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Sample records for regional wildfire plumes

  1. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  2. Evolution of brown carbon in wildfire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrister, Haviland; Liu, Jiumeng; Scheuer, Eric; Dibb, Jack; Ziemba, Luke; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Anderson, Bruce; Diskin, Glenn; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Palm, Brett B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J.

    2015-06-01

    Particulate brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere absorbs light at subvisible wavelengths and has poorly constrained but potentially large climate forcing impacts. BrC from biomass burning has virtually unknown lifecycle and atmospheric stability. Here, BrC emitted from intense wildfires was measured in plumes transported over 2 days from two main fires, during the 2013 NASA SEAC4RS mission. Concurrent measurements of organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) mass concentration, BC coating thickness, absorption Ångström exponent, and OA oxidation state reveal that the initial BrC emitted from the fires was largely unstable. Using back trajectories to estimate the transport time indicates that BrC aerosol light absorption decayed in the plumes with a half-life of 9 to 15 h, measured over day and night. Although most BrC was lost within a day, possibly through chemical loss and/or evaporation, the remaining persistent fraction likely determines the background BrC levels most relevant for climate forcing.

  3. Chemistry and processes of aerosols at Mt. Bachelor, a high elevation site in the Pacific Northwest U.S.: influences from regional transport and wildfire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S.; Zhou, S.; Hee, J.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO; 43.9794° N, 121.6885° W, altitude 2,763 m asl)) has been used for 10 years to study wildfire impacts on CO, O3, aerosols and other pollutants in the free troposphere. In the summer of 2013, we deployed an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at the summit of MBO to obtain high resolution data on the chemical composition of aerosols, with an emphasis on biomass burning aerosols, as part of the DOE sponsored Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). A main goal of BBOP is to study the downwind time evolution of the microphysical, morphological, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosol generated by biomass burning (BB). MBO is an ideal location for studying remote and high elevation aerosol and the location allows for free tropospheric air masses to be sampled during the night and air coming from the boundary layer during daytime. Our ground-based measurements are also complimentary to simultaneous aircraft BB plume measurements. Our observations indicate a dynamic variation in the chemical composition and physical properties of aerosols with repeatable diurnal patterns. Periods of low particulate matter (PM) loading show distinctly oxidized organic aerosol (OA) with oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O/C) reaching above 1 as well as containing an ammonium sulfate fraction of up to 50% of submicron aerosol (PM1) mass. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is also present during low loading periods, which, together with an aerosol size distribution characteristic of a droplet accumulation mode centered at 500-600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter (Dva), suggests that aqueous-phase processing plays an important role in the regional aerosol sampled at this site. During these same measurements, contrasting periods of higher loading and markedly different characteristics have been observed due to effects from injection of wildfire plumes into air masses transported to MBO

  4. Polarimetric and Multi-Doppler Radar Observations of Electrified and Unelectrified Wildfire Smoke Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multiple- Doppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification - a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a threedimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in high-altitude regions (10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), 0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (0.6-0.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multiple-Doppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multiple-Doppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities < 25 dBZ, differential reflectivity > 5 dB, correlation < 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by ice-based processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. The results demonstrate the scientific value of multiple-Doppler and polarimetric radar observations of wildfire smoke plumes - including the ability to distinguish between regions of pure hydrometeors, regions of pure ash, and mixtures of both - and also suggest a possible new application

  5. A review of approaches to estimate wildfire plume injection height within large scale atmospheric chemical transport models - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Freitas, S. R.; Martin, M. Val

    2015-03-01

    Landscape fires produce smoke containing a very wide variety of chemical species, both gases and aerosols. For larger, more intense fires that produce the greatest amounts of emissions per unit time, the smoke tends initially to be transported vertically or semi-vertically close by the source region, driven by the intense heat and convective energy released by the burning vegetation. The column of hot smoke rapidly entrains cooler ambient air, forming a rising plume within which the fire emissions are transported. This characteristics of this plume, and in particular the height to which it rises before releasing the majority of the smoke burden into the wider atmosphere, are important in terms of how the fire emissions are ultimately transported, since for example winds at different altitudes maybe quite different. This difference in atmospheric transport then may also affect the longevity, chemical conversion and fate of the plumes chemical consituents, with for example very high plume injection heights being associated with extreme long-range atmospheric transport. Here we review how such landscape-scale fire smoke plume injection heights are represented in larger scale atmospheric transport models aiming to represent the impacts of wildfire emissions on component of the Earth system. The use of satellite Earth observation (EO) data is commonly used for this, and detail the EO datasets capable of being used to remotely assess wildfire plume height distributions and the driving characteristics of the causal fires. We also discus both the physical mechanisms and dynamics taking place in fire plumes, and investigate the efficiency and limitations of currently available injection height parameterizations. Finally, we conclude by suggestion some future parameterization developments and ideas on EO data selection that maybe relevant to the instigation of enhanced methodologies aimed at injection height representation.

  6. A review of approaches to estimate wildfire plume injection height within large-scale atmospheric chemical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Freitas, S.; Martin, M. Val

    2016-01-01

    Landscape fires produce smoke containing a very wide variety of chemical species, both gases and aerosols. For larger, more intense fires that produce the greatest amounts of emissions per unit time, the smoke tends initially to be transported vertically or semi-vertically close by the source region, driven by the intense heat and convective energy released by the burning vegetation. The column of hot smoke rapidly entrains cooler ambient air, forming a rising plume within which the fire emissions are transported. The characteristics of this plume, and in particular the height to which it rises before releasing the majority of the smoke burden into the wider atmosphere, are important in terms of how the fire emissions are ultimately transported, since for example winds at different altitudes may be quite different. This difference in atmospheric transport then may also affect the longevity, chemical conversion, and fate of the plumes chemical constituents, with for example very high plume injection heights being associated with extreme long-range atmospheric transport. Here we review how such landscape-scale fire smoke plume injection heights are represented in larger-scale atmospheric transport models aiming to represent the impacts of wildfire emissions on component of the Earth system. In particular we detail (i) satellite Earth observation data sets capable of being used to remotely assess wildfire plume height distributions and (ii) the driving characteristics of the causal fires. We also discuss both the physical mechanisms and dynamics taking place in fire plumes and investigate the efficiency and limitations of currently available injection height parameterizations. Finally, we conclude by suggesting some future parameterization developments and ideas on Earth observation data selection that may be relevant to the instigation of enhanced methodologies aimed at injection height representation.

  7. A study of algorithm to detect wildfire with edge of smoke plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mototani, I.; Kimura, K.; Honma, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recent years, huge wildfires occur in many part of the world. And some researches have proceeded to improve wildfire detection with satellite imagery. Dozier (1981) developed the method that detects hotspot pixel by comparing the pixel with adjacent pixels. After that, Threshold method based on Dozier's approach and Contextual Method using relationship among neighbor pixels were appeared. But each of these algorithms needs more improvement in accuracy. In this study, we formulate a new algorithm with the edges of smoke plumes based on the rule of fire pixels match the origin of smoke plumes, and validate with the truth data. In this algorithm, MODIS band 1 (visible red) is extracted and smoke plumes are accented by histogram stretching. The edges of smoke plumes are extracted. Edge pixels that consist of fire smoke plumes are approximated by least squares method. Finally, the origins of the smoke plumes are determined and fire pixels are detected by the threshold approach. Our method, however, contain a problem that hotspot area shapes often a rectangle under the condition of not so high threshold temperature. In the results of this algorithm applied, it is found that it is easy to detect fire when clouds are not so thick and when smoke shape is visible clearly. On the other hand, false alarms along are detected along coast line and at the high refraction areas on a glacier, cirrocumulus clouds and so on. In addition, excessive detections increase in the low latitude because brightness temperature is raised by sunlight reflection. The wildfires in Alaska were detected well with our method. To validate this result, it is compared with the observational data and the common detection method. The Alaska Fire History Data (AFHD) is observed by Alaska Fire Service frequently, and the AFHD is offered as GIS data. On the other hand, MOD14 is one of the most famous and common methods to detect wildfire. It is calculated easily by MODIS data. Its accuracy rate to detect fire

  8. Arizona Wildfire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    article title:  Wildfire in Arizona     View larger image ... plume on June 3, 2011 from the wildfires currently raging in Arizona. It is overlaid on an image captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging ...

  9. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  10. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate. PMID:27398804

  11. Development and optimization of a wildfire plume rise model based on remote sensing data inputs - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Freitas, S. R.; Schultz, M. G.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning is one of a relatively few natural processes that can inject globally significant quantities of gases and aerosols into the atmosphere at altitudes well above the planetary boundary layer, in some cases at heights in excess of 10 km. The "injection height" of biomass burning emissions is therefore an important parameter to understand when considering the characteristics of the smoke plumes emanating from landscape scale fires, and in particular when attempting to model their atmospheric transport. Here we further extend the formulations used within a popular 1D plume rise model, widely used for the estimation of landscape scale fire smoke plume injection height, and develop and optimise the model both so that it can run with an increased set of remotely sensed observations. The model is well suited for application in atmospheric Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) aimed at understanding smoke plume downstream impacts, and whilst a number of wildfire emission inventories are available for use in such CTMs, few include information on plume injection height. Since CTM resolutions are typically too spatially coarse to capture the vertical transport induced by the heat released from landscape scale fires, approaches to estimate the emissions injection height are typically based on parametrizations. Our extensions of the existing 1D plume rise model takes into account the impact of atmospheric stability and latent heat on the plume up-draft, driving it with new information on active fire area and fire radiative power (FRP) retrieved from MODIS satellite Earth Observation (EO) data, alongside ECMWF atmospheric profile information. We extend the model by adding an equation for mass conservation and a new entrainment scheme, and optimise the values of the newly added parameters based on comparison to injection heights derived from smoke plume height retrievals made using the MISR EO sensor. Our parameter optimisation procedure is based on a twofold approach

  12. Signatures of Biomass Burning Aerosols in the Plume of a Saltmarsh Wildfire in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Myers-Pigg, Allison N; Griffin, Robert J; Louchouarn, Patrick; Norwood, Matthew J; Sterne, Amanda; Cevik, Basak Karakurt

    2016-09-01

    The most conventional and abundant tracers of biomass combustion in aerosol particles include potassium and biomarkers derived from thermally altered cellulose/hemicellulose (anhydrosugars) and lignin (methoxyphenols). However, little is known of the role biomass combustion plays as a particulate source of major plant polymers to the atmosphere. Here, concentrations of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and methoxyphenols are compared to the yields of polymeric lignin oxidation products (LOPs) during a smoke plume event in Houston, Texas. Downwind aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected surrounding a two-day wildfire in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, 125 km southeast of Houston, which was 12-16 h directly downwind during the peak of the burn. Concentrations of all organic markers, potassium, and calcium increased by a factor of 2-13 within 1-2 days of the start of the fire and dropped to prefire levels 3 days after the peak event. Source signatures of anhydrosugars and methoxyphenols during the peak of the plume were identical to those of grass charcoals collected from the site, confirming the use of charcoals as end-members for source input reconstruction during atmospheric transport. An enrichment factor of 20 in the anhydrosugar to methoxyphenol ratio of aerosols versus charcoals can be explained partially by differences in degradation rate constants between the biomarker groups. LOPs comprised 73-91% of all lignin material in the aerosols, pointing to fires as major sources of primary biogenic aerosol particles in which lignin phenols occur predominantly in polymeric form. PMID:27462728

  13. Signatures of Biomass Burning Aerosols during a Smoke Plume Event from a Saltmarsh Wildfire in South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchouarn, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Norwood, M. J.; Sterne, A. M. E.; Karakurt Cevik, B.

    2014-12-01

    The most conventional and abundant tracers of biomass combustion in aerosol particles include potassium and biomarkers derived from thermally altered cellulose/hemicellulose (anhydrosugars) and lignin (methoxyphenols). However, little is known of the role of biomass combustion as a particulate source of major plant polymers to the atmosphere. Here, concentrations of "free" (solvent-extractable) anhydrosugars and methoxyphenols are compared to the yields of polymeric lignin oxidation products (LOPs) during a smoke plume event in Houston, Texas. Downwind aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected prior to, during, and following a two-day wildfire event that burned ~5,000 acres of a spartina saltmarsh ecosystem in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, 125 km southeast of Houston. In addition, charcoals of the burned plants were collected within a week of the fire at the wildfire site. HYSPLIT modeling shows that Houston was directly downwind of this wildfire during the peak of the burn, with an approximate travel time from source to aerosol sampling site of 12-16 hrs. Concentrations of all organic markers, K+, and Ca2+ jumped by a factor of 2-13 within 1-2 days of the start of the fire and dropped to pre-fire levels three days after the peak event. Source signatures of anhydrosugars and free methoxyphenols during the peak of the plume were identical to those of grass charcoals collected from the site, confirming the potential use of charcoals as endmembers for source input reconstruction during atmospheric transport. An enrichment factor of 20 in the anhydrosugar to methoxyphenol ratio of aerosols vs. charcoals can partially be explained by differences in degradation rate constants between the two biomarker groups. Polymeric LOP comprised 73-91% of all lignin material in the aerosols, pointing to fires as major sources of primary biogenic aerosol particles and confirming an earlier study that lignin phenols in atmospheric particles occur predominantly in polymeric form.

  14. Spatial Surface PM2.5 Concentration Estimates for Wildfire Smoke Plumes in the Western U.S. Using Satellite Retrievals and Data Assimilation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Health effects studies of aerosol pollution have been extended spatially using data assimilation techniques that combine surface PM2.5 concentrations and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from satellite retrievals. While most of these models were developed for the dark-vegetated eastern U.S. they are being used in the semi-arid western U.S. to remotely sense atmospheric aerosol concentrations. These models are helpful to understand the spatial variability of surface PM2.5concentrations in the western U.S. because of the sparse network of surface monitoring stations. However, the models developed for the eastern U.S. are not robust in the western U.S. due to different aerosol formation mechanisms, transport phenomena, and optical properties. This region is a challenge because of complex terrain, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, secondary organic aerosol formation, smoke from wildfires, and low background aerosol concentrations. This research concentrates on the use and evaluation of satellite remote sensing to estimate surface PM2.5 concentrations from AOD satellite retrievals over California and Nevada during the summer months of 2012 and 2013. The aim of this investigation is to incorporate a spatial statistical model that uses AOD from AERONET as well as MODIS, surface PM2.5 concentrations, and land-use regression to characterize spatial surface PM2.5 concentrations. The land use regression model uses traditional inputs (e.g. meteorology, population density, terrain) and non-traditional variables (e.g. FIre Inventory from NCAR (FINN) emissions and MODIS albedo product) to account for variability related to smoke plume trajectories and land use. The results will be used in a spatially resolved health study to determine the association between wildfire smoke exposure and cardiorespiratory health endpoints. This relationship can be used with future projections of wildfire emissions related to climate change and droughts to quantify the expected health impact.

  15. Regional modeling of large wildfires under current and potential future climates in Colorado and Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Amanda; Kumar, Sunil; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Regional analysis of large wildfire potential given climate change scenarios is crucial to understanding areas most at risk in the future, yet wildfire models are not often developed and tested at this spatial scale. We fit three historical climate suitability models for large wildfires (i.e. ≥ 400 ha) in Colorado andWyoming using topography and decadal climate averages corresponding to wildfire occurrence at the same temporal scale. The historical models classified points of known large wildfire occurrence with high accuracies. Using a novel approach in wildfire modeling, we applied the historical models to independent climate and wildfire datasets, and the resulting sensitivities were 0.75, 0.81, and 0.83 for Maxent, Generalized Linear, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, respectively. We projected the historic models into future climate space using data from 15 global circulation models and two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Maps from these geospatial analyses can be used to evaluate the changing spatial distribution of climate suitability of large wildfires in these states. April relative humidity was the most important covariate in all models, providing insight to the climate space of large wildfires in this region. These methods incorporate monthly and seasonal climate averages at a spatial resolution relevant to land management (i.e. 1 km2) and provide a tool that can be modified for other regions of North America, or adapted for other parts of the world.

  16. Ozone enhancement in Western U.S. wildfire plumes at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory: The Role of NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylon, Leo Miguel Paolo M.

    We looked at 19 wildfire events that were observed in the summers of 2012 (July 22 -- September 20) and 2013 (July 12 -- August 30) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.7 km a.s.l.), a mountaintop site located in central Oregon. Fire events were identified based on the following criteria: 5-minute ambient aerosol scattering ≥ 20 Mm-1 for at least two hours; 5-minute CO ≥ 150 ppbv for at least two hours; strong correlation (R2 ≥ 0.70) between aerosol scattering and CO; and backward trajectories consistently indicating transport over fire spots. We identified wildfire plumes using enhancement ratios (DeltaY/DeltaX), which we calculated for each plume by taking the Reduced Major Axis linear regression slope of various species. We reported the calculated enhancement ratios and explored their variation with source distance. We measured NOx at MBO during Summer 2012 and 2013 using a two-channel chemiluminescence instrument manufactured by Air Quality Design, Inc. The instrument has been used at MBO previously. During 2012, average summertime NO sensitivities in the NO and NOx channels were 2.7 and 2.2 counts per second (cps)/pptv, respectively. Average summertime NO2 sensitivity in the NOx channel was 0.7 cps/pptv. These values correspond to NO and NO 2 detection limits of 15 pptv and 35 pptv, respectively. During 2013, a different ozone generator was used. Average summertime NO sensitivities in the NO and NOx channels were 4.0 and 3.5 cps/pptv, respectively. Average NO2 sensitivity in the NOx channel was 0.9 cps/pptv. These correspond to detection limits of 7 pptv for NO and 30 pptv for NO2. We observed a negative correlation between DeltaO3/DeltaCO and DeltaNOx/DeltaNOy (r = -0.72). This showed that the degree of NOx oxidation is a key predictor of ozone production. The highest DeltaNOx/DeltaNOy (0.57 pptv/pptv) was associated with ozone loss (ozone titration). Low DeltaNOx/DeltaNOy values (ranging from 0.049 to 0.15 pptv/pptv) are generally associated with

  17. Viejas Wildfire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    More than 2,000 firefighters continue to battle the 'Viejas Wildfire' which has consumed more than 11,000 acres in the dry, mountainous region just east of San Diego, California. Authorities there believe the blaze may have been started on Wednesday, January 3, by a cigarette thrown from a car on Interstate 8. Shifty winds with gusts of up to 65 miles per hour helped fan and quickly spread the flames. Late Wednesday, eyewitnesses reported seeing thick smoke and dime-sized bits of ash blowing toward downtown San Diego, prompting health officials there to warn residents with respiratory conditions to take necessary precautions. Parts of other communities, such as Alpine, have been evacuated to avoid the rapidly spreading flames. Firefighters estimate that the Viejas Fire, named after a nearby Native American reservation, will be contained by late Saturday, January 6. This image of the wildfire was acquired on January 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The scene shows the wildfire and smoke plume from the Alpine region, east of San Diego. This false-color image was generated using a combination of MODIS' thermal infrared data, at 1-kilometer resolution, along with two of the sensor's 500-meter resolution visible channels. These data were acquired via direct broadcast by the SeaSpace TeraScan SX-EOS receiving station at SeaSpace Corporation in Poway, California. The image was processed, Earth-located and enhanced using TeraScan software. Image courtesy Dave Brooks, SeaSpace Corporation

  18. Elemental abundances variations in plume and interplume regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, Chloé; Savin, Daniel; Hahn, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Plumes are relatively bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Extensive coronal measurements show abundances anomalies in the solar corona, in which elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV are enhanced relative to the high FIP elements. Remote sensing spectroscopic measurements show that interplume regions have a photospheric composition. In contrast, the elemental composition of plume material is still unclear, previous spectroscopic measurements have reached contradictory results as to whether the elemental abundances in plumes are the same as or different from interplume regions. In this work, we measured the FIP bias, i.e. the ratio of coronal to photospheric abundances, in both interplumes and plumes using Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data. Using spectral line intensities and Differential Emission Measure analysis, we assess the chemical composition of plumes and interplumes over an ~24 hour period in March, 2007. We find that some plumes do show different elemental abundances relative to interplumes. Moreover, the abundance anomaly in plumes is time dependent. If previous studies observed plumes at different stages in their evolution, this time dependence may explain the lack of consistency among previous results. Our work on plume and interplume elemental composition may also enable in situ measurements to answer the longstanding question of whether plumes contribute to the fast solar wind, which originates from coronal holes.

