced by hot spots on rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars. We show that the angular radius of the hot spot and a phase-independent but otherwise arbitrary background must be included as part of the fit; to do otherwise is observationally incorrect and leads to misleadingly tight constraints on the mass and radius. A simple, single-hot-spot waveform model with 30 energy channels has 38 parameters. If the waveform data is informative, i.e., if they tightly constrain the mass M and the equatorial radius R of the star, the high-probability regions of the full parameter space are small. A grid search of this space would therefore require a prohibitive number of waveform computations. Here we describe a different procedure that is much more efficient. This new procedure (1) generates waveforms by interpolating in a table of pre-computed waveforms and (2) computes bounding ellipsoids that encompass points in the waveform parameter space that have interestingly high likelihoods. Using these bounding ellipsoids typically reduces the volume of the Monte Carlo integration by a factor ~ 30. The net result of these improvements is that whereas the analysis procedure used in Lo et al. (2013) took 50-150 clock hours on a 150-core cluster and did not search the (M,R) volume of interest, the new analysis procedure takes 50-150 clock hours on a 5-core desktop computer to perform a completely blind search of the full volume, despite the additional complexity of the OS waveform model used in the new algorithm.
High precision triangular waveform generator
Mueller, Theodore R.
1983-01-01
An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.
2009-09-30
for depth and focal mechanism using teleseismic arrivals (Kikuchi and Kanamori . 1982) and regional surface and body waves (Zhao and Helmberger. 1994...Kikuchi and Kanamori , 1982) and regional surface and body waves (Zhao Q_ and Helmberger, 1994). From this initial database, we reinterpreted a large, well...CAP) (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994) and teleseismic (Kikuchi and Kanamori , 1982) methods, provide robust estimates of source depth and faulting
Regions in Energy Market Models
Short, W.
2007-02-01
This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.
Regions in Energy Market Models
2009-01-18
This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.
Finley, Andrew O.; Banerjee, Sudipto; Cook, Bruce D.; Bradford, John B.
2013-01-01
In this paper we detail a multivariate spatial regression model that couples LiDAR, hyperspectral and forest inventory data to predict forest outcome variables at a high spatial resolution. The proposed model is used to analyze forest inventory data collected on the US Forest Service Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF), ME, USA. In addition to helping meet the regression model's assumptions, results from the PEF analysis suggest that the addition of multivariate spatial random effects improves model fit and predictive ability, compared with two commonly applied modeling approaches. This improvement results from explicitly modeling the covariation among forest outcome variables and spatial dependence among observations through the random effects. Direct application of such multivariate models to even moderately large datasets is often computationally infeasible because of cubic order matrix algorithms involved in estimation. We apply a spatial dimension reduction technique to help overcome this computational hurdle without sacrificing richness in modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altunc, Serhat; Baum, Carl E.; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Schamiloglu, Edl; Buchenauer, C. Jerald
2008-08-01
Impulse radiating antennas (IRAs) are designed to radiate very fast pulses in a narrow beam with low dispersion and high field amplitude. For this reason they have been used in a variety of applications. IRAs have been developed for use in the transient far-field region using parabolic reflectors. However, in this paper we focus in the near field region and develop the field waveform at the second focus of a prolate-spheroidal IRA. Certain skin cancers can be killed by the application of a high-amplitude electric field pulse. This can be accomplished by either inserting electrodes near the skin cancer or by applying fast, high-electric field pulses without direct contact. We investigate a new manifestation of an IRA, in which we use a prolate spheroid as a reflector instead of a parabolic reflector and focus in the near-field region instead of the far-field region. This technique minimizes skin damage associated with inserting electrodes near the tumor. Analytical and experimental behaviors for the focal waveforms of two and four-feed arm prolate-spheroidal IRAs are explored. With appropriate choice of the driving waveform we maximize the impulse field at the second focus. The focal waveform of a prolate-spheroidal IRA has been explained theoretically and verified experimentally.
The Waveform Server: A Web-based Interactive Seismic Waveform Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, R. L.; Clemesha, A.; Lindquist, K. G.; Reyes, J.; Steidl, J. H.; Vernon, F. L.
2009-12-01
Seismic waveform data has traditionally been displayed on machines that are either local area networked to, or directly host, a seismic networks waveform database(s). Typical seismic data warehouses allow online users to query and download data collected from regional networks passively, without the scientist directly visually assessing data coverage and/or quality. Using a suite of web-based protocols, we have developed an online seismic waveform interface that directly queries and displays data from a relational database through a web-browser. Using the Python interface to Datascope and the Python-based Twisted network package on the server side, and the jQuery Javascript framework on the client side to send and receive asynchronous waveform queries, we display broadband seismic data using the HTML Canvas element that is globally accessible by anyone using a modern web-browser. The system is used to display data from the USArray experiment, a US continent-wide migratory transportable seismic array. We are currently creating additional interface tools to create a rich-client interface for accessing and displaying seismic data that can be deployed to any system running Boulder Real Time Technology's (BRTT) Antelope Real Time System (ARTS). The software is freely available from the Antelope contributed code Git repository. Screenshot of the web-based waveform server interface
STRS Compliant FPGA Waveform Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nappier, Jennifer; Downey, Joseph; Mortensen, Dale
2008-01-01
The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard describes a standard for NASA space software defined radios (SDRs). It provides a common framework that can be used to develop and operate a space SDR in a reconfigurable and reprogrammable manner. One goal of the STRS Architecture is to promote waveform reuse among multiple software defined radios. Many space domain waveforms are designed to run in the special signal processing (SSP) hardware. However, the STRS Architecture is currently incomplete in defining a standard for designing waveforms in the SSP hardware. Therefore, the STRS Architecture needs to be extended to encompass waveform development in the SSP hardware. The extension of STRS to the SSP hardware will promote easier waveform reconfiguration and reuse. A transmit waveform for space applications was developed to determine ways to extend the STRS Architecture to a field programmable gate array (FPGA). These extensions include a standard hardware abstraction layer for FPGAs and a standard interface between waveform functions running inside a FPGA. A FPGA-based transmit waveform implementation of the proposed standard interfaces on a laboratory breadboard SDR will be discussed.
Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.
1985-09-01
A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.
Regional fuzzy chain model for evapotranspiration estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güçlü, Yavuz Selim; Subyani, Ali M.; Şen, Zekai
2017-01-01
Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main hydrological cycle components that has extreme importance for water resources management and agriculture especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, regional ET estimation models based on the fuzzy logic (FL) principles are suggested, where the first stage includes the ET calculation via Penman-Monteith equation, which produces reliable results. In the second phase, ET estimations are produced according to the conventional FL inference system model. In this paper, regional fuzzy model (RFM) and regional fuzzy chain model (RFCM) are proposed through the use of adjacent stations' data in order to fill the missing ones. The application of the two models produces reliable and satisfactory results for mountainous and sea region locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but comparatively RFCM estimations have more accuracy. In general, the mean absolute percentage error is less than 10%, which is acceptable in practical applications.
Vannier, E; Avan, P
2005-10-01
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) are widely used for objective hearing screening in neonates. Their main shortcoming is their sensitivity to adverse conditions for sound transmission through the middle-ear, to and from the cochlea. We study here whether a close examination of the stimulus waveform (SW) recorded in the ear canal in the course of a screening test can pinpoint the most frequent middle-ear dysfunctions, thus allowing screeners to avoid misclassifying the corresponding babies as deaf for lack of TEOAE. Three groups of SWs were defined in infants (6-36 months of age) according to middle-ear impairment as assessed by independent testing procedures, and analyzed in the frequency domain where their properties are more readily interpreted than in the time domain. Synthetic SW parameters were extracted with the help of an autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) model, then classified using a maximum likelihood criterion and a bootstrap cross-validation. The best classification performance was 79% with a lower limit (with 90% confidence) of 60%, showing the results' consistency. We therefore suggest that new parameters and methodology based upon a more thorough analysis of SWs can improve the efficiency of TEOAE-based tests by helping the most frequent technical pitfalls to be identified.
Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects
Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio
2004-12-01
Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in
2011-12-30
166 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Helmberger, 1994), teleseismic (Kikuchi and Kanamori , 1982) and a CMT inversion (Liu et al...Earth model, Phys. Earth. Planet. Int. 25: 297–356. Kikuchi, M., and H. Kanamori (1982). Inversion of complex body waves, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 72
2012-04-20
Indian tectonic plates . Without knowing the true lateral changes in anisotropy and including large continental provinces within the model it is...also significantly increase anomaly strength while sharpening the anomaly edges to create stronger and more pronounced tectonic structures. The
Seismic Waveform Characterization at LLNL: Analyst Guidelines and Issues
Ryall, F; Schultz, C A
2001-11-01
In the first section of this paper we present an overview of general set of procedures that we have followed in seismic waveform analysis. In the second section we discuss a number of issues and complexities that we have encountered in analysis of events in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and parts of the European Arctic. To illustrate these complexities we can include examples of waveforms recorded over a variety of paths in these regions.
Thermal modeling of forearc regions
Kominz, M.A.; Bond, G.C.
1989-08-01
The unconventional natural gas resource program of the Department of Energy has targeted ancient subduction zones as a possible source of organic-origin natural gas. The suggestion is that organic sediments which have been accreted in the prism and/or subducted beneath the prism will produce gas at greater depths than in more conventional, generally hotter, basins. A critical element in determining the likelihood of gas generation in ancient or modern accretionary prisms is the thermal regime of the accreting prism. We have developed a computer model to determine the overall thermal regime in the modern forearcs of Oregon/Washington and southern Alaska. This allows us to predict the likelihood that gas has been generated at depth in the forearc prism, or within sediments as they are subducted beneath the prism. In fact, the model results indicate that subduction and accretion of these sediments at low temperatures increases the probability that ancient subduction zones, once accreted to the craton and allowed to heat in response to migration of the volcanic front, could be the source of natural gas. 75 refs., 24 figs.
Adaptive multi-step Full Waveform Inversion based on Waveform Mode Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yong; Han, Liguo; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Fengjiao; Zeng, Jingwen
2017-04-01
Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) can be used to build high resolution velocity models, but there are still many challenges in seismic field data processing. The most difficult problem is about how to recover long-wavelength components of subsurface velocity models when seismic data is lacking of low frequency information and without long-offsets. To solve this problem, we propose to use Waveform Mode Decomposition (WMD) method to reconstruct low frequency information for FWI to obtain a smooth model, so that the initial model dependence of FWI can be reduced. In this paper, we use adjoint-state method to calculate the gradient for Waveform Mode Decomposition Full Waveform Inversion (WMDFWI). Through the illustrative numerical examples, we proved that the low frequency which is reconstructed by WMD method is very reliable. WMDFWI in combination with the adaptive multi-step inversion strategy can obtain more faithful and accurate final inversion results. Numerical examples show that even if the initial velocity model is far from the true model and lacking of low frequency information, we still can obtain good inversion results with WMD method. From numerical examples of anti-noise test, we see that the adaptive multi-step inversion strategy for WMDFWI has strong ability to resist Gaussian noise. WMD method is promising to be able to implement for the land seismic FWI, because it can reconstruct the low frequency information, lower the dominant frequency in the adjoint source, and has a strong ability to resist noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadas, D.; André, F.; Vereecken, H.; Lambot, S.
2009-04-01
Water is a vital resource for human needs, agriculture, sanitation and industrial supply. The knowledge of soil water dynamics and solute transport is essential in agricultural and environmental engineering as it controls plant growth, hydrological processes, and the contamination of surface and subsurface water. Increased irrigation efficiency has also an important role for water conservation, reducing drainage and mitigating some of the water pollution and soil salinity. Geophysical methods are effective techniques for monitoring the vadose zone. In particular, electromagnetic induction (EMI) can provide in a non-invasive way important information about the soil electrical properties at the field scale, which are mainly correlated to important variables such as soil water content, salinity, and texture. EMI is based on the radiation of a VLF EM wave into the soil. Depending on its electrical conductivity, Foucault currents are generated and produce a secondary EM field which is then recorded by the EMI system. Advanced techniques for EMI data interpretation resort to inverse modeling. Yet, a major gap in current knowledge is the limited accuracy of the forward model used for describing the EMI-subsurface system, usually relying on strongly simplifying assumptions. We present a new low frequency EMI method based on Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) technology and advanced forward modeling using a linear system of complex transfer functions for describing the EMI loop antenna and a three-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in multilayered media. VNA permits simple, international standard calibration of the EMI system. We derived a Green's function for the zero-offset, off-ground horizontal loop antenna and also proposed an optimal integration path for faster evaluation of the spatial-domain Green's function from its spectral counterpart. This new integration path shows fewer oscillations compared with the real path and permits to avoid the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y. G.; Dallimore, S.; Riedel, M.; Shin, C.
2015-12-01
During Expedition ARA05C (from Aug 26 to Sep 19, 2014) on the Korean icebreaker RV ARAON, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the outer shelf and slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea to investigate distribution and internal geological structures of the offshore ice-bonded permafrost and gas hydrates, totaling 998 km L-km with 19,962 shots. The MCS data were recorded using a 1500 m long solid-type streamer with 120 channels. Shot and group spacing were 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively. Most MCS survey lines were designed perpendicular and parallel to the strike of the shelf break. Ice-bonded permafrost or ice-bearing sediments are widely distributed under the Beaufort Sea shelf, which have formed during periods of lower sea level when portions of the shelf less than ~100m water depth were an emergent coastal plain exposed to very cold surface. The seismic P-wave velocity is an important geophysical parameter for identifying the distribution of ice-bonded permafrost with high velocity in this area. Recently, full waveform inversion (FWI) and reverse time migration (RTM) are commonly used to delineate detailed seismic velocity information and seismic image of geological structures. FWI is a data fitting procedure based on wave field modeling and numerical analysis to extract quantitative geophysical parameters such as P-, S-wave velocities and density from seismic data. RTM based on 2-way wave equation is a useful technique to construct accurate seismic image with amplitude preserving of field data. In this study, we suggest two-dimensional P-wave velocity model (Figure.1) using the FWI algorithm to delineate the top and bottom boundaries of ice-bonded permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea. In addition, we construct amplitude preserving migrated seismic image using RTM to interpret the geological history involved with the evolution of permafrost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monteiller, Vadim; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Wang, Yi
2015-08-01
We present a method for high-resolution imaging of lithospheric structures based on full waveform inversion of teleseismic waveforms. We model the propagation of seismic waves using our recently developed direct solution method/spectral-element method hybrid technique, which allows us to simulate the propagation of short-period teleseismic waves through a regional 3-D model. We implement an iterative quasi-Newton method based upon the L-BFGS algorithm, where the gradient of the misfit function is computed using the adjoint-state method. Compared to gradient or conjugate-gradient methods, the L-BFGS algorithm has a much faster convergence rate. We illustrate the potential of this method on a synthetic test case that consists of a crustal model with a crustal discontinuity at 25 km depth and a sharp Moho jump. This model contains short- and long-wavelength heterogeneities along the lateral and vertical directions. The iterative inversion starts from a smooth 1-D model derived from the IASP91 reference Earth model. We invert both radial and vertical component waveforms, starting from long-period signals filtered at 10 s and gradually decreasing the cut-off period down to 1.25 s. This multiscale algorithm quickly converges towards a model that is very close to the true model, in contrast to inversions involving short-period waveforms only, which always get trapped into a local minimum of the cost function.
Hybridizing Gravitationl Waveforms of Inspiralling Binary Neutron Star Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, Torrey; LIGO Collaboration
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves are ripples in space and time and were predicted to be produced by astrophysical systems such as binary neutron stars by Albert Einstein. These are key targets for Laser Interferometer and Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), which uses template waveforms to find weak signals. The simplified template models are known to break down at high frequency, so I wrote code that constructs hybrid waveforms from numerical simulations to accurately cover a large range of frequencies. These hybrid waveforms use Post Newtonian template models at low frequencies and numerical data from simulations at high frequencies. They are constructed by reading in existing Post Newtonian models with the same masses as simulated stars, reading in the numerical data from simulations, and finding the ideal frequency and alignment to ``stitch'' these waveforms together.
Analytic gravitational waveforms for generic precessing compact binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas
2017-01-01
Gravitational waves from compact binaries are subject to amplitude and phase modulations arising from interactions between the angular momenta of the system. Failure to account for such spin-precession effects in gravitational wave data analysis could hinder detection and completely ruin parameter estimation. In this talk I will describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully-precessing, quasi-circular binary inspirals. The resulting waveforms can model spinning binaries of arbitrary spin magnitudes, spin orientations, and masses during the inspiral phase. I will also describe ongoing efforts to extend these inspiral waveforms to the merger and ringdown phases.
General Dynamic (GD) Launch Waveform On-Orbit Performance Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briones, Janette C.; Shalkhauser, Mary Jo
2014-01-01
The purpose of this report is to present the results from the GD SDR on-orbit performance testing using the launch waveform over TDRSS. The tests include the evaluation of well-tested waveform modes, the operation of RF links that are expected to have high margins, the verification of forward return link operation (including full duplex), the verification of non-coherent operational models, and the verification of radio at-launch operational frequencies. This report also outlines the launch waveform tests conducted and comparisons to the results obtained from ground testing.
Dust continuum spectra from model HII regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aannestad, P. A.; Emery, R. J.
1989-01-01
The infrared spectrum emitted by nebular dust, heated by the ionizing stars in H II blisters and spherical H II regions, is calculated for various model parameters. Absorption of the non-ionizing radiation in a neutral layer is included. Heating by the Lyman alpha photon field is taken into account. The dust is composed of silicate and graphite grains, and evaporation of the grains in the inner region is considered. The models are presented with a view to interpretation of infrared observations of dusty H II regions and can be applied directly to the infrared astronomy satellite survey data. The continuum emission is compared with calculated fine structure line emission.
Fluxon Modeling of Active Region Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deforest, C. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Davey, A. R.; Rachmeler, L.
2006-12-01
We present current results and status on fluxon modeling of free energy buildup and release in active regions. Our publicly available code, FLUX, has the unique ability to track magnetic energy buildup with a truly constrained topology in evolving, nonlinear force-free conditions. Recent work includes validation of the model against Low &Lou force-free field solutions, initial evolution studies of idealized active regions, and inclusion of locally parameterized reconnection into the model. FLUX is uniquely able to simulate complete active regions in 3-D on a single workstation; we estimate that a parallelized fluxon model, together with computer vision code to ingest solar data, could run faster than real time on a cluster of \\textasciitilde 30 CPUs and hence provide a true predictive space weather model in the style of predictive simulations of terrestrial weather.
Simulation of Full-Waveform Laser Altimeter Echowaveform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Y.; Tong, X. H.; Liu, S. J.; Xie, H.; Luan, K. F.; Liu, J.
2016-06-01
Change of globe surface height is an important factor to study human living environment. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESat is the first laser-ranging instrument for continuous global observations of the Earth. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of full-waveform laser altimeter, this study simulated the operating mode of ICESat and modeled different terrains' (platform terrain, slope terrain, and artificial terrain) echo waveforms based on the radar equation. By changing the characteristics of the system and the targets, numerical echo waveforms can be achieved. Hereafter, we mainly discussed the factors affecting the amplitude and size (width) of the echoes. The experimental results implied that the slope of the terrain, backscattering coefficient and reflectivity, target height, target position in the footprint and area reacted with the pulse all can affect the energy distribution of the echo waveform and the receiving time. Finally, Gaussian decomposition is utilized to decompose the echo waveform. From the experiment, it can be noted that the factors which can affect the echo waveform and by this way we can know more about large footprint full-waveform satellite laser altimeter.
STRS Compliant FPGA Waveform Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nappier, Jennifer; Downey, Joseph
2008-01-01
The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard describes a standard for NASA space software defined radios (SDRs). It provides a common framework that can be used to develop and operate a space SDR in a reconfigurable and reprogrammable manner. One goal of the STRS Architecture is to promote waveform reuse among multiple software defined radios. Many space domain waveforms are designed to run in the special signal processing (SSP) hardware. However, the STRS Architecture is currently incomplete in defining a standard for designing waveforms in the SSP hardware. Therefore, the STRS Architecture needs to be extended to encompass waveform development in the SSP hardware. A transmit waveform for space applications was developed to determine ways to extend the STRS Architecture to a field programmable gate array (FPGA). These extensions include a standard hardware abstraction layer for FPGAs and a standard interface between waveform functions running inside a FPGA. Current standards were researched and new standard interfaces were proposed. The implementation of the proposed standard interfaces on a laboratory breadboard SDR will be presented.
Prismatic and full-waveform joint inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Ying-Ming; Li, Zhen-Chun; Huang, Jian-Ping; Li, Jin-Li
2016-09-01
Prismatic wave is that it has three reflection paths and two reflection points, one of which is located at the reflection interface and the other is located at the steep dip angle reflection layer, so that contains a lot of the high and steep reflection interface information that primary cannot reach. Prismatic wave field information can be separated by applying Born approximation to traditional reverse time migration profile, and then the prismatic wave is used to update velocity to improve the inversion efficiency for the salt dame flanks and some other high and steep structure. Under the guidance of this idea, a prismatic waveform inversion method is proposed (abbreviated as PWI). PWI has a significant drawback that an iteration time of PWI is more than twice as that of FWI, meanwhile, the full wave field information cannot all be used, for this problem, we propose a joint inversion method to combine prismatic waveform inversion with full waveform inversion. In this method, FWI and PWI are applied alternately to invert the velocity. Model tests suggest that the joint inversion method is less dependence on the high and steep structure information in the initial model and improve high inversion efficiency and accuracy for the model with steep dip angle structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lackey, Benjamin D.; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Brady, Patrick R.; Friedman, John L.
2014-02-01
Information about the neutron-star equation of state is encoded in the waveform of a black hole-neutron star system through tidal interactions and the possible tidal disruption of the neutron star. During the inspiral this information depends on the tidal deformability Λ of the neutron star, and we find that the best-measured parameter during the merger and ringdown is consistent with Λ as well. We performed 134 simulations where we systematically varied the equation of state as well as the mass ratio, neutron star mass, and aligned spin of the black hole. Using these simulations we develop an analytic representation of the full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform calibrated to these numerical waveforms; we use this analytic waveform and a Fisher matrix analysis to estimate the accuracy to which Λ can be measured with gravitational-wave detectors. We find that although the inspiral tidal signal is small, coherently combining this signal with the merger-ringdown matter effect improves the measurability of Λ by a factor of ˜3 over using just the merger-ringdown matter effect alone. However, incorporating correlations between all the waveform parameters then decreases the measurability of Λ by a factor of ˜3. The uncertainty in Λ increases with the mass ratio, but decreases as the black hole spin increases. Overall, a single Advanced LIGO detector can only marginally measure Λ for mass ratios Q =2-5, black hole spins JBH/MBH2=-0.5-0.75, and neutron star masses MNS=1.2M⊙-1.45M⊙ at an optimally oriented distance of 100 Mpc. For the proposed Einstein Telescope, however, the uncertainty in Λ is an order of magnitude smaller.
Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-04-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Full Elastic Waveform Search Engine for Near Surface Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.
2014-12-01
For processing land seismic data, the near-surface problem is often very complex and may severely affect our capability to image the subsurface. The current state-of-the-art technology for near surface imaging is the early arrival waveform inversion that solves an acoustic wave-equation problem. However, fitting land seismic data with acoustic wavefield is sometimes invalid. On the other hand, performing elastic waveform inversion is very time-consuming. Similar to a web search engine, we develop a full elastic waveform search engine that includes a large database with synthetic elastic waveforms accounting for a wide range of interval velocity models in the CMP domain. With each CMP gather of real data as an entry, the search engine applies Multiple-Randomized K-Dimensional (MRKD) tree method to find approximate best matches to the entry in about a second. Interpolation of the velocity models at CMP positions creates 2D or 3D Vp, Vs, and density models for the near surface area. The method does not just return one solution; it gives a series of best matches in a solution space. Therefore, the results can help us to examine the resolution and nonuniqueness of the final solution. Further, this full waveform search method can avoid the issues of initial model and cycle skipping that the method of full waveform inversion is difficult to deal with.
Objective calibration of regional climate models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellprat, O.; Kotlarski, S.; Lüthi, D.; SchäR, C.
2012-12-01
Climate models are subject to high parametric uncertainty induced by poorly confined model parameters of parameterized physical processes. Uncertain model parameters are typically calibrated in order to increase the agreement of the model with available observations. The common practice is to adjust uncertain model parameters manually, often referred to as expert tuning, which lacks objectivity and transparency in the use of observations. These shortcomings often haze model inter-comparisons and hinder the implementation of new model parameterizations. Methods which would allow to systematically calibrate model parameters are unfortunately often not applicable to state-of-the-art climate models, due to computational constraints facing the high dimensionality and non-linearity of the problem. Here we present an approach to objectively calibrate a regional climate model, using reanalysis driven simulations and building upon a quadratic metamodel presented by Neelin et al. (2010) that serves as a computationally cheap surrogate of the model. Five model parameters originating from different parameterizations are selected for the optimization according to their influence on the model performance. The metamodel accurately estimates spatial averages of 2 m temperature, precipitation and total cloud cover, with an uncertainty of similar magnitude as the internal variability of the regional climate model. The non-linearities of the parameter perturbations are well captured, such that only a limited number of 20-50 simulations are needed to estimate optimal parameter settings. Parameter interactions are small, which allows to further reduce the number of simulations. In comparison to an ensemble of the same model which has undergone expert tuning, the calibration yields similar optimal model configurations, but leading to an additional reduction of the model error. The performance range captured is much wider than sampled with the expert-tuned ensemble and the presented
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chi, Wu-Cheng
This study used (1) 132-channel reflection profiles, forward gravity modeling, and (2) finite source inversions of earthquakes to analyze crustal evolution from Subduction to collision in the region of Taiwan. Reflection and gravity data in the offshore region shows that the accretionary prism in the Subduction zone is mainly sedimentary; however, due to tectonic wedging in the initial collision zone, high-density basement materials are incorporated into the rear of the accretionary prism and may extend northward to compose a portion of high-density rocks that underly southeastern Taiwan. Further to the north in the mature collision zone was the site of the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. For this earthquake and its large aftershocks, we inverted strong motion data for finite source processes to study the deep fault structures. The mainshock ruptured on a shallow eastward-dipping fault possibly rooted in the proposed decollement of thin-skin deformation model. Several aftershocks either nucleated in or ruptured the basement indicating active deformation below the decollement, suggesting basement-involved deformation. Interpreting finite-source results requires a thorough understanding of the uncertainty in the parameters. Further more, near-realtime applications of finite-source inversions for estimation of near-fault strong ground motion requires well constrained fault orientation and hypocentral parameters. With this in mind, we tested a wide range of hypocenters and focal mechanisms, and the corresponding fits of the synthetics to the observed waveforms when studying the aftershock source parameters. As a result, we obtained optimal waveform fits and determined how the errors reported in hypocenters and focal mechanisms affected the inverted waveforms and the sensitivity of the waveform fits. For example, if the hypocenter was within 5 km of the optimal hypocenter and the focal mechanism was within 20 degrees of optimal strike, dip, and rake, the waveform fits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtz, N. T.; Galin, N.; Studinger, M.