  19. Measurement of Black Carbon Particles and their Mixing State in Wildfire Plumes from New Mexico: Aged Whitewater Baldy Complex in 2012 and Fresh Las Conchas in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 50% of black carbon (BC) aerosols come from wildfires and are estimated to contribute up to ~0.6 W/m2 warming of the atmosphere globally. Organic carbon (OC) from fires condenses and/or mixes with BC resulting in an overall lower forcing of 0.03 ± 0.12 Wm-2 from biomass burning. However, this reduction depends strongly on the composition of the carbonaceous aerosols and on the mixing state of OC and BC. Detailed model treatments and laboratory measurements indicate that a BC core coated with a non-absorbing OC layer enhances absorption with a positive climate forcing. However, the real-time identification of the coating on this internally mixed BC in the field has only recently become detectable with the analysis of lag times between the scattering and incandescence signals in measurements from the single particle soot photometer (SP2). While fully coated BC has a positive lag time (cBC) in the SP2 data, BC that is located near the surface (nsBC) is associated with a negative lag time (Sedlacek et al. 2012). We investigate BC mixing states in concentrated wildfire plumes from the two largest wildfires in New Mexico's history with different ages. Plumes from the Las Conchas (LC) Fire, a wildfire that occurred in July-August of 2011 and burned ~157K acres, were sampled in the near-field after only a few hours of aging. Older plumes from the Whitewater Baldy (WB) Fire (May-June, 2012) that burned ~300K acres were sampled from further afield with an aging period of 7-9 hours. We find up to 23% of the internally mixed BC to be nsBC in the older WB plume. The nsBC fraction is smaller for the relatively fresh LC plume. Figure 1 shows %nsBC versus plume age as a conceptual framework of increasing %nsBC with age for the wildfire data shown here. SP2 results are corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of single particles collected on nuclepore membranes that clearly show the shifts in morphology. Furthermore

  20. Global and regional analysis of climate and human drivers of wildfire.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Murray, Steven J; Cornell, Sarah E

    2011-08-15

    Identifying and quantifying the statistical relationships between climate and anthropogenic drivers of fire is important for global biophysical modelling of wildfire and other Earth system processes. This study used regression tree and random forest analysis on global data for various climatic and human variables to establish their relative importance. The main interactions found at the global scale also apply regionally: greatest wildfire burned area is associated with high temperature (> 28 °C), intermediate annual rainfall (350-1100 mm), and prolonged dry periods (which varies by region). However, the regions of highest fire incidence do not show clear and systematic behaviour. Thresholds seen in the regression tree split conditions vary, as do the interplay between climatic and anthropogenic variables, so challenges remain in developing robust predictive insight for the most wildfire-threatened regions. Anthropogenic activities alter the spatial extent of wildfires. Gross domestic product (GDP) density is the most important human predictor variable at the regional scale, and burned area is always greater when GDP density is minimised. South America is identified as a region of concern, as anthropogenic factors (notably land conversions) outweigh climatic drivers of wildfire burned area.

  1. Hydrothermal plumes in the NE Lau basin: A regional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for mineral resources and the presence of an extensive plume of excess 3He centered at 1750 m water depth in the Samoa-Tonga-Fiji region (Lupton, 2004) have motivated exploration for active hydrothermal vent sites in the NE Lau basin during the past decade. The region is tectonically complex with back-arc spreading centers, rift zones, and volcanic centers, all of which potentially host active venting and/or active volcanism. To date, 400 km of the three back-arc spreading centers in the NE Lau basin (FRSC, Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center; MTJ, Mangatolu Triple Junction; and NELSC, Northeastern Lau Spreading Center) plus several volcanic centers have been systematically surveyed for hydrothermal plumes using towed CTD or MAPR arrays that include both optical backscatter and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) sensors. The FRSC, where spreading rates range from 47 mm/a in the south to 85 mm/a in the north, has 5 active sites (plume depths ranging from 1300-2200 m) distributed one every ~40 km over its 200 km length. There is evidence for 4 active sites (plume depths range from 1950-2380 m) along the 150 km combined length of the MTJ segments, however plumes were optically weak (dNTU < 0.02) and except for one location along the northeastern limb, no ORP anomalies were detected. Plumes were observed off-axis to the MTJ at a bathymetric high adjacent to the northeastern limb (1700 m) as well as over the summit of a cratered volcanic edifice east of the central junction (1200-1300 m). The southern segment of the NELSC was the site of an active eruption in 2008 which injected event plumes throughout the water column (900-1600 m depth range) in addition to the chronic plume from the Maka massive sulfide vent site (1500 m). There is evidence for at least two additional active areas along the northern segments of the NELSC (1800-1900 m). Several volcanoes in the region are hydrothermally active ranging from the northernmost volcano on the Tonga arc (Niua

  2. Analyzing and Projecting U.S. Wildfire Potential Based on NARCCAP Regional Climate Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Mearns, L. O.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfires usually ignite and spread under hot, dry, and windy conditions. Wildfires, especially catastrophic mega-fires, have increased in recent decades in the United States and other parts of the world. Among the converging factors were extreme weather event such as extended drought. Furthermore, climate has been projected to become warmer worldwide and drier with more frequent droughts in many subtropical and mid-latitude regions including parts of the U.S. due to the greenhouse effect. As a result, wildfires are expected to increase in the future. This study analyzes current features and project future trends of wildfire potential in the continental United States. Fire potential is measured by fire indices including the Keetch-Byram Drought Index and Fosberg Fire Weather Index. The meteorological data used to calculate the fire indices are the dynamical downscaling produced by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Current fire potential generally increases from the eastern to western coast and from cool to warm season. Fire potential has large seasonal and inter-annual variability and spatial connections. Fire potential has shown overall increasing trends in recent decades. The trends are projected to continue this century due to the greenhouse effect. Future fire potential will increase significantly in the Rocky Mountains all seasons and in the Southeast during summer and autumn. Future climate change will also reduce the windows of prescribed burning, which is one of the forest management tools for reducing wildfire risks. The research results are expected to provide useful information for assessing the ecological, environmental, and social impacts of future wildfires and developing mitigation strategies.

  3. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  4. Can increased biomass offset carbon release from permafrost region soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert elicitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. W.; Jones, J.; Schuur, E. A.; Bowden, W. B.; Chapin, F. S., III; Epstein, H. E.; Flannigan, M.; Harms, T.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Tank, S. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Vonk, J.; Wickland, K.

    2013-12-01

    As the permafrost region warms, up to 288 Pg carbon (CO2 equivalent) may be released from soil by the end of the century, and up to 616 Pg by 2300. This soil carbon can be released to the atmosphere directly via mineralization or wildfire, or enter aquatic ecosystems as dissolved or particulate organic or inorganic carbon. Some models predict an increase in Arctic and boreal living biomass in response to extended growing season, enhanced nutrient cycling, and CO2 fertilization, but we have a poor understanding of how the production of new biomass will compare with loss of carbon from permafrost thaw. We administered surveys to permafrost region experts to assess current understanding of the magnitude and timing of biomass accumulation, hydrologic carbon flux, and wildfire carbon losses. Surveys addressed three time periods (present to 2040, 2100, and 2300) and four warming scenarios based on IPCC representative concentration pathways. Estimates of change in biomass and fire losses were provided individually for the boreal forest and arctic tundra. Experts estimated changes in carbon delivery to freshwater ecosystems as well as delivery to the ocean, including carbon release due to coastal erosion, fluxes infrequently captured in high-latitude models. Initial expert estimates indicated that while tundra biomass would increase substantially, total permafrost region biomass would decrease by the end of the century due to boreal forest drying and browning, followed by a modest increase by 2300 due to vegetation community shifts. Changes in aquatic systems could release an additional 2.7 Pg carbon by 2100 and 7.3 Pg by 2300. Modified wildfire regime could cause the release of an additional 13.6 Pg carbon by 2100 and 51.7 Pg by 2300. Current expert understanding therefore suggests that carbon gains in high-latitude biomass will be orders of magnitude smaller than carbon loss from permafrost soils and that hydrologic and wildfire pathways of carbon loss will likely

  5. Numerical investigations in the backflow region of a vacuum plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1995-01-01

    Four tasks were completed in this period and results were published in AIAA papers. First, a Boltzmann-2D code, was developed and applied to compute MSFC-A2 nozzle/plume flow field. It solved the two-dimensional Boltzmann-BGK equation using the Finite Difference Discrete Ordinate (FDDO) numerical technique. The code was validated by experimental data for one-dimensional shock structure predictions, paper 95-2056. Successful results for nozzle/plume flow simulation using the developed Boltzmann-2D code were presented at the 1995 AIAA Aerospace Science Conference, paper 95-0627. Second, a computer code solving two-dimensional Burnett equations was developed and applied to low-density nozzle flow field calculation. Results were also published at the 1994 AIAA Thermophysics Conference, paper 94-2055. Third, the developed two-dimensional Burnett code was extended to compute axisymmetric flow field inside MSFC-A2 nozzle, paper 95-2008. The computed nozzle exit conditions are used as input data for Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) plume calculation. Fourth, a DSMC code was modified to compute the exhausted plume near the nozzle exit and in the backflow region.

  6. Numerical investigations in the backflow region of a vacuum plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1995-08-01

    Four tasks were completed in this period and results were published in AIAA papers. First, a Boltzmann-2D code, was developed and applied to compute MSFC-A2 nozzle/plume flow field. It solved the two-dimensional Boltzmann-BGK equation using the Finite Difference Discrete Ordinate (FDDO) numerical technique. The code was validated by experimental data for one-dimensional shock structure predictions, paper 95-2056. Successful results for nozzle/plume flow simulation using the developed Boltzmann-2D code were presented at the 1995 AIAA Aerospace Science Conference, paper 95-0627. Second, a computer code solving two-dimensional Burnett equations was developed and applied to low-density nozzle flow field calculation. Results were also published at the 1994 AIAA Thermophysics Conference, paper 94-2055. Third, the developed two-dimensional Burnett code was extended to compute axisymmetric flow field inside MSFC-A2 nozzle, paper 95-2008. The computed nozzle exit conditions are used as input data for Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) plume calculation. Fourth, a DSMC code was modified to compute the exhausted plume near the nozzle exit and in the backflow region.

  7. Investigating the Impacts of Wildfires on Air Quality in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Clements, C. B.; Gore, W.; Lareau, N.; Quayle, B.; Ryoo, J. M.; Schroeder, W.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire emissions are an important source of a wide range of trace gases and particles that can impact local, regional and global air quality, climate forcing, biogeochemical cycles and human health. In the western US, wildfires dominate over prescribed fires. However, limited sampling of wildfire emissions means western US emission estimates rely largely on data from prescribed fires, which may not be a suitable proxy for wildfire emissions. Further, interactions of wildfire emissions with urban pollution, commonly the case with California wildfires, are complex and poorly understood. The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) sampled a variety of Californian wildfire plumes during 2013 and 2014. In addition to wildfire plumes, flights sample upwind, background conditions allowing for an assessment of enhancement ratios of trace gas species (carbon dioxide, methane and ozone). This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple trace constituents downwind of a variety of Californian wildfires, with a focus on the exceptionally large Yosemite Rim wildfire during summer 2013. During its intense burning phases, the Rim wildfire was sampled by AJAX on 29 August as well as by the NASA DC-8, as part of its SEAC4RS mission, on 26 and 27 August. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when it had reached its smoldering phase. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of the AJAX payload (e. g. carbon monoxide). The emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency are compared with previous wildfire studies. Integration of AJAX data with other available datasets, such as SEAC4RS, Lidar data from the California State University Mobile Atmospheric Profiling System (CSU-MAPS), MODIS/VIIRS Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and surface ozone and meteorology measurements is explored to assess the impacts of wildfires on downwind air quality including the densely populated California central

  8. Modeling the Complex Photochemistry of Biomass Burning Plumes in Plume-Scale, Regional, and Global Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Travis, K.; Fischer, E. V.; Lin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the impacts of biomass burning (BB) plumes on air quality is difficult due to the complex photochemistry that takes place in the concentrated young BB plumes. The spatial grid of global and regional scale Eulerian models is generally too large to resolve BB photochemistry, which can lead to errors in predicting the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and O3, as well as the partitioning of NOyspecies. AER's Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1) can be used within plume-scale Lagrangian models to simulate this complex photochemistry. We will present results of validation studies of the ASP model against aircraft observations of young BB smoke plumes. We will also present initial results from the coupling of ASP v2.1 into the Lagrangian particle dispersion model STILT-Chem in order to better examine the interactions between BB plume chemistry and dispersion. In addition, we have used ASP to develop a sub-grid scale parameterization of the near-source chemistry of BB plumes for use in regional and global air quality models. The parameterization takes inputs from the host model, such as solar zenith angle, temperature, and fire fuel type, and calculates enhancement ratios of O3, NOx, PAN, aerosol nitrate, and other NOy species, as well as organic aerosol (OA). We will present results from the ASP-based BB parameterization as well as its implementation into the global atmospheric composition model GEOS-Chem for the SEAC4RS campaign.

  9. Interactions between boreal wildfire and urban emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, Keith J.; Zhao, Yongjing; Johnston, Murray V.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2008-04-01

    A suite of particulate, gaseous and meteorological measurements during the Pittsburgh Supersite experiment were used to characterize the impact of the 2002 Quebec wildfires on pollutant concentrations and physical and chemical processes dominant in the region. Temporal trends in the number distribution of wildfire particles (isolated using Rapid Single-ultrafine-particle Mass Spectrometry data) combined with CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios identified two separate periods (Periods I and II) when the measurement site was directly impacted by plumes of relatively unprocessed wildfire emissions; i.e., increases in primary ultrafine wildfire particles, CO and NOx concomitant with a decrease in O3 from intraplume NOx titration. Carbonaceous particle number distributions predominantly associated with vehicular emissions, PM2.5 sulfate mass concentration and SO2 mixing ratio resolved individual components of local and regional sources. Single particle signatures indicated a period of intense atmospheric processing following Period II that caused rapid growth of the ultrafine mode due to simultaneous sulfate and secondary organic mass accumulation, resulting in significant changes to particle physical and chemical properties. Particle growth was concurrent with large increases in O3 and maxima in incoming solar radiation and ambient temperature and is posited to have occurred in situ as the air mass, containing a mixture of urban and wildfire emissions, was advected past the site. In total, the current work demonstrates significant added severity for pollution episodes in an area already burdened by large anthropogenic emission rates due to the impact of the 2002 Quebec wildfires. High levels of atmospheric processing increased sulfate accumulation and SOA formation and brought PM2.5 mass concentrations close to, and O3 mixing ratios in excess of, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Projections of increasing wildfire activity under a warming climate may increase the

  10. Measurement of trace gases and organic compounds in the smoke plume from a wildfire in Penedono (central Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Ana; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Nunes, Teresa; Mirante, Fátima; Evtyugina, Margarita; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-09-01

    Gas and particulate fractions were measured simultaneously from a wildfire in Penedono, central Portugal, which occurred in summer 2009. The total volatile hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon oxides (CO 2 and CO) collected in Tedlar bags were measured using automatic analysers with flame ionisation and non-dispersive infrared detectors, respectively. Carbonyls (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were sampled from the Tedlar bags in DNHP cartridges and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) smoke particles were collected sequentially, on pre-fired quartz fibre filters, with a portable high-volume sampler. The detailed speciation of organic compounds in smoke samples was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The organic and elemental carbon content of particulate matter was analysed by a thermal-optical transmission technique. Average emission factors of 1.86 ± 0.80 and 0.063 ± 0.066 g kg -1 (dry basis) were obtained for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, respectively. The THC, CO, CO 2, PM 2.5, PM 10, OC and EC emission factors (g kg -1 fuel burned, dry basis) were 260 ± 88, 268 ± 92, 1200 ± 172, 37 ± 12.2, 40 ± 12.6, 21 ± 6.7 and 0.44 ± 0.21, respectively. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, ketones, steroids, di- and triterpenoids, PAHs, with retene as the major compound, oxygenated PAH and anhydrosugars.

  11. Application of wildfire spread and behavior models to assess fire probability and severity in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, Michele; Arca, Bachisio; Bacciu, Valentina; Spano, Donatella; Duce, Pierpaolo; Santoni, Paul; Ager, Alan; Finney, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the spatial pattern of large fire occurrence and severity is an important feature of the fire management planning in the Mediterranean region. The spatial characterization of fire probabilities, fire behavior distributions and value changes are key components for quantitative risk assessment and for prioritizing fire suppression resources, fuel treatments and law enforcement. Because of the growing wildfire severity and frequency in recent years (e.g.: Portugal, 2003 and 2005; Italy and Greece, 2007 and 2009), there is an increasing demand for models and tools that can aid in wildfire prediction and prevention. Newer wildfire simulation systems offer promise in this regard, and allow for fine scale modeling of wildfire severity and probability. Several new applications has resulted from the development of a minimum travel time (MTT) fire spread algorithm (Finney, 2002), that models the fire growth searching for the minimum time for fire to travel among nodes in a 2D network. The MTT approach makes computationally feasible to simulate thousands of fires and generate burn probability and fire severity maps over large areas. The MTT algorithm is imbedded in a number of research and fire modeling applications. High performance computers are typically used for MTT simulations, although the algorithm is also implemented in the FlamMap program (www.fire.org). In this work, we described the application of the MTT algorithm to estimate spatial patterns of burn probability and to analyze wildfire severity in three fire prone areas of the Mediterranean Basin, specifically Sardinia (Italy), Sicily (Italy) and Corsica (France) islands. We assembled fuels and topographic data for the simulations in 500 x 500 m grids for the study areas. The simulations were run using 100,000 ignitions under weather conditions that replicated severe and moderate weather conditions (97th and 70th percentile, July and August weather, 1995-2007). We used both random ignition locations

  12. Effects of wildfire, rainfall and region on desert lizard assemblages: the importance of multi-scale processes.

    PubMed

    Pastro, Louise A; Dickman, Christopher R; Letnic, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Vertebrate populations are influenced by environmental processes that operate at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Wildfire is a disturbance that can affect vertebrate populations across large spatial scales, although vertebrate responses are frequently influenced by processes operating at smaller spatial scales such as topography, interspecific interactions and regional history. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad-scale wildfire on lizard assemblages in a desert region. We predicted that a rainfall gradient within the region affected by the wildfire would influence lizard responses to the fire by encouraging post-fire succession to proceed more rapidly in high-rainfall areas, and would be enabled in turn by more rapid vegetation recovery. To test our prediction, we censused lizards, measured rainfall, undertook vegetation surveys and sampled invertebrate abundance across burnt and unburnt habitat ecotones within three regional areas situated along a gradient of long-term annual rainfall. Lizard diversity was not affected by fire or region and lizard abundance was influenced only by region. Lizard assemblage composition was also only influenced by region, but this did not relate to differences in rainfall or habitat as we had predicted. Regional differences in lizard assemblages related instead to food availability. The observed differences also likely reflected regional differences in the strength of biotic interactions with predators and changes in land use. Our study shows that assemblage responses to a disturbance were not uniform within a large desert region and instead were influenced by other environmental processes operating simultaneously at multiple temporal and spatial scales.

  13. The change of soil properties after wildfires in drained peatlands (Moscow region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Tsibart, Anna; Smirnova, Maria; Valentina, Gavrilova; Anna, Kiseleva

    2014-05-01

    The peat fires differ from the forest and grassland fires, because the soil organic matter acts as burning material. The deep peat horizons are heated or burned during smoldering fires, causing the dramatic change in soil properties. But the most of available data are devoted to changes in organo-mineral soils. In addition, the alteration in hydrological regime, for instance drainage, makes landscapes and soils very vulnerable to wildfires. Drained peatlands are widespread in the European part of Russia and they are affected to extreme wildfires of 2010. So there is a need of post-fire peat soils investigations in this region. During current research the soils of drained peatlands of Moscow Region (Russia) subjected to wildfires of 2002 and 2010 were studied. A total of 14 profiles including background and post-pyrogenic histosols and histic podsols were investigated. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm in cases of thick horizons. The morfological properties of soil profiles were studied and the samples were analysed on macroelements content and organic carbon. The total organic carbon contentrations were detected with spectrofotometric method and the concentrations of macroelements were analysed with X-ray fluorescence method. After wildfires on drained peatlands morfological and physico-chemical properties of soils were changed, the horizons of ash (up to 5 cm) and char (up to 3 cm) instead of organic layers were formed. In addition, the plots of post-pirogenic landscape were characterized by high variability of soil properties. For instance, the thickness of organic layer changed from 5 to 30 cm in a small plot of 5X5 m. The changes in element composition were detected. The peat horizons of background histosols had 80-90% of SiO2, 9-5,8% of Al2O3,1,5-5,6% of Fe2O3, 3,7-6,3% of CaO, 0,7-2,8 % of MnO. Background histic podsols contained 88-90% of SiO2, to 4,8% of Al2O3, and the proportion of Fe2O3 and MnO was about 2,3%. After the

  14. Use of a Regional Climate Model to Diagnose Circulation and Surface Climate Controls of Wildfire in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, S. W.; Bartlein, P. J.; Alder, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We explore monthly North American climate and wildfire relationships through joint analysis of a new wildfire data base and climate simulations that we conducted with the RegCM3 regional climate model. We derived the new data base, which covers 1986-2012, by screening and merging the US FPA-FOD, US NIFC and Canadian CNFDB data guided by an analysis that included the examination of "heavy-tailed" statistical distributions (Pareto and tapered Pareto) in order to maximize the number of combined records while minimizing potential irregularities and noise such as over- and under-reporting and spurious data. We associate area burned from lightning-set wildfires, as registered to the start date of the fires, with the simulated atmospheric circulation and the surface water and energy balances at 50 km over NA and at 15 km for 4 sub-regions of NA. Our 50-km results clearly associate the seasonal cycle and spatial distribution of wildfire in the US and Canada with the seasonal cycle of atmospheric circulation and surface climate, in particular to solar and long-wave radiation and latent and sensible heating. We also use the 50-km model output to diagnose the within-season temporal and spatial characteristics of wildfire (e.g., the Northern Rockies versus the Boreal forest) and the characteristics of individual fire years. Over the 15-km sub-regions, we use composite anomalies of the surface water and energy balances to differentiate the spatial and temporal controls of high- and low-fire years and to assess the role of interannual variability in the fire record

  15. Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Randy G. Balice; Jay D. Miller; Brian P. Oswald; Carl Edminster; Stephen R. Yool

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.

  16. Profile distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of drained peatlands after wildfires (Moscow region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna; Gennadiev, Alexander; Koshovskii, Timur; Kovach, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are formed in different natural and anthropogenic processes and could be found in many landscape components. These compounds are carcinogenic and belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The anthropogenic sources of PAHs are well-studied, but insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in natural processes. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAHs sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are on this topic. The soils of drained peatlands affected by catastrophic wildfires of 2010 and 2002 were studied in the Eastern part of Moscow Region (Russia). A total of 14 profiles of histosols and histic podsols were investigated. These series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities and age, as well as soils of the background plots. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 14 prevailing individual compounds: fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, anthracene, tetraphene, benz[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[e]pyrene, coronene, dibenztiophene, triphenilene, benz(k)fluorantene. Morfological properties of soils after wildfires on drained peatlands were changed dramatically, the horizons of ash and char instead of organic layers were formed. These new horizons differ in the capability of PAHs accumulation. The char horizons have the highest concentrations of PAHs - up to 300 ng/g because of incomplete burning of organic matter in this sites, and the ash horizons, where the complete burning occured, contain only 10 ng/g PAHs. The highest concentrations of PAHs in soil profiles were detected after recent fires, and in cases of thick peat layers. After the combustion of peat chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, benz[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benz(k)fluorantene and tetraphene accumulated in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-6-nuclear compounds. The formation of

  17. Observations of the frontal region of a buoyant river plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Chen, Jialin

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the transitional region from the near-field to far-field of a river plume entering coastal waters, we conducted four surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to target the outflow of the New River Inlet, North Carolina, during maximum ebb tide. The utilization of a mobile sensor to synoptically observe current velocity data in tandem with natural river plume tracers (e.g., colored dissolved organic matter, salinity) was essential in understanding the mechanisms driving the observed circulation and mixing patterns within these waters. We find that this region is regularly impacted by two primary processes: (1) the interaction of an old dredged channel plume with the main discharge and (2) the recirculation of the discharge plume by an eddy that persistently forms between the old channel and main discharge location. Wind-driven processes in the nearshore can enhance the interaction of these two plumes resulting in unstable regions where mixing of the merged plume with the receiving waters is accelerated. We also conduct comparisons between AUV velocity observations from two surveys and their corresponding velocity outputs from a parallelized quasi-3-D model. We conclude that the ability to observe the estuarine outflow transitional region at near-synoptic temporal scales and resolutions discussed in this paper is key in providing the mechanisms driving local circulation which is essential for proper parameterization of high-resolution numerical coastal models.

  18. Airborne In-Situ Trace Gas Measurements of Multiple Wildfires in California (2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M.; Gore, W.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Quayle, B.; Schroeder, W.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions are an important source of a wide range of trace gases and particles that can impact local, regional and global air quality, climate forcing, biogeochemical cycles and human health. In the western US, wildfires dominate over prescribed fires, contributing to atmospheric trace gas budgets and regional and local air pollution. Limited sampling of emissions from wildfires means western US emission estimates rely largely on data from prescribed fires, which may not be a suitable proxy for wildfire emissions. We report here in-situ measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapor from the plumes of a variety of wildfires sampled in California in the fire seasons of 2013 and 2014. Included in the analysis are the Rim Fire (August - October 2013, near Yosemite National Park), the Morgan Fire (September 2013, near Clayton, CA), and the El Portal Fire (July - August 2014, in Yosemite National Park), among others. When possible, fires were sampled on multiple days. Emission ratios and estimated emission factors will be presented and discussed in the context of fuel composition, plume structure, and fire phase. Correlations of plume chemical composition to MODIS/VIIRS Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and other remote sensing information will be explored. Furthermore, the role of plumes in delivery of enhanced ozone concentrations to downwind municipalities will be discussed.

  19. Wildfire Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Glenda

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

  20. Characterisation of plumes from the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity within the regional South African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukes, J. P.; Vakkari, V.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Tiitta, P.; Jaars, K.; Pienaar, J. J.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Laakso, L.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction The Johannesburg-Pretoria conurbation in South Africa is inhabited by more than 10 million people, making it one of the 40 largest metropolitan areas in the world. Conurbations of this magnitude have been defined as megacities (Molina and Molina, 2004). However, similar to many developing world megacities, relatively little has been published on the Johannesburg-Pretoria conurbation. Megacities are not only important from a local air quality (health) perspective, but also since they have a global atmospheric impact (Butler and Lawrence, 2009). Approach In this paper, the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region, as well as other source regions in the interior of South Africa was defined, as observed from a relatively new super site for atmospheric measurements (www.welgegund.org) that is located at Welgegund (26°34'10"S, 26° 56'21"E, 1480 m.asl). This site is approximately 70km west of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region. Plumes from the megacity source region arriving at Welgegund were identified via obtaining and overlaying back trajectories for a two year period. The back trajectory arrival times were correlated to in situ measurement to chemically and physically characterize the plumes. The characteristics of the megacity plumes were also compared to plumes from other defined source regions, as well as the regional background. Results Results indicated that the plumes arriving at Welgegund after passing over the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region had much higher concentrations of gaseous pollutant species which include NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO and anthropogenic VOC's, as well as aerosol total organic content, SO42-, NO3- and NH4+, if compared to the regional background. PM1 aerosol absorption (black carbon), scattering and number concentrations indicated similar trends. Comparison of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region with other defined source regions indicated that plumes from the megacity was as polluted as

  1. Regional-residual separation of bathymetry and revised estimates of Hawaii plume flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the temporal variations in the volume flux of a plume can provide useful constraints on geodynamic models of plumes and plume-plate interactions. Furthermore, they can be compared with observations at other plumes and may be analysed further to understand the nature and cause of the variations. The volume plume flux is typically derived from a sum of edifice and compensation root volumes. The former can be obtained via the application of regional-residual separation procedures that split the observed relief into regional (swell) and residual (edifice) components, while the latter is generally inferred from the former using local (Airy) or regional (flexural) compensation models. Most regional-residual techniques used in past studies give non-unique results and provide no estimates of the uncertainty in the separation, which impacts the significance of the results. Here, the optimal robust separator (ORS) method achieves a unique separation for the swell and edifice components of the Hawaiian Ridge and furthermore obtain confidence bounds on the total volume flux. A fast spectral method for plate flexure with different edifice and infill densities is used to determine compensation volumes. Although my flux estimates have assigned confidence bounds, these are much smaller than the flux estimates themselves. A comparison of my new results to published volume flux curves shows that my revised flux estimates are lower by a factor of 2-3. Reproducing the prior higher results demonstrates that these discrepancies appear to be related to shortcomings in the implementation of the methodology used in the separation. The variability in the Hawaiian plume flux occurs at two different time scales: A short (1-2 Myr) periodicity related to the spacing of islands and seamounts, which ultimately is related to plume-plate flexural interactions, and a much longer (10-15 Myr) periodicity that may be related to plate kinematic changes. Superimposed on these trends may

  2. How wild is your model fire? Constraining WRF-Chem wildfire smoke simulations with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pierce, J. R.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Magzamen, S.; Gan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) present during acute pollution events is associated with adverse health effects. While many anthropogenic pollution sources are regulated in the United States, emissions from wildfires are difficult to characterize and control. With wildfire frequency and intensity in the western U.S. projected to increase, it is important to more precisely determine the effect that wildfire emissions have on human health, and whether improved forecasts of these air pollution events can mitigate the health risks associated with wildfires. One of the challenges associated with determining health risks associated with wildfire emissions is that the low spatial resolution of surface monitors means that surface measurements may not be representative of a population's exposure, due to steep concentration gradients. To obtain better estimates of ambient exposure levels for health studies, a chemical transport model (CTM) can be used to simulate the evolution of a wildfire plume as it travels over populated regions downwind. Improving the performance of a CTM would allow the development of a new forecasting framework that could better help decision makers estimate and potentially mitigate future health impacts. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate wildfire plume evolution. By varying the model resolution, meteorology reanalysis initial conditions, and biomass burning inventories, we are able to explore the sensitivity of model simulations to these various parameters. Satellite observations are used first to evaluate model skill, and then to constrain the model results. These data are then used to estimate population-level exposure, with the aim of better characterizing the effects that wildfire emissions have on human health.

  3. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plume of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI project, an intensive campaign was launched in the Greater Paris Region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind the Paris region. Slopes of the plume OA levels vs. Ox (= O3 + NO2) show secondary OA (SOA) formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. Simulated and observed slopes are in good agreement, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields are used in the Volatility-Basis-Set scheme implemented into the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggest that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. Since OA within the plume is mainly formed from anthropogenic precursors (VOC and primary OA, POA), this work allows a specific evaluation of anthropogenic SOA and SOA formed from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatile VOCs (SI-SOA) formation scheme in a model. For specific plumes, this anthropogenic OA build-up can reach about 10 μg m-3. For the average of the month of July 2009, maximum increases occur close to the agglomeration for primary OA are noticed at several tens (for POA) to hundred (for SI-SOA) kilometers of distance from the Paris agglomeration.

  4. The direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe thunderstorm event in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, V.; Männik, A.

    2015-03-01

    On August 8, 2010, a severe derecho type thunderstorm in the Baltic Sea region coincided with smoke from wildfires in Russia. Remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations, with a maximum aerosol optical depth of more than 2 at 550 nm, were observed near the thunderstorm. The impact of the wildfire smoke on the thunderstorm through direct radiative effects was investigated using the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Euromed (HARMONIE) model. HARMONIE was successfully able to resolve the dynamics of the thunderstorm, and simulations that considered the influence of the smoke-related aerosols were compared to simulation without aerosols. As simulated by the HARMONIE model, the smoke reduced the shortwave radiation flux at the surface by as much as 300 W/m2 and decreased the near-surface temperature by as much as 3 °C in the vicinity of the thunderstorm and respectively 100 W/m2 and 1 °C in the thunderstorm region. Atmospheric instability decreased through the direct radiative effect of aerosols, and several dynamic features of the simulated thunderstorm appeared slightly weaker.

  5. The effects of magnetic field in plume region on the performance of multi-cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Peng Liu, Hui Yu, Daren; Gao, Yuanyuan; Mao, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field in the plume region were investigated. Five magnetic field shielding rings were separately mounted near the exit of discharge channel to decrease the strength of magnetic field in the plume region in different levels, while the magnetic field in the upstream was well maintained. The test results show that the electron current increases with the decrease of magnetic field strength in the plume region, which gives rise to higher propellant utilization and lower current utilization. On the other hand, the stronger magnetic field in the plume region improves the performance at low voltages (high current mode) while lower magnetic field improves the performance at high voltages (low current mode). This work can provide some optimal design ideas of the magnetic strength in the plume region to improve the performance of thruster.

  6. The Regional Hydrothermal Helium-3 Plume in the Tonga-Fiji-Samoa Region of the South Pacific: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J. E.; Resing, J. A.; Baker, E. T.; Embley, R. W.; Massoth, G. J.; Arculus, R. J.; Greene, R. R.; Haxel, J. H.; Buck, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    A long hydrographic transect across the Pacific in 1987 detected a curious 3He maximum in the bathymetric gap between the Samoan Islands and the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. The strongest signal reached δ3He = 43% at ~1750 m depth at station TEW-39 (15°S, 173.1°W). By examining additional profiles, Lupton et al. [2003] found that this is a regional plume which extends for over 1000 km to the northwest but is absent at 170°W only 300 km to the east. The magnitude and depth of the plume implies that it is not the distal plume from the East Pacific Rise, which is weaker (δ3He = 28%) and lies at 2500 m depth in this area of the south Pacific. During the past decade, we have used ships of opportunity to collect additional helium profiles in an attempt to define the extent of this plume and identify its source. We re-occupied the 1987 TEW-39 station location in 2004 and 2008, and found the plume to still be present with a similar δ3He signal (38% and 36% respectively) at the same 1750 m depth. Other recent profiles showed that the plume is present all along the northern margin of the Lau Basin over the Tonga Trench between 173°W and 175.5°W with little variation in signal strength. This plume has no detectable signal in temperature, suspended particles, or other hydrothermal properties other than helium. The plume overlies a location so deep (>4000 m) and so distant from active volcanoes that it must be the "far-field" plume from a strong and persistent source. Possible sources include hydrothermal activity in the northern Lau Basin, Machias Seamount, or activity on the flanks of one of the Samoan Islands. While its source remains elusive, it is clear that this helium plume is a major oceanographic feature of the south Pacific which merits further study.

  7. Diurnal variations of wildfire emissions in Europe: analysis of the MODIS and SEVIRI measurements in the framework of the regional scale air pollution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Beekmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Shudyaev, Anton A.; Yurova, Alla; Kuznetsova, Irina N.