2014-01-01
We develop an empirical model capable of simulating the mean echo power cross product of CryoSat-2 SAR and SARIn mode waveforms over sea ice covered regions. The model simulations are used to show the importance of variations in the radar backscatter coefficient with incidence angle and surface roughness for the retrieval of surface elevation of both sea ice floes and leads. The numerical model is used to fit CryoSat-2 waveforms to enable retrieval of surface elevation through the use of look-up tables and a bounded trust region Newton least squares fitting approach. The use of a model to fit returns from sea ice regions offers advantages over currently used threshold retracking methods which are here shown to be sensitive to the combined effect of bandwidth limited range resolution and surface roughness variations. Laxon et al. (2013) have compared ice thickness results from CryoSat-2 and IceBridge, and found good agreement, however consistent assumptions about the snow depth and density of sea ice were not used in the comparisons. To address this issue, we directly compare ice freeboard and thickness retrievals from the waveform fitting and threshold tracker methods of CryoSat-2 to Operation IceBridge data using a consistent set of parameterizations. For three IceBridge campaign periods from March 2011-2013, mean differences (CryoSat-2 - IceBridge) of 0.144 m and 1.351 m are respectively found between the freeboard and thickness retrievals using a 50% sea ice floe threshold retracker, while mean differences of 0.019 m and 0.182 m are found when using the waveform fitting method. This suggests the waveform fitting technique is capable of better reconciling the sea ice thickness data record from laser and radar altimetry data sets through the usage of consistent physical assumptions.
2011-09-01
DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE...09NA293221 and DE-AC52-07NA273442 Proposal No. BAA09-13 ABSTRACT The main goal of this project is to develop models of lithospheric velocity...of the lithosphere are key for accurately modeling not only travel times but also surface-wave dispersion velocities and full waveforms at regional
Evaluation of regional-scale receptor modeling.
Lowenthal, Douglas H; Watson, John G; Koracin, Darko; Chen, L W Antony; Dubois, David; Vellore, Ramesh; Kumar, Naresh; Knipping, Eladio M; Wheeler, Neil; Craig, Kenneth; Reid, Stephen
2010-01-01
The ability of receptor models to estimate regional contributions to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was assessed with synthetic, speciated datasets at Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (BRIG) in New Jersey and Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) in Tennessee. Synthetic PM2.5 chemical concentrations were generated for the summer of 2002 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and chemically speciated PM2.5 source profiles from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s SPECIATE and Desert Research Institute's source profile databases. CMAQ estimated the "true" contributions of seven regions in the eastern United States to chemical species concentrations and individual source contributions to primary PM2.5 at both sites. A seven-factor solution by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model explained approximately 99% of the variability in the data at both sites. At BRIG, PMF captured the first four major contributing sources (including a secondary sulfate factor), although diesel and gasoline vehicle contributions were not separated. However, at GRSM, the resolved factors did not correspond well to major PM2.5 sources. There were no correlations between PMF factors and regional contributions to sulfate at either site. Unmix produced five- and seven-factor solutions, including a secondary sulfate factor, at both sites. Some PMF factors were combined or missing in the Unmix factors. The trajectory mass balance regression (TMBR) model apportioned sulfate concentrations to the seven source regions using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) trajectories based on Meteorological Model Version 5 (MM5) and Eta Data Simulation System (EDAS) meteorological input. The largest estimated sulfate contributions at both sites were from the local regions; this agreed qualitatively with the true regional apportionments. Estimated regional contributions depended on the starting elevation of the trajectories and on
Advancements in Long-Offset Seismic Imaging: A Blind Test of Traveltime and Waveform Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelt, C. A.; Pratt, G.; Brenders, A.; Hanson-Hedgecock, S.; Hole, J. A.
2005-05-01
In 2003 a realistic long-offset synthetic seismic dataset was made available to the community for the purpose of testing modelling, inversion and imaging algorithms. Here we present the results of 2-D traveltime and 2-D waveform tomography applied by workers who, at the time, did not know what the true model was. The synthetic wide-angle dataset consisting of 51 shots was calculated for a realistic crustal model using a 2-D visco-elastic code; these data are still available at terra.rice.edu/department/faculty/zelt/ccss/. The model is 250 km long, and the shot and receiver spacings are 5 km and 90 m, respectively. The center frequency of the source is 5 Hz, with energy between 2-11 Hz. The true model contains large-scale features such as laterally-varying sediment thickness, a basement outcrop, a low-velocity zone, and regions where the crust-mantle boundary is sharp and smooth. Superimposed on this are non-stationary intermediate to wavelength-scale stochastic features. Both first arrival and simultaneous PmP/Pn traveltime tomography were applied to obtain a smooth velocity model with a sharp Moho. The traveltime model compares favorably with the large-scale features of the true model, although it does not capture the details of the low-velocity zone or the smooth crust-mantle transition zone. However, the model obtained from first-arrival traveltime tomography was essential as a starting model for the 2-D acoustic, frequency-domain waveform tomography method we have applied. Data windowing in time, re-weighting in offset, and model smoothing were applied, and a relatively low starting frequency was used, 0.8 Hz, progressing up to 7 Hz. The final model from waveform tomography predicts the input data to a high degree of accuracy for each chosen frequency, and a comparison of the original time domain data with time-domain forward modelling through the final model also reveals a good match. The final model from waveform tomography matches the large and intermediate
Waveform Modeling of the Crust and Upper Mantle Using S, Sp, SsPmP, and Shear-Coupled PL Waves
2008-05-10
standard error. Additionally, a significant variation in model parameters is not realistic given the tectonic and geologic setting of the regions...minimally affected by large-scale tectonic processes. However, a middle to lower crustal low- velocity zone obtained beneath all the seismic stations in the...region (Figures 5a–d), indicate possible local tectonic influences. Our estimate of crustal thickness beneath TAM (~36 km) is similar to that
Waveform design for detection of weapons based on signature exploitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.; Dogaru, Traian
2010-04-01
We present waveform design based on signature exploitation techniques for improved detection of weapons in urban sensing applications. A single-antenna monostatic radar system is considered. Under the assumption of exact knowledge of the target orientation and, hence, known impulse response, matched illumination approach is used for optimal target detection. For the case of unknown target orientation, we analyze the target signatures as random processes and perform signal-to-noise-ratio based waveform optimization. Numerical electromagnetic modeling is used to provide the impulse responses of an AK-47 assault rifle for various target aspect angles relative to the radar. Simulation results depict an improvement in the signal-to-noise-ratio at the output of the matched filter receiver for both matched illumination and stochastic waveforms as compared to a chirp waveform of the same duration and energy.
AIR QUALITY MODELING OF AMMONIA: A REGIONAL MODELING PERSPECTIVE
The talk will address the status of modeling of ammonia from a regional modeling perspective, yet the observations and comments should have general applicability. The air quality modeling system components that are central to modeling ammonia will be noted and a perspective on ...
Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H
2014-12-18
Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms.
Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Ross
2008-01-01
ICESat/GLAS waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 million sq km study area. the Province of Quebec, Canada, below treeline. The same input data sets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include nonstratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (square root of) biomass serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial biomass estimates of up to 0.35 Gt (range 4.942+/-0.28 Gt to 5.29+/-0.36 Gt). The results suggest that if different predictive models are used to estimate regional carbon stocks in different epochs, e.g., y2005, y2015, one might mistakenly infer an apparent aboveground carbon "change" of, in this case, 0.18 Gt, or approximately 7% of the aboveground carbon in Quebec, due solely to the use of different predictive models. These findings argue for model consistency in future, LiDAR-based carbon monitoring programs. Regional biomass estimates from the four GLAS models are compared to ground estimates derived from an extensive network of 16,814 ground plots located in southern Quebec. Stratified models proved to be more accurate and precise than either of the two nonstratified models tested.
Observation simulation experiments with regional prediction models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diak, George; Perkey, Donald J.; Kalb, Michael; Robertson, Franklin R.; Jedlovec, Gary
1990-01-01
Research efforts in FY 1990 included studies employing regional scale numerical models as aids in evaluating potential contributions of specific satellite observing systems (current and future) to numerical prediction. One study involves Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) which mimic operational initialization/forecast cycles but incorporate simulated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiances as input data. The objective of this and related studies is to anticipate the potential value of data from these satellite systems, and develop applications of remotely sensed data for the benefit of short range forecasts. Techniques are also being used that rely on numerical model-based synthetic satellite radiances to interpret the information content of various types of remotely sensed image and sounding products. With this approach, evolution of simulated channel radiance image features can be directly interpreted in terms of the atmospheric dynamical processes depicted by a model. Progress is being made in a study using the internal consistency of a regional prediction model to simplify the assessment of forced diabatic heating and moisture initialization in reducing model spinup times. Techniques for model initialization are being examined, with focus on implications for potential applications of remote microwave observations, including AMSU and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), in shortening model spinup time for regional prediction.
Full waveform inversion for ultrasonic flaw identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidl, Robert; Rank, Ernst
2017-02-01
Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing is concerned with detecting flaws inside components without causing physical damage. It is possible to detect flaws using ultrasound measurements but usually no additional details about the flaw like position, dimension or orientation are available. The information about these details is hidden in the recorded experimental signals. The idea of full waveform inversion is to adapt the parameters of an initial simulation model of the undamaged specimen by minimizing the discrepancy between these simulated signals and experimentally measured signals of the flawed specimen. Flaws in the structure are characterized by a change or deterioration in the material properties. Commonly, full waveform inversion is mostly applied in seismology on a larger scale to infer mechanical properties of the earth. We propose to use acoustic full waveform inversion for structural parameters to visualize the interior of the component. The method is adapted to US NDT by combining multiple similar experiments on the test component as the typical small amount of sensors is not sufficient for a successful imaging. It is shown that the combination of simulations and multiple experiments can be used to detect flaws and their position, dimension and orientation in emulated simulation cases.
On the accuracy and precision of numerical waveforms: effect of waveform extraction methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2016-08-01
We present a new set of 95 numerical relativity simulations of non-precessing binary black holes (BBHs). The simulations sample comprehensively both black-hole spins up to spin magnitude of 0.9, and cover mass ratios 1-3. The simulations cover on average 24 inspiral orbits, plus merger and ringdown, with low initial orbital eccentricities e\\lt {10}-4. A subset of the simulations extends the coverage of non-spinning BBHs up to mass ratio q = 10. Gravitational waveforms at asymptotic infinity are computed with two independent techniques: extrapolation and Cauchy characteristic extraction. An error analysis based on noise-weighted inner products is performed. We find that numerical truncation error, error due to gravitational wave extraction, and errors due to the Fourier transformation of signals with finite length of the numerical waveforms are of similar magnitude, with gravitational wave extraction errors dominating at noise-weighted mismatches of ˜ 3× {10}-4. This set of waveforms will serve to validate and improve aligned-spin waveform models for gravitational wave science.
Full Seismic Waveform Inversion for the Japanese Islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žukauskaitė, Saulė; Steptoe, Hamish; Fichtner, Andreas
2015-04-01
We present a seismic tomography model for the Japanese archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A credible seismic velocity model is essential for the Japan region as a means to further our understanding of earthquake source mechanics by allowing for more accurate seismic source inversion, to benefit seismic hazard assessment as well as early warning systems, and to comprehend the complexity of the tectonic setting. The study area covers the Japanese islands, Taiwan, Korean peninsula, easternmost parts of China and Russia, Sakhalin and the majority of the Kuril Islands chain. The domain extends down into the mantle transition zone. We choose 58 earthquakes of magnitudes Mw5.0 - 6.9 distributed across the model domain as uniformly as possible. The data are obtained from several seismic networks in the area, namely F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, South Korean National Earthquake Network and several stations from each China National Seismic Network, New China Digital Seismograph Network, Global Seismograph Network and Korean Seismic Network made available by IRIS Data Management Center. To facilitate full waveform inversion the forward problem is solved numerically using the spectral element method (SEM), which comes with the geometric flexibility of the finite-elements method and the accuracy of the spectral methods. Owing to the SEM and the advance in High Performance Computing we are able to perform numerical simulations of seismic waves in realistic 3D heterogeneous visco-elastic structures. Differences between the calculated and the real waveforms are quantified using the time-frequency misfits (Fichtner et al., 2008), which allow us to explore the temporal evolution of the frequency content of the data with no need to identify specific seismic phases. We use adjoint methods as an effective means to obtain sensitivity kernels and ultimately gradients, required for iterative gradient-based minimisation techniques. The obtained model
Regional CMS Modeling: Southwest Florida Gulf Coast
2016-05-01
and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) buoys, the WaveWatch III model, and wave hindcasts by ERDC Wave Information Study (WIS). Water level data may...including all of Tampa Bay. The SWFL Regional CMS Model was driven along the ocean boundary with 6-minute (min) measured water levels from NOAA ...conditions using NOAA measured water levels for subgrids for any time period for which the NOAA National Ocean Survey (NOS) has measurements at
Hook Region Represented in a Cochlear Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, Charles R.; Kim, Namkeun; Puria, Sunil
2009-02-01
The present interest is in discontinuities. Particularly the geometry of the hook region, with the flexible round window nearly parallel with the basilar membrane, is not represented by a standard box model, in which both stapes and round window are placed at the end. A better model represents the round window by a soft membrane in the wall of scala tympani, with the end closed. This complicates the analysis considerably. Features are that the significant compression wave, i.e., the fast wave, is of negligible magnitude in this region, and that significant evanescent waves occur because of the discontinuities at the beginning and end of the simulated round window. The effect of this on both high frequency, with maximum basilar membrane response in the hook region, and lower frequencies are determined.
REGIONAL SEISMIC AMPLITUDE MODELING AND TOMOGRAPHY FOR EARTHQUAKE-EXPLOSION DISCRIMINATION
Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E; Gok, R; Sweeney, J; Ford, S R; Rodgers, A J
2008-07-08
We continue exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using regional amplitude ratios such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. Empirically we demonstrate that such ratios separate explosions from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are also examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling (e. g. Ford et al 2008). For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East. Monitoring the world for potential nuclear explosions requires characterizing seismic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
TAO, K.; Grand, S.; Niu, F.; Chen, M.; Zhu, H.
2015-12-01
Northeast China has undergone widespread extension and magmatism since Late Cretaceous. There are many Cenozoic volcanoes in this region and a few of them are still active today, such as Changbaishan and Wudalianchi. Previous tomography models show stagnant slabs within the transition zone beneath NE China, and suggest deep slab control on the regional tectonics and volcanism. Proposed mechanisms for the magmatism include: 1) a mantle plume, 2) hot upwelling above the stagnant slab by deep dehydration and 3) upwelling induced by deep slab segmentation and detachment. To date, NE China seismic images still contain enough uncertainty to allow for multiple models. Using the dense seismic data coverage in NE China and adjacent regions our goal is to make high-resolution image of the transition zone and slab structure to test the origins of intraplate volcanism. Recently Chen et al. (2015) developed a 3D model for P and S velocity structure beneath East Asia using adjoint tomography using the SPECFEM3D synthetic technique and cross-correlation time shifts as the objective function. We use their model as a starting model and further improve the resolution by fitting waveforms to a shorter period (from ~12s to ~5s) using the correlation coefficient as the objective function. The new objective function is closely related to the L2 waveform misfit but is insensitive to a constant amplitude ratio between the synthetic and data within each time window used. This feature is desirable because the absolute amplitude can be hard to model as it can be affected by many factors difficult to incorporate in simulations, such as site effects, source magnitude and mechanism error or even poor calibration of instruments. During inversion we focus specifically on the transition zone and the structure of slabs with the goal of fitting triplicated and multipath body waves. We have performed a waveform inversion experiment using data from a single deep earthquake. Excellent fits of the
Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment
This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...
An ionization region model of the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas; Lundin, Daniel; Brenning, Nils; Raadu, Michel A.; Huo, Chunqing; Minea, Tiberiu
2016-09-01
A reactive ionization region model (R-IRM) is developed to describe the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge with titanium target. We compare the discharge properties when the discharge is operated in the two well established operating modes, the metal mode and the poisoned mode. Experimentally, it is found that in the metal mode the discharge current waveform displays a typical non-reactive evolution, while in the poisoned mode the discharge current waveform becomes distinctly triangular and the current increases significantly. Using the R-IRM we find that when the discharge is operated in the metal mode Ar+ and Ti+-ions contribute most significantly (roughly equal amounts) to the discharge current while in the poisoned mode the Ar+-ions contribute most significantly to the discharge current while the contribution of O+-ions and secondary electron emission is much smaller. Furthermore, we find that recycling of ionized atoms coming from the target are required for the current generation in both modes of operation. In the metal mode self-sputter recycling dominates and in the poisoned mode working gas recycling dominates, and it is concluded that the dominating type of recycling determines the discharge current waveform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konca, A.
2013-12-01
A kinematic model for the Mw7.1 2011 Van Earthquake was obtained using regional, teleseismic and GPS data. One issue regarding regional data is that 1D Green's functions may not be appropriate due to complications in the upper mantle and crust that affects the Pnl waveforms. In order to resolve whether the 1D Green's function is appropriate, an aftershock of the main event was also modeled, which is then used as a criterion in the selection of the regional stations. The GPS data itself is not sufficient to obtain a slip model, but helps constrain the slip distribution. The slip distribution is up-dip and bilateral with more slip toward west, where the maximum slip reaches 4 meters. The rupture velocity is about 1.5 km/s.
Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.
2006-01-01
A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.
Compression strategies for LiDAR waveform cube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jóźków, Grzegorz; Toth, Charles; Quirk, Mihaela; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota
2015-01-01
Full-waveform LiDAR data (FWD) provide a wealth of information about the shape and materials of the surveyed areas. Unlike discrete data that retains only a few strong returns, FWD generally keeps the whole signal, at all times, regardless of the signal intensity. Hence, FWD will have an increasingly well-deserved role in mapping and beyond, in the much desired classification in the raw data format. Full-waveform systems currently perform only the recording of the waveform data at the acquisition stage; the return extraction is mostly deferred to post-processing. Although the full waveform preserves most of the details of the real data, it presents a serious practical challenge for a wide use: much larger datasets compared to those from the classical discrete return systems. Atop the need for more storage space, the acquisition speed of the FWD may also limit the pulse rate on most systems that cannot store data fast enough, and thus, reduces the perceived system performance. This work introduces a waveform cube model to compress waveforms in selected subsets of the cube, aimed at achieving decreased storage while maintaining the maximum pulse rate of FWD systems. In our experiments, the waveform cube is compressed using classical methods for 2D imagery that are further tested to assess the feasibility of the proposed solution. The spatial distribution of airborne waveform data is irregular; however, the manner of the FWD acquisition allows the organization of the waveforms in a regular 3D structure similar to familiar multi-component imagery, as those of hyper-spectral cubes or 3D volumetric tomography scans. This study presents the performance analysis of several lossy compression methods applied to the LiDAR waveform cube, including JPEG-1, JPEG-2000, and PCA-based techniques. Wide ranges of tests performed on real airborne datasets have demonstrated the benefits of the JPEG-2000 Standard where high compression rates incur fairly small data degradation. In
Regional geoid height models developed using aerogravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.
2013-12-01
The techniques employed during the development of the Geoid Slope Validation Study of 2011 (GSVS 11) were adapted to modeling of regional geoid height models. Aerogravity from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project was first evaluated with respect to satellite gravity field models developed from both GRACE and GOCE data to establish long wavelength consistency and remove biases in individual survey lines. In turn, the airborne and satellite gravity were then combined to evaluate surface gravity data from around 1400 separate surveys over the conterminous United States (CONUS). These surveys can span anywhere from 10's to 100's of kilometers and comprise the surface gravity database held by the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. These surface data have been used as-is in the development of previous gravimetric geoid models. With the availability of aerogravity, these surveys were examined to detect and mitigate potential biases that can create artifacts in geoid height models. About 5% of these surveys exhibit significant biases of 3-5 mGals, which equate to 10-20 cm errors in subsequent geoid height models. Given the requirement for cm-level accuracy in a future vertical datum based on geoid height models, these errors must be addressed. GSVS 11 demonstrated that it is possible to combine satellite, airborne and surface gravity to achieve cm-level accuracy over a limited locale. This study demonstrates that this can also be achieved over more regional scales. While not all of the CONUS has yet been flown by the GRAV-D Project, significant portions have been flown and those regions have been evaluated here. In the GSVS 11 study, external metrics were collected simultaneously to permit evaluation of the overall error. Such data is generally not available on a national basis, but comparisons are made with the GSVS 11 data, tidal benchmarks in combination with ocean topography models, and astrogeodetic deflection of the vertical
Progress towards regional flash flood modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.; Quinn, N.; Freer, J. E.
2015-12-01
Flash flooding causes widespread disruption and damage across the UK, with recent research indicating that the occurrence and severity of intense rainfall is likely to increase in the future. To date, our ability to model such events at anything other than local scales has been hindered both by a lack of data at adequate spatial and temporal resolutions and a limited understanding of the processes involved in flooding from short duration, high intensity rainfall events. To enable effective flood risk management and decisions, it is essential that we improve our understanding of the variability in risk from such events across the UK and this requires an ability to undertake flash flood modelling at regional scales. In this study, we have implemented a coupled hydrological - hydrodynamic model for the representation of flash flooding at regional scales over long durations. To provide inputs to these models, we have developed a gridded sub-daily (hourly) rainfall record of the UK from 1993 to 2011. This enables us to more accurately represent flooding resulting from short duration rainfall events that are poorly represented by commonly utilised daily rainfall data. For a given region of interest we cascade rainfall estimates from our sub-daily dataset into a semi-distributed hydrological model (Dynamic Topmodel) in order to generate river discharge estimates which are then used to force a widely utilised inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP). Here we present the results from a test case in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the modelling framework over a variety of events with differing characteristics. The results will provide an insight into our capabilities of representing flash flooding and highlight key areas for future model development and enhanced process understanding.
Full Seismic Waveform Inversion for the Japanese Islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žukauskaitė, S.; Steptoe, H.; Fichtner, A.
2014-12-01
We present a seismic tomography model for the Japanese archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A credible seismic velocity model is essential for the Japan region as a means to comprehend the complexity of the tectonic setting, further our understanding of earthquake source mechanics and benefit seismic hazard assessment as well as early warning systems. The study area covers the Japanese islands, Taiwan, Korean peninsula, easternmost parts of China and Russia, Sakhalin and the majority of the Kuril Islands chain. The domain extends down into the mantle transition zone. We choose 58 earthquakes of magnitudes Mw5.0 - 6.9 distributed across the model domain as uniformly as possible. The data are obtained from several seismic networks in the area, namely F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, South Korean National Earthquake Network and several stations from each China National Seismic Network, New China Digital Seismograph Network, Global Seismograph Network and Korean Seismic Network made available by IRIS Data Management Center. To facilitate full waveform inversion we use the spectral element method (SEM), which comes with the geometric flexibility of the finite-elements method and the accuracy of the spectral methods. Owing to the SEM and the advance in High Performance Computing we are able to perform numerical simulations of seismic waves in realistic 3D heterogeneous visco-elastic structures. Differences between the calculated and the real waveforms are quantified using the time-frequency misfits (Fichtner et al., 2008), which allow us to explore the temporal evolution of the frequency content of the data with no need to identify specific seismic phases. We use adjoint methods as an effective means to obtain sensitivity kernels and ultimately gradients, required for iterative gradient-based minimisation techniques. With such a methodology we are able to explain the data of dominant period as low as 10 s. The final results of this study
Shallow oceanic crust: Full waveform tomographic images of the seismic layer 2A/2B boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christeson, Gail L.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Warner, Michael R.
2012-05-01
We present results of full-waveform tomographic inversions of four profiles acquired over young intermediate- and fast spreading rate oceanic crust. The mean velocity-depth functions from our study include a 0.25-0.30 km-thick low-velocity, low-gradient region beneath the seafloor overlying a 0.24-0.28-km-thick high-gradient region; together these regions compose seismic layer 2A. Mean layer 2A interval velocities are 3.0-3.2 km/s. The mean depth to the layer 2A/2B boundary is 0.49-0.54 km, and mean velocities within the upper 0.25 km of layer 2B are 4.7-4.9 km/s. Previous velocity analyses of the study areas using 1-D ray tracing underestimate the thickness of the high-gradient region at the base of layer 2A. We observe differences in the waveform inversion velocity models that correspond to imaging of the layer 2A event; regions with a layer 2A event have higher velocity gradients at the base of layer 2A. Intermittent high velocities, which we interpret as massive flows, are observed in the waveform inversion velocity models at 0.05-0.10 km below the seafloor (bsf) over 10-25% of the intermediate-spreading profiles and 20-45% of the fast spreading profiles. The high-gradient region located 0.25-0.54 km bsf at the base of layer 2A may be associated with an increased prevalence of massive flows, the first appearance of dikes (lava-dike transition zone), or with increased crack sealing by hydrothermal products. The upper portion of layer 2B, which begins at 0.49-0.54 km bsf, may correspond to sheeted dikes or the top of the transition zone of lavas and dikes.
Regional recreation demand and benefits model
Sutherland, R.J.
1983-03-01
This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.