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires episodically provide a major contribution to air pollution in many regions of the world. For example, the extreme air pollution level and strongly reduced visibility were observed in the Central European region of Russia during the intensive wildfire events in summer of 2010. Such episodes provide a strong impetus for further developments in air pollution modeling, aimed at improving the ability of chemistry transport models to simulate and predict evolution of atmospheric composition affected by wildfires. The main goals of our study are (1) to investigate the diurnal cycles of air pollutant emissions from wildfires in several European regions, taking into account the fire radiative power (FRP) satellite measurements for different vegetation land cover types and (2) to examine the possibilities of improving air pollution simulations by assimilating the diurnal variability of the FRP measurements performed by the polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (SEVIRI) satellite instruments into a chemistry transport model. These goals are addressed for the case of wildfires occurred in summer 2010. The analysis of both the MODIS and SEVIRI data indicate that air pollutant emissions from wildfires in Europe in summer 2010 were typically much larger during daytime than during nighttime. The important exception is intensive fires around Moscow, featuring an almost "flat" diurnal cycle. These findings confirm the similar results reported earlier [1] but also extend them by attributing the flat diurnal cycle only to forest fires and by examining a hypothetical association of the "abnormal" diurnal cycle of FRP with peat fires. The derived diurnal variations of wildfire emissions have been used in the framework of the modeling system employed in our previous studies of the atmospheric effects of the 2010 Russian wildfires [2, 3]. The numerical experiments reveal that while the character of the diurnal variation of wildfire emissions has a rather small impact on the

  8. Vegetation fires in the himalayan region - Aerosol load, black carbon emissions and smoke plume heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Ellicott, Evan; Giglio, Louis; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Vermote, Eric; Justice, Chris; Lau, William K. M.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential of multi-satellite datasets for quantifying the biomass burning emissions from the Himalayan region. A variety of satellite products were used for characterizing fire events including active fire counts, burnt areas, aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations, aerosol index and smoke plume heights. Results from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire product suggest March-June as the major fire season with the peak during the April. An average of 3908 fire counts per year were recorded with sixty four percent of the fires occurring in the low elevation areas in the Himalayan Region. We estimate average burnt areas of 1129 sq. km, with the black carbon emissions of 431 Mg, per year. The mean AOD (2005-2010) was 0.287 ± 0.105 (one sigma) with peak values in May. Correlation analysis between the fire counts and AOD resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.553; the correlation between the FRP and AOD is relatively weaker ( r = 0.499). Planetary boundary layer height retrieved from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis For Research And Applications (MERRA) product suggests typical PBL height of 1000-1200 m during the April-May peak biomass burning season. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) retrievals show the extent of smoke plume heights beyond the planetary boundary layer during the peak biomass burning month of April. However, comparison of fires in the Himalayan region with other regions and comparisons to aerosol index data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) suggest smoke plumes reaching less than 3 km. Our results on fires and smoke plume height relationships provide valuable information for addressing aerosol transport in the region.

  9. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Varela, J. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART) are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  10. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Varela, J. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART) are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  11. Hurricane interaction with the upper ocean in the Amazon-Orinoco plume region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Halliwell, George; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, Heesook; Mehari, Michael; Atlas, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of three successive hurricanes (Katia, Maria, and Ophelia) is investigated over the river plume area formed by the Amazon and Orinoco river outflows during September of 2011. The study focuses on hurricane impacts on the ocean structure and the ocean feedback influencing hurricane intensification. High-resolution (1/25° × 1/25° horizontal grid) numerical simulations of the circulation in the extended Atlantic Hurricane Region (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Northwest Atlantic Ocean) were used to investigate the upper ocean response during the three hurricane-plume interaction cases. The three hurricanes revealed different evolution and intensification characteristics over an area covered by brackish surface waters. The upper ocean response to the hurricane passages over the plume affected region showed high variability due to the interaction of oceanic and atmospheric processes. The existence of a barrier layer (BL), formed by the offshore spreading of brackish waters, probably facilitated intensification of the first storm (Hurricane Katia) because the river-induced BL enhanced the resistance of the upper ocean to cooling. This effect was missing in the subsequent two hurricanes (Maria and Ophelia) as the eroded BL (due to Katia passage) allowed the upper ocean cooling to be increased. As a consequence, the amount of ocean thermal energy provided to these storms was greatly reduced, which acted to limit intensification. Numerical experiments and analyses, in tandem with observational support, lead to the conclusion that the presence of a river plume-induced BL is a strong factor in the ocean conditions influencing hurricane intensification.

  12. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  13. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Vadrevu, Krishna; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2-5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2-3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources.

  14. Modeling the Emission, Transport, and Dispersion of Post-wildfire Dust from Western Sagebrush Landscapes within a Regional Air Quality Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. H.; Wagenbrenner, N. S.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Millions of hectares are burned by wildfires each year in the western US. The resulting burn scars are extremely wind erodible surfaces with high loadings of easily entrained ash and soil. Previous work has demonstrated that wind erosion from these burn scars can release large amounts of dust and ash as particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere, resulting in large impacts on downwind air quality and visibility. Sagebrush-dominated landscapes, where often essentially all vegetation is consumed by the fire, appear to be particularly vulnerable. Climate change predictions indicate more wildfire activity in the western US and, hence, more potential for wind erosion from burn scars. However, these PM sources are not yet accounted for in regional air quality models. Here we describe a modification to the AIRPACT regional air quality modeling framework for simulating the emission, transport and dispersion of PM from post-wildfire burn scars. We present results from a 2012 sagebrush fire in southeast Oregon as a case study. Modeled PM emission rates and downwind concentrations are compared against observations for two major dust events, one which resulted in exceedances of the PM10 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in Boise, Idaho the month after the fire and another which resulted in a significant dust on snow event and subsequent snowmelt in the Owyhee Mountains of southwest Idaho the following spring. Additionally, we present model estimates of annual emissions from all wildfires that occurred in sagebrush landscapes of the western US during the 2012 fire year as an estimate of annual post-fire PM loading potential.

  15. Evaluation of regionally-collected sideoats grama and big galleta grass for wildfire revegetation in the Eastern Upper Mojave Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased wildfires in the western U.S. are due to the cyclic accumulation and burning of invasive annual plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (B. rubens), which reduces native rangeland species and results in servere economic losses and land degradation. Fire was not prevalent...

  16. Evaluation of regionally-collected sideoats grams and big galleta grass for wildfire revegetation in the Eastern Upper Mojave Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased wildfires in the western U.S. are due to the cyclic accumulation and burning of invasive annual plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (B. rubens), which reduces native rangeland species and results in severe economic losses and land degradation. Fire was not prevalent ...

  17. Seeing through the Smoke: A collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to address the interplay between wildfire, climate, air quality, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Gan, R.; Magzamen, S.; Barnes, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to wildfire smoke plumes represents an episodic, uncertain, and potentially growing threat to public health in the western United States. The area burned by wildfires in this region has increased over recent decades, and the future of fires within this region is largely unknown. Future fire emissions are intimately linked to future meteorological conditions, which are uncertain due to the variability of climate model outputs and differences between representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios. We know that exposure to wildfire smoke is harmful, particularly for vulnerable populations. However the literature on the heath effects of wildfire smoke exposure is thin, particularly when compared to the depth of information we have on the effects of exposure to smoke of anthropogenic origin. We are exploring the relationships between climate, fires, air quality and public health through multiple interdisciplinary collaborations. We will present several examples from these projects including 1) an analysis of the influence of fire on ozone abundances over the United States, and 2) efforts to use a high-resolution weather forecasting model to nail down exposure within specific smoke plumes. We will also highlight how our team works together. This discussion will include examples of the university structure that facilitates our current collaborations, and the lessons we have learned by seeking stakeholder input to make our science more useful.

  18. Understanding ozone formation and the radical budget during oil sands plume transport in the Athabasca region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Li, S. M.; Wang, D. K.; O'brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Liu, P.; Liggio, J.

    2015-12-01

    The sources of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the Alberta oil sands (OS) region have not previously been well characterized. In the summer of 2013, airborne measurements of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2+NO) and ozone were made in the Athabasca OS region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and whole air samples were used to measure VOCs. A box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.3), was constrained by measured chemical species and meteorological parameters and used to simulate the evolution of an OS plume. In doing so, an improved understanding of the chemical factors controlling the radical budget and the evolution of ozone in oil sands plumes is achieved. Our results indicate that approximately 20% of the in-plume generated OH radicals are derived from primary sources (HCHO, O3 and HONO photolysis). The remaining OH is derived from the recycling of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2). The HO2 and alkyl peroxyl radical (RO2) chemistry leads to 35% of the ozone formation in the plume, while the main sink for ozone in the plume was via reactions with alkenes (anthropogenic and biogenic). The results of this work will help to characterize ozone formation and the factors influencing its atmospheric fate in the oil sands region.

  19. Prolonged Effect of Severe Wildfires on Mercury and Other Volatiles in Forest Soils of the Lake Superior Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, W. F.; Woodruff, L. G.

    2003-12-01

    Soils in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan and Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota show spatial patterns of depletion of total Hg, organic C, Se, total S, P, and Pb within areas of severe, stand-replacing wildfires that burned in 1936, approximately 65 years prior to our current study. The fires burned during a regional drought, were of high severity, and likely consumed a high percentage of organic forest-floor material (O-horizon). A "fire factor" is defined by positive correlations among Hg, C, Se, S, P, and Pb. A factor score for this six-element grouping derived from factor analysis was assigned to each sample. The scores show a high spatial correlation with the footprint of the 1936 fires in both parks, particularly for A-horizon soils. Because many of these elements are volatile, and are highly correlated with soil organic matter, observed depletions likely represent instantaneous atmospheric release during combustion of O-horizon soils coupled with decades-long reduction of organic matter on the forest floor and near-surface soils. Nearly complete combustion of the modern O-horizon would release roughly 1 mg Hg/m2 from the forest floor. Decades-long disturbance resulting from destruction of mature forests and gradual regrowth following fire also play an important role in Hg cycling. Destruction of a mature forest results in decreased deposition of Hg from litterfall as well as throughfall, which contributes Hg by wash-off of dry deposited Hg from foliar surfaces. Hg in forest soils may follow a fire-dependent cycle in which sudden Hg loss during fire is followed by a period of continued Hg loss as evasion exceeds sequestration in the early stand-replacement stage, finally to resume gradual buildup in later stages of forest regrowth. In the Lake Superior region this cycle exceeds 65 years in duration and is of the same magnitude as the fire return interval for this region. Forests that are controlled by fire-induced cycles of stand replacement may also be

  20. Regional Trends in Large Wildfires and Climate in the Western U.S., 1984-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Arnold, J.; Moritz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database provides remote sensing-based maps of fire perimeters for all fires larger than 405 ha (1000 acres) in the Western U.S. The database uniquely permits analysis of large fires on all lands, collected using a uniform methodology, for the 1984-2010 period. We used MTBS data to examine changes in the annual number of large fires, total area burned in large fires, large fire size, and day of year of ignition (DOY) for ten ecoregions across the Western U.S. Fire trends were compared to seasonal trends in maximum temperature, precipitation, and Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SCPDSI) derived from monthly PRISM data. In a majority of ecoregions, our analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in the number of large fires and/or total area burned in large fires per year. When all regions were combined, fire occurrence increased at a rate of six large fires per year and total area burned increased at a rate of 274 km2 per year over the 1984-2010 period. Multiple ecoregions demonstrated significant increases in the 90th percentile of large fire size, with trends as high as +3 km2 per year. The 10th percentile of DOY, an indicator of early season large fires, declined in two high elevation ecoregions. This finding agrees with previous research that has observed correlations between earlier snowmelt and increased fire activity at high elevation. Fall maximum temperature trended warmer and SCPDI in all seasons trended drier in the ecoregions with strongest increases in fire activity. At the Western U.S. scale, increases in large fire occurrence and total area burned coincide with increased drought severity over the 1984-2010 period.

  1. MISR observations at dust source regions: 10-year analysis of aerosol properties and plume heights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Sokolik, Irina; Garay, Michael; Wu, Dong

    Multiangle remote sensing, in particular from Terra/MISR, provides a unique, independent source of data for study dust emission and transport. MISR/Terra is an imaging instrument that uses combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol properties and aerosol plume heights. A number of validation studies have shown that MISR provides reliable optical depth values over the bright desert. We use the 10-year aerosol data record from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard the Terra satellite to investigate the inter-annual and seasonal variability of dust loadings and properties as retrieved by MISR at selected dust source regions. In particular, we examine the Taklamakan, East and Central Gobi regions in Asia, and Mauritania desert and Bodélé Basin regions in Africa. Within each ee selected region, the analysis was performed to examine the multi-annual mean and variability of the aerosol optical depth and particle properties, taking into account the effects of MISR sampling and cloud coverage. To avoid the gridding and averaging effects as much as possible we use the instantaneous Level 2 MISR data for the analysis. We use AERONET data and other independent measurements where available to supplement and constrain MISR product. In addition to the optical depth/property analysis, we report 10-year climatology of dust plume heights over Bodélé Basin as function of the distance from the source. We demonstrate that, ee while there are some effects of large-scale dynamics on dust loadings and heights, the various differences in anomaly time series (including month-to-month differences) reveal the role of meso-scale systems specific to the each source region. These source-specific differences provide valuable information for testing/validating the regional dust transport models. The results will be presented and interpreted in the context of atmospheric dynamics variability, including variability of meteorological regimes in dust

  2. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  3. Ammonia and methane dairy emission plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  4. Alfvenicity of Fluctuations Associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in Plume-Interplume Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhi, S.; Suess, S.; Sulkanen, M.

    1999-05-01

    We study the velocity shear between plumes and the interplume flow in coronal holes. We model these plumes as jets (or, strictly speaking, wakes). Weak and strong magnetic fields are considered both inside and outside the jet for a shear Mach number 6. The shear can be unstable and evolve into a new less sheared pattern. As the instability sets in, the jet first develops a cocoon of intermediate speed flow and slowly a bridge develops between upstream and downstream flows. This marks the onset of jet disruption via what appears to be mass entrainment and fluid instability. This could also be induced by the jet's passage through the accompanying fast shock formation. The jet bends upon crossing the oblique shocks because all streamlines bend away from the shock normal. In a short time the downstream flow just ahead of the bending suffers a change in speed but still maintains or reestablishes supersonic conditions somehow. The transverse velocity here is very low because the instability generated in the disturbed region reduces the shear ahead. The shear ultimately must dissipate. The generation of this instability depends both temporally and spatially on the amount of shear and the time needed for nonlinear growth. To analyse the fluctuations quantitatively we perform a time series analysis at various points inside and adjacent to the jet. Specifically we consider points either in the center of the jet or just outside the transition layer- the initial location of the shear layer. We find the fully developed nonlinear fluctuations are more Alfvenic than magnetosonic in the high beta case than in low beta case.

  5. Thermal Structure of Jupiter's Infrared Hotspots and Plumes in the Northern Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Momary, Thomas W.; Giles, Rohini Sara; Melin, Henrik; Sinclair, James; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Vedovato, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The most prominent features of Jupiter's northern equatorial region are the visibly dark, 5-µm-bright 'hotspots' that move rapidly eastward on the southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB, Allison 1990, doi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90069-L). We combine high-resolution thermal-infrared (5-20 µm) imaging from VLT/VISIR and IRTF/SpeX with spatially resolved spectroscopy from IRTF/TEXES to examine the thermal and chemical conditions in the equatorial region during the 2015-2016 apparition. The high spatial resolution permits the first detailed cross-comparison of thermal and visible-albedo conditions within the hotspots. We find that: (i) cloud-clearing within the hotspots creates 8.6-µm bright patches that are broader and more diffuse than their 5-µm counterparts; (ii) cloudy, cool cells ("plumes") in the northern Equatorial Zone are ammonia-rich and dark in the 5- and 8-12 µm range; (iii) the hotspots sometimes demonstrate a westward tilt with altitude in the 0.1-0.8 bar region (Fletcher et al., 2016, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.008); and (iv) blue-grey streaks on the southeastern edges of these ammonia-rich cells are also cloud free and bright at 5-12 µm. This regular longitudinal pattern of cloudy cells and cloud-free hotspots is consistent with condensation of NH3-rich air as it ascends in cells, and subsidence of dry, volatile-depleted air in the hotspots. The westward tilt of the NEB hotspots with height that was detected in 2014 (but not in 2016) supports the equatorial Rossby-wave hypothesis for the NEB pattern. This equatorial wave is distinct from those in the upper troposphere during the 2015-16 NEB expansion event (Orton et al., DPS/EPSC 2016). The cells and hotspots observed in the thermal-IR are the same type as those detected at near-IR wavelengths by Galileo/NIMS (Baines et al. 2002, doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6901) and in the radio, probing the deep atmosphere (de Pater et al., 2016, doi:10.1126/science.aaf2210), suggesting a coherent structure

  6. Assessing ecosystem response to phosphorus and nitrogen limitation in the Pearl River plume using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianping; Lu, Zhongming; Cheung, Anson; Dai, Minhan; Liang, Linlin; Harrison, Paul J.; Zhao, Xiaozheng

    2014-12-01

    The effect of phosphorus limitation on the Pearl River plume ecosystem, where large gradients in both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations exist, is investigated in this process-oriented study by coupling the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model with a new nitrogen, phosphorus, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPPZD) ecosystem model. The results of the N-based only model of Gan et al. (2010) were compared with those of the new NP-based model for the plume. The inclusion of P-limitation noticeably reduces the total phytoplankton production in the plume in the P-limited near and midfield regions of the plume. However, the nitrate in the plume extends farther downstream and forms a broad area of phytoplankton bloom in the N-limited far field. Moreover, it changes the photosynthetically active radiation and strengthens the subsurface chlorophyll maximum in the near and midfields, but weakens it in the far field. A high N:P ratio of ˜120 in the near field decreases quickly to a low N:P ratio of <13.3 in the far field due to a higher N:P consumption ratio and mixing with ambient waters with a lower N:P ratio. Mortality and coagulation acts as major sinks for phytoplankton production in the near and midfield during the developmental stage of the bloom, but grazing gradually becomes the most important sink for phytoplankton production in the entire plume during the mature stage. It was shown that the magnitudes of the difference between the NP-based and N-based cases decrease sequentially for nutrients, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.

  7. Learning to coexist with wildfire.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Max A; Batllori, Enric; Bradstock, Ross A; Gill, A Malcolm; Handmer, John; Hessburg, Paul F; Leonard, Justin; McCaffrey, Sarah; Odion, Dennis C; Schoennagel, Tania; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of escalating wildfire in many regions - the lives and homes lost, the expense of suppression and the damage to ecosystem services - necessitate a more sustainable coexistence with wildfire. Climate change and continued development on fire-prone landscapes will only compound current problems. Emerging strategies for managing ecosystems and mitigating risks to human communities provide some hope, although greater recognition of their inherent variation and links is crucial. Without a more integrated framework, fire will never operate as a natural ecosystem process, and the impact on society will continue to grow. A more coordinated approach to risk management and land-use planning in these coupled systems is needed. PMID:25373675

  8. Learning to coexist with wildfire.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Max A; Batllori, Enric; Bradstock, Ross A; Gill, A Malcolm; Handmer, John; Hessburg, Paul F; Leonard, Justin; McCaffrey, Sarah; Odion, Dennis C; Schoennagel, Tania; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of escalating wildfire in many regions - the lives and homes lost, the expense of suppression and the damage to ecosystem services - necessitate a more sustainable coexistence with wildfire. Climate change and continued development on fire-prone landscapes will only compound current problems. Emerging strategies for managing ecosystems and mitigating risks to human communities provide some hope, although greater recognition of their inherent variation and links is crucial. Without a more integrated framework, fire will never operate as a natural ecosystem process, and the impact on society will continue to grow. A more coordinated approach to risk management and land-use planning in these coupled systems is needed.

  9. Large-scale nitrogen oxide plumes in the tropopause region and implications for ozone

    PubMed

    Brunner; Staehelin; Jeker

    1998-11-13

    Continuous measurements of nitrogen oxide and ozone were performed from a commercial airliner during 1 year at cruising altitudes below and above the tropopause. The upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides distribution was found to be strongly influenced by large-scale plumes extending about 100 to 1300 kilometers along the flight track. The plumes were frequently observed downwind of thunderstorms and frontal systems, which most probably caused upward transport of polluted air from the continental boundary layer or nitrogen oxide production in lightning strokes, or both. Particularly in summer, average ozone concentrations in the plumes were enhanced compared to the tropospheric background levels.

  10. Mapping erosion-sensitive areas after wildfires using fieldwork, remote sensing, and geographic information systems techniques on a regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PéRez-Cabello, F.; de La Riva FernáNdez, J.; Montorio LloveríA, R.; GarcíA-MartíN, A.

    2006-12-01

    Alterations in the hydrological cycle following wildfire due to the loss of ground cover vegetation and changes in soil properties have been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the rapid process of vegetation recovery reduces such negative effects. Vegetation cover before fire, fire severity, and geophysical properties are important factors that control spatial discontinuities involved in the vegetation-covering process. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability of high erosion in order to map erosion-sensitive areas after fire. The analysis was carried out in different plant communities burnt by summer wildfires in the pre-Pyrenean area (Spain). Three-year Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used for mapping wildfire areas and severity levels. Conversion to spectral reflectance has been applied for radiometric correction by normalizing topographic and atmospheric effects. Likewise, other physical variables have also been incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS): vegetation types, parent material, illumination, slope, aspect, and precipitation. The dependent variable has been characterized by means of fieldwork and a photointerpretation process based on high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs taken 11-12 years after the fire. Different logistic regression models have been used for mapping the probability of erosion. Results indicate that prefire normalized difference vegetation index values and aspect are the most important variables for estimating erosion-sensitive areas after fire (Nagelkerke r2 = 0.66; Kappa values = 0.65). Finally, the use of nonparametric models with environmental digital information based on GIS can facilitate the management of burnt areas.

  11. Relative and Absolute Plate Motions, Mantle Plumes and Volcanism in the Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, C.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2012-04-01

    Seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic ocean from Mesozoic until present day involved relative motion between three major tectonic plates: North America, Greenland and Eurasia and a number of microplates. Relative motions between these tectonic plates and movement of northern Pacific terranes since the Jurassic led to the development of the Arctic region as we know it today. Studying the connection between the two realms involve good knowledge of the development of the North Atlantic and Arctic margins and oceanic basins and ideally, model uncertainties. Here we review the kinematics of North Atlantic and asses the implications of different models for locating the plate boundaries in the Arctic. One set of models implies extension before opening of the Eurasia basin and we postulate that this was accommodated in the proximity of Alpha- Mendeleev Ridge. The origin of (mainly) Cretaceous large igneous activity in the central Arctic (the Alpha Mendeleev Ridge) and in the proximity of rifted margins, the so-called HALIP, is still debated. New models of global plate circuits and the connection with deep mantle are used to re-evaluate a possible link between the Arctic volcanism and mantle plumes.

  12. Surface Properties Associated With Dust Storm Plume's Point-Source Locations In The Border Region Of The US And Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiweiss, M. P.; DuBois, D. W.; Flores, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Dust storms in the border region of the Southwest US and Northern Mexico are a serious problem for air quality (PM10 exceedances), health (Valley Fever is pandemic in the region) and transportation (road closures and deadly traffic accidents). In order to better understand the phenomena, we are attempting to identify critical characteristics of dust storm sources so that, possibly, one can perform more accurate predictions of events and, thus, mitigate some of the deleterious effects. Besides the emission mechanisms for dust storm production that are tied to atmospheric dynamics, one must know those locations whose source characteristics can be tied to dust production and, therefore, identify locations where a dust storm is eminent under favorable atmospheric dynamics. During the past 13 years, we have observed, on satellite imagery, more than 500 dust events in the region and are in the process of identifying the source regions for the dust plumes that make up an event. Where satellite imagery exists with high spatial resolution (less than or equal to 250m), dust 'plumes' appear to be made up of individual and merged plumes that are emitted from a 'point source' (smaller than the resolution of the imagery). In particular, we have observed events from the ASTER sensor whose spatial resolution is 15m as well as Landsat whose spatial resolution is 30m. Tying these source locations to surface properties such as NDVI, albedo, and soil properties (percent sand, silt, clay, and gravel; soil moisture; etc.) will identify regions with enhanced capability to produce a dust storm. This, along with atmospheric dynamics, will allow the forecast of dust events. The analysis of 10 events from the period 2004-2013, for which we have identified 1124 individual plumes, will be presented.

  13. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-11-01

    Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help

  14. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  15. Modeling wildfire incident complexity dynamics.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management.

  16. Far-field model of the regional influence of affluent plumes from Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW sub e OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW sub e OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW sub e OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW sub e OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  17. Far-field model of the regional influence of effluent plumes from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  18. Improving the Representation of Near Source and Downwind Smoke Plume Chemistry in Regional and Global Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Travis, K.; Lin, J. C.; McNeill, V. F.; Blake, D. R.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Lee, T.; May, A.; McMeeking, G. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I. J.; Sullivan, A.; Urbanski, S. P.; Weise, D.

    2015-12-01

    The complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentration, size distribution, composition, and optical properties of the fine particles (PM2.5) emitted by the fires, as well as significant formation of ozone (O3) and organic nitrate species like peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) is designed to simulate this chemical evolution of biomass burning plumes under a wide variety of conditions, and can be used to parameterize this chemistry in regional and global air quality models. Here we present ASP simulations of the evolution of biomass burning aerosol from South Carolina prescribed fires in October and November of 2011. This data set contains more detailed measurements of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) in the smoke than the data sets previously used to develop and test ASP, allowing for a more detailed evaluation of the model's gas- and particle-phase chemistry. We also assess the potential impact of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) on the growth of biomass burning aerosols by incorporating the simpleGAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis) model into ASP. Finally, we will discuss our efforts to use the ASP model to build a sub-grid scale parameterization of the near-source chemistry of biomass burning plumes for use in regional and global air quality models, using examples from the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and the stochastic Lagrangian air quality model STILT-Chem.

  19. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    addition to LRT of mineral dust. The chemical compositions of INP were probed directly via TEM imaging. Single particle analyses of residual INP showed that they comprised various C-containing particle types, but with a higher abundance of mineral and metal oxide containing INP in emissions from flaming phase combustion. Fractal soot was found as an INP type comprising up to 60% of collected INP in young smoke emissions from the Georgia prescribed burns. In a series of laboratory combustion experiments, the use of a new instrumental set up, pairing the CFDC with a single particle soot photometer, revealed up to a 60% decrease in active INP after the removal of refractory black carbon from smoke aerosol emitted from a highly flaming burn of wiregrass, supporting that soot particles serve as INP in fire emissions. The presence of soil minerals was clearly evident in TEM images of samples taken during the wildfires in addition to tarballs, carbon balls most commonly associated with aged smoke plumes. These results demonstrate that the ice nucleating particles observed in the wildfires were influenced by other factors not represented in the smoke emitted from the laboratory or prescribed burns. Finally, an INP parameterization was developed based on the temperature dependent relationship between nINP and n500nm, following methods used by previous studies. This parameterization is likely only representative of the Hewlett and High Park wildfires due to the apparent impact of non-biomass-burning aerosol. However, all wildfires are typically associated with vigorous localized convection and arid soils, required for the lofting of the soils and dusts similar to these wildfires. It will be useful to compare future wildfires in various regions to the proposed parameterization. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. An assessment of California wildfire effects on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sermondadaz, S. M.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are a seasonal and recurrent problem in California. In addition to the damage caused each year and their heavy societal cost, wildfires may also have non-negligible effects on air quality. Most current studies usually focus on anthropogenic emissions impacts. Improved knowledge of the fires’ effect on various pollutant species -such as ozone, and ozone precursors, i.e. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds - might be useful and relevant for control strategies and environmental policies. For this purpose, this model study uses the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the effects of fire emissions as a perturbation, through the comparison of simulations performed with and without fire emissions. Emissions, boundaries and meteorological data used in this study are extracted from a severe fire episode in summer 2000. We assess the spread of ozone and its precursor pollutants (CO, NOX, VOC) around specifically chosen fire perimeters. Distribution of air pollutants in both horizontal and vertical dimensions is considered to achieve a better understanding of the pollutant formation and transport along the fire plumes. We assess how far fire emissions influence pollutant concentrations at surface and aloft. The impact of fire emissions depends on the fire size, its location and the meteorology associated with it. Our study provides information on ozone formation and transport caused by fire events, which may have implications for ozone violations in affected regions.

  1. Health impacts of wildfires.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-11-02

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors' focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi - organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events.

  2. Distribution and Fate of Black Carbon Nanoparticles from Regional Urban Pollution and Wildfire at a Large Subalpine Lake in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisiaux, M. M.; Heyvaert, A. C.; Edwards, R.

    2012-04-01

    Emitted to the atmosphere through fire and fossil fuel combustion, refractory black carbon nanoparticles (rBC) impact human health, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and the carbon cycle. Eventually these particles enter aquatic environments, where their distribution, fate and association with other pollutants are still poorly characterized. This study presents results from an evaluation of rBC in the waters of oligotrophic Lake Tahoe and its watershed in the western United States. The study period included a large wildfire within the Tahoe basin, seasonal snowmelt, and a number of storm events that resulted in pulsed urban runoff into the lake with rBC concentrations up to four orders of magnitude higher than mid-lake concentrations. The results show that elevated rBC concentrations from wildfire and urban runoff were rapidly attenuated in the lake, suggesting unexpected aggregation or degradation of the particles that prevent rBC concentrations from building up in the water of this lake, renowned for its clarity. The rBC concentrations were also measured in sediment cores from Lake Tahoe to evaluate the sediment archive as a potential combustion record. The evidence suggests that rBC is efficiently transferred to these sediments, which preserve a local-to-regional scale history of rBC emissions, as revealed by comparison with other pollutant records in the sediment. Rapid removal of rBC soon after entry into the lake has implications for transport of rBC in the global aquatic environment and flux of rBC from continents to the global ocean.

  3. Landowner response to wildfire risk: Adaptation, mitigation or doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Jarrett, Adam; Johnson Gaither, Cassandra

    2015-08-15

    Wildfire has brought about ecological, economic, and social consequences that engender human responses in many parts of the world. How to respond to wildfire risk is a common challenge across the globe particularly in areas where lands are controlled by many small private owners because effective wildfire prevention and protection require coordinated efforts of neighboring stakeholders. We explore (i) wildfire response strategies adopted by family forestland owners in the southern United States, one of the most important and productive forest regions in the world, through a landowner survey; and (ii) linkages between the responses of these landowners and their characteristics via multinomial logistic regression. We find that landowners used diverse strategies to respond to wildfire risk, with the most popular responses being "doing nothing" and combined adaptation and mitigation, followed by adaptation or mitigation alone. Landowners who had lost properties to wildfire, lived on their forestlands, had a forest management plan, and were better educated were more likely to proactively respond to wildfire risk. Our results indicate the possibility to enhance the effectiveness of collective action of wildfire risk response by private forestland owners and to coordinate wildfire response with forest conservation and certification efforts. These findings shed new light on engaging private landowners in wildfire management in the study region and beyond.

  4. Wildfires in a warmer climate: Emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veira, A.; Lasslop, G.; Kloster, S.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2, which has been extended by a semiempirical plume height parametrization. Our results indicate a general increase in extratropical and a decrease in tropical wildfire activity at the end of the 21st century. Changes in emission fluxes are most pronounced for the strongest warming scenario RCP8.5 (+49% in the extratropics, -37% in the tropics). Tropospheric black carbon (BC) concentrations are similarly affected by changes in emission fluxes and changes in climate conditions with regional variations of up to -50% to +100%. In the Northern Hemispheric extratropics, we attribute a mean increase in aerosol optical thickness of +0.031±0.002 to changes in wildfire emissions. Due to the compensating effects of fire intensification and more stable atmospheric conditions, global mean emission heights change by at most 0.3 km with only minor influence on BC long-range transport. The changes in wildfire emission fluxes for the RCP8.5 scenario, however, may largely compensate the projected reduction in anthropogenic BC emissions by the end of the 21st century.

  5. Thermal analysis of wildfires and effects on global ecosystem cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Brass, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Biomass combustion plays an important role in the earth's biogeochemical cycling. The monitoring of wildfires and their associated variables at global scales is feasible and can lead to predictions of the influence of combustion on biogeochemical cycling and tropospheric chemistry. Remote sensing data collected during the 1985 California wildfire season indicate that the information content of key thermal and infrared/thermal wave band channels centered at 11.5 microns, 3.8 microns, and 2.25 microns are invaluable for discriminating and calculating fire related variables. These variables include fire intensity, rate-of-spread, soil cooling recovery behind the fire front, and plume structure. Coinciding Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data provided information regarding temperature estimations and the movement of the smoke plume from one wildfire into the Los Angeles basin.

  6. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  7. Wildfire and the future of water supply.

    PubMed

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal

    2014-08-19

    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments.

  8. Wildfire and the future of water supply.

    PubMed

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal

    2014-08-19

    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments. PMID:25007310

  9. Airborne measurements and emission estimates of greenhouse gases and other trace constituents from the 2013 California Yosemite Rim wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M. C.; Hamill, P.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Contezac, J.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Ryerson, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple atmospheric trace constituents including greenhouse gases (such as CO2, CH4, O3) and biomass burning tracers (such as CO, CH3CN) downwind of an exceptionally large wildfire. In summer 2013, the Rim wildfire, ignited just west of the Yosemite National Park, California, and burned over 250,000 acres of the forest during the 2-month period (17 August to 24 October) before it was extinguished. The Rim wildfire plume was intercepted by flights carried out by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) on 29 August and the NASA DC-8, as part of SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys), on 26 and 27 August during its intense, primary burning period. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when the conditions were increasingly smoldering, with slower growth. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of AJAX (e. g. CO). Data analyses are presented in terms of emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency and are compared with previous wildfire studies. ERs were 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 26 August, 6.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 29 August and 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 10 September 2013. The increase in CH4 ER from 6.5 to 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the primary burning period to 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the fire's slower growth period likely indicates enhanced CH4 emissions from increased smoldering combustion relative to flaming combustion. Given the magnitude of the Rim wildfire, the impacts it had on regional air quality and the limited sampling of wildfire emissions in the western United States to date, this study provides a valuable dataset to support forestry and regional air quality management, including observations of ERs of a wide number of species from the Rim wildfire.

  10. Airborne Measurements and Emission Estimates of Greenhouse Gases and Other Trace Constituents From the 2013 California Yosemite Rim Wildfire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M. C.; Hamill, P.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Contezac, J.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Ryerson, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple atmospheric trace constituents including greenhouse gases (such as CO2, CH4, O3) and biomass burning tracers (such as CO, CH3CN) downwind of an exceptionally large wildfire. In summer 2013, the Rim wildfire, ignited just west of the Yosemite National Park, California, and burned over 250,000 acres of the forest during the 2-month period (17 August to 24 October) before it was extinguished. The Rim wildfire plume was intercepted by flights carried out by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) on 29 August and the NASA DC-8, as part of SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys), on 26 and 27 August during its intense, primary burning period. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when the conditions were increasingly smoldering, with slower growth. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of AJAX (e. g. CO). Data analyses are presented in terms of emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency and are compared with previous wildfire studies. ERs were 8.0 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) on 26 August, 6.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)1 on 29 August and 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)1 on 10 September 2013. The increase in CH4 ER from 6.5 to 8.0 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) during the primary burning period to 18.3 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) during the fire's slower growth period likely indicates enhanced CH4 emissions from increased smoldering combustion relative to flaming combustion. Given the magnitude of the Rim wildfire, the impacts it had on regional air quality and the limited sampling of wildfire emissions in the western United States to date, this study provides a valuable dataset to support forestry and regional air quality management, including observations of ERs of a wide number of species from the Rim wildfire.

  11. Green Science: Wildfires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2012-01-01

    Every summer, fires rage in different areas of the western United States. They are often massive, out of control, and extremely destructive. How do these fires begin and how are they controlled? What are the overall impacts of a wildfire? Are there any benefits of a wildfire? These questions will be addressed in this article. (Contains 3 online…

  12. DYNAMICS OF ON-DISK PLUMES AS OBSERVED WITH THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH, THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY, AND THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Vaibhav; Mazumder, Rakesh; Banerjee, Dipankar; Panditi, Vemareddy; Dolla, Laurent; Prasad, S. Krishna

    2015-07-01

    We examine the role of small-scale transients in the formation and evolution of solar coronal plumes. We study the dynamics of plume footpoints seen in the vicinity of a coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and spectroscopic data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Quasi-periodic brightenings are observed in the base of the plumes and are associated with magnetic flux changes. With the high spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we identify the sources of these oscillations and try to understand what role the transients at the footpoints can play in sustaining the coronal plumes. IRIS “sit-and-stare” observations provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of footpoints of the plumes. We notice enhanced line width and intensity, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of flows at the footpoints of plumes. We propose that outflows (jet-like features) as a result of small-scale reconnections affect the line profiles. These jet-like features may also be responsible for the generation of propagating disturbances (PDs) within the plumes, which are observed to be propagating to larger distances as recorded from multiple AIA channels. These PDs can be explained in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  13. Midcontinent rift volcanism in the Lake Superior region: Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic evidence for a mantle plume origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, S.W.; Shirey, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Between 1091 and 1098 Ma, most of a 15- to 20-km thickness of dominantly tholeiitic basalt erupted in the Midcontinent Rift System of the Lake Superior region, North America. The Portage Lake Volcanics in Michigan, which are the younget MRS flood basalts, fall into distinctly high- and low-TiO2 types having different liquid lines of descent. Incompatible trace elements in both types of tholeiites are enriched compared to depleted or primitive mantle and both basalt types are isotopically indistinguishable. The isotopic enrichment of the MRS source compared to depleted mantle is striking and must have occurred at least 700 m.y. before 1100 Ma. There are two likely sources for such magmatism: subcontinental lithospheric mantle enriched during the early Proterozoic or enriched mantle derived from an upwelling plume. Decompression melting of an upwelling enriched mantle plume in a region of lithosphere thinned by extension could have successfully generated the enormous volume (850 ?? 103 km3) of relatively homogeneous magma in a restricted time interval. -from Authors

  14. Modeling Wildfire Incident Complexity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management. PMID:23691014

  15. Regional uplift associated with continental large igneous provinces: The roles of mantle plumes and the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, A.D.; Jones, S.M.; Morgan, L.A.; Pierce, K.L.; Widdowson, M.; Xu, Y.G.