Gao, Mingwu; Rose, William C; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David A; Chen, Chen-Huan; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2016-09-14
Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant central blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured radial BP waveform. However, GTFs are population averages and therefore may not adapt to variations in pulse pressure (PP) amplification (ratio of radial to central PP). A simple adaptive transfer function (ATF) was developed. First, the transfer function is defined in terms of the wave travel time and reflection coefficient parameters of an arterial model. Then, the parameters are estimated from the radial BP waveform by exploiting the observation that central BP waveforms exhibit exponential diastolic decays. The ATF was assessed using the original data that helped popularize the GTF. These data included radial BP waveforms and invasive reference central BP waveforms from cardiac catheterization patients. The data were divided into low, middle, and high PP amplification groups. The ATF estimated central BP with greater accuracy than GTFs in the low PP amplification group (e.g., central systolic BP and PP root-mean-square-errors of 3.3 and 4.2 mm Hg versus 6.2 and 7.1 mm Hg; p ≤ 0.05) while showing similar accuracy in the higher PP amplification groups. The ATF may permit more accurate, non-invasive central BP monitoring in elderly and hypertensive patients.
Gao, Mingwu; Rose, William C.; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David A.; Chen, Chen-Huan; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2016-01-01
Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant central blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured radial BP waveform. However, GTFs are population averages and therefore may not adapt to variations in pulse pressure (PP) amplification (ratio of radial to central PP). A simple adaptive transfer function (ATF) was developed. First, the transfer function is defined in terms of the wave travel time and reflection coefficient parameters of an arterial model. Then, the parameters are estimated from the radial BP waveform by exploiting the observation that central BP waveforms exhibit exponential diastolic decays. The ATF was assessed using the original data that helped popularize the GTF. These data included radial BP waveforms and invasive reference central BP waveforms from cardiac catheterization patients. The data were divided into low, middle, and high PP amplification groups. The ATF estimated central BP with greater accuracy than GTFs in the low PP amplification group (e.g., central systolic BP and PP root-mean-square-errors of 3.3 and 4.2 mm Hg versus 6.2 and 7.1 mm Hg; p ≤ 0.05) while showing similar accuracy in the higher PP amplification groups. The ATF may permit more accurate, non-invasive central BP monitoring in elderly and hypertensive patients. PMID:27624389
Regional Seismic Identification Research:Processing, Transportability and Source Models
Walter, W; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Taylor, S; Dodge, D; Matzel, E; Ganzberger, M
2004-07-09
Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. It has been shown that at each test site where earthquake and explosions are in close proximity and recorded at the same station, clear differences in the regional body waves such as the relative high frequency amplitudes of P and S waves can be used to discriminate between event types. However path and source effects can also induce such differences, therefore these must be quantified and accounted for. We have been using a specific technique called Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC), with some success to account for some of these effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-04-01
We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic
Verifying Slab-Induced Waveform Effects beneath Central Taiwan by Three-dimensional Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Ting; Zaho, Li; Chen, Po-fei; Chiao, Ling-Yun
2013-04-01
The Taiwan Island is a result of the convergence between the Eurasia and Philippine Sea plates. To what extent the east-dipping Eurasian slab extends northward beneath central Taiwan and the geometry of the slab east of Taiwan are important issues for understanding the geodynamics of the regional tectonics. However, structures in the upper mantle beneath Taiwan are poorly constrained in regional as well as global tomography models. The TAiwan Integrated GEodynamic Research (TAIGER) project deployed several well designed temporary arrays, and the broadband teleseismic data from stations along a north-south transect across Taiwan has been utilized to examine patterns of the first P waveform variations. The P waveforms observed in central Taiwan are generally characterized by earlier arrival times, reduced amplitudes, and broadened pulse widths relative to those observed in northern Taiwan, indicating the existence of a deep slab beneath central Taiwan. In this study, to verify those observations, we invoke the spectral-element method (SEM) to calculate the synthetic seismogram for the same dataset. Results for the 1D velocity model show that in central Taiwan the observed P waveforms have earlier arrival times, reduced amplitudes, and broadened pulse widths relative to the P waves in 1D model. We then invoke a hybrid model in which we use a regional 3D model as the background and introduce two slabs - an east-dipping slab south of Taiwan and a north-northwest-dipping slab offshore northeast Taiwan - with a suite of different slab configurations to determine the best velocity model that fits the previous observations.
Full-waveform inversion in the time domain with an energy-weighted gradient
Zhang, Zhigang; Huang, Lianjie; Lin, Youzuo
2011-01-01
When applying full-waveform inversion to surface seismic reflection data, one difficulty is that the deep region of the model is usually not reconstructed as well as the shallow region. We develop an energy-weighted gradient method for the time-domain full-waveform inversion to accelerate the convergence rate and improve reconstruction of the entire model without increasing the computational cost. Three different methods can alleviate the problem of poor reconstruction in the deep region of the model: the layer stripping, depth-weighting and pseudo-Hessian schemes. The first two approaches need to subjectively choose stripping depths and weighting functions. The third one scales the gradient with only the forward propagation wavefields from sources. However, the Hessian depends on wavefields from both sources and receivers. Our new energy-weighted method makes use of the energies of both forward and backward propagated wavefields from sources and receivers as weights to compute the gradient. We compare the reconstruction of our new method with those of the conjugate gradient and pseudo-Hessian methods, and demonstrate that our new method significantly improves the reconstruction of both the shallow and deep regions of the model.
Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halford, K. J.
2013-12-01
Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.
An MSK Waveform for Radar Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera
2009-01-01
We introduce a minimum shift keying (MSK) waveform developed for use in radar applications. This waveform is characterized in terms of its spectrum, autocorrelation, and ambiguity function, and is compared with the conventionally used bi-phase coded (BPC) radar signal. It is shown that the MSK waveform has several advantages when compared with the BPC waveform, and is a better candidate for deep-space radar imaging systems such as NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar.
Waveform retracking for improving inland water heights from altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen
2015-04-01
For more than two decades, satellite radar altimeters have been providing valuable information on level changes of seas and oceans. In recent years, the usage of satellite altimetry to monitor the water level changes of lakes and rivers, as well as in hydrology applications, has become a topic of rising interest. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave height or wind speed. However, the waveforms over lakes and rivers show patterns which are significantly influenced by signals reflected from land present in the altimeter footprint. This results in a variety of different waveforms shapes ranging from waveforms similar to the theoretical ocean case to completely different ones such as those including only small leading edges and large peaks on the trailing edge. These peaks considerably influence the estimation of the parameters of interest, such as the time origin, connected to the range information, particularly if they are located very close to the leading edge. To mitigate this problem, we present a retracking approach, which combines the advantages of sub-waveform retracking with a flexible waveform model, that allows to model symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian peaks. Based on a preliminary waveform analysis step, a defined window is applied to the total waveform and the parameters are estimated by a flexible fitting procedure. We retracked Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data over several lakes, including the African lakes Volta and Victoria. The inferred lake level heights are evaluated by comparisons to water heights from in situ gauge observations, the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitoring database, as well as those derived from applying conventional
The AEM and regional carbonate aquifer modeling.
Johnson, Cady; Mifflin, Martin
2006-01-01
The analytic element method (AEM) has been applied to a 15,000-km2 area of the Paleozoic carbonate rock terrain of Nevada. The focus is the Muddy River springs area, which receives 1.44 m3/s (51 ft3/s) of regionally derived ground water, and forms the Muddy River. The study was undertaken early in 2000 to support the development of a cooling water supply for a gas-fired generation facility 20 km south of the Muddy River springs. The primary objectives of the AEM modeling were to establish a better understanding of regional fluxes and boundary conditions and to provide a framework for examination of more local transient effects using MODFLOW. Geochemical evidence available in 2000 suggested two separate flow fields, one in the north discharging at the springs, and a southern area of small hydraulic gradients. To be conservative, however, hydraulic continuity between the two areas was maintained in the 2000 AEM model. Using new monitoring well data collected in the south, and analyses confirming that seasonal pumping effects in the north are not propagated to the south, a later AEM model that included a barrier calibrated with relative ease. The analytic element model was well suited for simulating an area larger than the immediate area of interest, was easy to modify as more information became available, and facilitated the stepwise development of multiple conceptual models of the site.
A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.
Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D
2011-07-01
Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States.
Semiempirical models of chromospheric flare regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Machado, M. E.; Avrett, E. H.; Vernazza, J. E.; Noyes, R. W.
1980-01-01
Homogeneous plane-parallel semiempirical flare model atmospheres which reproduce observations in lines and continua of H I, Si I, C I, Ca II, and Mg II have a thin transition zone at the top of the enhanced chromosphere, indicating a significant amount of heating from the zone to the temperature minimum level. The minimum temperature is located deeper and is higher than in the quiet-sun and active-region models. The results do not agree with the particle-heated theoretical models, and it is suggested that the models of Brown (1973) and Henoux and Nakagawa (1977, 1978) do not include an essential term for heat conduction in their energy balance equations. It is concluded that substantial Ly-alpha radiative heating occurs in the upper chromosphere resulting from the conductive energy flux in the transition zone where the Ly-alpha line cools the gas.
Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2006-09-01
Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.
Zhao, Yun; Xu, Xing; He, Yong
2015-12-01
Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology was adopted in this study to discriminate among varieties of raisins produced in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Eight varieties of raisins were used in the research, and the wavelengths of the hyperspectral images were from 900 to 1700 nm. A novel waveform resolution method is proposed to reduce the hyperspectral data and extract the features. The waveform-resolution method compresses the original hyperspectral data for one pixel into five amplitudes, five frequencies, and five phases for 15 feature values in all. A neural network was established with three layers-eight neurons for the first layer, three neurons for the hidden layer, and one neuron for the output layer-based on the 15 features used to determine the varieties of raisins. The accuracies of the model, which are presented as sensitivity, precision, and specificity, for the testing data set, are 93.38, 81.92, and 99.06%. This is higher than the accuracies of the model using a conventional principal component analysis feature-extracting method combined with a neural network, which has a sensitivity of 82.13%, precision of 82.22%, and specificity of 97.45%. The results indicate that the proposed waveform-resolution feature-extracting method combined with hyperspectral imaging technology is an efficient method for determining varieties of raisins.
Breast ultrasound computed tomography using waveform inversion with source encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.
2015-03-01
Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the speed-of-sound distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Computer-simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. Using a single graphics processing unit card, each iteration can be completed within 25 seconds for a 128 × 128 mm2 reconstruction region. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden.
Ultrasound waveform tomography using wave-energy-based preconditioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhigang; Huang, Lianjie
2013-03-01
Ultrasound waveform tomography using the conjugate gradient method produces images with different qualities in different regions of the imaging domain, partly because the ultrasound wave energy is dominant around transducer elements. In addition, this uneven distribution of the wave energy slows down the convergence of the inversion. Using the Hessian matrix to scale the gradients in waveform inversion can reduce the artifacts caused by the geometrical spreading and the defocusing effect resulting from the incomplete data coverage. However, it is computationally expensive to calculate the Hessian matrix. We develop a new ultrasound waveform tomography method that weights the gradient with the ultrasound wave energies of the forward and backward propagation wavefields. Our new method balances the wave energy distribution throughout the entire imaging domain. This method scales the gradients using the square root of the wave energy of forward propagated wavefields from sources and that of backpropagated synthetic wavefields from receivers. We numerically demonstrate that this new ultrasound waveform tomography method improves sound-speed reconstructions of breast tumors and accelerates the convergence of ultrasound waveform tomography.
Fusion of radionuclide and waveform information at CTBTO in support of the NPE12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krysta, Monika; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta; Kushida, Noriyuki
2013-04-01
Different technologies constitute the pillars of the system which monitors compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Each of the four technologies exploited by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a monitoring network of its own which together constitute the International Monitoring System (IMS). CTBTO and its State Signatories make an effort to achieve synergy between the complementary information provided by the distinct networks in a process called data fusion. Seismic, infrasound and hydroacoustic monitoring technologies are based on detections of mechanical waves and referred to as waveforms. In an analysis process performed at the International Data Centre (IDC) those detections are subsequently associated to build events from which the mechanical waves originated. The association is more challenging in case of airborne radionuclide monitoring technology. A support in form of the computational results of atmospheric transport modelling is necessary in this case. But even with such a support, due to turbulent processes in the atmosphere, the events emanating the detected radionuclides are not easily identified. In fact, atmospheric transport modelling indicates the regions where a source could have been located rather than point-like events. However, if this information is appropriately merged with the waveform events, it could support evidence of their nuclear character or lack thereof. National Data Centres of State Signatories, which are responsible for the CTBT monitoring and verification at the national level, design and conduct annual exercises in order to test performance of the monitoring system and analysis of its detections. Exercise scenario, mixing real and fictitious components, is designed to ensure as broad a national expert involvement as possible. At the same time it offers a framework for testing and advancing data fusion capacity. In this presentation we propose to address data fusion as
2169 Steel Waveform Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.
2013-06-01
In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément
2016-04-01
Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.
Versatile Dual-Channel Waveform Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen; Ching, Michael; Budinger, James M.
1994-01-01
Programmable waveform generator synthesizes two independent waveforms simultaneously at frequencies up to 250 MHz. Can be in phase or out of phase with each other. Use of commercial integrated circuits helps keep cost low. Operation governed by BASIC source code enabling any user equipped with suitable personal computer to specify waveforms. User can modify source code to satisfy special needs. Other applications include simulation of Doppler waveforms for radar, and of video signals for testing color displays and computer monitors. With eventual substitution of gallium arsenide integrated circuits for its present silicon integrated circuits, instrument able to generate waveforms with 14-bit precision and sample rates as high as 2 GHz.
Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.
2012-04-01
Weichselian glaciation is included in the model procedure. The ability of MODFLOW for simulating heat conduction is demonstrated in simple test cases. The regional geothermal model is then utilized for modelling the subsurface temperature distribution and contouring updated temperature maps for geothermal reservoirs in Denmark.
2169 steel waveform experiments.
Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.
2012-11-01
In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.
Savage, B; Peter, D; Covellone, B; Rodgers, A; Tromp, J
2009-07-02
Efforts to update current wave speed models of the Middle East require a thoroughly tested database of sources and recordings. Recordings of seismic waves traversing the region from Tibet to the Red Sea will be the principal metric in guiding improvements to the current wave speed model. Precise characterizations of the earthquakes, specifically depths and faulting mechanisms, are essential to avoid mapping source errors into the refined wave speed model. Errors associated with the source are manifested in amplitude and phase changes. Source depths and paths near nodal planes are particularly error prone as small changes may severely affect the resulting wavefield. Once sources are quantified, regions requiring refinement will be highlighted using adjoint tomography methods based on spectral element simulations [Komatitsch and Tromp (1999)]. An initial database of 250 regional Middle Eastern events from 1990-2007, was inverted for depth and focal mechanism using teleseismic arrivals [Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982)] and regional surface and body waves [Zhao and Helmberger (1994)]. From this initial database, we reinterpreted a large, well recorded subset of 201 events through a direct comparison between data and synthetics based upon a centroid moment tensor inversion [Liu et al. (2004)]. Evaluation was done using both a 1D reference model [Dziewonski and Anderson (1981)] at periods greater than 80 seconds and a 3D model [Kustowski et al. (2008)] at periods of 25 seconds and longer. The final source reinterpretations will be within the 3D model, as this is the initial starting point for the adjoint tomography. Transitioning from a 1D to 3D wave speed model shows dramatic improvements when comparisons are done at shorter periods, (25 s). Synthetics from the 1D model were created through mode summations while those from the 3D simulations were created using the spectral element method. To further assess errors in source depth and focal mechanism, comparisons between the
Why Waveform Correlation Sometimes Fails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, J.
2015-12-01
Waveform correlation detectors used in explosion monitoring scan noisy geophysical data to test two competing hypotheses: either (1) an amplitude-scaled version of a template waveform is present, or, (2) no signal is present at all. In reality, geophysical wavefields that are monitored for explosion signatures include waveforms produced by non-target sources that are partially correlated with the waveform template. Such signals can falsely trigger correlation detectors, particularly at low thresholds required to monitor for smaller target explosions. This challenge is particularly formidable when monitoring known test sites for seismic disturbances, since uncatalogued natural seismicity is (generally) more prevalent at lower magnitudes, and could be mistaken for small explosions. To address these challenges, we identify real examples in which correlation detectors targeting explosions falsely trigger on both site-proximal earthquakes (Figure 1, below) and microseismic "noise". Motivated by these examples, we quantify performance loss when applying these detectors, and re-evaluate the correlation-detector's hypothesis test. We thereby derive new detectors from more general hypotheses that admit unknown background seismicity, and apply these to real data. From our treatment, we derive "rules of thumb'' for proper template and threshold selection in heavily cluttered signal environments. Last, we answer the question "what is the probability of falsely detecting an earthquake collocated at a test site?", using correlation detectors that include explosion-triggered templates. Figure Top: An eight-channel data stream (black) recorded from an earthquake near a mine. Red markers indicate a detection. Middle: The correlation statistic computed by scanning the template against the data stream at top. The red line indicates the threshold for event declaration, determined by a false-alarm on noise probability constraint, as computed from the signal-absent distribution using
Analysing the ventricular fibrillation waveform.
Reed, Matthew J; Clegg, Gareth R; Robertson, Colin E
2003-04-01
The surface electrocardiogram associated with ventricular fibrillation has been of interest to researchers for some time. Over the last few decades, techniques have been developed to analyse this signal in an attempt to obtain more information about the state of the myocardium and the chances of successful defibrillation. This review looks at the implications of analysing the VF waveform and discusses the various techniques that have been used, including fast Fourier transform analysis, wavelet transform analysis and mathematical techniques such as chaos theory.
Photonic Arbitrary Waveform Generation Technology
2006-06-01
filters or ring resonator based technologies [26-29]. Key aspects of the filter technology are the flatness of the filter channel, the crosstalk...photodetectors would also be warranted. 28 References [1] K. Nosu, “ Advanced coherent lightwave technologies ,” IEEE Commun. Magn,, vol. 26...AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2006-208 Final Technical Report June 2006 PHOTONIC ARBITRARY WAVEFORM GENERATION TECHNOLOGY University of
Automated Analysis, Classification, and Display of Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff
2004-01-01
A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.
Energy-efficient waveform shapes for neural stimulation revealed with a genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.
2010-08-01
The energy efficiency of stimulation is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to a computational model of extracellular stimulation of a mammalian myelinated axon. As the GA progressed, waveforms became increasingly energy efficient and converged upon an energy-optimal shape. The results of the GA were consistent across several trials, and resulting waveforms resembled truncated Gaussian curves. When constrained to monophasic cathodic waveforms, the GA produced waveforms that were symmetric about the peak, which occurred approximately during the middle of the pulse. However, when the cathodic waveforms were coupled to rectangular charge-balancing anodic pulses, the location and sharpness of the peak varied with the duration and timing (i.e., before or after the cathodic phase) of the anodic phase. In a model of a population of mammalian axons and in vivo experiments on a cat sciatic nerve, the GA-optimized waveforms were more energy efficient and charge efficient than several conventional waveform shapes used in neural stimulation. If used in implantable neural stimulators, GA-optimized waveforms could prolong battery life, thereby reducing the frequency of recharge intervals, the volume of implanted pulse generators, and the costs and risks of battery-replacement surgeries.
Energy-efficient waveform shapes for neural stimulation revealed with genetic algorithm
Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.
2010-01-01
The energy efficiency of stimulation is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to a computational model of extracellular stimulation of a mammalian myelinated axon. As the GA progressed, waveforms became increasingly energy-efficient and converged upon an energy-optimal shape. The results of the GA were consistent across several trials, and resulting waveforms resembled truncated Gaussian curves. When constrained to monophasic cathodic waveforms, the GA produced waveforms that were symmetric about the peak, which occurred approximately during the middle of the pulse. However, when the cathodic waveforms were coupled to rectangular charge-balancing anodic pulses, the location and sharpness of the peak varied with the duration and timing (i.e., before or after cathodic phase) of the anodic phase. In a model of a population of mammalian axons and in vivo experiments on cat sciatic nerve, the GA-optimized waveforms were more energy-efficient and charge-efficient than several conventional waveform shapes used in neural stimulation. If used in implantable neural stimulators, GA-optimized waveforms could prolong battery life, thereby reducing the frequency of recharge intervals, the volume of implanted pulse generators, and the costs and risks of battery-replacement surgeries. PMID:20571186
Using waveform information in nonlinear data assimilation.
Rey, Daniel; Eldridge, Michael; Morone, Uriel; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Parlitz, Ulrich; Schumann-Bischoff, Jan
2014-12-01
Information in measurements of a nonlinear dynamical system can be transferred to a quantitative model of the observed system to establish its fixed parameters and unobserved state variables. After this learning period is complete, one may predict the model response to new forces and, when successful, these predictions will match additional observations. This adjustment process encounters problems when the model is nonlinear and chaotic because dynamical instability impedes the transfer of information from the data to the model when the number of measurements at each observation time is insufficient. We discuss the use of information in the waveform of the data, realized through a time delayed collection of measurements, to provide additional stability and accuracy to this search procedure. Several examples are explored, including a few familiar nonlinear dynamical systems and small networks of Colpitts oscillators.
Brane model with two asymptotic regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubo, Musongela
2005-02-01
Some brane models rely on a generalization of the Melvin magnetic universe including a complex scalar field among the sources. We argue that the geometric interpretation of Kip. S. Thorne of this geometry restricts the kind of potential a complex scalar field can display to keep the same asymptotic behavior. While a finite energy is not obtained for a Mexican hat potential in this interpretation, this is the case for a potential displaying a broken phase and an unbroken one. We use for technical simplicity and illustrative purposes an ad hoc potential which however shares some features with those obtained in some supergravity models. We construct a sixth dimensional cylindrically symmetric solution which has two asymptotic regions: the Melvin-like metric on one side and a flat space displaying a conical singularity on the other. The causal structure of the configuration is discussed. Unfortunately, gravity is not localized on the brane.
Brane model with two asymptotic regions
Lubo, Musongela
2005-02-15
Some brane models rely on a generalization of the Melvin magnetic universe including a complex scalar field among the sources. We argue that the geometric interpretation of Kip. S. Thorne of this geometry restricts the kind of potential a complex scalar field can display to keep the same asymptotic behavior. While a finite energy is not obtained for a Mexican hat potential in this interpretation, this is the case for a potential displaying a broken phase and an unbroken one. We use for technical simplicity and illustrative purposes an ad hoc potential which however shares some features with those obtained in some supergravity models. We construct a sixth dimensional cylindrically symmetric solution which has two asymptotic regions: the Melvin-like metric on one side and a flat space displaying a conical singularity on the other. The causal structure of the configuration is discussed. Unfortunately, gravity is not localized on the brane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogungbemi, Kayode; Han, Xianming; Misra, Prabhakar
2010-02-01
The laser optogalvanic (OG) waveforms associated with the 1s5 -- 2pj (j=7,8,9) transitions of neon in a hollow discharge lamp have been investigated as a function of discharge current (2.0 -- 19.0 mA). We have refined a mathematical model in determining the amplitudes, decay constants, and time constants associated with these transitions. Monte Carlo least-squares fitting of these waveforms has helped to specifically determine the decay rate constant (ai), exponential rates (bi) and time constant (τ) parameters associated with the evolution of the OG signals. In our investigation of the 1s5 -- 2pj (j=7,8,9)optogalvanic transitions of neon, we have measured the intensity of each transition (3.65*10-28 , 1.43*10-27 and 5.82*10-27 cm-1/mole-cm-2, respectively), which in turn has provided insight into the excitation temperature of the plasma (estimated to be 2847±285 K). The population distribution of the excited neon atoms in the pertinent energy levels has also been estimated using the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. )
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko
2016-10-01
The detailed source rupture process of the M 7.3 event (April 16, 2016, 01:25, JST) of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes was derived from strong-motion waveforms using multiple-time-window linear waveform inversion. Based on the observations of surface ruptures, the spatial distribution of aftershocks, and the geodetic data, a realistic curved fault model was developed for source-process analysis of this event. The seismic moment and maximum slip were estimated as 5.5 × 1019 Nm ( M w 7.1) and 3.8 m, respectively. The source model of the M 7.3 event had two significant ruptures. One rupture propagated toward the northeastern shallow region at 4 s after rupture initiation and continued with large slips to approximately 16 s. This rupture caused a large slip region 10-30 km northeast of the hypocenter that reached the caldera of Mt. Aso. Another rupture propagated toward the surface from the hypocenter at 2-6 s and then propagated toward the northeast along the near surface at 6-10 s. A comparison with the result of using a single fault plane model demonstrated that the use of the curved fault model led to improved waveform fit at the stations south of the fault. The source process of the M 6.5 event (April 14, 2016, 21:26, JST) was also estimated. In the source model obtained for the M 6.5 event, the seismic moment was 1.7 × 1018 Nm ( M w 6.1), and the rupture with large slips propagated from the hypocenter to the surface along the north-northeast direction at 1-6 s. The results in this study are consistent with observations of the surface ruptures. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .
Lin, Youzuo; Huang, Lianjie; Zhang, Zhigang
2011-01-01
Double-difference waveform inversion is a promising tool for quantitative monitoring for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method uses time-lapse seismic data to jointly inverts for reservoir changes. Due to the ill-posedness of waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain reservoir changes accurately and efficiently, particularly when using timelapse seismic reflection data. To improve reconstruction, we develop a spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme into double-difference waveform inversion to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. The new regularization scheme employs different regularization parameters in different regions of the model to obtain an optimal regularization in each area. We compare the results obtained using a spatially-variant parameter with those obtained using a constant regularization parameter. Utilizing a spatially-variant regularization scheme, the target monitoring regions are well reconstructed and the image noise is significantly reduced outside the monitoring regions. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme provides the flexibility to regularize local regions based on the a priori spatial information without increasing computational costs and the computer memory requirement.
Advances in region-based texture modeling for video compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; Bull, David R.
2011-09-01
This paper presents a parametric video compression framework which exploits both texture warping and dynamic texture synthesis. A perspective motion model is employed to warp static textures and a dynamic texture model is used to synthesise time-varying textures. An artefact-based video quality metric (AVM) is proposed which prevents spatial and temporal artefacts and assesses the reconstructed video quality. This is validated using both the VQEG database and subjective assessment, and shows competitive performance on both non-synthetic and synthetic video content. Moreover, a local Rate-Quality Optimisation (RQO) strategy is developed based on AVM in order to make a decision between waveform coding and texture warping/synthesis. The proposed method has been integrated into an H.264 video coding framework with results offering significant bitrate savings for similar visual quality (based on both AVM and subjective scores).