    2007-01-01

    Provinces. In these examples, rifting is not a requirement for onset of LIP magmatism but melting rates are significantly increased when rifting occurs. Models that attempt to explain emplacement of these five LIPs without hot mantle supplied by mantle plumes often have difficulties in explaining the observations of surface uplift, rifting and magmatism. For example, small-scale convection related to craton or rift boundaries (edge-driven convection) cannot easily explain widespread (1000??km scale) transient surface uplift (Emeishan, Deccan, North Atlantic), and upper mantle convection initiated by differential incubation beneath cratons (the hotcell model) is at odds with rapid onset of surface uplift (Emeishan, North Atlantic). The start-up plume concept is still the most parsimonious way of explaining the observations presented here. However, observations of surface uplift cannot directly constrain the depth of origin of the hot mantle in a plume head. The short time interval between onset of transient surface uplift and magmatism in the North Atlantic and Emeishan means that the associated starting plume heads were probably not large (??? 1000??km diameter) roughly spherical diapirs and are likely to have formed narrow (??? 100??km radius) upwelling jets, with hot mantle then spreading rapidly outward within the asthenosphere. In cases where rifting post-dates magmatism (N Atlantic Phase 1) or where the degree of lithospheric extension may not have been great (Siberia), a secondary mechanism of lithospheric thinning, such as gravitational instability or delamination of the lower lithosphere, may be required to allow hot mantle to decompress sufficiently to explain the observed volume of magma with a shallow melting geochemical signature. Any such additional thinning mechanisms are probably a direct consequence of plume head emplacement. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Health Impacts of Wildfires

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors’ focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi – organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events. PMID:23145351

  17. Health impacts of wildfires.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors' focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi - organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events. PMID:23145351

  18. Impact of wildfires on size-resolved aerosol composition at a coastal California site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Jonsson, H. H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-10-01

    Size-resolved aerosol composition measurements were conducted at a coastal site in central California during the Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) between July and August of 2013. The site is just east of ship and marine emission sources and is also influenced by continental pollution and wildfires, such as those near the California-Oregon border which occurred near the end of NiCE. Two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used, and water-soluble and elemental compositions were measured. The five most abundant water-soluble species (in decreasing order) were chloride, sodium, non-sea salt (nss) sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate. During wildfire periods, nss K mass concentrations were not enhanced as strongly as other species in the sub-micrometer stages and even decreased in the super-micrometer stages; species other than nss K are more reliable tracers for biomass burning in this region. Chloride levels were reduced in the fire sets likely due to chloride depletion by inorganic and organic acids that exhibited elevated levels in transported plumes. During wildfire periods, the mass size distribution of most dicarboxylic acids changed from unimodal to bimodal with peaks in the 0.32 μm and 1.0-1.8 μm stages. Furthermore, sulfate's peak concentration shifted from the 0.32 μm to 0.56 μm stage, and nitrate also shifted to larger sizes (1.0 μm to 1.8-3.2 μm stages). Mass concentrations of numerous soil tracer species (e.g., Si, Fe) were strongly enhanced in samples influenced by wildfires, especially in the sub-micrometer range. Airborne cloud water data confirm that soil species were associated with fire plumes transported south along the coast. In the absence of biomass burning, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition is dominated by nss sulfate and ammonium, and the water-soluble organic fraction is dominated by methanesulfonate, whereas for the samples influenced by wildfires, ammonium becomes the dominant overall species, and

  19. Oregon: Biscuit Wildfire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  The Biscuit Wildfire     View Larger Image ... consumed almost 500,000 acres in outhern Oregon and northern California. This image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  20. Case study: Wildfire visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.; McCormick, P.; Bossert, J.; Reisner, J.; Winterkamp, J.

    1997-11-01

    The ability to forecast the progress of crisis events would significantly reduce human suffering and loss of life, the destruction of property, and expenditures for assessment and recovery. Los Alamos National Laboratory has established a scientific thrust in crisis forecasting to address this national challenge. In the initial phase of this project, scientists at Los Alamos are developing computer models to predict the spread of a wildfire. Visualization of the results of the wildfire simulation will be used by scientists to assess the quality of the simulation and eventually by fire personnel as a visual forecast of the wildfire`s evolution. The fire personnel and scientists want the visualization to look as realistic as possible without compromising scientific accuracy. This paper describes how the visualization was created, analyzes the tools and approach that was used, and suggests directions for future work and research.

  1. Wildfire Danger Potential in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.; Kim, S. H.; Fujioka, F. M.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are an important concern in California (CA) which is characterized by the semi-arid to arid climate and vegetation types. Highly variable winter precipitation and extended hot and dry warm season in the region challenge an effective strategic fire management. Climatologically, the fire season which is based on live fuel moisture (LFM) of generally below 80% in Los Angeles County spans 4 months from mid-July to mid-November, but it has lasted over 7 months in the past several years. This behavior is primarily due to the ongoing drought in CA during the last decade, which is responsible for frequent outbreaks of severe wildfires in the region. Despite their importance, scientific advances for the recent changes in wildfire risk and effective assessments of wildfire risk are lacking. In the present study, we show impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulations on an early start and then extended length of fire seasons. For example, the strong relationships of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with springtime temperature and precipitation in the SWUS that was recently revealed by our team members have led to an examination of the possible impact of NAO on wildfire danger in the spring. Our results show that the abnormally warm and dry spring conditions associated with positive NAO phases can cause an early start of a fire season and high fire risks throughout the summer and fall. For an effective fire danger assessment, we have tested the capability of satellite vegetation indices (VIs) in replicating in situ LFM of Southern CA chaparral ecosystems by 1) comparing seasonal/interannual characteristics of in-situ LFM with VIs and 2) developing an empirical model function of LFM. Unlike previous studies attempting a point-to-point comparison, we attempt to examine the LFM relationship with VIs averaged over different areal coverage with chamise-dominant grids (i.e., 0.5 km to 25 km radius circles). Lastly, we discuss implications of the results for fire danger

  2. Ignition of global wildfires at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Schneider, N. M.; Zahnle, K. J.; Latham, D.

    1990-01-01

    The recent discovery of an apparently global soot layer at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary indicates that global wildfires were somehow ignited by the impact of a comet or asteroid. It is shown here that the thermal radiation produced by the ballistic reentry of ejecta condensed from the vapor plume of the impact could have increased the global radiation flux by factors of 50 to 150 times the solar input for periods ranging from one to several hours. This great increase in thermal radiation may have been responsible for the ignition of global wildfires, as well as having deleterious effects on unprotected animal life.

  3. Analysis of the Impact of Wildfire on Surface Ozone Record in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Sullivan, J. T.; Reddy, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone plays an important role on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, and at ground-level has negative impacts on human health and ecosystem processes. In order to understand the dynamics and variability of surface ozone, it is imperative to analyze individual sources, interactions between sources, transport, and chemical processes of ozone production and accumulation. Biomass burning and wildfires have been known to emit a suite of particulate matter and gaseous compounds into the atmosphere. These compounds, such as, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides are precursor species which aid in the photochemical production and destruction of ozone. The Colorado Front Range (CFR) is a region of complex interactions between pollutant sources and meteorological conditions which result in the accumulation of ozone. High ozone events in the CFR associated with fires are analyzed for 2003-2014 to develop understanding of the large scale influence and variability of ozone and wildfire relationships. This study provides analysis of the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes that can be confirmed to be transported within and affected by the fires and smoke plumes. Long-term records of surface ozone data from the CFR provide information on the impact of wildfire pollutants on seasonal and diurnal ozone behavior. Years with increased local fire activity, as well as years with increased long-range transport of smoke plumes, are evaluated for the effect on the long-term record and high ozone frequency of each location. Meteorological data, MODIS Fire detection images, NOAA HYSPLIT Back Trajectory analysis, NOAA Smoke verification model, Fire Tracer Data (K+), RAQMS Model, Carbon Monoxide data, and Aerosol optical depth retrievals are used with NOAA Global Monitoring Division surface ozone data from three sites in Colorado. This allows for investigation of the interactions between pollutants and meteorology which result in high surface ozone levels.

  4. Development of the GEM-MACH-FireWork System: An Air Quality Model with On-line Wildfire Emissions within the Canadian Operational Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Beaulieu, Paul-Andre; Anselmp, David; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Mike; Menard, Sylvain; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    A wildfire emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the U.S.A., including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This "on the fly" approach to the insertion of the fire emissions provides flexibility and efficiency since on-line meteorology is used and computational overhead in emissions pre-processing is reduced. GEM-MACH-FireWork, an experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH, was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013 in parallel with the normal operational version. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions and computed objective scores will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions into the operational air quality forecast system.

  5. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it with hydroclimatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

  6. Wildfire Perception and Community Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jason S.; Matarrita-Cascante, David; Stedman, Richard C.; Luloff, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Given increasing political and financial commitments to wildfire preparedness, risk policy demands that risk identification, assessment, and mitigation activities are balanced among diverse resident groups. Essential for this is the understanding of residents' perceptions of wildfire risks. This study compares wildfire-risk perceptions of…

  7. Wildfires and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses conditions that feed wildfires, how a building catches fire, determining the school's risk, creating a survivable space for the school, the importance of maintenance, the fire-resistant school, meeting code requirements, and related flood and mudslide risks. Much of this publication has been adapted for schools from the…

  8. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  9. Automated Wildfire Detection Through Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jerry; Borne, Kirk; Thomas, Brian; Huang, Zhenping; Chi, Yuechen

    2005-01-01

    We have tested and deployed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) data mining techniques to analyze remotely sensed multi-channel imaging data from MODIS, GOES, and AVHRR. The goal is to train the ANN to learn the signatures of wildfires in remotely sensed data in order to automate the detection process. We train the ANN using the set of human-detected wildfires in the U.S., which are provided by the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) wildfire detection group at NOAA/NESDIS. The ANN is trained to mimic the behavior of fire detection algorithms and the subjective decision- making by N O M HMS Fire Analysts. We use a local extremum search in order to isolate fire pixels, and then we extract a 7x7 pixel array around that location in 3 spectral channels. The corresponding 147 pixel values are used to populate a 147-dimensional input vector that is fed into the ANN. The ANN accuracy is tested and overfitting is avoided by using a subset of the training data that is set aside as a test data set. We have achieved an automated fire detection accuracy of 80-92%, depending on a variety of ANN parameters and for different instrument channels among the 3 satellites. We believe that this system can be deployed worldwide or for any region to detect wildfires automatically in satellite imagery of those regions. These detections can ultimately be used to provide thermal inputs to climate models.

  10. Upwelling relaxation and estuarine plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shivanesh; Pringle, James; Austin, Jay

    2011-09-01

    After coastal upwelling, the water properties in the nearshore coastal region close to estuaries is determined by the race between the new estuarine plume traveling along the coast and the upwelled front (a marker for the old upwelled plume and the coastal pycnocline) returning to the coast under downwelling winds. Away from an estuary, downwelling winds can return the upwelled front to the coast bringing less dense water nearshore. Near the estuary, the estuarine plume can arrive along the coast and return less dense water to the nearshore region before the upwelled front returns to the coast. Where the plume brings less dense water to the coast first, the plume keeps the upwelled front from returning to the coast. In this region, only the plume and the anthropogenic input and larvae associated with the plume waters influence the nearshore after upwelling. We quantify the extent of the region where the plume is responsible for bringing less dense water to the nearshore and keeping the upwelled front from returning to the coast after upwelling. We successfully tested our predictions against numerical experiments and field observations of the Chesapeake plume near Duck, North Carolina. We argue that this alongshore region exists for other estuaries where the time-integrated upwelling and downwelling wind stresses are comparable.

  11. Development of On-line Wildfire Emissions for the Operational Canadian Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.; Anselmo, D.; Paul-Andre, B.; Gravel, S.; Moran, M. D.; Davignon, D.

    2013-12-01

    An emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the USA, including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. Near-real-time satellite data are obtained and processed separately for the two countries for organizational reasons. Fire location and fuel consumption data for Canada are provided by the Canadian Forest Service's Canadian Wild Fire Information System (CWFIS) while fire location and emissions data for the U.S. are provided by the SMARTFIRE (Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation) system via the on-line BlueSky Gateway. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This 'on the fly' approach to the insertion of emissions provides greater flexibility since on-line meteorology is used and reduces computational overhead in emission pre-processing. An experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions, computed objective scores, and subjective evaluations by AQ forecasters will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions within the operational air quality forecast system.

  12. Geochemical Characterization of Hydrothermal Plume Fluids From Peridotite- and Basalt- Dominated Regions of the Ultra-Slow Spreading Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, L.; Edmonds, H. N.; Resing, J.; Nakamura, K.; Buck, N.; Liljebladh, B.; Stranne, C.; Tupper, G.; Winsor, P.

    2007-12-01

    Geochemical characterization of hydrothermal plumes initially located during the 2001 AMORE cruise to the Gakkel Ridge was undertaken as part of the 2007 Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE). One peridotite- and one basalt-dominated area were targeted for this exploration to constrain the range of venting environments found on the Gakkel Ridge, the ultra-slow spreading endmember of the global mid-ocean ridge. CTD hydrocasts at the 7 E peridotite-hosted site relocated the plumes found initially on the AMORE cruise. The target plume was located between 2800 and 2950 meters and exhibited a localized signal in temperature and light scattering. While shipboard analysis of dissolved gases was unavailable at the 7 E site, samples were preserved for manganese and helium measurements. No Eh signal was found at the 7 E site. The 85 E basalt-hosted site has experienced recent volcanic activity and was more extensively studied relative to the 7 E site during the AGAVE cruise. CTD casts detected numerous temperature, light scattering, and Eh plumes at 85 E indicative of multiple hydrothermal sources. Three of the plumes sampled exhibited methane concentrations ranging from 20 nM to greater than 250 nM and hydrogen concentrations ranging from 10nM to 100nM. In situ Eh measurements recorded negative excursions of at least 25 mV in each plume. Associated manganese and particle chemistry samples collected at both sites will be analyzed in time for this meeting.

  13. Linking local wildfire dynamics to pyroCb development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, R. H. D.; Sharples, J. J.; Fromm, M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme wildfires are global phenomena that consistently result in loss of life and property, and further impact the cultural, economic and political stability of communities. In their most extreme form they cause widespread devastation of environmental assets and are capable of impacting the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere through the formation of a thunderstorm within the plume. Such fires are now often observed by a range of remote sensing technologies, which together allow a greater understanding of a fire's complex dynamics. This paper considers one such fire that burnt in the Blue Mountains region of Australia in late-November 2006, that is known to have generated significant pyrocumulonimbus clouds in a series of blow-up events. Observations of this fire are analysed in detail to investigate the localised processes contributing to extreme fire development. In particular, it has been possible to demonstrate for the first time that the most severe instances of pyroconvection were driven by, and not just associated with, extreme local fire dynamics, especially the fire channelling phenomenon, which arises due to an interaction between an active fire, local terrain attributes and critical fire weather, and causes the fire to rapidly transition from a frontal to an areal burning pattern. The impacts of local variations in fire weather and of the atmospheric profile are also discussed, and the ability to predict extreme fire development with state-of-the-art tools is explored.

  14. Linking local wildfire dynamics to pyroCb development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, R. H. D.; Sharples, J. J.; Fromm, M.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme wildfires are global phenomena that consistently result in loss of life and property and further impact the cultural, economic and political stability of communities. In their most severe form they cause widespread devastation of environmental assets and are capable of impacting the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere through the formation of a thunderstorm within the plume. Such fires are now often observed by a range of remote-sensing technologies, which together allow a greater understanding of a fire's complex dynamics. This paper considers one such fire that burnt in the Blue Mountains region of Australia in late November 2006, which is known to have generated significant pyrocumulonimbus clouds in a series of blow-up events. Observations of this fire are analysed in detail to investigate the localised processes contributing to extreme fire development. In particular, it has been possible to demonstrate for the first time that the most violent instances of pyroconvection were driven by, and not just associated with, atypical local fire dynamics, especially the fire channelling phenomenon, which arises due to an interaction between an active fire, local terrain attributes and critical fire weather and causes the fire to rapidly transition from a frontal to an areal burning pattern. The impacts of local variations in fire weather and of the atmospheric profile are also discussed, and the ability to predict extreme fire development with state-of-the-art tools is explored.

  15. Wildfire and landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  16. Effect of photochemical self-action of carbon-containing aerosol: Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, I. B.; Berezin, E. V.; Beekmann, M.

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown by numerical simulation that the rate of formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in smoke plumes caused by vegetation and peat fires under real conditions can significantly depend on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). The AOT determines the photodissociation rate and hydroxyl radical concentration, which in turn determines the rate of SOA generation as a result of oxidation of semivolatile organic compounds. Quantitative analysis has been carried out for the situation that took place in European Russia during the 2010 Russian wildfires. The state-of-the-art 3D chemical transport model is used in this study; the simulations are optimized and validated using the data of monitoring of the particulate matter in the Moscow region and Finland. The findings indicate that it is important to allow for this effect in studies focused on the analysis and prediction of air pollution due to wildfires, as well as climate and weather studies, whose results may depend on the assumptions about the content and properties of atmospheric carbon-containing aerosol.

  17. Why is particulate matter produced by wildfires toxic to lung macrophages?

    SciTech Connect

    Franzi, Lisa M.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Williams, Keisha M.; Last, Jerold A.