Evaluation of novel stimulus waveforms for deep brain stimulation
Foutz, TJ; McIntyre, CC
2010-01-01
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Historically, DBS and other neurostimulation technologies have relied on rectangular stimulation waveforms to impose their effects on the nervous system. Recent work has suggested that non-rectangular waveforms may have advantages over the traditional rectangular pulse. Therefore, we used detailed computer models to compare a range of charge-balanced biphasic waveforms with rectangular, exponential, triangular, Gaussian, and sinusoidal stimulus pulse shapes. We explored the neural activation energy of these waveforms in both intracellular and extracellular stimulation. In the context of extracellular stimulation, we compared their effects on both axonal fibers of passage and projection neurons. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delivering the waveforms through a clinical DBS electrode, as opposed to a theoretical point source. Our results suggest that DBS with a 1 ms centered-triangular pulse can decrease energy consumption by 64 % when compared to the standard 100 μs rectangular pulse (energy cost of 48 nJ and 133 nJ, respectively, to stimulate 50 % of a distributed population of axons) and can decrease energy consumption by 10 % when compared to the most energy efficient rectangular pulse (1.25 ms duration). In turn, there may be measureable energy savings when using appropriately designed non-rectangular pulses in clinical DBS applications, thereby warranting further experimental investigation. PMID:21084732
Evaluation of novel stimulus waveforms for deep brain stimulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foutz, Thomas J.; McIntyre, Cameron C.
2010-12-01
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Historically, DBS and other neurostimulation technologies have relied on rectangular stimulation waveforms to impose their effects on the nervous system. Recent work has suggested that non-rectangular waveforms may have advantages over the traditional rectangular pulse. Therefore, we used detailed computer models to compare a range of charge-balanced biphasic waveforms with rectangular, exponential, triangular, Gaussian and sinusoidal stimulus pulse shapes. We explored the neural activation energy of these waveforms for both intracellular and extracellular current-controlled stimulation conditions. In the context of extracellular stimulation, we compared their effects on both axonal fibers of passage and projection neurons. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delivering the waveforms through a clinical DBS electrode, as opposed to a theoretical point source. Our results suggest that DBS with a 1 ms centered-triangular pulse can decrease energy consumption by 64% when compared with the standard 100 µs rectangular pulse (energy cost of 48 and 133 nJ, respectively, to stimulate 50% of a distributed population of axons) and can decrease energy consumption by 10% when compared with the most energy efficient rectangular pulse (1.25 ms duration). In turn, there may be measureable energy savings when using appropriately designed non-rectangular pulses in clinical DBS applications, thereby warranting further experimental investigation.
Offset prediction for charge-balanced stimulus waveforms.
Woods, V M; Triantis, I F; Toumazou, C
2011-08-01
Functional electrical stimulation with cuff electrodes involves the controlled injection of current into an electrically excitable tissue for sensory or motor rehabilitation. Some charge injected during stimulation is 'lost' at the electrode-electrolyte interface when the charge carrier is translated from an electron to an ion in the solution. The process of charge injection through chemical reactions can reduce electrode longevity and implant biocompatibility. Conventionally, the excess charge is minimized by complex hardware solutions, which are often not appropriate for robust long-term implantable solutions. Here, we present a method of waveform design that minimizes irrecoverable charge during continuous pulsing through the use of biphasic waveforms with unequally charged phases. We developed an equivalent electrical model of the electrode-electrolyte impedance based on the electrode's surface chemistry during psuedo-bipolar stimulation conditions. Simulations with the equivalent circuit determined the uncompensated charge to be a function of stimulus parameters. In vitro stimulation experiments in saline confirmed that we could preemptively compensate for the excess charge following biphasic stimulus waveforms. As a result, there was a 92% reduction in the pre-pulse potential after a pulse train with this new waveform design when compared to stimulation with conventional biphasic waveforms.
Robust Lake Level Extraction in Mountainous Areas By Retracking Cryosat Sarin Mode Waveforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleinherenbrink, M.; Ditmar, P.; Lindenbergh, R.
2014-12-01
Since the beginning of the 1990s, lake levels can be monitored using satellite altimetry.This is notably an advantage for lakes located in remote areas, where no gauges are present.Two disadvantages of traditional satellite altimetry however are the limited number of ground tracks and the pulse limited footprint size.In 2010 Cryosat was launched with onboard a SAR Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL), which has a dense ground track spacing of 7-8 km and a along-track resolution of approximately 300 m in the SAR Interferometric (SARIn) mode.This potentially enables Cryosat to sample more lakes and obtain more reliable lake levels in near-shore regions.Still, the accuracy and robustness of standard level 2 data is limited due to pollution of the waveform in near-shore regions.We propose therefore to actively extract the water surface by a novel retracking algorithm based on cross-correlation of observed level 1b waveforms with a generic simulated waveform.As a result, we obtain multiple elevations per waveform.As the water level is contributing to each consecutive waveform over the lake, it can efficiently be extracted using a majority voting scheme.By comparing the lake levels to those obtained with Jason-2 over Lake Nasser an RMS of differences of 0.30 m is found.After this validation step, we applied the procedure to lakes in Tian Shan and Tibet.In these areas 125 lakes are measured at least four times in two years, of which 30 are even sampled ten times in two years and 16 more than twenty times.For the ones sampled more than twenty times an additional slope in the water surface could be estimated, which can be an effect of prevailing winds or errors in the geoid model.Ultimately, we found a negative water balance in the natural lakes in Tian Shan and a positive balance in Tibet between February 2012 and February 2014.These results clearly demonstrate the potential of Cryosat, as previous radar altimetry missions were only able to sample about 70 lakes over
Custom map projections for regional groundwater models
Kuniansky, Eve L.
2017-01-01
For regional groundwater flow models (areas greater than 100,000 km2), improper choice of map projection parameters can result in model error for boundary conditions dependent on area (recharge or evapotranspiration simulated by application of a rate using cell area from model discretization) and length (rivers simulated with head-dependent flux boundary). Smaller model areas can use local map coordinates, such as State Plane (United States) or Universal Transverse Mercator (correct zone) without introducing large errors. Map projections vary in order to preserve one or more of the following properties: area, shape, distance (length), or direction. Numerous map projections are developed for different purposes as all four properties cannot be preserved simultaneously. Preservation of area and length are most critical for groundwater models. The Albers equal-area conic projection with custom standard parallels, selected by dividing the length north to south by 6 and selecting standard parallels 1/6th above or below the southern and northern extent, preserves both area and length for continental areas in mid latitudes oriented east-west. Custom map projection parameters can also minimize area and length error in non-ideal projections. Additionally, one must also use consistent vertical and horizontal datums for all geographic data. The generalized polygon for the Floridan aquifer system study area (306,247.59 km2) is used to provide quantitative examples of the effect of map projections on length and area with different projections and parameter choices. Use of improper map projection is one model construction problem easily avoided.
Custom Map Projections for Regional Groundwater Models.
Kuniansky, Eve L
2017-03-01
For regional groundwater flow models (areas greater than 100,000 km(2) ), improper choice of map projection parameters can result in model error for boundary conditions dependent on area (recharge or evapotranspiration simulated by application of a rate using cell area from model discretization) and length (rivers simulated with head-dependent flux boundary). Smaller model areas can use local map coordinates, such as State Plane (United States) or Universal Transverse Mercator (correct zone) without introducing large errors. Map projections vary in order to preserve one or more of the following properties: area, shape, distance (length), or direction. Numerous map projections are developed for different purposes as all four properties cannot be preserved simultaneously. Preservation of area and length are most critical for groundwater models. The Albers equal-area conic projection with custom standard parallels, selected by dividing the length north to south by 6 and selecting standard parallels 1/6th above or below the southern and northern extent, preserves both area and length for continental areas in mid latitudes oriented east-west. Custom map projection parameters can also minimize area and length error in non-ideal projections. Additionally, one must also use consistent vertical and horizontal datums for all geographic data. The generalized polygon for the Floridan aquifer system study area (306,247.59 km(2) ) is used to provide quantitative examples of the effect of map projections on length and area with different projections and parameter choices. Use of improper map projection is one model construction problem easily avoided.
The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Ilana; Pfeiffer, H.; Nissanke, S.; Mroue, A.
2013-01-01
General relativity predicts that the coalescence of two compact objects, such as black holes, will produce gravitational radiation; i.e., ripples in the curvature of space-time. Detectors like Advanced LIGO (the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory) are expected to measure such events within the next few years. In order to be able to characterize the gravitational waves they measure, these detectors require accurate waveform models, which can be constructed by fusing an analytical post-Newtonian inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity late-inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform. Numerical relativity, though the most accurate model, is computationally expensive: the longest simulations to date taking several months to run. Post-Newtonian theory, an analytic approximation to General Relativity, is easy to compute but becomes increasingly inaccurate near merger. Because of this trade-off, it is important to determine the optimal length of the numerical waveform, while maintaining the necessary accuracy for gravitational wave detectors. We present a study of the sufficient accuracy of post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms for the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced gravitational wave detectors. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter such “hybrid waveforms” in the case of equal-mass and unequal mass non-spinning binaries. We also explore the possibility of using these hybrid waveforms as a detection template bank for Advanced LIGO. Accurate hybrids play an important role in investigating the efficiency of gravitational wave search pipelines, as with NINJA (Numerical INJection Analysis); and also in constructing analytical models that span the entire parameter space of binary black hole mass ratios and spins, as with NRAR (Numerical Relativity and Analytic Relativity).
Sensitivity of the gradient oscillatory number to flow input waveform shapes.
Shimogonya, Yuji; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Itoh, Kazuhiro
2012-04-05
The sensitivity of the gradient oscillatory number (GON), which is a potential hemodynamic indicator for cerebral aneurysm initiation, to flow input waveform shapes was examined by performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of an anatomical model of a human internal carotid artery under three different waveform shape conditions. The local absolute variation (standard deviation) and relative variation (coefficient of variation) of the GON calculations for three waveform shapes were computed to quantify the variation in GON due to waveform shape changes. For all waveform shapes, an elevated GON was evident at a known aneurysm site, albeit occurring at additional sites. No significant differences were observed among the qualitative GON distributions derived using the three different waveform shapes. These results suggest that the GON is largely insensitive to the variability in flow input waveform shapes. The quantitative analysis revealed that GON displays an improved relative variation over a relatively high GON range. We therefore conclude that it is reasonable to use assumed flow input waveform shapes as a substitute for individual real waveform shapes for the detection of possible GON elevations of individual clinical cases in large-scale studies, where the higher values of GON are of primary interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, L.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Ritsema, J.
2015-12-01
It has been observed that vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarised S waves crossing the lowermost mantle sometimes are split by a few seconds The splitting of such waves is often interpreted in terms of seismic anisotropy in the D" region. Here we investigate systematically the effects of elastic, anelastic, isotropic and anisotropic structure on shear-wave splitting, including 3-D variations in some of these physical properties. Taking advantage of accurate waveform modeling techniques such as Gemini and the Spectral Element Method we generate three-component theoretical waveforms in a wide set of 1-D and 3-D, isotropic and radially anisotropic earth models, accurate down to a wave period of T~5.6s. Our numerical simulations in isotropic earth models show that the contamination of S waves by other phases can generate an apparent splitting between SH and SV waves. In particular, in the case of very shallow sources, the sS phase can interfere with the direct S phase, resulting in split SH and SV pulses when the SH and SV (or sSH and sSV) waves have different polarity or a substantial amplitude difference. In the case of deep earthquake sources, a positive shear velocity jump at the top of the D" can cause the triplication of S waves and the ScSH and ScSV phases can have different polarity. Thus, when the triplicated S wave is combined with the ScS phase, the resulting SH-ScSH and SV-ScSV phases may seem split. On the other hand, in the absence of a sharp vertical variation in the shear wave velocity, the difference in polarity between ScSH and ScSV can make the SH pulse larger than SV and thus also lead to apparent splitting between these phases. This effect depends on the thickness of the D" and the Vs gradient within it. S waveforms simulated in radially anisotropic models reveal that a radial anisotropy of ξ=1.07 in the D" seems to be necessary to explain the 2-3s of splitting observed in waveforms recorded in Tanzania from an event in the Banda Sea
Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Ross F.
2010-01-01
Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) / Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 X 10(exp 6) square km study area in the Province of Quebec, Canada, below the tree line. The same input datasets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include non-stratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (biomass)(exp 0.5) serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial dry biomass estimates of up to 0.35 G, with a range of 4.94 +/- 0.28 Gt to 5.29 +/-0.36 Gt. The differences among model estimates are statistically non-significant, however, and the results demonstrate the degree to which carbon estimates vary strictly as a function of the model used to estimate regional biomass. Results also indicate that GLAS measurements become problematic with respect to height and biomass retrievals in the boreal forest when biomass values fall below 20 t/ha and when GLAS 75th percentile heights fall below 7 m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo, Taeseong; Kim, Dongmin; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki
2015-05-01
Metallic implants can result in considerable inhomogeneity in the signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because the implant generates a shielding effect to the applied radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields. In this study, we propose an acquisition method to mitigate the signal inhomogeneities using an adaptive RF pulse waveform. The effectiveness of the method was investigated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The RF pulse waveform was calculated based on inverse analyses of the Bloch equation incorporating the measured RF field distribution within the object. A simulation was carried out using a simplified numerical model of RF field inhomogeneity assumed at the center of model. An RF pulse waveform was designed to recover the attenuated signal region in the given model, and we show a significant improvement in the signal homogeneity compared with that obtained using a conventional pulse. We implemented the proposed method on a 7T-MRI system to show the efficacy experimentally. Test samples were fabricated from agarose gel with inserted copper or aluminum implants of different thicknesses. The RF pulse for selective excitation was calculated after mapping the RF field distribution of each imaging object. The acquired images exhibit an improvement in the homogeneity at the region of metallic implants. These results indicate that the proposed method is effective for MRI measurements of objects containing metallic implants.
Modeling global and regional energy futures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rethinaraj, T. S. Gopi
A rigorous econometric calibration of a model of energy consumption is presented using a comprehensive time series database on energy consumption and other socioeconomic indicators. The future of nuclear power in the evolving distribution of various energy sources is also examined. An important consideration for the long-term future of nuclear power concerns the rate of decline of the fraction of energy that comes from coal, which has historically declined on a global basis about linearly as a function of the cumulative use of coal. The use of fluid fossil fuels is also expected to eventually decline as the more readily extractable deposits are depleted. The investigation here is restricted to examining a comparatively simple model of the dynamics of competition between nuclear and other competing energy sources. Using a defined tropical/temperate disaggregation of the world, region-specific modeling results are presented for population growth, GDP growth, energy use, and carbon use compatible with a gradual transition to energy sustainability. Results for the fractions of energy use from various sources by grouping nine commercial primary energy sources into pairs of competing fuel categories are presented in combination with the idea of experiential learning and resource depletion. Analysis based on this division provides estimates for future evolution of the fractional shares, annual use rates, cumulative use of individual energy sources, and the economic attractiveness of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This unified approach helps to conceptualize and understand the dynamics of evolution of importance of various energy resources over time.
Modelling Ocean Surface Waves in Polar Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosekova, Lucia; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew; Bertino, Laurent; Williams, Timothy; Nurser, George A. J.
2015-04-01
agreement with observations. In addition to our global implementation, the method is currently also tested in the TOPAZ framework (Towards an Operational Prediction system for the North Atlantic European Coastal Zones). We will discuss the two modeling strategies (global 35 km resolution and pan-Arctic 3 km resolution) and analyse model biases. The study contributes to the EU FP7 project 'Ships and Waves Reaching Polar Regions (SWARP)', aimed at developing techniques for sea ice and waves modelling and forecasting in the MIZ in the Arctic. The method will be implemented as part of the EU Global Monitoring and Environmental Security system GMES.
Regional hyperthermia applicator design using FDTD modelling.
Kroeze, H; Van de Kamer, J B; De Leeuw, A A; Lagendijk, J J
2001-07-01
Recently published results confirm the positive effect of regional hyperthermia combined with external radiotherapy on pelvic tumours. Several studies have been published on the improvement of RF annular array applicator systems with dipoles and a closed water bolus. This study investigates the performance of a next-generation applicator system for regional hyperthermia with a multi-ring annular array of antennas and an open water bolus. A cavity slot antenna is introduced to enhance the directivity and reduce mutual coupling between the antennas. Several design parameters, i.e. dimensions, number of antennas and operating frequency, have been evaluated using several patient models. Performance indices have been defined to evaluate the effect of parameter variation on the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution. The performance of the new applicator type is compared with the Coaxial TEM. Operating frequency appears to be the main parameter with a positive influence on the performance. A SAR increase in tumour of 1.7 relative to the Coaxial TEM system can be obtained with a three-ring, six-antenna per ring cavity slot applicator operating at 150 MHz.
Lightning current waveform measuring system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wojtasinski, R. J.; Fuchs, J. C.; Grove, C. H. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
An apparatus is described for monitoring current waveforms produced by lightning strikes which generate currents in an elongated cable. These currents are converted to voltages and to light waves for being transmitted over an optical cable to a remote location. At the remote location, the waves are reconstructed back into electrical waves for being stored into a memory. The information is stored within the memory with a timing signal so that only different signals need be stored in order to reconstruct the wave form.
Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bing C.
2016-05-01
Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.
Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten
2016-05-01
Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data.
Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking
Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten
2016-01-01
Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data. PMID:27185465
High-precision triangular-waveform generator
Mueller, T.R.
1981-11-14
An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and decending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.
Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Anthea
2016-08-01
Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.
Seismic waveform sensitivity to global boundary topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico
2012-09-01
We investigate the implications of lateral variations in the topography of global seismic discontinuities, in the framework of high-resolution forward modelling and seismic imaging. We run 3-D wave-propagation simulations accurate at periods of 10 s and longer, with Earth models including core-mantle boundary topography anomalies of ˜1000 km spatial wavelength and up to 10 km height. We obtain very different waveform signatures for PcP (reflected) and Pdiff (diffracted) phases, supporting the theoretical expectation that the latter are sensitive primarily to large-scale structure, whereas the former only to small scale, where large and small are relative to the frequency. PcP at 10 s seems to be well suited to map such a small-scale perturbation, whereas Pdiff at the same frequency carries faint signatures that do not allow any tomographic reconstruction. Only at higher frequency, the signature becomes stronger. We present a new algorithm to compute sensitivity kernels relating seismic traveltimes (measured by cross-correlation of observed and theoretical seismograms) to the topography of seismic discontinuities at any depth in the Earth using full 3-D wave propagation. Calculation of accurate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is notoriously expensive, but we reduce computational costs drastically by limiting ourselves to spherically symmetric reference models, and exploiting the axial symmetry of the resulting propagating wavefield that collapses to a 2-D numerical domain. We compute and analyse a suite of kernels for upper and lower mantle discontinuities that can be used for finite-frequency waveform inversion. The PcP and Pdiff sensitivity footprints are in good agreement with the result obtained cross-correlating perturbed and unperturbed seismogram, validating our approach against full 3-D modelling to invert for such structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feng; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Xin
Asynchronous electrical activation, as induced by myocardial infarction, causes various abnormalities in left ventricle function. The influence of the electrical asynchrony on regional mechanics of the left ventricle is simulated using a mechanical heart model and an electrical heart model. The mechanical model accounts for the ventricular geometry, the fiber nature of the myocardial tissue, and the dependency of the activation sequence of the ventricular wall. The electrical model is based on a heart-torso model with realistic geometry, and different action potential waveforms with variables in duration are used to simulate the abnormal electrical activation after myocardial infarction. Regional deformation, strain and stress are calculated during systole phase. The preliminary results show that asynchronous electrical activation, as an important factor, significantly affects regional mechanical performance of the infarcted left ventricle, it indicates heterogeneous contraction pattern and elevated systolic stresses near the injured region. The simulated results are compared with solutions obtained in the literature. This simulation suggests that such coupled heart models can be used to assess the mechanical function of the left ventricle with diseases such as myocardial infarction, and more realistic models of cardiac function are essential for clinical evaluation of heart disease.
Regional gravity field modelling from GOCE observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert
2017-01-01
In this article we discuss a regional recovery of gravity disturbances at the mean geocentric sphere approximating the Earth over the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients. For this purpose, we derive integral formulas which allow converting the gravity disturbances onto the disturbing gravitational gradients in the local north-oriented frame (LNOF). The derived formulas are free of singularities in case of r ≠ R . We then investigate three numerical approaches for solving their inverses. In the initial approach, the integral formulas are firstly modified for solving individually the near- and distant-zone contributions. While the effect of the near-zone gravitational gradients is solved as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant-zone gravitational gradients is computed by numerical integration from the global gravitational model (GGM) TIM-r4. In the second approach, we further elaborate the first scenario by reducing measured gravitational gradients for gravitational effects of topographic masses. In the third approach, we apply additional modification by reducing gravitational gradients for the reference GGM. In all approaches we determine the gravity disturbances from each of the four accurately measured gravitational gradients separately as well as from their combination. Our regional gravitational field solutions are based on the GOCE EGG_TRF_2 gravitational gradients collected within the period from November 1 2009 until January 11 2010. Obtained results are compared with EGM2008, DIR-r1, TIM-r1 and SPW-r1. The best fit, in terms of RMS (2.9 mGal), is achieved for EGM2008 while using the third approach which combine all four well-measured gravitational gradients. This is explained by the fact that a-priori information about the Earth's gravitational field up to the degree and order 180 was used.
Moment Tensor Inversions using Strong Motion Waveforms of the Taiwan TSMIP Data, 1993-2009
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, K.; Chi, W.; Gung, Y.; Dreger, D. S.; Lee, W. H.; Chiu, H.
2011-12-01
Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded by very dense arrays, in Japan, Taiwan, and some parts of the US, for example. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to argument moment tensor catalogs with a much larger data set than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. We inverted source mechanisms of the Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by applying the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations of the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). Through testing with different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of Mw>=4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available high-quality moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for Mw=5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimate the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms, for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we use part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures of Meishan, Taiwan region which had a very damaging event a century ago, and found that it is dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting in recent decade. The procedure developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill the gaps in catalogs from regional broadband networks and teleseismic networks.
Notched spectrum: from probing waveforms to receive filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yi; Gianelli, Christopher D.
2013-05-01
The increasing demand for wireless data services and communications is expanding the frequency footprint of both civilian and military wireless networks, and hence encroaches upon spectrum traditionally reserved for radar systems. To maximize spectral efficiency, it is desirable for a modern radar system to use waveforms with the ability to fit into tightly controlled spectral regions, which requires the formation of nulls with required notching levels on prescribed frequency stop-bands. Additionally, the waveform should posses a low peak-to-average ratio (PAR), and have good auto-correlation performance. In this work, we propose a novel method for the design of such a waveform using alternating convex optimization. The core module of the proposed algorithm is a fast Fourier transform, which makes the algorithm quite efficient and can handle waveform designs with up to 105 samples. Moreover, our algorithm can achieve a flexible tradeoff between PAR and reduced pass band ripple. A simple application in synthetic aperture radar is considered to highlight the performance of the design algorithm.
Upper-mantle structures beneath USArray derived from waveform complexity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Daoyuan; Helmberger, Don
2011-01-01
Tomographic imaging of the crust and upper mantle beneath the western United States has greatly improved with the addition of USArray data. These models display many detailed images of both fast and slow blobs penetrating into the transition zone. To study such features, we apply a newly developed technique, called MultiPath Detector analysis, to the SH waveform data. The method simulates each observed body waveform by performing a decomposition; by [S(t)+C×S(t-ΔLR)]/2, where S(t) is the synthetics for a reference model. Time separation ΔLR and amplitude ratio C are needed to obtain a high cross-correlation between a simulated waveform and data. The travel time of the composite waveform relative to the reference model synthetics is defined as ΔT. A simulated annealing algorithm is used to determine the parameters ΔLR and C. We also record the amplitude ratio (Amp) between the synthetics for the reference model relative to the data. Generally, large ΔLR values are associated with low Amp's. Whereas the conventional tomography yields a travel time correction (ΔT), our analysis yields an extra parameter (ΔLR), which describes the waveform complexity. With the array, we can construct a mapping of the gradient of ΔLR with complexity patterns. A horizontal structure introduces waveform complexity along the distance profile (in-plane multipathing). An azimuthally orientation ΔLR pattern indicates a vertical structure with out-of-plane multipathing. Using such maps generated from artificial data, we can easily recognize features produced by dipping fast structures and slow structures (DSS). Many of these features display organized waveform complexity that are distinctly directional indicative of dipping sharp-edges. Here, we process the array data for events arriving from various azimuths and construct maps of multipathing patterns. The similarity between tomographic features and complexity maps is striking. When features are dipping such as the slab structures
Goldstone Solar System Radar Waveform Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy
2012-01-01
Due to distances and relative motions among the transmitter, target object, and receiver, the time-base between any transmitted and received signal will undergo distortion. Pre-distortion of the transmitted signal to compensate for this time-base distortion allows reception of an undistorted signal. In most radar applications, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) would be used to store the pre-calculated waveform and then play back this waveform during transmission. The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), however, has transmission durations that exceed the available memory storage of such a device. A waveform generator capable of real-time pre-distortion of a radar waveform to a given time-base distortion function is needed. To pre-distort the transmitted signal, both the baseband radar waveform and the RF carrier must be modified. In the GSSR, this occurs at the up-conversion mixing stage to an intermediate frequency (IF). A programmable oscillator (PO) is used to generate the IF along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the RF carrier. This serves as the IF input to the waveform generator where it is mixed with a baseband radar waveform whose time-base has been distorted to match the given time-base distortion function producing the modulated IF output. An error control feedback loop is used to precisely control the time-base distortion of the baseband waveform, allowing its real-time generation. The waveform generator produces IF modulated radar waveforms whose time-base has been pre-distorted to match a given arbitrary function. The following waveforms are supported: continuous wave (CW), frequency hopped (FH), binary phase code (BPC), and linear frequency modulation (LFM). The waveform generator takes as input an IF with a time varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier. The waveform generator supports interconnection with deep-space network (DSN) timing and frequency standards, and
An ionization region model of the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M. A.; Huo, Chunqing; Minea, T. M.