    2011-12-15

    The mechanistic basis of the high toxicity to lung macrophages of coarse PM from the California wildfires of 2008 was examined in cell culture experiments with mouse macrophages. Wildfire PM directly killed macrophages very rapidly in cell culture at relatively low doses. The wildfire coarse PM is about four times more toxic to macrophages on an equal weight basis than the same sized PM collected from normal ambient air (no wildfires) from the same region and season. There was a good correlation between the extent of cytotoxicity and the amount of oxidative stress observed at a given dose of wildfire PM in vitro. Our data implicate NF-{kappa}B signaling in the response of macrophages to wildfire PM, and suggest that most, if not all, of the cytotoxicity of wildfire PM to lung macrophages is the result of oxidative stress. The relative ratio of toxicity and of expression of biomarkers of oxidant stress between wildfire PM and 'normal' PM collected from ambient air is consistent with our previous results in mice in vivo, also suggesting that most, if not all, of the cytotoxicity of wildfire PM to lung macrophages is the result of oxidative stress. Our findings from this and earlier studies suggest that the active components of coarse PM from the wildfire are heat-labile organic compounds. While we cannot rule out a minor role for endotoxin in coarse PM preparations from the collected wildfire PM in our observed results both in vitro and in vivo, based on experiments using the inhibitor Polymyxin B most of the oxidant stress and pro-inflammatory activity observed was not due to endotoxin. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wildfire coarse PM kills macrophages at lower doses than coarse. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wildfire coarse PM activates the NF-kB pathway at lower doses than ambient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wildfire coarse PM in vitro and in vivo kill macrophages by oxidative stress.

  18. Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.

  19. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, <10 ha). Small wildfires recorded by forestry agencies were concentrated within planted forests and near built-up areas, whereas the largest wildfires were located in more remote regions, often associated with military training areas and herbaceous vegetation. We conclude that to better understand wildfire dynamics, consolidation of wildfire databases should be achieved, combining field reports and remote sensing. As nearly all wildfires in Mediterranean landscapes are caused by human activities, improving the management of forest areas and raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger. PMID:27246121

  20. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, <10 ha). Small wildfires recorded by forestry agencies were concentrated within planted forests and near built-up areas, whereas the largest wildfires were located in more remote regions, often associated with military training areas and herbaceous vegetation. We conclude that to better understand wildfire dynamics, consolidation of wildfire databases should be achieved, combining field reports and remote sensing. As nearly all wildfires in Mediterranean landscapes are caused by human activities, improving the management of forest areas and raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger.

  1. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, <10 ha). Small wildfires recorded by forestry agencies were concentrated within planted forests and near built-up areas, whereas the largest wildfires were located in more remote regions, often associated with military training areas and herbaceous vegetation. We conclude that to better understand wildfire dynamics, consolidation of wildfire databases should be achieved, combining field reports and remote sensing. As nearly all wildfires in Mediterranean landscapes are caused by human activities, improving the management of forest areas and raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger.

  2. Assessment of Superflux relative to fisheries research and monitoring. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the findings of the Superflux program relative to fishery research and monitoring are reviewed. The actual and potential influences of the plume on the shelf ecosystem contiguous to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay are described and insights derived from the combined use of in situ and remotely sensed data are presented.

  3. Atlas of climatic controls of wildfire in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Bartlein, P.J.; Holman, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire behavior depends on several factors including ecologic characteristics, near-term and antecedent climatic conditions,fuel availability and moisture level, weather, and sources of ignition (lightning or human). The variability and interplay of these factors over many spatial and temporal scales present an ongoing challenge to our ability to forecast a given wildfire season. Here we focus on one aspect of wildfire in the western US through a retrospective analysis of wildfire (starts and area burned) and climate over monthly time scales. We consider prefire conditions up to a year preceding fire outbreaks. For our analysis, we used daily and monthly wildfire records and a combination of observed and model-simulated atmospheric and surface climate data. The focus of this report is on monthly wildfire and climate for the period 1980-2000. Although a longer fire record is desirable, the 21-year record is the longest currently available and it is sufficient for the purpose of a first-order regional analysis. We present the main results in the form of a wildfire-climate atlas for 8 subregions of the West that can be used by resource managers to assess current wildfire conditions relative to high, normal, and low fire years in the historical record. Our results clearly demonstrate the link between wildfire conditions and a small set of climatic variables, and our methodology is a framework for providing near-real-time assessments of current wildfire conditions in the West.

  4. Protect Your Home from Wildfire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Homes in wooded areas or in the wildland/urban interface are at special risk for wildfire. The article provides a checklist of what to keep on hand to make homes safer from wildfire, focusing on vegetation around the home and maintenance of the yard and home. (SM)

  5. Tvashtar's Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This dramatic image of Io was taken by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons at 11:04 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, just about 5 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The distance to Io was 2.5 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) and the image is centered at 85 degrees west longitude. At this distance, one LORRI pixel subtends 12 kilometers (7.4 miles) on Io.

    This processed image provides the best view yet of the enormous 290-kilometer (180-mile) high plume from the volcano Tvashtar, in the 11 o'clock direction near Io's north pole. The plume was first seen by the Hubble Space Telescope two weeks ago and then by New Horizons on February 26; this image is clearer than the February 26 image because Io was closer to the spacecraft, the plume was more backlit by the Sun, and a longer exposure time (75 milliseconds versus 20 milliseconds) was used. Io's dayside was deliberately overexposed in this picture to image the faint plumes, and the long exposure also provided an excellent view of Io's night side, illuminated by Jupiter. The remarkable filamentary structure in the Tvashtar plume is similar to details glimpsed faintly in 1979 Voyager images of a similar plume produced by Io's volcano Pele. However, no previous image by any spacecraft has shown these mysterious structures so clearly.

    The image also shows the much smaller symmetrical fountain of the plume, about 60 kilometers (or 40 miles) high, from the Prometheus volcano in the 9 o'clock direction. The top of a third volcanic plume, from the volcano Masubi, erupts high enough to catch the setting Sun on the night side near the bottom of the image, appearing as an irregular bright patch against Io's Jupiter-lit surface. Several Everest-sized mountains are highlighted by the setting Sun along the terminator, the line between day and night.

    This is the last of a handful of LORRI images that New Horizons is sending 'home' during its busy close

  6. Examining Atmospheric and Ecological Drivers of Wildfires, Modeling Wildfire Occurrence in the Southwest United States, and Using Atmospheric Sounding Observations to Verify National Weather Service Spot Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauslar, Nicholas J.

    This dissertation is comprised of three different papers that all pertain to wildland fire applications. The first paper performs a verification analysis on mixing height, transport winds, and Haines Index from National Weather Service spot forecasts across the United States. The final two papers, which are closely related, examine atmospheric and ecological drivers of wildfire for the Southwest Area (SWA) (Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas, and Oklahoma panhandle) to better equip operational fire meteorologists and managers to make informed decisions on wildfire potential in this region. The verification analysis here utilizes NWS spot forecasts of mixing height, transport winds and Haines Index from 2009-2013 issued for a location within 50 km of an upper sounding location and valid for the day of the fire event. Mixing height was calculated from the 0000 UTC sounding via the Stull, Holzworth, and Richardson methods. Transport wind speeds were determined by averaging the wind speed through the boundary layer as determined by the three mixing height methods from the 0000 UTC sounding. Haines Index was calculated at low, mid, and high elevation based on the elevation of the sounding and spot forecast locations. Mixing height forecasts exhibited large mean absolute errors and biased towards over forecasting. Forecasts of transport wind speeds and Haines Index outperformed mixing height forecasts with smaller errors relative to their respective means. The rainfall and lightning associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) can vary greatly intra- and inter-annually and has a large impact on wildfire activity across the SWA by igniting or suppressing wildfires. NAM onset thresholds and subsequent dates are determined for the SWA and each Predictive Service Area (PSA), which are sub-regions used by operational fire meteorologists to predict wildfire potential within the SWA, April through September from 1995-2013. Various wildfire activity thresholds using the number

  7. Is the Central Europe more inclinable to wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Virag, M.; Bares, D.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Hlavinka, P.

    2009-09-01

    Many studies indicate a gradual increase in danger of wildfire in Central Europe. The risk of wildfire differs greatly among individual areas (whether regions or districts), and this difference remains, irrespective of the methods used to describe the danger of wildfires. For this study was used the calculation of the FDI (Fire Danger Index) for 200 stations on the territory of Czech Republic in the period 1961-2008. The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. During processing the model compute upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the speed of spread of wildfire. Between years 1991-2008 there was an increase in the average monthly FDI indices in comparison to the period 1961-1990. During this period, a statistically significant trend toward higher indices was found (0.02 FDI index/year). The trend of danger of wildfires growth was evident in all months.

  8. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  9. MISR Images Wildfires in Northwestern US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR image of smoke plumes from devastating wildfires in the northwestern US. This view of the Clearwater and Salmon River Mountains in Idaho was acquired on August 5, 2000 (Terra orbit 3370). The body of water to the left of image center is the Cascade Reservoir, located about 100 km north of Boise and 80 km east of the Snake River. North is at the top, and the image is approximately 380 km across.

    In addition to the huge plumes traversing the mountains in the northern part of the image, smoke accumulating in the lower elevation canyons and plains is visible. This image was generated using data from the MISR camera that looks forward at a steep angle (70.5 degrees). The smoke is far more visible when viewed at this highly oblique angle than it would be in a conventional, straight-downward view. In creating this color composite, data from the blue and green MISR bands, acquired at 1.1-km spatial resolution, were digitally 'sharpened' using 275-m resolution data acquired in the red band.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  10. Coupling the Biophysical and Social Dimensions of Wildfire Risk to Improve Wildfire Mitigation Planning.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Kline, Jeffrey D; Fischer, A Paige

    2015-08-01

    We describe recent advances in biophysical and social aspects of risk and their potential combined contribution to improve mitigation planning on fire-prone landscapes. The methods and tools provide an improved method for defining the spatial extent of wildfire risk to communities compared to current planning processes. They also propose an expanded role for social science to improve understanding of community-wide risk perceptions and to predict property owners' capacities and willingness to mitigate risk by treating hazardous fuels and reducing the susceptibility of dwellings. In particular, we identify spatial scale mismatches in wildfire mitigation planning and their potential adverse impact on risk mitigation goals. Studies in other fire-prone regions suggest that these scale mismatches are widespread and contribute to continued wildfire dwelling losses. We discuss how risk perceptions and behavior contribute to scale mismatches and how they can be minimized through integrated analyses of landscape wildfire transmission and social factors that describe the potential for collaboration among landowners and land management agencies. These concepts are then used to outline an integrated socioecological planning framework to identify optimal strategies for local community risk mitigation and improve landscape-scale prioritization of fuel management investments by government entities.

  11. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  12. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  13. Relationship between the Fluorescence Lifetime of Chlorophyll 'a' and Primary Productivity within the Mississippi River Plume and Adjacent Shelf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Callie; Miller, Richard L.; Fernandez, Salvador M.; McKee, Brent A.

    2000-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity have been widely used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. However, because the fluorescence quantum yield of chlorophyll a in vivo can be highly variable, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity cannot be directly correlated with phytoplankton biomass and do not provide information on the physiological state of the phytoplankton under study. Conversely, lifetime-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence provide a framework in which photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton can be analyzed according to phytoplankton physiology. Along with the measurement of primary production and ambient nutrient concentrations within the Mississippi River plume in the northern Gulf of Mexico, phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes were measured using a Fluorescence Lifetime Phytoplankton Analyzer (developed under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research contract to Ciencia, Inc.). Variability of fluorescence lifetimes within the plume can be used as a background from which to interpret variations in the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry. The extent to which nutrient and effluent loading in this dynamic coastal area affect the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton will be presented as a function of phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  15. Satellite Observation Highlights of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; daSilva, Arlindo; Torres, Omar

    2010-01-01

    From late-July through mid-August 2010, wildfires raged in western Russia. The resulting thick smoke and biomass burning products were transported over the highly populated Moscow city and surrounding regions, seriously impairing visibility and affecting human health. We demonstrate the uniqueness of the 2010 Russian wildfires by using satellite observations from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. Over Moscow and the region of major fire activity to the southeast, we calculate unprecedented increases in the MODIS fire count record of 178 %, an order of magnitude increase in the MODIS fire radiative power (308%) and OMI absorbing aerosols (255%), and a 58% increase in AIRS total carbon monoxide (CO). The exceptionally high levels of CO are shown to be of comparable strength to the 2006 El Nino wildfires over Indonesia. Both events record CO values exceeding 30x10(exp 7) molec/ square cm.

  16. Impact of wildfire emissions on trace gas and aerosol concentration measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, A.; Chi, X.; Winderlich, J.; Birmili, W.; Lavrič, J. V.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal wildfires are large sources of reactive trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere, accounting for 20% of carbon emissions from global biomass burning. Siberian wildfires are a major extratropical source of carbon monoxide (CO), as well as a significant source of black carbon, smoke aerosols, and other climate-relevant atmospheric gas/particle species. Smoke particles released by Siberian wildfires could be tracked thousands of kilometers downwind in the entire Northern Hemisphere, perturbing regional to global radiation budgets by influencing light scattering and cloud microphysical processes. The boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere are expected to experience the largest temperature increases, which will likely increase the severity and frequency of fires. Consequently, long-term continuous trace gas and aerosol measurements in central Siberia are vital for assessing the atmospheric impact of Siberian boreal fires on regional to global air quality and climate. Since 2006, the Zotino Tall Tower Facility (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org), a unique international research platform for large-scale climatic observations, is operational about 20 km west of the Yenisei river (60.8°N; 89.35°E). A 300 m-tall tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus, in comparison with surface layer, representative for a larger region. Our investigation of the wildfires' impact on surface air composition in Central Siberia is based on four years of CO/CO2/CH4 and aerosol particle mass data measured at 300 m a.g.l.. Episodes of atmospheric transport from wildfires upwind of the measurements site are identified based on ensembles of HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS active fire products. The emission factors are calculated using the Carbon Mass Balance method. In an effort to simplify combustion to its most fundamental principles, the combustion efficiency

  17. Downwelling wind, tides, and estuarine plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Huang, Mingfen; Chen, Changsheng; Chen, Yong; Xie, Congbin; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2016-06-01

    The estuarine plume dynamics under a downwelling-favorable wind condition were examined in the windy dry season of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using the PRE primitive-equation Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The wind and tide-driven estuarine circulation had a significant influence on the plume dynamics on both local and remote scales. Specifically, the local effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was similar to the theoretical descriptions of coastal plumes, narrowing the plume width, and setting up a vertically uniform downstream current at the plume edge. Tides tended to reduce these plume responses through local turbulent mixing and advection from upstream regions, resulting in an adjustment of the isohalines in the plume and a weakening of the vertically uniform downstream current. The remote effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was due to the wind-induced estuarine sea surface height (SSH), which strengthened the estuarine circulation and enhanced the plume transport accordingly. Associated with these processes, tide-induced mixing tended to weaken the SSH gradient and thus the estuarine circulation over a remote influence scale. Overall, the typical features of downwelling-favorable wind-driven estuarine plumes revealed in this study enhanced our understanding of the estuarine plume dynamics under downwelling-favorable wind conditions.

  18. Effect of Wildfire Aerosols on NO2 Photolysis and Ozone Production at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylon, P.; Jaffe, D. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have two goals: to quantify the effect of biomass burning aerosols on jNO2 photolysis and to look at O3 formation in biomass burning plumes as it relates to jNO2 photolysis. Wildfire plumes were observed during the summer of 2015 at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory, a high-elevation (2.8 km a.s.l.) mountaintop site located in central Oregon. These plumes were identified using the following criteria: (1) 5-minute ambient aerosol scattering σsp ≥ 20 Mm-1 for at least two hours, (2) 5-minute CO ≥ 150 ppbv for at least two hours, (3) strong correlation (r2 ≥ 0.70) between σsp and CO, and (4) consistent air mass back trajectories indicating transport over known fire locations. We measure nitrogen oxides using a chemiluminescence detector and jNO2 photolysis using a diode array actinic flux spectroradiometer. We also measure O3 using two techniques: (a) UV method with a cavity ring-down spectrometer and (b) chemiluminescence method with a custom-made instrument. We compare fire event observations between these two procedures to prove consistency. Based on these measurements, we quantify a lower bound for the HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations in wildfire plumes. We then look at plume and non-plume data and examine deviations from the photostationary state. Finally, we use the TUV model v5.2 to simulate clear-sky conditions and therefore quantify the reduction/enhancement in jNO2 values and O3 production due to wildfire aerosols. This gives us insight into the photochemical environment in biomass burning plumes, which until now, remains poorly understood.

  19. Autonomous wildfire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jan S.

    1993-11-01

    Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.

  20. Mapping Wildfires In Nearly Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joseph D.; Parks, Gary S.; Denning, Richard F.; Ibbott, Anthony C.; Scott, Kenneth C.; Sleigh, William J.; Voss, Jeffrey M.

    1993-01-01

    Airborne infrared-sensing system flies over wildfire as infrared detector in system and navigation subsystem generate data transmitted to firefighters' camp. There, data plotted in form of map of fire, including approximate variations of temperature. System, called Firefly, reveals position of fires and approximate thermal intensities of regions within fires. Firefighters use information to manage and suppress fires. Used for other purposes with minor modifications, such as to spot losses of heat in urban areas and to map disease and pest infestation in vegetation.

  1. Unifying wildfire models from ecology and statistical physics.

    PubMed

    Zinck, Richard D; Grimm, Volker

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wildfire regimes is crucial for both regional forest management and predicting global interactions between fire regimes and climate. Accordingly, spatially explicit modeling of forest fire ecosystems is a very active field of research, including both generic and highly specific models. There is, however, a second field in which wildfire has served as a metaphor for more than 20 years: statistical physics. So far, there has been only limited interaction between these two fields of wildfire modeling. Here we show that two typical generic wildfire models from ecology are structurally equivalent to the most commonly used model from statistical physics. All three models can be unified to a single model in which they appear as special cases of regrowth-dependent flammability. This local "ecological memory" of former fire events is key to self-organization in wildfire ecosystems. The unified model is able to reproduce three different patterns observed in real boreal forests: fire size distributions, fire shapes, and a hump-shaped relationship between disturbance intensity (average annual area burned) and diversity of succession stages. The unification enables us to bring together insights from both disciplines in a novel way and to identify limitations that provide starting points for further research.