2016-12-01
A new reactive ionization region model (R-IRM) is developed to describe the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge with a titanium target. It is then applied to study the temporal behavior of the discharge plasma parameters such as electron density, the neutral and ion composition, the ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, the oxygen dissociation fraction, and the composition of the discharge current. We study and compare the discharge properties when the discharge is operated in the two well established operating modes, the metal mode and the poisoned mode. Experimentally, it is found that in the metal mode the discharge current waveform displays a typical non-reactive evolution, while in the poisoned mode the discharge current waveform becomes distinctly triangular and the current increases significantly. Using the R-IRM we explore the current increase and find that when the discharge is operated in the metal mode Ar+ and Ti+ -ions contribute most significantly (roughly equal amounts) to the discharge current while in the poisoned mode the Ar+ -ions contribute most significantly to the discharge current and the contribution of O+ -ions, Ti+ -ions, and secondary electron emission is much smaller. Furthermore, we find that recycling of atoms coming from the target, that are subsequently ionized, is required for the current generation in both modes of operation. From the R-IRM results it is found that in the metal mode self-sputter recycling dominates and in the poisoned mode working gas recycling dominates. We also show that working gas recycling can lead to very high discharge currents but never to a runaway. It is concluded that the dominating type of recycling determines the discharge current waveform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.
2015-12-01
We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanioka, Y.; Namegaya, Y.; Satake, K.
2008-12-01
Recent earthquake source studies using the tsunami waveform inversion technique generally estimate slip distributions of large earthquakes by assuming the fault geometries. However, if an earthquake source is complex or not obvious, it is better to estimate the initial sea surface displacement of the tsunami using the tsunami waveform inversion first. Then, that result can be used to estimate or discuss the source process of the large earthquake. In this study, in order to estimate the initial sea surface displacement due to an earthquake, a new inversion technique using observed tsunami waveforms is developed. The sea surface in the possible tsunami source region is divided into small cells. Tsunami waveforms, or Green"fs functions for the inversion, at tide gauge stations are numerically computed for each cell with a unit amount of uplift. The sea surface displacements for each cell are estimated by inversion of the observed tsunami waveforms at those tide gauges. We apply the above technique to estimate the initial sea surface displacement due to the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake (MJMA 6.8). The earthquake occurred off the coast of Niigata prefecture, the Japan Sea coast of the central Japan, at 10:13 a.m. (JST) on 16th July, 2007. Various source models of the earthquake were suggested using aftershock distribution data, seismological waveform data or geodetic data, but the fault plane of the earthquake is still controversial. The earthquake accompanied by tsunami, which was recorded at tide gauge stations along the Japan Sea coast. The maximum height of about 1 m was observed at a tide gauge station at Banjin, Kashiwazaki city, near the source region. Observed tsunami waveforms at ten tide gauge stations located around the source region are used for the inversion. The sea surface above the source region, or the aftershock area, is divided into 26 cells (4 km x 4 km) to estimate the initial sea surface displacement. The result shows that uplifts are
Fong, Allan; Mittu, Ranjeev; Ratwani, Raj; Reggia, James
2014-01-01
Alarm fatigue caused by false alarms and alerts is an extremely important issue for the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the staff and hospital systems better classify a patient's waveforms and subsequent alarms. This paper explores the use of Echo State Networks, a specific type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network architectures are designed and evaluated. The results show the utility of these echo state networks, particularly ones with larger integrated reservoirs, for predicting electrocardiogram waveforms and the adaptability of such models across individuals. The work presented here offers a unique approach for understanding and predicting a patient's waveforms in order to potentially improve alarm generation. We conclude with a brief discussion of future extensions of this research.
Optical arbitrary waveform characterization using linear spectrograms.
Jiang, Zhi; Leaird, Daniel E; Long, Christopher M; Boppart, Stephen A; Weiner, Andrew M
2010-08-01
We demonstrate the first application of linear spectrogram methods based on electro-optic phase modulation to characterize optical arbitrary waveforms generated under spectral line-by-line control. This approach offers both superior sensitivity and self-referencing capability for retrieval of periodic high repetition rate optical arbitrary waveforms.
Electron microscopy of electromagnetic waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabov, A.; Baum, P.
2016-07-01
Rapidly changing electromagnetic fields are the basis of almost any photonic or electronic device operation. We report how electron microscopy can measure collective carrier motion and fields with subcycle and subwavelength resolution. A collimated beam of femtosecond electron pulses passes through a metamaterial resonator that is previously excited with a single-cycle electromagnetic pulse. If the probing electrons are shorter in duration than half a field cycle, then time-frozen Lorentz forces distort the images quasi-classically and with subcycle time resolution. A pump-probe sequence reveals in a movie the sample’s oscillating electromagnetic field vectors with time, phase, amplitude, and polarization information. This waveform electron microscopy can be used to visualize electrodynamic phenomena in devices as small and fast as available.
Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using two- element ultrasound system.
Seo, Joohyun; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G
2015-04-01
This work details noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform estimation based on an arterial vessel cross-sectional area measurement combined with an elasticity measurement of the vessel, represented by pulse wave velocity (PWV), using a two-element ultrasound system. The overall ABP waveform estimation is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup mimicking the heart and an arterial vessel segment with two single element transducers, assuming a constant hemodynamic system. The estimation of local PWV using the flow-area method produces unbiased elasticity estimation of the tube in a pressure waveform comparison. The measured PWV using 16 cardiac cycles of data is 8.47 + 0.63 m/s with an associated scaling error of -1.56 + 14.0% in a direct pressure waveform comparison, showing negligible bias error on average. The distension waveform obtained from a complex cross-correlation model estimator (C3M) reliably traces small pressure changes reflected by the diameter change. The excellent agreement of an estimated pressure waveform to the reference pressure waveform suggests the promising potential of a readily available, inexpensive, and portable ABP waveform monitoring device.
The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Ilana; Pfeiffer, H.; Nissanke, S.
2012-01-01
General relativity predicts that the coalescence of two compact objects, such as black holes, will produce gravitational radiation; i.e., ripples in the curvature of space-time. Detectors like Advanced LIGO (the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory) are expected to measure such events within the next few years. In order to be able to characterize the gravitational waves they measure, these detectors require accurate waveform models, which can be constructed by fusing an analytical post-Newtonian inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity late-inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform. Numerical relativity, though the most accurate model, is computationally expensive: the longest simulations to date taking several months to run. Post-Newtonian theory, an analytic approximation to General Relativity, is easy to compute but becomes increasingly inaccurate near merger. Because of this trade-off, it is important to determine the optimal length of the numerical waveform, while maintaining the necessary accuracy for gravitational wave detectors. We present a study of the sufficient accuracy of post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms for the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced gravitational wave detectors. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter such "hybrid waveforms” in the case of equal-mass non-spinning binaries. Preliminary research has also been done in the case of unequal-mass non-spinning binaries. Accurate hybrids play an important role in investigating the efficiency of gravitational wave search pipelines, as with NINJA (Numerical INJection Analysis); and also in constructing analytical models that span the entire parameter space of binary black hole mass ratios and spins, as with NRAR (Numerical Relativity and Analytic Relativity).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang; Lamara, Samir; Gutt, Phillip; Paffrath, Marcel
2015-04-01
We present a seismic full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, based on sensitivity kernels for full waveforms. The kernels are derived from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized frequency-domain full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters and density on the data values. For a specific source-receiver combination, the kernel is computed from the displacement and strain field spectrum originating from the source evaluated throughout the inversion domain, as well as the Green function spectrum and its strains originating from the receiver. By storing the wavefield spectra of specific sources/receivers, they can be re-used for kernel computation for different specific source-receiver combinations, optimizing the total number of required forward simulations. In the iterative inversion procedure, the solution of the forward problem, the computation of sensitivity kernels and the derivation of a model update is held completely separate. In particular, the model description for the forward problem and the description of the inverted model update are kept independent. Hence, the resolution of the inverted model as well as the complexity of solving the forward problem can be iteratively increased (with increasing frequency content of the inverted data subset). This may regularize the overall inverse problem and optimizes the computational effort of both, solving the forward problem and computing the model update. The required interconnection of arbitrary unstructured volume and point grids is realized by generalized high-order integration rules and 3D-unstructured interpolation methods. The model update is inferred solving a minimization problem in a least-squares sense, resulting in Gauss-Newton convergence of the overall inversion process. The inversion method was implemented in the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity
Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Glenn L.
2006-01-01
Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital one's or zero's. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental physical laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.
Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Glenn L.
2004-01-01
Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital ONEs or ZEROs. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental natural laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.
A framework for regional modeling of past climates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sloan, L. C.
2006-09-01
The methods of reconstructing ancient climate information from the rock record are summarized, and the climate forcing factors that have been active at global and regional scales through Earth history are reviewed. In this context, the challenges and approaches to modeling past climates by using a regional climate model are discussed. A significant challenge to such modeling efforts arises if the time period of interest occurred prior to the past ˜3 5 million years, at which point land sea distributions and topography markedly different from present must be specified at the spatial resolution required by regional climate models. Creating these boundary conditions requires a high degree of geologic knowledge, and also depends greatly upon the global climate model driving conditions. Despite this and other challenges, regional climate models represent an important and unique tool for paleoclimate investigations. Application of regional climate models to paleoclimate studies may provide another way to assess the overall performance of regional climate models.
An improved CryoSat-2 sea ice freeboard retrieval algorithm through the use of waveform fitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtz, N. T.; Galin, N.; Studinger, M.
2014-07-01
We develop a physical model capable of simulating the mean echo power of CryoSat-2 SAR- and SARIn-mode waveforms over sea-ice-covered regions. The model simulations are used to show the importance of variations in the radar backscatter coefficient with incidence angle and surface roughness for the retrieval of surface elevation of both sea ice floes and leads. The physical model is used to fit CryoSat-2 waveforms to enable retrieval of surface elevation through the use of lookup tables and a bounded trust region Newton least-squares fitting approach. The use of a model to fit returns from sea ice regions offers advantages over currently used threshold retracking methods, which are here shown to be sensitive to the combined effect of bandwidth-limited range resolution and surface roughness variations. Laxon et al. (2013) have compared ice thickness results from CryoSat-2 and IceBridge, and found good agreement; however consistent assumptions about the snow depth and density of sea ice were not used in the comparisons. To address this issue, we directly compare ice freeboard and thickness retrievals from the waveform-fitting and threshold tracker methods of CryoSat-2 to Operation IceBridge data using a consistent set of parameterizations. The purpose of the comparison is to highlight the physical basis between differences in the retracking methods. For three IceBridge campaign periods from March 2011 to March 2013, mean differences (CryoSat-2 - IceBridge) of 0.144 and 1.351 m are found between the freeboard and thickness retrievals, respectively, using a 50% sea ice floe threshold retracker, while mean differences of 0.019 and 0.182 m are found when using the waveform-fitting method. This suggests the waveform-fitting technique is capable of better reconciling the sea ice thickness data record from laser and radar altimetry data sets through the usage of consistent physical assumptions.
Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.
1985-11-01
A multiregional variable input-output (MRVIO) model is introduced to investigate the impact of a change in transportation costs on regional development and trade flows. The MRVIO model is a theoretically well-founded, practically useful, and policy sensitive model. The regional technical coefficients and the trade coefficients are endogenous variables to the MRVIO model. These coefficients are sensitive to the transportation costs as...transportation cost stimulates the regional development . However, its sensitivity differs among industries. (Author)
A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard
2016-04-01
Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.
Pecher, I.A.; Minshull, T.A.; Singh, S.C.; Von Huene, R.
1996-01-01
Much of our knowledge of the worldwide distribution of submarine gas hydrates comes from seismic observations of Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs). Full waveform inversion has proven to be a reliable technique for studying the fine structure of BSRs using the compressional wave velocity. We applied a non-linear full waveform inversion technique to a BSR at a location offshore Peru. We first determined the large-scale features of seismic velocity variations using a statistical inversion technique to maximise coherent energy along travel-time curves. These velocities were used for a starting velocity model for the full waveform inversion, which yielded a detailed velocity/depth model in the vicinity of the BSR. We found that the data are best fit by a model in which the BSR consists of a thin, low-velocity layer. The compressional wave velocity drops from 2.15 km/s down to an average of 1.70 km/s in an 18m thick interval, with a minimum velocity of 1.62 km/s in a 6 m interval. The resulting compressional wave velocity was used to estimate gas content in the sediments. Our results suggest that the low velocity layer is a 6-18 m thick zone containing a few percent of free gas in the pore space. The presence of the BSR coincides with a region of vertical uplift. Therefore, we suggest that gas at this BSR is formed by a dissociation of hydrates at the base of the hydrate stability zone due to uplift and subsequently a decrease in pressure.
Optimization of magnetic neurostimulation waveforms for minimum power loss.
Goetz, S M; Truong, N C; Gerhofer, M G; Peterchev, A V; Herzog, H-G; Weyh, T
2012-01-01
Magnetic stimulation is a key tool in experimental brain research and several clinical applications. Whereas coil designs and the spatial field properties have been intensively studied in the literature, the temporal dynamics of the field has received little attention. The available pulse shapes are typically determined by the relatively limited capabilities of commercial stimulation devices instead of efficiency or optimality. Furthermore, magnetic stimulation is relatively inefficient with respect to the required energy compared to other neurostimulation techniques. We therefore analyze and optimize the waveform dynamics with a nonlinear model of a mammalian motor axon for the first time, without any pre-definition of waveform candidates. We implemented an unbiased and stable numerical algorithm using variational calculus in combination with a global optimization method. This approach yields very stable results with comprehensible characteristic properties, such as a first phase which reduces ohmic losses in the subsequent pulse phase. We compare the energy loss of these optimal waveforms with the waveforms generated by existing magnetic stimulation devices.
A unified methodology for seismic waveform analysis and inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Po
A central problem of seismology is the inversion of regional waveform data for models of earthquake sources and earth structure. In regions such as Southern California, preliminary 3D earth models are already available, and efficient numerical methods have been developed for solving the point-source forward problem. We describe a unified inversion procedure that utilizes these capabilities to improve 3D earth models and derive centroid moment tensor (CMT) or finite moment tensor (FMT) representations of earthquake ruptures. Our data are time- and frequency-localized measurements of the phase and amplitude anomalies relative to synthetic seismograms computed from reference seismic source and structure models. Our analysis on these phase and amplitude measurements shows that these preliminary 3D models provide substantially better fit to observed data than either laterally homogeneous or path-averaged 1D structure models that are commonly used in previous seismic studies for Southern California. And we found a small but statistically significant polarization anisotropy in the upper crust that might be associated with basin layering effect. Using the same type of phase and amplitude measurements, we resolved finite source properties for about 40 earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin area. Our results on a cluster of events in the Yorba Linda area show left-lateral faulting conjugate to the nearby right-lateral Whittier fault and are consistent with the "escaping-block" hypothesis about regional tectonics around Los Angeles basin. Our analysis on 16 events in a seismicity trend that extends southwest from Fotana to Puente Hills show right-lateral mechanism that is conjugate to the trend of the hypocenter distribution, suggesting a developing weak-zone that might be related to such "escaping" deformation. To set up the structural inverse problem, we computed 3D sensitivity kernels for our phase and amplitude measurements using the 3D SCEC CVM as the reference model and
Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview
2009-01-01
The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.
Modelling Strong Ground Motions for Subduction Events in the Wellington Region, New Zealand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francois-Holden, C.; Zhao, J.
2010-12-01
This work is a part of the “It’s Our Fault” programme, whose goal is to make Wellington, New Zealand, a more resilient city regarding earthquake hazards. We are working on defining ground motions from large plate boundary earthquakes at specified locations in the Wellington region in terms of response spectra and acceleration time histories. These motions will provide input for risk modelling for a potential major earthquake additional to those associated with the active faults of the region. Broadband waveforms are modelled applying the hybrid technique combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. We follow the proposed recipe by Irikura et al. (2004) to predict strong ground motions. We validated Irikura’s code and recipe using the strong motion dataset from the 2003 Mw 7.2 Fiordland earthquake, with both empirical and stochastic Green’s functions. The method was satisfactorily tested using an intraslab rupture and a record from a nearby aftershock as the empirical Green’s function (EGF). Although the event generated many aftershocks, it was difficult to find small events with 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock, recorded at a well distributed set of stations, with a rupture mechanism close enough to the mainshock. The alternative to using EGF is the stochastic Green’s functions (SGF) approach. We chose the Motazedian and Atkinson (2005) method for its assumption of a finite fault source model (instead of a point source). This assumption is closer to reality for Green’s functions in our case study where events have magnitudes greater than 5, and distances less than 200 km. We are now applying this method to a source scenario representing a locked interface underneath Wellington. A range of rupture scenarios will be modelled with varying hypocentre location, asperity locations, and overall rupture area. Finally, recent advances in detailed modelling of the Wellington basin geology will allow us to include site effects in our
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Mroué, Abdul H.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla
2014-04-01
We describe a general procedure to generate spinning, precessing waveforms that include inspiral, merger, and ringdown stages in the effective-one-body (EOB) approach. The procedure uses a precessing frame in which precession-induced amplitude and phase modulations are minimized, and an inertial frame, aligned with the spin of the final black hole, in which we carry out the matching of the inspiral-plunge to merger-ringdown waveforms. As a first application, we build spinning, precessing EOB waveforms for the gravitational modes ℓ=2 such that in the nonprecessing limit those waveforms agree with the EOB waveforms recently calibrated to numerical-relativity waveforms. Without recalibrating the EOB model, we then compare EOB and post-Newtonian precessing waveforms to two numerical-relativity waveforms produced by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The numerical waveforms are strongly precessing and have 35 and 65 gravitational-wave cycles. We find a remarkable agreement between EOB and numerical-relativity precessing waveforms and spins' evolutions. The phase difference is ˜0.2 rad rad at merger, while the mismatches, computed using the advanced-LIGO noise spectral density, are below 2% when maximizing only on the time and phase at coalescence and on the polarization angle.
Regional Climate Model Sensitivity to Domain Size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leduc, M.; Laprise, R.
2006-05-01
Regional Climate Models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). It is well known that the limited area over which a model integrates must be large enough to allow the full development of small scales features (Jones et al., 1995). On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large-scale nudging is applied (e.g., Castro and Pielke, 2005). Here the effects of domain size on the development of small-scales are examined using the "Big-Brother" approach developed by Denis et al. (2002). This method consists of generating a high-resolution simulation over a large domain (the Big-Brother). The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter based on discrete cosine transform (DCT; Denis et al., 2002) to emulate coarse-resolution LBCs that are usually taken from GCMs or reanalyses. A second simulation (the Little-Brother) is driven by the coarse-resolution LBCs and generates its own small-scale features inside the new smaller domain. Nested and added scales of the Little- Brother can then be compared with the Big-Brother (unfiltered) ones by using the DCT-filter again. Three February months (1990,1991 and 1992) were integrated over a continental grid (Big-Brother: 196x196 gridpoints) with a spatial resolution of 45 km covering almost the entire North-America. After filtering, this dataset is used to drive five simulations with varying domain size (48x48, 72x72, 96x96, 120x120 and 144x144) centred on the same geographic location; all other parameters are kept constant. Monthly statistics of the five Little-Brothers are compared with the virtual reference (Big-Brother) over the common domain (28x28) corresponding to the smallest Little-Brother but without its sponge zone. Results show that temporal correlation of large-scale events increases when the domain size is reduced from 144x144 to 48x48. For the same domain
Transition region modeling for compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, C.-L.; Singer, B. A.; Dinavahi, S. P. G.; El-Hady, N. M.; Pruett, C. D.; Harris, J. E.; Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Wilcox, D. C.
1992-01-01
The ongoing effort at NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing transitional zone models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations is described. Results from three models that we have examined - two zero-equation models and a two-equation model of the k-omega type - are presented for high-speed flows. The use of analytical and computational tools to provide guidance and to provide the transitional flow-field data bases necessary to develop such models is discussed. Some results from validation of these tools are given; qualitative comparisons between modeled and theoretical/computational representations of the transitional zone are provided.
Modeling the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system
D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Hill, M.C.
2004-01-01
The development of a regional ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in the southwestern United States is discussed in the context of the fourteen guidelines of Hill (1998). This application of the guidelines demonstrates how they may be used for model calibration and evaluation, and to direct further model development and data collection. Copyright ASCE 2004.
Waveform effects of a metastable olivine tongue in subducting slabs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vidale, John E.; Williams, Quentin; Houston, Heidi
1991-01-01
Velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine to beta- and gamma-spinel transition are constructed, and the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms are examined using a full-wave finite-difference method. These 2D calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO) to a depth of 670 km, as well as a plausible thermal anomaly; one model further included a 10-km-thick fast layer on the surface of the slab. The principal effect of MOTO is to produce grazing reflections at wide angles off the phase boundary, generating a secondary arrival 0 to 4 seconds after the initial arrival depending on the take-off angle. The amplitude and timing of this feature vary with the lateral location of the seismic source within the slab cross-section.
Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation
Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.
2016-07-08
We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosion yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.
Local full-waveform inversion using distant data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara; Zhao Zheng, Allen
2014-05-01
Imaging remote objects in the deep Earth, such as, subducting slabs, mantle plumes, or large low shear velocity provinces and ultra low velocity zones is key for understanding Earth's structure and the geodynamical processes involved as it cools. In order to image these structures, we developed a strategy for performing regional-scale full-waveform inversions at arbitrary location inside the Earth [1]. Our approach is to confine wave propagation computations inside the region to be imaged. This local wavefield modeling is used in combination with wavefield extrapolation techniques in order to obtain synthetic seismograms at the surface of the Earth [2]. This allows us to evaluate a misfit functional and sensitivity kernels can then be computed locally using the adjoint state method [3]. The Green's functions needed for extrapolating the wavefield are computed once for all in a 3D reference Earth model using the spectral element software Specfem/3DGLOBE. We will present benchmark tests demonstrating that the proposed method allows us to image 3D localized structures - this without having to model wave propagation in the entire Earth at each iteration, which is prohibitively costly, thus improving the feasibility of accurate imaging of regional structures anywhere in the Earth using numerical methods. We will show that our method permits to account for additional data in regional inversions, that is to account for distant earthquakes that are located outside the region of the study - preliminary results for the tomography of the north American continent will be presented. [1] Masson, Yder, Paul Cupillard, Yann Capdeville, and Barbara Romanowicz. On the numerical im- plementation of time-reversal mirrors for tomographic imaging. Geophysical Journal International, 2013. [2] J. O. A. Robertsson, S. Ryan-Grigor, C. M. Sayers, and C. H. Chapman. A finite-difference injection approach to modeling seismic fluid flow monitoring. Geophysics, 65(3):896-906, 2000. [3] R
REGIONAL-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELING
This PowerPoint presentation gives a short synopsis of the state of the science of atmospheric mercury modeling, including a description of recent publications of model codes by EPA, a description of a recent mercury model intercomparison study, and a description of a synthesis p...
Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.
Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer
2010-02-01
A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.
Doppler-Offset Waveforms for MIMO Radar
2010-01-01
Division Multiple Access, or FDMA . In the MIMO radar literature, the term FDMA is used, generically, to refer to sets of waveforms occupying different...frequencies at the same time. Mathematically, the lit" FDMA waveform can be written as: S" (I) = s (I) ej 2K I.’ 0 5, 1 5, T . for /I = I, ... ,N...noise) whenever i i’ j . Page 3 of 13 Pages On transmit, FDMA MIMO radars emit all N, frequency offset waveforms simultaneously. Then, each of the N
Elliptic waveforms for inspiralling compact binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikóczi, Balázs
2010-03-01
The inspiral of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are the most promising sources for the gravitational wave observatories. The importance of elliptic gravitational waveforms in various physical scenarios has been emphasized by several authors (Wahlquist 1987, Moreno-Garrido, Buitrago and Mediavilla 1994, Martel and Poisson 1999). Taking into account the eccentricity of the orbit in the total waveform improves the parameter estimation for these sources, as it is shown by the construction and analyzation of the Fisher information matrix. In our work we use the Fourier-Bessel analysis of the Kepler motion and the stationary phase approximation of time-depend waveforms.
Arctic Region Policy: Information Sharing Model Options
2010-09-01
complying. ( Ostrom , 2010) D. CONCLUSION The 2009 Arctic Region Policy highlights the need to develop capabilities to protect U.S. air, land and sea...polar icebreaker modernization: Background, issues, and options for Congress (RL34391). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Ostrom , E
Viscoacoustic anisotropic full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Yingming; Li, Zhenchun; Huang, Jianping; Li, Jinli
2017-01-01
A viscoacoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) quasi-differential wave equation, which takes account for both the viscosity and anisotropy of media, is proposed for wavefield simulation in this study. The finite difference method is used to solve the equations, for which the attenuation terms are solved in the wavenumber domain, and all remaining terms in the time-space domain. To stabilize the adjoint wavefield, robust regularization operators are applied to the wave equation to eliminate the high-frequency component of the numerical noise produced during the backward propagation of the viscoacoustic wavefield. Based on these strategies, we derive the corresponding gradient formula and implement a viscoacoustic VTI full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical tests verify that our proposed viscoacoustic VTI FWI can produce accurate and stable inversion results for viscoacoustic VTI data sets. In addition, we test our method's sensitivity to velocity, Q, and anisotropic parameters. Our results show that the sensitivity to velocity is much higher than that to Q and anisotropic parameters. As such, our proposed method can produce acceptable inversion results as long as the Q and anisotropic parameters are within predefined thresholds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ikuma, Takeshi; Kunduk, Melda; McWhorter, Andrew J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The model-based quantitative analysis of high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) data at a low frame rate of 2,000 frames per second was assessed for its clinical adequacy. Stepwise regression was employed to evaluate the HSV parameters using harmonic models and their relationships to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Also, the model-based HSV…
Numerical Modeling of the Nearshore Region.
1982-06-01
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE MODELS The basis for anv fluid dynamic model rests on the principle of conservation of mass, conservation of momentum...which he chose to be Vgh, the speed of a wave in shallow water where h is the local water depth. Therefore, E can be written asx C = Nx g- where N is a...leading to the principle theoretical difference between the models as well as explaining the distinction expressed by their names. The mathematical
Full-waveform inversion in 2D VTI media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamath, Nishant
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique designed to produce a high-resolution model of the subsurface by using information contained in entire seismic waveforms. This thesis presents a methodology for FWI in elastic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry) media and discusses synthetic results for heterogeneous VTI models. First, I develop FWI for multicomponent data from a horizontally layered VTI model. The reflectivity method, which permits computation of only PP reflections or a combination of PP and PSV events, is employed to model the data. The Gauss-Newton technique is used to invert for the interval Thomsen parameters, while keeping the densities fixed at the correct values. Eigenvalue/eigenvector decompostion of the Hessian matrix helps analyze the sensitivity of the objective function to the model parameters. Whereas PP data alone are generally sufficient to constrain all four Thomsen parameters even for conventional spreads, including PS reflections provides better constraints, especially for the deeper part of the model. Next, I derive the gradients of the FWI objective function with respect to the stiffness coefficients of arbitrarily anisotropic media by employing the adjoint-state method. From these expressions, it is straightforward to compute the gradients for parameters of 2D heterogeneous VTI media. FWI is implemented in the time domain with the steepest-descent method used to iteratively update the model. The algorithm is tested on transmitted multicomponent data generated for Gaussian anomalies in Thomsen parameters embedded in homogeneous VTI media. To test the sensitivity of the objective function to different model parameters, I derive an an- alytic expression for the Frechet kernel of FWI for arbitrary anisotropic symmetry by using the Born approximation and asymptotic Green's functions. The amplitude of the kernel, which represents the radiation pattern of a secondary source (that source describes a perturbation
Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias
2016-04-01
In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.
Prehospital care and new models of regionalization.
Cone, David C; Brooke Lerner, E; Band, Roger A; Renjilian, Chris; Bobrow, Bentley J; Crawford Mechem, C; Carter, Alix J E; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W
2010-12-01
This article summarizes the discussions of the emergency medical services (EMS) breakout session at the June 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The group focused on prehospital issues such as the identification of patients by EMS personnel, protocol-driven destination selection, bypassing closer nondesignated centers to transport patients directly to more distant designated specialty centers, and the modes of transport to be used as they relate to the regionalization of emergency care. It is our hope that the proposed research agenda will be advanced in a way that begins to rigorously approach the unanswered research questions and that these answers, in turn, will lead to an evidence-based, cohesive, comprehensive, and more uniform set of guidelines that govern the delivery and practice of prehospital emergency care.
US Navy Global and Regional Wave Modeling
2014-09-01
WW3 delivers boundary conditions in packages marked for each nested wave modeling domain, for which a coastal model is run. Figure 5 depicts an...Wittmann, M. Sestak, J. Schauer , S. Stripling, N.B. Bernier, J. McLean, Y. Chao, A. Chawla, H. Tolman, and others. 2013. The NCEP/FNMOC Combined Wave
Positioning hospitals: a model for regional hospitals.
Reddy, A C; Campbell, D P
1993-01-01
In an age of marketing warfare in the health care industry, hospitals need creative strategies to compete successfully. Lately, positioning concepts have been added to the health care marketer's arsenal of strategies. To blend theory with practice, the authors review basic positioning theory and present a framework for developing positioning strategies. They also evaluate the marketing strategies of a regional hospital to provide a case example.
Estimate interaction timing in a large volume HgI2 detector using cathode pulse waveforms
Meng, L.J.; He, Z.
2016-01-01
This paper presents experimental results on the timing resolution achieved with a 5 mm thick HgI2 detector. The timing information was derived based on the cathode pre-amplifier pulse waveform, measured using a digital oscilloscope. The times of interaction were estimated by fitting the measured pulse waveforms to pre-defined waveform models. With this approach, problems related to the conventional leading edge or constant fraction triggering, such as slow charge carrier mobility, pulse shape variation and depth-dependent detector response can be greatly reduced. As a result, we showed a 13 ns timing resolution measured using the 5 mm thick HgI2 detector and a BaF2 coincidence detector with 511 keV full energy events. In this paper, we discuss several waveform models and the results achieved using these models. PMID:28260824
Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model: Setting the Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike
2016-01-01
This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…
"Special Issue": Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike
2016-01-01
This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…
Development of Models for Regional Cardiac Surgery Centers
Park, Choon Seon; Park, Nam Hee; Sim, Sung Bo; Yun, Sang Cheol; Ahn, Hye Mi; Kim, Myunghwa; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myo Jeong; Kim, Hyunsu; Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, Sanggi; Kang, Shinkwang; Lee, Sok-Goo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Kun Sei
2016-01-01
Background This study aimed to develop the models for regional cardiac surgery centers, which take regional characteristics into consideration, as a policy measure that could alleviate the concentration of cardiac surgery in the metropolitan area and enhance the accessibility for patients who reside in the regions. Methods To develop the models and set standards for the necessary personnel and facilities for the initial management plan, we held workshops, debates, and conference meetings with various experts. Results After partitioning the plan into two parts (the operational autonomy and the functional comprehensiveness), three models were developed: the ‘independent regional cardiac surgery center’ model, the ‘satellite cardiac surgery center within hospitals’ model, and the ‘extended cardiac surgery department within hospitals’ model. Proposals on personnel and facility management for each of the models were also presented. A regional cardiac surgery center model that could be applied to each treatment area was proposed, which was developed based on the anticipated demand for cardiac surgery. The independent model or the satellite model was proposed for Chungcheong, Jeolla, North Gyeongsang, and South Gyeongsang area, where more than 500 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. The extended model was proposed as most effective for the Gangwon and Jeju area, where more than 200 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. Conclusion The operation of regional cardiac surgery centers with high caliber professionals and quality resources such as optimal equipment and facility size, should enhance regional healthcare accessibility and the quality of cardiac surgery in South Korea. PMID:28035295
Critical region for an Ising model coupled to causal triangulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerda-Hernández, J.
2017-02-01
This paper extends the results obtained by Hernández et al for the annealed Ising model coupled to two-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations. We employ the Fortuin‑Kasteleyn (FK) representation in order to determine a region in the quadrant of the parameters β,μ >0 where the critical curve for the annealed model is possibly located. This can be done by outlining a region where the model has a unique infinite-volume Gibbs measure, and a region where the finite-volume Gibbs measure does not have weak limit (in fact, does not exist if the volume is large enough). We also improve the region where the model has a one dimensional geometry with respect to the unique weak limit measure, which implies that the Ising model on causal triangulation does not have phase transition in this region. Furthermore, we provide a better approximation of the free energy for the coupled model.
Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview
Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.
1983-05-01
The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.
INTERCOMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE VEGETATION DATABASES FOR REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING
Vegetation cover data are used to characterize several regional air quality modeling processes, including the calculation of heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes with the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) and the estimate of biogenic volatile organic compound and nitric oxide...
Thermal blooming of different waveform laser propagation in atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Tian-he; Liu, Wei; Gao, Qiong; Kang, Hua-chao
2013-09-01
Based upon the scalar wave equation and the equations of hydrodynamics, the simulation model used to calculate the transient thermal blooming of collimated multi-pulse laser by four-dimensional code. Considering the variety of absorption coefficient along with different altitudes, this paper got the new model of repetitively pulsed laser with thermal blooming in tropic by interpolation .On this basis, thermal blooming of different waveforms, such as triangle, gauss, and rectangle were calculated. The paper analyzes the thermal blooming of three waveform laser beams by changing respectively the value of the transmission power. After propagating the same distance in the same condition, the result shows that the peak irradiance of triangular laser distorts least severely; the PIB of gauss laser is the biggest, that is to say, the focusing ability of gauss laser is the best; the center of rectangle laser moves the furthest.
Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.
1988-01-01
We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July 1986 North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September 1985 Michoacan, Mexico, earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints. Results of the inversion indicate that the Global digital Seismograph Network data are useful for deriving fault dislocation models for moderate to large events. However, a wide range of frequencies is necessary to infer the distribution of slip on the earthquake fault. Although the long-period waveforms define the size (dimensions and seismic moment) of the earthquake, data at shorter period provide additional constraints on the variation of slip on the fault. Dislocation models obtained for all three earthquakes are consistent with a heterogeneous rupture process where failure is controlled largely by the size and location of high-strength asperity regions. -from Authors
Doppler estimation accuracy of linear FM waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daum, F. E.
The single-pulse Doppler estimation accuracy of an unweighted linear FM waveform is analyzed in detail. Simple formulas are derived that predict that one-sigma Doppler estimation error for realistic radar applications. The effects of multiple target interference and nonlinearlities in the radar measurements are considered. In addition, a practical method to estimate Doppler frequency is presented. This technique uses the phase data after pulse compression, and it limits the effect of multiple target interference. In contrast, the available literature is based on the Cramer-Rao bound for Doppler accuracy, which ignores the effects of nonlinearities, multiple target interference and the question of practical implementation. A simple formula is derived that predicts the region of validity for the Cramer-Rao bound. This formula provides a criterion for minimum signal-to-noise ratio in terms of time-bandwidth product. Finally, an important concept that is demonstrated in this paper is that: the bulk of the Doppler information in a linear FM pulse is encoded in the range sidelobes after pulse compression.
LISA Parameter Estimation using Numerical Merger Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, J. I.; McWilliams, S.; Baker, J.
2008-01-01
Coalescing supermassive black holes are expected to provide the strongest sources for gravitational radiation detected by LISA. Recent advances in numerical relativity provide a detailed description of the waveforms of such signals. We present a preliminary study of LISA's sensitivity to waveform parameters using a hybrid numerical/analytic waveform describing the coalescence of two equal-mass, nonspinning black holes. The Synthetic LISA software package is used to simulate the instrument response and the Fisher information matrix method is used to estimate errors in the waveform parameters. Initial results indicate that inclusion of the merger signal can significantly improve the precision of some parameter estimates. For example, the median parameter errors for an ensemble of systems with total redshifted mass of 10(exp 6) deg M solar mass at a redshift of z is approximately 1 were found to decrease by a factor of slightly more than two when the merger was included.
Seismic waveform viewer, processor and calculator
2015-02-15
SWIFT is a computer code that is designed to do research level signal analysis on seismic waveforms, including visualization, filtering and measurement. LLNL is using this code, amplitude and global tomography efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starek, M. J.; Fernandez-diaz, J.; Pan, Z.; Glennie, C. L.; Shrestha, R. L.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Singhania, A.
2013-12-01
Researchers with the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston (UH) and the Coastal and Marine Geospatial Sciences Lab (CMGL) of the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a coordinated airborne and field-based survey of the Redfish Bay State Scientific Area to investigate the capabilities of shallow water bathymetric lidar for benthic mapping. Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purposes of protecting and studying the native seagrasses. The mapped region is very shallow (< 1 m in most locations) and consists of a variety of benthic cover including sandy bottom, oyster reef, subaqueous vegetation, and submerged structures. For this survey, UH acquired high resolution (2.5 shots per square meter) bathymetry data using their new Optech Aquarius 532 nm green lidar. The field survey conducted by CMGL used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements, GPS position, depth, and ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. The return signal of an Aquarius lidar pulse is analyzed in real time by a hardware-based constant fraction discriminator (CFD) to detect returns from the surface and determine ranges (x,y,z points). This approach is commonly called discrete-return ranging, and Aquarius can record up to 4 returns per an emitted laser pulse. In contrast, full-waveform digitization records the incoming energy of an emitted pulse by sampling it at very high-frequency. Post-processing algorithms can then be applied to detect returns (ranges) from the digitized waveform. For this survey, a waveform digitizer was simultaneously operated to record the return waveforms at a rate of 1GHz with 12 bit dynamic range. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the topo-bathymetry were derived from the discrete-return and full-waveform data to evaluate the relative and absolute accuracy
High-Voltage, Asymmetric-Waveform Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beegle, Luther W.; Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.; Kanik, Isik
2008-01-01
The shapes of waveforms generated by commercially available analytical separation devices, such as some types of mass spectrometers and differential mobility spectrometers are, in general, inadequate and result in resolution degradation in output spectra. A waveform generator was designed that would be able to circumvent these shortcomings. It is capable of generating an asymmetric waveform, having a peak amplitude as large as 2 kV and frequency of several megahertz, which can be applied to a capacitive load. In the original intended application, the capacitive load would consist of the drift plates in a differential-mobility spectrometer. The main advantage to be gained by developing the proposed generator is that the shape of the waveform is made nearly optimum for various analytical devices requiring asymmetric-waveform such as differential-mobility spectrometers. In addition, this waveform generator could easily be adjusted to modify the waveform in accordance with changed operational requirements for differential-mobility spectrometers. The capacitive nature of the load is an important consideration in the design of the proposed waveform generator. For example, the design provision for shaping the output waveform is based partly on the principle that (1) the potential (V) on a capacitor is given by V=q/C, where C is the capacitance and q is the charge stored in the capacitor; and, hence (2) the rate of increase or decrease of the potential is similarly proportional to the charging or discharging current. The proposed waveform generator would comprise four functional blocks: a sine-wave generator, a buffer, a voltage shifter, and a high-voltage switch (see Figure 1). The sine-wave generator would include a pair of operational amplifiers in a feedback configuration, the parameters of which would be chosen to obtain a sinusoidal timing signal of the desired frequency. The buffer would introduce a slight delay (approximately equal to 20 ns) but would otherwise
Robust constrained waveform design for MIMO radar with uncertain steering vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xianxiang; Cui, Guolong; Piezzo, Marco; Iommelli, Salvatore; Kong, Lingjiang
2017-01-01
This paper considers the robust waveform design of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to enhance targets detection in the presence of signal-dependent interferences assuming the knowledge of steering vectors is imprecise. Specifically, resorting to semidefinite programming (SDP)-related technique, we first maximize the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) over uncertain region to optimize waveform covariance matrix forcing a uniform elemental power requirement. Then, based on least square (LS) approach, we devise the waveform accounting for constant modulus and similarity constraints by the obtained waveform covariance matrix using cyclic algorithm (CA). Finally, we assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique through numerical simulations in terms of non-uniform point-like clutter and uniform clutter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitnis, Parag Vijay
Shock wave lithotripsy is the preferred treatment modality for kidney stones in the United States. Despite clinical use for over twenty-five years, the mechanisms of stone fragmentation are still under debate. A piezoelectric array was employed to examine the effect of waveform shape and pressure distribution on stone fragmentation in lithotripsy. The array consisted of 170 elements placed on the inner surface of a 15 cm-radius spherical cap. Each element was driven independently using a 170 individual pulsers, each capable of generating 1.2 kV. The acoustic field was characterized using a fiber optic probe hydrophone with a bandwidth of 30 MHz and a spatial resolution of 100 mum. When all elements were driven simultaneously, the focal waveform was a shock wave with peak pressures p+ = 65 +/- 3 MPa and p- = -16 +/- 2 MPa and the -6 dB focal region was 13 mm long and 2 mm wide. The delay for each element was the only control parameter for customizing the acoustic field and waveform shape, which was done with the aim of investigating the hypothesized mechanisms of stone fragmentation such as spallation, shear, squeezing, and cavitation. The acoustic field customization was achieved by employing the angular spectrum approach for modeling the forward wave propagation and regression of least square errors to determine the optimal set of delays. Results from the acoustic field customization routine and its implications on stone fragmentation will be discussed.
Efficacy of Various Waveforms to Support Geolocation
2009-06-01
the square root of the summed signal as shown in Figure 16. The resulting distribution of the decision variable with signal present is non- central ...resulting distribution for the case with no signal, i.e., noise only, is central Chi-squared with two degrees of freedom or Rayleigh for the case in...summing the waveform power weighted by time from the central time, and dividing this by the sum of the unweighted waveform power, or signal energy sE
GRC GSFC TDRSS Waveform Metrics Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortensen, Dale J.
2013-01-01
The report presents software metrics and porting metrics for the GGT Waveform. The porting was from a ground-based COTS SDR, the SDR-3000, to the CoNNeCT JPL SDR. The report does not address any of the Operating Environment (OE) software development, nor the original TDRSS waveform development at GSFC for the COTS SDR. With regard to STRS, the report presents compliance data and lessons learned.
Mathematical Modeling of Flow Through Vegetated Regions
2013-08-01
including stem population density and flow Reynolds number. These results are compared to well-respected experimental results. We model real- life beds of...We model real- life beds of Spartina alterniflora grass with represen- tative beds of flexible beams and perform similar comparisons. x 13 Table of...and pressure contours ( right ) for instanta- neous snapshots of flows of various Reynolds numbers in 2D porous media domain with circle diameter 0.25 m
Assessment of balanced biphasic defibrillation waveforms in transthoracic atrial cardioversion.
Krasteva, V; Trendafilova, E; Cansell, A; Daskalov, I
2001-01-01
Various electrical pulses have been used for defibrillation. The monophasic damped sinusoid waveform, initiated in 60 s, was adopted in virtually all defibrillators. Biphasic pulses were introduced recently, achieving success with less energy. A biphasic exponential waveform was modelled with 4 ms duration per phase with a balanced 3:1 ratio of the first to second phase peak voltages and implemented in a defibrillator. A version obtained by chopping the pulses with a 5 kHz frequency was also used. It was hypothesized that the modelled transmembrane voltage decay time is a parameter that could be associated with successful defibrillation. The results of cardioversion for two groups of patients with the 'classic' monophasic waveform and with the biphasic pulses were compared. The mean efficient energy with the damped sinusoid was 205 +/- 85 J, versus 88 +/- 43 J with the biphasic pulses, yielding a ratio of 2.32 (1.92 to 3.2 for fibrillation and flutter, respectively). An acceptable agreement between model data and clinical results was found. The transmembrane voltage decay time ratios for monophasic versus biphasic pulses was in the approximate range of 2.5 to 3.5.
Full waveform inversion of solar interior flows
Hanasoge, Shravan M.
2014-12-10
The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here, we apply techniques of full waveform inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L {sub 2} norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance filtered f and p {sub 1} and large-distance unfiltered p modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, due to density stratification, leads to wrong ratios of horizontal and vertical flow velocities ({sup c}ross talk{sup )}. In the present formulation, the lack of sufficient temporal frequency and spatial resolution makes it difficult to accurately localize flow profiles at depth. We therefore suggest that the most efficient way to discover the global minimum is to perform a probabilistic forward search, involving calculating the misfit associated with a broad range of models (generated, for instance, by a Monte Carlo algorithm) and locating the deepest minimum. Such techniques possess the added advantage of being able to quantify model uncertainty as well as realization noise (data uncertainty).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, S.; Peci, V.; Adams, J.; McCormack, D.
2003-04-01
ROUTINE ESTIMATE OF FOCAL DEPTHS FOR MODERATE AND SMALL EARTHQUAKES BY MODELLING REGIONAL DEPTH PHASE sPmP IN EASTERN CANADA Shutian Ma, Veronika Peci, John Adams, and David McCormack(1) (1) National Earthquake Hazards Program, Geological Survey of Canada, 7 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0Y3, Canada Shutian Ma (ma@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-947 3520) Veronika Peci (peci@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 7100) John Adams (adams@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 5519) David McCormack (cormack@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-992 8766) Earthquake focal depths are critical parameters for basic seismological research, seismotectonic study, seismic hazard assessment, and event discrimination. Focal depths for most earthquakes with Mw >= 4.5 can be estimated from teleseismic arrival times of P, pP and sP. For maller earthquakes, focal depths can be stimated from Pg and Sg arrival times recorded at close stations. However, for most earthquakes in eastern Canada, teleseismic signals are too weak and seismograph spacing too sparse for depth estimation. The regional phase sPmP is very sensitive to focal depth, generally well developed at epicentral distances greater than 100 km, and clearly recorded at many stations in eastern Canada for earthquakes with mN >= 2.8. We developed a procedure to estimate focal depth routinely with sPmP. We select vertical waveforms recorded at distances from about 100 to 300 km (using Geotool and SAC2000), generate synthetic waveforms (using reflectivity method) for a typical focal mechanism and for a suitable range of depths, and choose the depth at which the synthetic best matches the selected waveform. The software is easy to operate. For routine work an experienced operator can get a focal depth with waveform modelling within 10 minutes after the waveform is selected, or in a couple of minutes get a rough focal depth from sPmP and Pg or PmP arrival times without waveform modelling. We have confirmed our sPmP modelling results by two comparisons: (1) to depths
Regional climate simulations over Vietnam using the WRF model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghavan, S. V.; Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.
2016-10-01
We present an analysis of the present-day (1961-1990) regional climate simulations over Vietnam. The regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) was driven by the global reanalysis ERA40. The performance of the regional climate model in simulating the observed climate is evaluated with a main focus on precipitation and temperature. The regional climate model was able to reproduce the observed spatial patterns of the climate, although with some biases. The model also performed better in reproducing the extreme precipitation and the interannual variability. Overall, the WRF model was able to simulate the main regional signatures of climate variables, seasonal cycles, and frequency distributions. This study is an evaluation of the present-day climate simulations of a regional climate model at a resolution of 25 km. Given that dynamical downscaling has become common for studying climate change and its impacts, the study highlights that much more improvements in modeling might be necessary to yield realistic simulations of climate at high resolutions before they can be used for impact studies at a local scale. The need for a dense network of observations is also realized as observations at high resolutions are needed when it comes to evaluations and validations of models at sub-regional and local scales.
Arctic region: new model of geodynamic history
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikishin, Anatoly; Kazmin, Yuriy; Malyshev, Nikolay; Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Eugene
2014-05-01
Basement of the Arctic shelf areas is characterizes with a complex structure. Age of the defined domains is early Pre-Cambrian, Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (Timanian and Baykalian), early-middle Paleozoic (Caledonian) and late Paleozoic (Uralian, Taimyrian and Ellesmerian). Mesozoic deformations affected Novaya Zemlya, Southern Taimyr and southern parts of the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, and the Chukchi Sea regions. There are several Paleozoic rift-postrift basins. The North Kara Basin and the Timan-Pechora Basin was formed during the early Ordovician time as subduction-related back-arc rift systems. The East-Barents Basin has the same origin but the age of its formation is late Devonian. Carboniferous rifting took place in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea, the Chukchi Sea (Hanna Trough Basin) and the Sverdrup Basin. There are also rift-postrift basins of the Mesozoic age. Late Permian to Early Triassic rifting took place in the South Kara Basin; it was connected with both collapse of the Uralian Orogen and activity of the Siberian mantle plume. Aptian to Albian rifting was affected with really big area in the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea right after the De-Long plume-related magmatic event. Paleogene (mainly Eocene) rifting was also widely spread in these areas. The Arctic Ocean consists of three main domains: the Canada Basin, Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain, and the Eurasia Basin. The Canada Basin is a typical oceanic one. There are many uncertainties in the definition of spreading age, but in accordance with the prevalent point of view, it should be early Cretaceous, Neocomian. Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain is an enigmatic region. We propose the following scenario for the formation of this domain: Aptian to Cenomanian plume-related large-scale intraplate basalt magmatism was followed by Albian to late Cretaceous rifting. Few axes of rifting were nearly orthogonal to the pre-existing one in the Canada
Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.
2010-01-01
A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.
Laplace-domain waveform inversion versus refraction-traveltime tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Ho Seuk; Pyun, Sukjoon; Shin, Changsoo; Marfurt, Kurt J.; Chung, Wookeen
2012-07-01
Geophysicists and applied mathematicians have proposed a rich suite of long-wavelength velocity estimation algorithms to construct starting velocity models for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and inversion. Refraction-traveltime tomography derives subsurface velocity models from picked first-arrival traveltimes. In contrast, Laplace-domain waveform inversion recovers long-wavelength velocity structure using the weighted amplitudes of first and later arrivals. There are several implementations of first-arrival traveltime inversion, with most based on ray tracing, and some based on the damped monochromatic wave equation, which accurately represent simple and finite-frequency first arrivals. Computationally, Laplace-domain wavefield inversion is quite similar to refraction-traveltime tomography using damped monochromatic wavefield, but the objective functions used in inversion are radically different. As in classical ray trace-based traveltime inversion, the objective of refraction-traveltime tomography using damped monochromatic wavefield is to match the phase (traveltime) of the first arrival of each measured seismic trace. In contrast, the objective of Laplace-domain wavefield inversion is to match the weighted amplitudes of both first and later arrivals to the weighted amplitudes of the measured seismic trace. Principles of refraction-traveltime tomography were used to generate velocity models of the earth one century ago. Laplace-domain waveform inversion is a more recently introduced algorithm and has been less rigorously studied by the seismic research community, with many workers believing it be equivalent to finite-frequency first-arrival traveltime tomography. We show that Laplace-domain waveform inversion is both theoretically and empirically different from finite-frequency first-arrival traveltime tomography. Specifically, we examine the Jacobian (sensitivity) kernels used in the two inversion schemes to quantify the different sensitivities (and hence
Leveraging waveform complexity for confident detection of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanner, Jonah B.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Cornish, Neil; Millhouse, Meg; Xhakaj, Enia; Salemi, Francesco; Drago, Marco; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey
2016-01-01
The recent completion of Advanced LIGO suggests that gravitational waves may soon be directly observed. Past searches for gravitational-wave transients have been impacted by transient noise artifacts, known as glitches, introduced into LIGO data due to instrumental and environmental effects. In this work, we explore how waveform complexity, instead of signal-to-noise ratio, can be used to rank event candidates and distinguish short duration astrophysical signals from glitches. We test this framework using a new hierarchical pipeline that directly compares the Bayesian evidence of explicit signal and glitch models. The hierarchical pipeline is shown to perform well and, in particular, to allow high-confidence detections of a range of waveforms at a realistic signal-to-noise ratio with a two-detector network.
Analytic Gravitational Waveforms for Generic Precessing Binary Inspirals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-02-01
Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing, quasicircular binary inspirals.
Analytic Gravitational Waveforms for Generic Precessing Binary Inspirals.
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-02-03
Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing, quasicircular binary inspirals.
Alternate Waveforms for a Low-Cost Civil Global Positioning System Receiver.
1980-06-01
ephemerides of all the satellites, clock anomalies, ionospheric propagation models , and so on. Besides these alternatives for the signals from...requirement for ranging accuracy is the most demanding. Ranging is a function performed by radars . All waveforms of interest have been analyzed and synthesized...in connection with radar applications. Waveforms are classified according to the nature of their ambiguity function (Ref. 4,5). The ambiguity
Development and Utilization of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS)
2008-09-30
simulation studies with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The targeted problems are submesoscale wakes, fronts, and eddies; nearshore currents...2005: Routes to dissipation in the ocean: The 2D/3D turbulence conundrum. In: Marine Turbulence : Theories, Observations, and Models , Eds. H...Development and Utilization of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) James C. McWilliams Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Institute
Monitoring D-Region Variability from Lightning Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simoes, Fernando; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Pfaff, Robert; Bilitza, Dieter; Klenzing, Jeffery
2011-01-01
In situ measurements of ionospheric D-region characteristics are somewhat scarce and rely mostly on sounding rockets. Remote sensing techniques employing Very Low Frequency (VLF) transmitters can provide electron density estimates from subionospheric wave propagation modeling. Here we discuss how lightning waveform measurements, namely sferics and tweeks, can be used for monitoring the D-region variability and day-night transition, and for local electron density estimates. A brief comparison among D-region aeronomy models is also presented.
EPOS-S: Integrated access to seismological waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleeman, Reinoud; Strollo, Angelo; Michelini, Alberto; Clinton, John; Gueguen, Philippe; Luzi, Lucia; Pinar, Ali; Diaz, Jordi; Ceken, Ulubey; Evangelidis, Christos; Haslinger, Florian
2016-04-01
The main challenges of the EPOS TCS Seismology are to improve and to extend existing services to access earthquake waveforms (ORFEUS), parameters (EMSC) and hazard data and products (EFEHR), and producing a single framework that is technically integrated within the EPOS architecture. Technical developments in the services for seismological waveforms and associated data, including the compilation of station metadata and installing common data archival and sharing policies are within ORFEUS and its Working Groups. The focus is on 1) the development of the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (seismological) Data Archive EIDA based on standardized webservices, the implementation of a data quality service and the realisation of a mediator service; 2) the development of EIDA-compliant services for strong motion data and acceleration data and the extension of the station metadata model; 3) the integration of data from mobile networks and OBS waveforms into EIDA by implementing mechanisms for coordination of transnational access and multinational experiments at available pools of OBS and mobile seismic stations; 4) achieve close integration with other EPOS TCS and the ICS with regard to interoperability and common use of tools & services, common and coordinated data models and metadata formats, and common computational platforms and IT solution implementations. This presentation will present the status of and current developments towards the above objectives.
Tsunami waveform inversion by adjoint methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Carlos; Miranda, Pedro M. A.
2001-09-01
An adjoint method for tsunami waveform inversion is proposed, as an alternative to the technique based on Green's functions of the linear long wave model. The method has the advantage of being able to use the nonlinear shallow water equations, or other appropriate equation sets, and to optimize an initial state given as a linear or nonlinear function of any set of free parameters. This last facility is used to perform explicit optimization of the focal fault parameters, characterizing the initial sea surface displacement of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The proposed methodology is validated with experiments using synthetic data, showing the possibility of recovering all relevant details of a tsunami source from tide gauge observations, providing that the adjoint method is constrained in an appropriate manner. It is found, as in other methods, that the inversion skill of tsunami sources increases with the azimuthal and temporal coverage of assimilated tide gauge stations; furthermore, it is shown that the eigenvalue analysis of the Hessian matrix of the cost function provides a consistent and useful methodology to choose the subset of independent parameters that can be inverted with a given dataset of observations and to evaluate the error of the inversion process. The method is also applied to real tide gauge series, from the tsunami of the February 28, 1969, Gorringe Bank earthquake, suggesting some reasonable changes to the assumed focal parameters of that event. It is suggested that the method proposed may be able to deal with transient tsunami sources such as those generated by submarine landslides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Kensuke; Fuji, Nobuaki; Deschamps, Frédéric
2017-03-01
We investigate the elastic and anelastic structure of the lowermost mantle at the western edge of the Pacific large low shear velocity province (LLSVP) by inverting a collection of S and ScS waveforms. The transverse component data were obtained from F-net for 31 deep earthquakes beneath Tonga and Fiji, filtered between 12.5 and 200 s. We observe a regional variation of S and ScS arrival times and amplitude ratios, according to which we divide our region of interest into three subregions. For each of these subregions, we then perform 1-D (depth-dependent) waveform inversions simultaneously for radial profiles of shear wave velocity (VS) and seismic quality factor (Q). Models for all three subregions show low VS and low Q structures from 2000 km depth down to the core-mantle boundary. We further find that VS and Q in the central subregion, sampling the Caroline plume, are substantially lower than in the surrounding regions, whatever the depth. In the central subregion, VS-anomalies with respect to PREM (dVS) and Q are about -2.5 per cent and 216 at a depth of 2850 km, and -0.6 per cent and 263 at a depth of 2000 km. By contrast, in the two other regions, dVS and Q are -2.2 per cent and 261 at a depth of 2850 km, and -0.3 per cent and 291 at a depth of 2000 km. At depths greater than ˜2500 km, these differences may indicate lateral variations in temperature of ˜100 K within the Pacific LLSVP. At shallower depths, they may be due to the temperature difference between the Caroline plume and its surroundings, and possibly to a small fraction of iron-rich material entrained by the plume.
Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.
Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu
2014-01-01
A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.
Stochastic modelling of regional archaeomagnetic series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellio, G.; Gillet, N.; Bouligand, C.; Jault, D.
2014-11-01
We report a new method to infer continuous time-series of the declination, inclination and intensity of the magnetic field from archaeomagnetic data. Adopting a Bayesian perspective, we need to specify a priori knowledge about the time evolution of the magnetic field. It consists in a time correlation function that we choose to be compatible with present knowledge about the geomagnetic time spectra. The results are presented as distributions of possible values for the declination, inclination or intensity. We find that the methodology can be adapted to account for the age uncertainties of archaeological artefacts and we use Markov chain Monte Carlo to explore the possible dates of observations. We apply the method to intensity data sets from Mari, Syria and to intensity and directional data sets from Paris, France. Our reconstructions display more rapid variations than previous studies and we find that the possible values of geomagnetic field elements are not necessarily normally distributed. Another output of the model is better age estimates of archaeological artefacts.
Revealing Time-Unlocked Brain Activity from MEG Measurements by Common Waveform Estimation
Takeda, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Kentaro; Yamagishi, Noriko; Sato, Masa-aki
2014-01-01
Brain activities related to cognitive functions, such as attention, occur with unknown and variable delays after stimulus onsets. Recently, we proposed a method (Common Waveform Estimation, CWE) that could extract such brain activities from magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. CWE estimates spatiotemporal MEG/EEG patterns occurring with unknown and variable delays, referred to here as unlocked waveforms, without hypotheses about their shapes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of CWE for cognitive neuroscience. For this purpose, we show procedures to estimate unlocked waveforms using CWE and to examine their role. We applied CWE to the MEG epochs during Go trials of a visual Go/NoGo task. This revealed unlocked waveforms with interesting properties, specifically large alpha oscillations around the temporal areas. To examine the role of the unlocked waveform, we attempted to estimate the strength of the brain activity of the unlocked waveform in various conditions. We made a spatial filter to extract the component reflecting the brain activity of the unlocked waveform, applied this spatial filter to MEG data under different conditions (a passive viewing, a simple reaction time, and Go/NoGo tasks), and calculated the powers of the extracted components. Comparing the powers across these conditions suggests that the unlocked waveforms may reflect the inhibition of the task-irrelevant activities in the temporal regions while the subject attends to the visual stimulus. Our results demonstrate that CWE is a potential tool for revealing new findings of cognitive brain functions without any hypothesis in advance. PMID:24879410
Telenkov, Sergey A; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas
2013-10-01
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of biological tissues using laser diodes instead of conventional Q-switched pulsed systems provides an attractive alternative for biomedical applications. However, the relatively low energy of laser diodes operating in the pulsed regime, results in generation of very weak acoustic waves, and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the detected signals. This problem can be addressed if optical excitation is modulated using custom waveforms and correlation processing is employed to increase SNR through signal compression. This work investigates the effect of the parameters of the modulation waveform on the resulting correlation signal and offers a practical means for optimizing PA signal detection. The advantage of coherent signal averaging is demonstrated using theoretical analysis and a numerical model of PA generation. It was shown that an additional 5-10 dB of SNR can be gained through waveform engineering by adjusting the parameters and profile of optical modulation waveforms.
Low sidelobe nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chebanov, Dmitry
2008-04-01
Frequency stepping is one of the known techniques employed by modern radars to attain high range resolution. One of the main advantages of this approach is that it allows to achieve wideband pulse compression through narrowband processing. It is also known that the traditional linear stepped-frequency waveform suffers from relatively high range sidelobes and grating lobes that appear due to periodicities in the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). An amplitude weighting (applied prior to the DFT) is typically used to reduce the near-in sidelobes. This results in undesirable losses in sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a new approach that may be used to derive families of nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms that would have desired characteristics such as suppressed grating lobes and built-in low range sidelobes. Our approach is based on new analytical properties of stepped-frequency waveforms presented in the paper. We give examples of nonlinear waveforms generated by this approach and show that they exhibit improved performance when compared with traditional waveforms.
Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan
1999-01-01
We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.
Glistening-region model for multipath studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groves, Gordon W.; Chow, Winston C.
1998-07-01
The goal is to achieve a model of radar sea reflection with improved fidelity that is amenable to practical implementation. The geometry of reflection from a wavy surface is formulated. The sea surface is divided into two components: the smooth `chop' consisting of the longer wavelengths, and the `roughness' of the short wavelengths. Ordinary geometric reflection from the chop surface is broadened by the roughness. This same representation serves both for forward scatter and backscatter (sea clutter). The `Road-to-Happiness' approximation, in which the mean sea surface is assumed cylindrical, simplifies the reflection geometry for low-elevation targets. The effect of surface roughness is assumed to make the sea reflection coefficient depending on the `Deviation Angle' between the specular and the scattering directions. The `specular' direction is that into which energy would be reflected by a perfectly smooth facet. Assuming that the ocean waves are linear and random allows use of Gaussian statistics, greatly simplifying the formulation by allowing representation of the sea chop by three parameters. An approximation of `low waves' and retention of the sea-chop slope components only through second order provides further simplification. The simplifying assumptions make it possible to take the predicted 2D ocean wave spectrum into account in the calculation of sea-surface radar reflectivity, to provide algorithms for support of an operational system for dealing with target tracking in the presence of multipath. The product will be of use in simulated studies to evaluate different trade-offs in alternative tracking schemes, and will form the basis of a tactical system for ship defense against low flyers.
The regional prediction model of PM10 concentrations for Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güler, Nevin; Güneri İşçi, Öznur
2016-11-01
This study is aimed to predict a regional model for weekly PM10 concentrations measured air pollution monitoring stations in Turkey. There are seven geographical regions in Turkey and numerous monitoring stations at each region. Predicting a model conventionally for each monitoring station requires a lot of labor and time and it may lead to degradation in quality of prediction when the number of measurements obtained from any õmonitoring station is small. Besides, prediction models obtained by this way only reflect the air pollutant behavior of a small area. This study uses Fuzzy C-Auto Regressive Model (FCARM) in order to find a prediction model to be reflected the regional behavior of weekly PM10 concentrations. The superiority of FCARM is to have the ability of considering simultaneously PM10 concentrations measured monitoring stations in the specified region. Besides, it also works even if the number of measurements obtained from the monitoring stations is different or small. In order to evaluate the performance of FCARM, FCARM is executed for all regions in Turkey and prediction results are compared to statistical Autoregressive (AR) Models predicted for each station separately. According to Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) criteria, it is observed that FCARM provides the better predictions with a less number of models.
Topographic Change Detection Using Full-Waveform Imaging Lidar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, Bryan; Hofton, Michele A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The capability of wide-footprint (i.e. 10m or greater), full-waveform laser altimeters to penetrate beneath dense vegetation to directly measure the sub-canopy topography provides us with a unique capability for sensing topographic change in the presence of vegetation. We evaluate the feasibility of using a geolocated laser altimeter return waveform instead of individual elevation measurements to measure vertical elevation change within a laser footprint. The method, dubbed the return pulse correlation method, maximizes the shape similarity of nea-coincident, vertically- geolocated laser return waveforms from two observation epochs as they are vertically-shifted relative to each other. First, we evaluate the inherent accuracy of the pulse correlation method using models and simulations under "bare-Earth" conditions. We then analyze the effects of vegetation and vegetation growth on the change detection capability. The use of this method, combined with order of magnitude improvements to laser altimeter swath widths (from 1 km to 10 km) and the potential for a future spaceborne imaging lidar, may provide subcentimeter level relative change detection beneath vegetation to complement IFSAR's ability to make similar measurements in low or vegetation-free conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.; Sheridan, R.; Ku, N. W.
2014-12-01
Increasing attention has been paid in the remote sensing community to the next generation Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) waveform data systems for extracting information on topography and the vertical structure of vegetation. However, processing waveform lidar data raises some challenges compared to analyzing discrete return data. The overall goal of this study was to present a robust de-convolution algorithm- Gold algorithm used to de-convolve waveforms in a lidar dataset acquired within a 60 x 60m study area located in the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. The waveform lidar data was collected by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Specific objectives were to: (1) explore advantages and limitations of various waveform processing techniques to derive topography and canopy height information; (2) develop and implement a novel de-convolution algorithm, the Gold algorithm, to extract elevation and canopy metrics; and (3) compare results and assess accuracy. We modeled lidar waveforms with a mixture of Gaussian functions using the Non-least squares (NLS) algorithm implemented in R and derived a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and canopy height. We compared our waveform-derived topography and canopy height measurements using the Gold de-convolution algorithm to results using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Our findings show that the Gold algorithm performed better than the Richardson-Lucy algorithm in terms of recovering the hidden echoes and detecting false echoes for generating a DTM, which indicates that the Gold algorithm could potentially be applied to processing of waveform lidar data to derive information on terrain elevation and canopy characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamara, Samir; Friederich, Wolfgang; Schumacher, Florian; Meier, Thomas; Egelados Working Group
2015-04-01
We present a high-resolution lithospheric shear-wave velocity model of the Hellenic subduction zone obtained by full waveform tomography of the EGELADOS project data. This high quality data was collected with the broadband amphibian seismic network EGELADOS that was deployed all over the southern Aegean from October 2005 to April 2007 providing a sampling of the south Aegean lithosphere with a resolution never reached before. Because of the strong deformations in the Hellenic subduction zone and the linear approximation in solving the full waveform inverse problem, a special care was taken to guarantee the best possible accuracy of earthquakes parameters and initial reference models. The accurate locations of the selected earthquakes were hence re-estimated and the best moment tensors were selected by computing the misfits between the observed seismograms for one event and a set of synthetics calculated for every value of the fault angles (strike, dip and rake) and hypocenter depths. On the other hand, instead of using an average 1D reference model for the complete region, a 1D path-specific approach permitted to obtain the 1D initial model for each source-receiver pair by waveform fitting using a grid search varying the Moho depth and the average S-wave velocity in the crust. These models were then refined by a 1D inversion and used to calculate the sensitivity kernels for each source-receiver pair. For the inversion, we adopted a special formulation including a correction term which permits to use the path-specific sensitivity kernels in an inversion for 3D velocity perturbations relative to a single 1D reference model constructed from all these 1D initial models. The inversion was done in frequency domain with a frequency window ranging from 0.03 Hz to 0.1 Hz. For the selected 2695 paths the total number of data values reached 140140. The model was discretized in volume cells with a varying vertical width and a fixed lateral one of approximately 15 km, resulting
Kinematic Waveform Inversion: Application in Southwest Iberia Seismicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domingues, A. L.; Custodio, S.; Cesca, S.
2011-12-01
The seismic activity that affects the Portuguese territory occurs mainly and more frequently offshore, in the south and southwest of Mainland Portugal. The study of the Portuguese seismicity is conditioned by the poor azimuthal coverage, due to the geographic location of Portugal, and by the large sedimentary basin west of the straight of Gibraltar (Cadiz Basin). In this work we focus on the study of regional seismicity in Portugal (mostly offshore earthquakes) using a recently developed package - the KIWI (Kinematic Waveform Inversion) tools. This new technique performs point and finite source inversions at regional distances. The KIWI routine is a multi-step approach composed of 3 steps, finding different source parameters at different steps. At first, we assume a point source approximation. We initially retrieve the focal mechanism of the earthquake (strike, dip, and rake), the seismic scalar moment M0 and the depth. This inversion step is performed in the spectral domain, by fitting amplitude spectra. In the second step, compressive and dilatation quadrants are retrieved, which is carried out in the time domain. Refined latitude and longitude for the centroid, as well as an earthquake origin time, are also given at this time. The final step of the inversion consists of a simplified finite-fault inversion. We assume the eikonal source model, and determine parameters such as the fault plane orientation (discrimination between fault and auxiliary plane), radius (rupture extension), nucleation point coordinates (indicative of directivity effects) and average rupture velocity of the earthquake. This inversion is performed in the frequency domain by fitting amplitude spectra in a wider frequency band (including higher frequencies). This multi-step approach has the advantage of using different inversion methods, seismic phases and range of frequencies to infer specific parameters. In this work we study 17 regional earthquakes occurred in Southwest Iberia between 2007
Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method.
Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xinliang
2016-10-17
Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large dispersion, which are difficult to fabricate on chip. Our scheme is compact and capable for integration with electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.
2015-10-01
We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under East and Southeast Asia constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in East and Southeast Asia are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.
Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew
2016-06-01
Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.
Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.
2012-12-01
Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.
Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation
Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun
1996-12-31
Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).
Synthesis of MBE-4 accelerating waveforms
Kim, C.H.; Brady, V.O.; Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Laslett, L.J.
1985-05-01
An ion induction linac for HIF must operate near the space charge current limit along most of its length. Small errors in the voltages applied to the accelerating gaps can readily produce local unwanted beam bunching and consequent beam loss. Uncompensated space charge forces will generate current loss from longitudinal beam spreading. In the design of the MBE-4 ideal acceleration voltages were developed that assure self-similar amplifying current waveforms at each position along the accelerator. These were approximately synthesized by adding waveforms that can be obtained from realizable electrical pulsers. A code is used to study effects produced by the imperfect synthesis on the longitudinal ion dynamics and beam current waveforms in the presence of space-charge forces.
Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies.
Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Santer, Benjamin D; Gleckler, Peter J
2009-05-26
Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures.
Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies
Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Gleckler, Peter J.
2009-01-01
Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures. PMID:19439652
Data-driven models for regional coral-reef dynamics.
Żychaluk, Kamila; Bruno, John F; Clancy, Damian; McClanahan, Tim R; Spencer, Matthew
2012-02-01
Coral reefs have been affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Coral cover has declined on many reefs, and macroalgae have increased on some. The existence of alternative stable states with high or low coral cover has been widely debated, but not clearly established. We evaluate the evidence for alternative stable states in benthic coral-reef dynamics in the Caribbean, Kenya and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), using stochastic semi-parametric models based on large numbers of time series of cover of hard corals, macroalgae and other components. Only the GBR showed a consistent short-term regional decline in coral cover. There was no evidence for regional increases in macroalgae. The equilibrium distributions of our models were close to recently observed distributions, and differed among regions. In all three regions, the equilibrium distributions were unimodal rather than bimodal, and thus did not suggest the existence of alternative stable states on a regional scale, under current conditions.
Model of the expansion of H II region RCW 82
Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R. E-mail: gviana2005@gmail.com
2014-05-10
This paper aims to resolve the problem of formation of young objects observed in the RCW 82 H II region. In the framework of a classical trigger model the estimated time of fragmentation is larger than the estimated age of the H II region. Thus the young objects could not have formed during the dynamical evolution of the H II region. We propose a new model that helps resolve this problem. This model suggests that the H II region RCW 82 is embedded in a cloud of limited size that is denser than the surrounding interstellar medium. According to this model, when the ionization-shock front leaves the cloud it causes the formation of an accelerating dense gas shell. In the accelerated shell, the effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability dominate and the characteristic time of the growth of perturbations with the observed magnitude of about 3 pc is 0.14 Myr, which is less than the estimated age of the H II region. The total time t {sub ∑}, which is the sum of the expansion time of the H II region to the edge of the cloud, the time of the R-T instability growth, and the free fall time, is estimated as 0.44 < t {sub ∑} < 0.78 Myr. We conclude that the young objects in the H II region RCW 82 could be formed as a result of the R-T instability with subsequent fragmentation into large-scale condensations.
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
Multi-region statistical shape model for cochlear implantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romera, Jordi; Kjer, H. Martin; Piella, Gemma; Ceresa, Mario; González Ballester, Miguel A.
2016-03-01
Statistical shape models are commonly used to analyze the variability between similar anatomical structures and their use is established as a tool for analysis and segmentation of medical images. However, using a global model to capture the variability of complex structures is not enough to achieve the best results. The complexity of a proper global model increases even more when the amount of data available is limited to a small number of datasets. Typically, the anatomical variability between structures is associated to the variability of their physiological regions. In this paper, a complete pipeline is proposed for building a multi-region statistical shape model to study the entire variability from locally identified physiological regions of the inner ear. The proposed model, which is based on an extension of the Point Distribution Model (PDM), is built for a training set of 17 high-resolution images (24.5 μm voxels) of the inner ear. The model is evaluated according to its generalization ability and specificity. The results are compared with the ones of a global model built directly using the standard PDM approach. The evaluation results suggest that better accuracy can be achieved using a regional modeling of the inner ear.
Waveform-Agile Tracking In Heavy Sea Clutter
2007-01-01
Waveform-Agile Tracking In Heavy Sea Clutter Sandeep P. Sira , Antonia Papandreou-Suppappola, Darryl Morrell†, and Douglas Cochran SenSIP Center...to a non-adaptive system. The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we describe the models for the target dynamics, clutter, and observations ...dependence on zs[n]. C. Observations Model At the end of Sub-dwell 2 of the kth dwell, the measurement provided to the tracker is Yk = [yTn̂0−nv
Anisotropic Structure of the Upper Mantle, Imaged with Surface and S Waveform Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.
2011-12-01
The rapid recent expansion of global and regional seismic networks has paved the way for a new generation of tomographic models, with significantly improved resolution at global and regional scales. We present a new global model of shear velocity and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle, down to the base of the transition zone. The model is constrained by an unprecedentedly large waveform dataset collected from over 2000 stations of GSN and affiliates, USArray, VEBSN, CNSN, PASSCAL experiments, and other networks with data available from IRIS, ORFEUS, and GFZ data centers. Applying the accurate and efficient automated multimode inversion of surface- and S-wave forms to this massive dataset, we generated linear constraints on elastic structure within approximate sensitivity volumes between individual source-receiver pairs, with respect to a 3D reference model. The full waveform inversions resulted in more than one million successful fits (one million seismograms), with structural information extracted from both the fundamental and higher modes. The linear equations were then simultaneously solved for a high-resolution, 3D model of shear velocity and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle. In continental domains, clearly identifiable boundaries between different tectonic features such as basins and relic mountain ranges are readily observable, as well as the signature of deep cratonic roots versus juvenile accretionary margins. Both active and fossil subduction zones are marked by slab signatures deep in the upper mantle and extending through the transition zone. In oceanic regions, largest mid-ocean-ridge anomalies indicative of melting terminate at depths of 100-120 km, with evidence for vertical flow in the upper mantle observed through a combination of VSV, VSH, and azimuthal anisotropy. Spatio-temporal evolution (cooling and thickening) of lithosphere away from the spreading ridges matches the signature expected from geodynamic and thermal modeling. The
Full seismic waveform inversion of the African crust and Mantle - Initial Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasiev, Michael; Ermert, Laura; Staring, Myrna; Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-04-01
We report on the progress of a continental-scale full-waveform inversion (FWI) of Africa. From a geodynamic perspective, Africa presents an especially interesting case. This interest stems from the presence of several anomalous features such as a triple junction in the Afar region, a broad region of high topography to the south, and several smaller surface expressions such as the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Basin. The mechanisms behind these anomalies are not fully clear, and debate on their origin spans causative mechanisms from isostatic forcing, to the influence of localized asthenospheric upwelling, to the presence of deep mantle plumes. As well, the connection of these features to the African LLSVP is uncertain. Tomographic images of Africa present unique challenges due to uneven station coverage: while tectonically active areas such as the Afar rift are well sampled, much of the continent exhibits a severe dearth of seismic stations. As well, while mostly surrounded by tectonically active spreading plate boundaries (a fact which contributes to the difficulties in explaining the South's high topography), sizeable seismic events (M > 5) in the continent's interior are relatively rare. To deal with these issues, we present a combined earthquake and ambient noise full-waveform inversion of Africa. The noise component serves to boost near-surface sensitivity, and aids in mitigating issues related to the sparse source / station coverage. The earthquake component, which includes local and teleseismic sources, aims to better resolve deeper structure. This component also has the added benefit of being especially useful in the search for mantle plumes: synthetic tests have shown that the subtle scattering of elastic waves off mantle plumes makes the plumes an ideal target for FWI [1]. We hope that this new model presents a fresh high-resolution image of sub-African geodynamic structure, and helps advance the debate regarding the causative mechanisms of its surface
Regional Scale/Regional Climate Model Development and Its Applications at Goddard
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W.; Qian, J.; Jia, Y.; Wetzel, P.; Chou, M.-D.; Wang, Y.; Lynn, B.
2000-01-01
A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) is being developed and implemented at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model (Penn State/NCAR MM5) with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the Indo-China/South China Sea (SCS)/China, N. America and S. America region.
Optimal Multicarrier Phase-Coded Waveform Design for Detection of Extended Targets
Sen, Satyabrata; Glover, Charles Wayne
2013-01-01
We design a parametric multicarrier phase-coded (MCPC) waveform that achieves the optimal performance in detecting an extended target in the presence of signal-dependent interference. Traditional waveform design techniques provide only the optimal energy spectral density of the transmit waveform and suffer a performance loss in the synthesis process of the time-domain signal. Therefore, we opt for directly designing an MCPC waveform in terms of its time-frequency codes to obtain the optimal detection performance. First, we describe the modeling assumptions considering an extended target buried within the signal-dependent clutter with known power spectral density, and deduce the performance characteristics of the optimal detector. Then, considering an MCPC signal transmission, we express the detection characteristics in terms of the phase-codes of the MCPC waveform and propose to optimally design the MCPC signal by maximizing the detection probability. Our numerical results demonstrate that the designed MCPC signal attains the optimal detection performance and requires a lesser computational time than the other parametric waveform design approach.
Four-dimensional evaluation of regional air quality models
We present highlights of the results obtained in the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3). Activities in AQMEII3 were focused on evaluating the performance of global, hemispheric and regional modeling systems over Europe and North Ame...
Evaluation of regional climate simulations for air quality modelling purposes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menut, Laurent; Tripathi, Om P.; Colette, Augustin; Vautard, Robert; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Bessagnet, Bertrand
2013-05-01
In order to evaluate the future potential benefits of emission regulation on regional air quality, while taking into account the effects of climate change, off-line air quality projection simulations are driven using weather forcing taken from regional climate models. These regional models are themselves driven by simulations carried out using global climate models (GCM) and economical scenarios. Uncertainties and biases in climate models introduce an additional "climate modeling" source of uncertainty that is to be added to all other types of uncertainties in air quality modeling for policy evaluation. In this article we evaluate the changes in air quality-related weather variables induced by replacing reanalyses-forced by GCM-forced regional climate simulations. As an example we use GCM simulations carried out in the framework of the ERA-interim programme and of the CMIP5 project using the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace climate model (IPSLcm), driving regional simulations performed in the framework of the EURO-CORDEX programme. In summer, we found compensating deficiencies acting on photochemistry: an overestimation by GCM-driven weather due to a positive bias in short-wave radiation, a negative bias in wind speed, too many stagnant episodes, and a negative temperature bias. In winter, air quality is mostly driven by dispersion, and we could not identify significant differences in either wind or planetary boundary layer height statistics between GCM-driven and reanalyses-driven regional simulations. However, precipitation appears largely overestimated in GCM-driven simulations, which could significantly affect the simulation of aerosol concentrations. The identification of these biases will help interpreting results of future air quality simulations using these data. Despite these, we conclude that the identified differences should not lead to major difficulties in using GCM-driven regional climate simulations for air quality projections.
Regional climate model performance in the Lake Victoria basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Karina; Chamberlain, Jill; Buontempo, Carlo; Bain, Caroline
2015-03-01
Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world, plays a crucial role in the hydrology of equatorial eastern Africa. Understanding how climate change may alter rainfall and evaporation patterns is thus of vital importance for the economic development and the livelihood of the region. Regional rainfall distribution appears, up to a large extent, to be controlled by local drivers which may be not well resolved in general circulation model simulations. We investigate the performance over the Lake Victoria basin of an ensemble of UK Met Office Hadley Centre regional climate model (HadRM3P) simulations at 50 km, driven by five members of the Hadley Centre global perturbed-physics ensemble (QUMP). This is part of the validation of an ensemble of simulations that has been used to assess the impacts of climate change over the continent over the period 1950-2099. We find that the regional climate model is able to simulate a lake/land breeze over Lake Victoria, which is a significant improvement over the driving global climate model and a vital step towards reproducing precipitation characteristics in the region. The local precipitation correlates well with large-scale processes in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, which is in agreement with observations. We find that the spatial pattern of precipitation in the region and the diurnal cycle of convection is well represented although the amount of rainfall over the lake appears to be overestimated in most seasons. Reducing the observational uncertainty in precipitation over the lake through future field campaigns would enable this model bias to be better quantified. We conclude that increasing the spatial resolution of the model significantly improves its ability to simulate the current climate of the Lake Victoria basin. We suggest that, despite the higher computational costs, the inclusion of a model which allows two-way interactions between the lake and its surroundings should be seriously considered for
Strategies for Measuring Wind Erosion for Regional Scale Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youssef, F.; Visser, S.; Karssenberg, D.,; Slingerland, E.; Erpul, G.; Ziadat, F.; Stroosnijder, L.
2012-04-01
Windblown sediment transport is mostly measured at field or plot scale due to the high spatial variability over the study area. Regional scale measurements are often limited to measurements of the change in the elevation providing information on net erosion or deposition. For the calibration and validation of regional scale wind erosion models insight in windblown mass fluxes at the regional scale is essential. The objective of this research is to develop a measurement strategy that provides insight in regional scale windblown mass fluxes, and observational data that can be used to calibrate and validate a regional scale wind erosion model. So far, equipment for direct observation of windblown mass fluxes at the regional scale does not exist. Instead, to retrieve insight into mass transport at the regional scale information needs to be collected on mass fluxes at various land use types found in the region, and information on the effects of the borders between present land uses. This information can be combined by using model units of the size of arable fields in a regional scale model in order to predict the mass flux and soil loss at the regional scale. Here, we use a portable plot strategy to maximize the total number of measurement plots with limited equipment, time and budget. Measurements on windblown mass transport were executed at 17 plots in agricultural stability zones 4 and 5 in Khanasser valley, Syria in 2009 and 2010. At each plot 16 MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment catchers were installed. In addition to the sediment catchers, a full metrological station to record wind regime, temperature and relative humidity was installed at each plot during the measurement period. The results of this research show that with the strategy of portable equipment installed on different plots, information on mass transport for different land uses in the region can be obtained. Consequently, this knowledge is adequate to be used for calibration and validation of a
The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model
Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon
1996-09-01
The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.
2013-05-01
The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States
Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington
Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin
2010-05-05
Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in
Diagnostic Modeling of PAMS VOC Observation on Regional Scale Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Liu, T.; Chen, T.; Ou Yang, C.; Wang, J.; Chang, J. S.
2008-12-01
While a number of gas-phase chemical mechanisms, such as CBM-Z, RADM2, SAPRC-07 had been successful in studying gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes they all used some lumped organic species to varying degrees. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) has been in use for over ten years and yet it is not clear how the detailed organic species measured by PAMS compare to the lumped model species under regional-scale transport and chemistry interactions. By developing a detailed mechanism specifically for the PAMS organics and embedding this diagnostic model within a regional-scale transport and chemistry model we can then directly compare PAMS observation with regional-scale model simulations. We modify one regional-scale chemical transport model (Taiwan Air Quality Model, TAQM) by adding a submodel with chemical mechanism for interactions of the 56 species observed by PAMS. This submodel then calculates the time evolution of these 56 PAMS species within the environment established by TAQM. It is assumed that TAQM can simulate the overall regional-scale environment including impact of regional-scale transport and time evolution of oxidants and radicals. Therefore we can scale these influences to the PAMS organic species and study their time evolution with their species-specific source functions, meteorological transport, and chemical interactions. Model simulations of each species are compared with PAMS hourly surface measurements. A case study located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan showed that with wind speeds lower than 3 m/s, when meteorological simulation is comparable with observation, the diurnal pattern of each species performs well with PAMS data. It is found that for many observations meteorological transport is an influence and that local emissions of specific species must be represented correctly. At this time there are still species that cannot be modeled properly. We suspect this is mostly due to lack of information on local
A transformer of closely spaced pulsed waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niedra, J.
1970-01-01
Passive circuit, using diodes, transistors, and magnetic cores, transforms the voltage of repetitive positive or negative pulses. It combines a pulse transformer with switching devices to effect a resonant flux reset and can transform various pulsed waveforms that have a nonzero average value and are relatively cosely spaced in time.
A multi-channel waveform digitizer system
Bieser, F.; Muller, W.F.J. )
1990-04-01
The authors report on the design and performance of a multichannel waveform digitizer system for use with the Multiple Sample Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) Detector at the Bevalac. 128 channels of 20 MHz Flash ADC plus 256 word deep memory are housed in a single crate. Digital thresholds and hit pattern logic facilitate zero suppression during readout which is performed over a standard VME bus.
Processing Waveforms as Trees for Pattern Recognition.
1986-05-01
patterns (after Ganong (15]) 5.7 ECG Classification As in the previous example, waveforms were simulated with additive colored gaussian noise. In order to...Principles and Techniques- (AAPG Course Note Series 13), Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Tulsa, OK,p. 86, (1984). [15] W. F. Ganong , Review of Medical Physiology. Lange, Los Altos, CA. pp. 393-408, (1973). /
Matter effects on binary neutron star waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, Jocelyn S.; Baiotti, Luca; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Friedman, John L.; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Markakis, Charalampos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke
2013-08-01
Using an extended set of equations of state and a multiple-group multiple-code collaborative effort to generate waveforms, we improve numerical-relativity-based data-analysis estimates of the measurability of matter effects in neutron-star binaries. We vary two parameters of a parametrized piecewise-polytropic equation of state (EOS) to analyze the measurability of EOS properties, via a parameter Λ that characterizes the quadrupole deformability of an isolated neutron star. We find that, to within the accuracy of the simulations, the departure of the waveform from point-particle (or spinless double black-hole binary) inspiral increases monotonically with Λ and changes in the EOS that did not change Λ are not measurable. We estimate with two methods the minimal and expected measurability of Λ in second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors. The first estimate using numerical waveforms alone shows that two EOSs which vary in radius by 1.3 km are distinguishable in mergers at 100 Mpc. The second estimate relies on the construction of hybrid waveforms by matching to post-Newtonian inspiral and estimates that the same EOSs are distinguishable in mergers at 300 Mpc. We calculate systematic errors arising from numerical uncertainties and hybrid construction, and we estimate the frequency at which such effects would interfere with template-based searches.
Waveform Selectivity at the Same Frequency
Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Anzai, Daisuke; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Gao, Fei; Kim, Sanghoon; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic properties depend on the composition of materials, i.e. either angstrom scales of molecules or, for metamaterials, subwavelength periodic structures. Each material behaves differently in accordance with the frequency of an incoming electromagnetic wave due to the frequency dispersion or the resonance of the periodic structures. This indicates that if the frequency is fixed, the material always responds in the same manner unless it has nonlinearity. However, such nonlinearity is controlled by the magnitude of the incoming wave or other bias. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish different incoming waves at the same frequency. Here we present a new concept of circuit-based metasurfaces to selectively absorb or transmit specific types of waveforms even at the same frequency. The metasurfaces, integrated with schottky diodes as well as either capacitors or inductors, selectively absorb short or long pulses, respectively. The two types of circuit elements are then combined to absorb or transmit specific waveforms in between. This waveform selectivity gives us another degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves in various fields including wireless communications, as our simulation reveals that the metasurfaces are capable of varying bit error rates in response to different waveforms. PMID:25866071
Bootstrapping GEE models for fMRI regional connectivity.
D'Angelo, Gina M; Lazar, Nicole A; Zhou, Gongfu; Eddy, William F; Morris, John C; Sheline, Yvette I
2012-12-01
An Alzheimer's fMRI study has motivated us to evaluate inter-regional correlations during rest between groups. We apply generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to test for differences in regional correlations across groups. Both the GEE marginal model and GEE transition model are evaluated and compared to the standard pooling Fisher-z approach using simulation studies. Standard errors of all methods are estimated both theoretically (model-based) and empirically (bootstrap). Of all the methods, we find that the transition models have the best statistical properties. Overall, the model-based standard errors and bootstrap standard errors perform about the same. We also demonstrate the methods with a functional connectivity study in a healthy cognitively normal population of ApoE4+ participants and ApoE4- participants who are recruited from the Adult Children's Study conducted at the Washington University Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, D.; Moore, R. C.
2012-12-01
Dual-beam ELF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter are used to investigate the dependence of the generated ELF wave magnitude on HF power, HF frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location. During the experiments, two HF beams transmit simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere at ELF frequencies while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF wave generation. We report experimental results for different ambient ionospheric conditions, and we interpret the observations in the context of a newly developed dual-beam HF heating model. A comparison between model predictions and experimental observations indicates that the theoretical model includes the essential physics involved in multifrequency HF heating of the lower ionosphere. In addition to the HF transmission parameters mentioned above, the model is used to predict the dependence of ELF wave magnitude on the polarization of the CW beam and on the modulation frequency of the modulated beam. We consider how these effects vary with ambientD-region electron density and electron temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.
2014-12-01
We present a high-resolution 3D crustal model of Eastern Venezuela from a full waveform inversion adjoint tomography technique, based on the spectral-element method. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of Rayleigh waves from ambient noise interferometry serve as the observed waveforms. Rayleigh wave signals in the period range of 10 - 50 s were extracted by cross-correlations of 48 stations from both Venezuelan national seismic network and the BOLIVAR project array. The synthetic Green's functions (SGFs) are calculated with an initial regional 3D shear wave model determined from ballistic Rayleigh wave tomography from earthquake records with periods longer than 20 s. The frequency-dependent traveltime time misfits between the SGFs and EGFs are minimized iteratively using adjoint tomography = to refine 3D crustal structure [Chen et al. 2014]. The final 3D model shows lateral shear wave velocity variations that are well correlated with the geological terranes within the continental interior. In particular, the final model reveals low velocities distributed along the axis of the Espino Graben, indicating that the graben has a substantially different crustal structure than the rest of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. We also observe high shear velocities in the lower crust beneath some of the subterranes of the Proterozoic-Archean Guayana Shield.
THE HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF THE COMETARY COMPACT H ii REGION
Zhu, Feng-Yao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Jiang-Shui E-mail: zhuqf@ustc.edu.cn E-mail: jzwang@shao.ac.cn
2015-10-10
We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultracompact H ii regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a 40.9/21.9 M{sub ⊙} star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense (n = 8000 cm{sup −3}) molecular material with a stellar velocity of 15 km s{sup −1}. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne ii] 12.81 μm and H{sub 2} S(2) lines from the ionized regions and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell are mainly due to the expansion of the H ii region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell simply reflects the motion of the dense shell with respect to the star. These differences can be used to distinguish two sets of models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, H.; Kojima, H.; Fukuhara, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.
2012-04-01
Plasma wave is one of the most essential physical quantities in the solar terrestrial physics. The role of plasma wave receiver onboard satellites is to detect plasma waves in space with a good signal to noise ratio. There are two types of plasma wave receivers, the sweep frequency analyzer and the waveform capture. While the sweep frequency analyzer provides plasma wave spectra, the waveform capture obtains waveforms with phase information that is significant in studying nonlinear phenomena. Antenna sensors to observe electric fields of the plasma waves show different features in plasmas from in vacuum. The antenna impedances have specific characteristics in the frequency domain because of the dispersion of plasmas. These antenna impedances are expressed with complex number. We need to know not only the antenna impedances but also the transfer functions of plasma wave receiver's circuits in order to calibrate observed waveforms precisely. The impedances of the electric field antennas are affected by a state of surrounding plasmas. Since satellites run through various regions with different plasma parameters, we precisely should measure the antenna impedances onboard spacecraft. On the contrary, we can obtain the plasma density and by measuring the antenna impedances. Several formulas of the antenna impedance measurement system were proposed. A synchronous detection method is used on the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which will be launched in 2014. The digital data are stored in the onboard memory. They are read out and converted to the analog waveforms by D/A converter. They are fed into the input of the preamplifiers of antenna sensors through a resistor. We can calculate a transfer function of the circuit by applying the synchronous detection method to the output waveform from waveform receivers and digital data as a signal source. The size of this system is same as an A5 board. In recent years, Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centella-Artola, Abel; Taylor, Michael A.; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Martinez-Castro, Daniel; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Vichot, Alejandro
2015-04-01
This study investigates the sensitivity of the one-way nested PRECIS regional climate model (RCM) to domain size for the Caribbean region. Simulated regional rainfall patterns from experiments using three domains with horizontal resolution of 50 km are compared with ERA reanalysis and observed datasets to determine if there is an optimal RCM configuration with respect to domain size and the ability to reproduce important observed climate features in the Caribbean. Results are presented for the early wet season (May-July) and late wet season (August-October). There is a relative insensitivity to domain size for simulating some important features of the regional circulation and key rainfall characteristics e.g. the Caribbean low level jet and the mid summer drought (MSD). The downscaled precipitation has a systematically negative precipitation bias, even when the domain was extended to the African coast to better represent circulation associated with easterly waves and tropical cyclones. The implications for optimizing modelling efforts within resource-limited regions like the Caribbean are discussed especially in the context of the region's participation in global initiatives such as CORDEX.
Waveform calibration strategies for a small-footprint laser scanner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roncat, Andreas; Wagner, Wolfgang; Melzer, Thomas; Ullrich, Andreas
2008-10-01
Waveform calibration is a crucial task in the processing of full-waveform laser scanner data. In most cases, there is a non-linear relationship between the "raw" waveform data stored by the sensor system and the actual input power. However, to establish standardized methods for the post processing of waveform data, input data related linearly to the power input are required. For some commercially available systems, this problem is handled by using a look-up table (LUT) as a transfer function from the "raw" amplitude (stored by the sensor system) of the peaks of the waveforms to their actual amplitude. Since the transformation is only valid for the peaks of the waveform, the question arises how this transformation would perturbate the shape (i.e. position, width and amplitude) of a backscattered laser pulse if applied to the whole waveform. This paper discusses the effects of the use of such non-linear transfer functions on complex laser scanner waveforms.
Mergers of Black-Hole Binaries with Aligned Spins: Waveform Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
"We apply our gravitational-waveform analysis techniques, first presented in the context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [1], to the complementary case of equal-mass spinning black-hole binary systems. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform modes phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous model of the binary system as an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission - an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-merger model for the rotational frequency introduced in [1], along with a new mode amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, plus or minus 2) modes. We demonstrate that this seven-parameter model performs well in matches with the original numerical waveform for system masses above - 150 solar mass, both when the parameters are freely fit, and when they are almost completely constrained by physical considerations."
Tropical deforestation: Modeling local- to regional-scale climate change
Henderson-Sellers, A.; Durbidge, T.B.; Pitman, A.J. ); Dickinson, R.E. ); Kennedy, P.J. ); McGuffie, K. )
1993-04-20
The authors report results from a model study using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (Version 1) general circulation model to assess the impact of regional scale deforestation on climate change. In the model a large parcel in the Amazon basin is changed from tropical rain forest to scrub grassland. Impacts can include adding CO[sub 2] to the atmosphere by biomass burning, increasing surface albedo, changing precipitation and evaporation rates, impacting soil moisture, and general weather patterns. They compare their model results with earlier work which has looked at this same problem.
NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.
TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.
2004-07-05
For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.
Exploring the limiting timing resolution for large volume CZT detectors with waveform analysis
Meng, L.J.; He, Z.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a study for exploring the limiting timing resolution that can be achieved with a large volume 3-D position sensitive CZT detector. The interaction timing information was obtained by fitting the measured cathode waveforms to pre-defined waveform models. We compared the results from using several different waveform models. Timing resolutions, of ~9.5 ns for 511 keV full-energy events and ~11.6 ns for all detected events with energy deposition above 250 keV, were achieved with a detailed modeling of the cathode waveform as a function of interaction location and energy deposition. This detailed modeling also allowed us to derive a theoretical lower bound for the error on estimated interaction timing. Both experimental results and theoretical predications matched well, which indicated that the best timing resolution achievable in the 1 cm3 CZT detector tested is ~10 ns. It is also showed that the correlation between sampled amplitudes in cathode waveforms is an important limiting factor for the achievable timing resolution. PMID:28260808
Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination
Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A
2003-07-18
Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and
The Regional Nature of Global Challenges. A Need and Strategy for Integrated Regional Modeling
Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.
2013-01-31
In this paper, we explore the regional nature of global environmental challenges. We take a broad approach by examining the scientific foundation that is needed to support policy and decision making and identifying some of the most important barriers to progress that are truly scale-dependent. In so doing, we hope to show that understanding global environmental changes requires understanding a number of intrinsically regional phenomena, and that successful decision making likewise requires an integrated approach that accounts for a variety of regional Earth system processes—which we define to include both human activities and environmental systems that operate or interact primarily at sub-continental scales. Understanding regional processes and phenomena, including regional decision-making processes and information needs, should thus be an integral part of the global change research agenda. To address some of the key issues and challenges, we propose an integrated regional modeling approach that accounts for the dynamic interactions among physical, ecological, biogeochemical, and human processes and provides relevant information to regional decision makers and stakeholders.
SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2006-12-01
Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.
Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.
2007-09-01
Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.
The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan
With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.
Assimilation of Satellite Data in Regional Air Quality Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnider, Richard T.; Norris, William B.; Casey, Daniel; Pleim, Jonathan E.; Roselle, Shawn J.; Lapenta, William M.
1997-01-01
In terms of important uncertainty in regional-scale air-pollution models, probably no other aspect ranks any higher than the current ability to specify clouds and soil moisture on the regional scale. Because clouds in models are highly parameterized, the ability of models to predict the correct spatial and radiative characteristics is highly suspect and subject to large error. The poor representation of cloud fields from point measurements at National Weather Services stations and the almost total absence of surface moisture availability observations has made assimilation of these variables difficult to impossible. Yet, the correct inclusion of clouds and surface moisture are of first-order importance in regional-scale photochemistry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruton, Christopher Patrick
Earthquakes and seismicity have long been used to monitor volcanoes. In addition to the time, location, and magnitude of an earthquake, the characteristics of the waveform itself are important. For example, low-frequency or hybrid type events could be generated by magma rising toward the surface. A rockfall event could indicate a growing lava dome. Classification of earthquake waveforms is thus a useful tool in volcano monitoring. A procedure to perform such classification automatically could flag certain event types immediately, instead of waiting for a human analyst's review. Inspired by speech recognition techniques, we have developed a procedure to classify earthquake waveforms using artificial neural networks. A neural network can be "trained" with an existing set of input and desired output data; in this case, we use a set of earthquake waveforms (input) that has been classified by a human analyst (desired output). After training the neural network, new sets of waveforms can be classified automatically as they are presented. Our procedure uses waveforms from multiple stations, making it robust to seismic network changes and outages. The use of a dynamic time-delay neural network allows waveforms to be presented without precise alignment in time, and thus could be applied to continuous data or to seismic events without clear start and end times. We have evaluated several different training algorithms and neural network structures to determine their effects on classification performance. We apply this procedure to earthquakes recorded at Mount Spurr and Katmai in Alaska, and Uturuncu Volcano in Bolivia. The procedure can successfully distinguish between slab and volcanic events at Uturuncu, between events from four different volcanoes in the Katmai region, and between volcano-tectonic and long-period events at Spurr. Average recall and overall accuracy were greater than 80% in all three cases.
Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model
2009-01-01
The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.
Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model
2009-01-01
The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.
Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.
2000-07-14
Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the
Improving a regional model using reduced complexity and parameter estimation
Kelson, Victor A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haitjema, Henk M.
2002-01-01
The availability of powerful desktop computers and graphical user interfaces for ground water flow models makes possible the construction of ever more complex models. A proposed copper-zinc sulfide mine in northern Wisconsin offers a unique case in which the same hydrologic system has been modeled using a variety of techniques covering a wide range of sophistication and complexity. Early in the permitting process, simple numerical models were used to evaluate the necessary amount of water to be pumped from the mine, reductions in streamflow, and the drawdowns in the regional aquifer. More complex models have subsequently been used in an attempt to refine the predictions. Even after so much modeling effort, questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of the predictions remain. We have performed a new analysis of the proposed mine using the two-dimensional analytic element code GFLOW coupled with the nonlinear parameter estimation code UCODE. The new model is parsimonious, containing fewer than 10 parameters, and covers a region several times larger in areal extent than any of the previous models. The model demonstrates the suitability of analytic element codes for use with parameter estimation codes. The simplified model results are similar to the more complex models; predicted mine inflows and UCODE-derived 95% confidence intervals are consistent with the previous predictions. More important, the large areal extent of the model allowed us to examine hydrological features not included in the previous models, resulting in new insights about the effects that far-field boundary conditions can have on near-field model calibration and parameterization. In this case, the addition of surface water runoff into a lake in the headwaters of a stream while holding recharge constant moved a regional ground watershed divide and resulted in some of the added water being captured by the adjoining basin. Finally, a simple analytical solution was used to clarify the GFLOW model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, C.; Winter, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Schweitzer, J.
2017-03-01
The birefringence of core-refracted shear waves (e.g. SKS or SKKS) is often used to study seismic anisotropy in the Earth. However, depth resolution and multilayer anisotropy is generally poor for many regions on Earth. This is primarily due to SKS or SKKS phases that are not observable for different backazimuths either because of missing seismicity at the required distance range or because of a too low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We propose a new method called Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Waveforms (SIMW), which allows the joint inversion of multiple core-refracted shear waves from different earthquakes within the same source region, observed by either the same seismic station or by a seismic network. The waveforms are concatenated into a combined signal, which is then inverted with the Silver & Chan method to determine the two splitting parameters: time delay δt, and fast polarization direction Φ. We apply our method to recordings at the large aperture Norwegian NORSAR Array and the German Gräfenberg array (GRF). Our results demonstrate that SIMW allows a stable determination of splitting results for low-amplitude or noisy SKS signals. Splitting parameter uncertainties can be reduced and reliable results are obtained for both arrays. Moreover, new backazimuth directions can be explored, enabling a more accurate derivation of two-layer anisotropy models. Our new methodology is particularly helpful for temporary station deployments with limited recording times in order to utilize as many as possible signals including such with low-amplitude and small SNR.
Optical waveform generation using a directly modulated laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartledge, John C.; Karar, Abdullah S.; Roberts, Kim
2013-10-01
The capability of a directly modulated laser (DML) can be dramatically enhanced through precise control of the drive current waveform based on digital signal processing (DSP) and a digital-to-analog convertor (DAC). In this paper, a novel method to pre-compensate fiber dispersion for metro and regional networks is described for a bit rate of 10.709 Gb/s using a DML. A look-up table (LUT) for the drive current is optimized for dispersion mitigation. The entries of the LUT are determined based on the effects of the DML adiabatic and transient chirp on pulse propagation, the nonlinear mapping between the input current and the output optical power, and the bandwidth of the DML package. A DAC operating at 2 samples per bit (21.418 GSa/s with 6 bit resolution) con