  2. Unifying wildfire models from ecology and statistical physics.

    PubMed

    Zinck, Richard D; Grimm, Volker

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wildfire regimes is crucial for both regional forest management and predicting global interactions between fire regimes and climate. Accordingly, spatially explicit modeling of forest fire ecosystems is a very active field of research, including both generic and highly specific models. There is, however, a second field in which wildfire has served as a metaphor for more than 20 years: statistical physics. So far, there has been only limited interaction between these two fields of wildfire modeling. Here we show that two typical generic wildfire models from ecology are structurally equivalent to the most commonly used model from statistical physics. All three models can be unified to a single model in which they appear as special cases of regrowth-dependent flammability. This local "ecological memory" of former fire events is key to self-organization in wildfire ecosystems. The unified model is able to reproduce three different patterns observed in real boreal forests: fire size distributions, fire shapes, and a hump-shaped relationship between disturbance intensity (average annual area burned) and diversity of succession stages. The unification enables us to bring together insights from both disciplines in a novel way and to identify limitations that provide starting points for further research. PMID:19799499

  3. Why is particulate matter produced by wildfires toxic to lung macrophages?

    PubMed

    Franzi, Lisa M; Bratt, Jennifer M; Williams, Keisha M; Last, Jerold A

    2011-12-01

    The mechanistic basis of the high toxicity to lung macrophages of coarse PM from the California wildfires of 2008 was examined in cell culture experiments with mouse macrophages. Wildfire PM directly killed macrophages very rapidly in cell culture at relatively low doses. The wildfire coarse PM is about four times more toxic to macrophages on an equal weight basis than the same sized PM collected from normal ambient air (no wildfires) from the same region and season. There was a good correlation between the extent of cytotoxicity and the amount of oxidative stress observed at a given dose of wildfire PM in vitro. Our data implicate NF-κB signaling in the response of macrophages to wildfire PM, and suggest that most, if not all, of the cytotoxicity of wildfire PM to lung macrophages is the result of oxidative stress. The relative ratio of toxicity and of expression of biomarkers of oxidant stress between wildfire PM and "normal" PM collected from ambient air is consistent with our previous results in mice in vivo, also suggesting that most, if not all, of the cytotoxicity of wildfire PM to lung macrophages is the result of oxidative stress. Our findings from this and earlier studies suggest that the active components of coarse PM from the wildfire are heat-labile organic compounds. While we cannot rule out a minor role for endotoxin in coarse PM preparations from the collected wildfire PM in our observed results both in vitro and in vivo, based on experiments using the inhibitor Polymyxin B most of the oxidant stress and pro-inflammatory activity observed was not due to endotoxin.

  4. Impact of drought on wildfires in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; DaCamara, Carlos; Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Southern European countries, and the Iberian Peninsula (IP) in particular, have been vastly affected by summer wildfires (Trigo et al., 2013). This condition is hampered by the frequent warm and dry meteorological conditions found in summer which play a significant role in the triggering and spreading of wildfires. These meteorological conditions are also particularly important for the onset and end of drought periods, a phenomenon that has recurrently affected the IP (Gouveia et al., 2012). Moreover, the IP corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change, and recent and future trends towards a dryer and warmer Mediterranean climate (Sousa et al., 2014) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The main scope of this study was to investigate the impact of drought on wildfires' burned areas in the IP. The objective was to examine the correlation between drought, as expressed by both the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010), and wildfire burned areas. The SPI and SPEI were both calculated for 4 large regions (Northwestern, Northern, Southwestern and Eastern) whose spatial patterns and seasonal fire regimes were shown to be related with constraining factors such as topography, vegetation cover and climate conditions (Trigo et al., 2013). In this study, the drought indices were determined for the time scales of 3 and 6 months for August and for 12 months in September, thus representing the summer and annual drought. The correlation between drought and burned areas during July and August was particularly significant for the 3 months SPEI and SPI relatively to the 6 and 12 time scales, which indicates that drought and fires relation is a small-size scale process. Moreover, the correlation between drought and burned areas during July and August was particularly significant for the Northern and Southwestern regions both for SPEI for 3 and 6

  5. Synthesising empirical results to improve predictions of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in research into wildfire impacts on runoff and erosion have demonstrated increasing complexity of controlling factors and responses, which, combined with changing fire frequency, present challenges for modellers. We convened a conference attended by experts and practitioners in post-wildfire impacts, meteorology and related research, including modelling, to focus on priority research issues. The aim was to improve our understanding of controls and responses and the predictive capabilities of models. This conference led to the eight selected papers in this special issue. They address aspects of the distinctiveness in the controls and responses among wildfire regions, spatiotemporal rainfall variability, infiltration, runoff connectivity, debris flow formation and modelling applications. Here we summarise key findings from these papers and evaluate their contribution to improving understanding and prediction of post-wildfire runoff and erosion under changes in climate, human intervention and population pressure on wildfire-prone areas.

  6. Wildfire exposure analysis on the national forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Buonopane, Michelle; Reger, Allison; Finney, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed wildfire exposure for key social and ecological features on the national forests in Oregon and Washington. The forests contain numerous urban interfaces, old growth forests, recreational sites, and habitat for rare and endangered species. Many of these resources are threatened by wildfire, especially in the east Cascade Mountains fire-prone forests. The study illustrates the application of wildfire simulation for risk assessment where the major threat is from large and rare naturally ignited fires, versus many previous studies that have focused on risk driven by frequent and small fires from anthropogenic ignitions. Wildfire simulation modeling was used to characterize potential wildfire behavior in terms of annual burn probability and flame length. Spatial data on selected social and ecological features were obtained from Forest Service GIS databases and elsewhere. The potential wildfire behavior was then summarized for each spatial location of each resource. The analysis suggested strong spatial variation in both burn probability and conditional flame length for many of the features examined, including biodiversity, urban interfaces, and infrastructure. We propose that the spatial patterns in modeled wildfire behavior could be used to improve existing prioritization of fuel management and wildfire preparedness activities within the Pacific Northwest region.

  7. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS).

    PubMed

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    display tailored combinations of AOD and RGB imagery, as well as overlay the VIIRS smoke mask and fire hotspots at pixel resolution (~750-m × 750-m), and zoom into the county level. Two case studies of recent wildfires in the Western US are presented to show how operational users can access and display VIIRS aerosol products to monitor the transport of smoke plumes and evolution of fires in the exo-urban environment on the regional and county scales. The new National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Western Region Fire and Smoke Initiative is also discussed, which will enhance IDEA to allow visualization of VIIRS aerosol products down to the neighborhood scale. The new high-resolution VIIRS aerosol products can be used for NRT monitoring of human exposure to smoke, and they can be used to gauge the spread of fires and, thus, provide advanced warning for evacuations and fire suppression efforts, thereby reducing risks to human populations and forest ecosystems in the exo-urban environment.

  8. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    display tailored combinations of AOD and RGB imagery, as well as overlay the VIIRS smoke mask and fire hotspots at pixel resolution (~750-m × 750-m), and zoom into the county level. Two case studies of recent wildfires in the Western US are presented to show how operational users can access and display VIIRS aerosol products to monitor the transport of smoke plumes and evolution of fires in the exo-urban environment on the regional and county scales. The new National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Western Region Fire and Smoke Initiative is also discussed, which will enhance IDEA to allow visualization of VIIRS aerosol products down to the neighborhood scale. The new high-resolution VIIRS aerosol products can be used for NRT monitoring of human exposure to smoke, and they can be used to gauge the spread of fires and, thus, provide advanced warning for evacuations and fire suppression efforts, thereby reducing risks to human populations and forest ecosystems in the exo-urban environment. PMID:26078588

  9. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  10. Drainage networks after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Predicting runoff and erosion from watersheds burned by wildfires requires an understanding of the three-dimensional structure of both hillslope and channel drainage networks. We investigate the small-and large-scale structures of drainage networks using field studies and computer analysis of 30-m digital elevation model. Topologic variables were derived from a composite 30-m DEM, which included 14 order 6 watersheds within the Pikes Peak batholith. Both topologic and hydraulic variables were measured in the field in two smaller burned watersheds (3.7 and 7.0 hectares) located within one of the order 6 watersheds burned by the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire in Central Colorado. Horton ratios of topologic variables (stream number, drainage area, stream length, and stream slope) for small-scale and large-scale watersheds are shown to scale geometrically with stream order (i.e., to be scale invariant). However, the ratios derived for the large-scale drainage networks could not be used to predict the rill and gully drainage network structure. Hydraulic variables (width, depth, cross-sectional area, and bed roughness) for small-scale drainage networks were found to be scale invariant across 3 to 4 stream orders. The relation between hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area is similar for rills and gullies, suggesting that their geometry can be treated similarly in hydraulic modeling. Additionally, the rills and gullies have relatively small width-to-depth ratios, implying sidewall friction may be important to the erosion and evolutionary process relative to main stem channels.

  11. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  12. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  13. Wildfire dynamics: Understanding some behavior trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Jesse M.

    This dissertation explores wildfire dynamics. Chapters 2 and 3 are peer reviewed journal articles that present an understanding of three-dimensionality in grass fires and how it affects forward rate of spread (ROS) of the fire. In Chapter 2 the numerical model HIGRAD/FIRETEC was used to give arguments supporting that modeling wildfire in a two-dimensional vertical and stream-wise plane does not represent all of the physics that are required to determine a meaningful forward ROS. Chapter 2 inspired the work that makes up chapter 3. In chapter 3, HIGRAD/FIRETEC was again used, to determine the effect that ignition line length has on forward ROS. In both chapters, finger shaped structures were present in the combusting fuels, upstream of the fire front. The fingers correlated with counter-rotating vortex pairs in the gas-phase above them. It was also shown that increasing ignition line length does indeed increase forward ROS, an expected result supported by previous investigations. Results were presented that suggest physical reasons why a spreading grass fire develops flanks that move forward slower than the front of the fire. Chapter 4 describes the gas phase in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), where fires and other phenomena occur. A muti-component gas phase model was derived that represents individual ideal gas species. The mass dependent nature of this model allows the individual species to have dynamic effects on the flow field. The multi-component model was then coupled to HIGRAD to explore three PBL scenarios. The purpose of the first case was to numerically spin-up a moist unstable PBL. The second case used the mixture model to look at a hypothetical scenario representative of the Las Conchas wildfire. In the second case, an idealized column of a gaseous mixture containing heat, dry air, water vapor, and fullerene was initialized over the topography where the Las Conchas fire occurred. The gas column represented an idealized fire plume. As predicted, the

  14. ASSESSMENT OF PLUME DIVING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents an assessment of plume diving. Observations included: vertical plume delineation at East Patchogue, NY showed BTEX and MTBE plumes sinking on either side of a gravel pit; Lake Druid TCE plume sank beneath unlined drainage ditch; and aquifer recharge/dis...

  15. Impact of capturing rainfall scavenging intermittency using cloud superparameterization on simulated continental scale wildfire smoke transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Kooperman, G. J.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, M.; Russell, L. M.; Somerville, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the fidelity of new aerosol physics in climate models is confounded by uncertainties in source emissions, systematic error in cloud parameterizations, and inadequate sampling of long-range plume concentrations. To explore the degree to which cloud parameterizations distort aerosol processing and scavenging, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Aerosol-Enabled Multi-Scale Modeling Framework (AE-MMF), a superparameterized branch of the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5), is applied to represent the unusually active and well sampled North American wildfire season in 2004. In the AE-MMF approach, the evolution of double moment aerosols in the exterior global resolved scale is linked explicitly to convective statistics harvested from an interior cloud resolving scale. The model is configured in retroactive nudged mode to observationally constrain synoptic meteorology, and Arctic wildfire activity is prescribed at high space/time resolution using data from the Global Fire Emissions Database. Comparisons against standard CAM5 bracket the effect of superparameterization to isolate the role of capturing rainfall intermittency on the bulk characteristics of 2004 Arctic plume transport. Ground based lidar and in situ aircraft wildfire plume constraints from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign are used as a baseline for model evaluation.

  16. Wildfire: A Family Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This family activity book provides information for discovering and demonstrating the science of fire--how firefighters decide which fires to let burn and which to put out, how fires start and spread, and what to do when they flare up. Chapters include: (1) "A Game about Wildfire"; (2) "Create a Fire Safety Commercial"; (3) "Make a Fire Escape…

  17. Wildfire on Karst: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleborn, K.; Lupingna, A.; Flemons, I.; Nagra, G.; Treble, P. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Tozer, M.; Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Meehan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires dramatically change the surface environment by removing vegetation and soil microbial communities and altering soil structure and geochemistry. Karst subsurface processes such as dissolution, cave formation and speleothem deposition are sensitive to environmental change, which is precisely why speleothems have been widely used as recorders of surface and climate change at an annual to millennial temporal scale. The effect of fire on karst processes is poorly understood. We hypothesise that a wildfire induced change at the surface will impact karst dissolution and precipitation processes. Firstly, sterilisation of the soil by heating causes a reduction in soil CO2 concentration which is a key component in dissolution processes. Secondly, removal of vegetation alters surface albedo and soil water storage properties. This could change the hydrology and isotopic signature of speleothem-forming drip water. We also hypothesise that a wildfire will produce a unique biogeochemical signature due to a change in the organic and inorganic properties of soil, which can be transported into speleothem forming drip water. Fire changes the organic matter character which is an important component in the mobilisation and transport of trace metals. Combustion of vegetation results in addition of ash derived minerals to the soil. Quantifying the biogeochemical signature from a burnt landscape will enable us to determine whether this wildfire signature is preserved in speleothems. This would provide the opportunity to use speleothems as recorders of fire history for the first time. Determining the impact of fire on karst processes would inform fire management and karst conservation policies.

  18. Simulation for the expansion of the wildfire with numerical weather simulation MM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.; Honma, T.

    2008-12-01

    1. Background Frequent occurrence of wildfires all over the world is considered as one of major resources of greenhouse gases. For example, a lot of wildfires in Alaska occur in summer. Now, the satellites of NOAA and Terra/Aqua are watching the earth and the wildfire are detected. Of course, to detection wildfire is very important, but the influence on inhabitants is more important. Our purpose is to make the numerical simulation of the wildfire spread in the small area with numerical weather simulation MM5. We think this will be useful to help fire fighting and global environment such as the replace of CO2. 2. Numerical Wildfire Spread Simulation There are many type of the numerical simulation of wildfire spread. In our simulation, the wildfire velocity is based on the Rhothermel equation and other parts are made of the cell automata. The area of the wildfire is the uniform vegetation consisted of the boreal forest (Picea mariana). The main factor of the expansion speed is wind velocity and speed. The continuous change of the weather is simulated with regional meteorological simulation MM5. The real spread of the Boundary Fire are observed by Alaska Fire Service. In this study, we validate the simulation result with the AFS data. 3. The Simulation Results We are constructing the simulation with Boundary Fire in 2004 in central Alaska. MM5 is very useful to reconstruct or forecast the distribution of local weather. We show the examples of the results in the poster. 4. Conclusion We constructed the numerical simulation model of wildfire spread with numerical weather simulation MM5. The result of simulation is being verified by the observed data by AFS .

  19. Characterizing the Hydrological Properties of Wildfire Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, S.; Balfour, V.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are extreme disturbance events that can increase runoff and erosion rates by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Fire related sediment presents a significant geomorphic hazard in terms of debris flows and other catastrophic erosion events, but ultimately plays a key role in landscape evolution in fire prone regions. The hyper-dessicated ash and soil layers making up the near surface profile in recently burned areas respond very differently to rainfall than the litter and unburned soil that existed prior to the fire. Limited knowledge regarding the hydrological properties of the ash-soil profile, and the ash layer in particular, currently limits efforts to model the infiltration process in burned areas and hence predict the location and magnitude of post fire runoff and erosion events. In our ongoing research we are investigating and quantifying the hydrologic properties of wildfire ash. Wherever possible we use conventional laboratory techniques from soil hydrology but in some cases we have had to adapt these techniques to account for the distinct physical and chemical properties of ash, such as the variability in particle density and the partial solubility of many of the mineral components. Some of the hydrologic properties of ash, such as the hydraulic conductivity, are similar to those of a mineral soil with a comparable particle size distribution. For example, ash from Spain with a silty loam texture had a hydraulic conductivity of 7 x 10-4 cm s-1, which is within the range reported for mineral soils with the same texture. However, other properties such as the porosity are considerably different; an undisturbed ash sample with a sandy loam texture had a porosity of 93 percent compared to the typical range of 30 to 50 percent for mineral soils with this texture. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that the contrasting hydrologic properties of ash and soil are due to differences in the particle shape, particle packing and pore structure. Using examples

  20. Constraining the source of mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagney, N.; Crameri, F.; Newsome, W. H.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Cotel, A.; Hart, S. R.; Whitehead, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to link the geochemical signature of hot spot basalts to Earth's deep interior, it is first necessary to understand how plumes sample different regions of the mantle. Here, we investigate the relative amounts of deep and shallow mantle material that are entrained by an ascending plume and constrain its source region. The plumes are generated in a viscous syrup using an isolated heater for a range of Rayleigh numbers. The velocity fields are measured using stereoscopic Particle-Image Velocimetry, and the concept of the 'vortex ring bubble' is used to provide an objective definition of the plume geometry. Using this plume geometry, the plume composition can be analysed in terms of the proportion of material that has been entrained from different depths. We show that the plume composition can be well described using a simple empirical relationship, which depends only on a single parameter, the sampling coefficient, sc. High-sc plumes are composed of material which originated from very deep in the fluid domain, while low-sc plumes contain material entrained from a range of depths. The analysis is also used to show that the geometry of the plume can be described using a similarity solution, in agreement with previous studies. Finally, numerical simulations are used to vary both the Rayleigh number and viscosity contrast independently. The simulations allow us to predict the value of the sampling coefficient for mantle plumes; we find that as a plume reaches the lithosphere, 90% of its composition has been derived from the lowermost 260-750 km in the mantle, and negligible amounts are derived from the shallow half of the lower mantle. This result implies that isotope geochemistry cannot provide direct information about this unsampled region, and that the various known geochemical reservoirs must lie in the deepest few hundred kilometres of the mantle.

  1. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia C.; Pereira, Gavin; Uhl, Sarah A.; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to increase threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. Method We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities. We reviewed and synthesized the state of science of this issue including methods to estimate exposure, and identified limitations in current research. Results We identified 61 epidemiological studies linking wildfire and human health in communities. The U.S. and Australia were the most frequently studied countries (18 studies on the U.S., 15 on Australia). Geographic scales ranged from a single small city (population about 55,000) to the entire globe. Most studies focused on areas close to fire events. Exposure was most commonly assessed with stationary air pollutant monitors (35 of 61 studies). Other methods included using satellite remote sensing and measurements from air samples collected during fires. Most studies compared risk of health outcomes between 1) periods with no fire events and periods during or after fire events, or 2) regions affected by wildfire smoke and unaffected regions. Daily pollution levels during or after wildfire in most studies exceeded U.S. EPA regulations. Levels of PM10, the most frequently studied pollutant, were 1.2 to 10 times higher due to wildfire smoke compared to non-fire periods and/or locations. Respiratory disease was the most frequently studied health condition, and had the most consistent results. Over 90% of these 45 studies reported that wildfire smoke was significantly associated with risk of respiratory morbidity. Conclusion Exposure measurement is a key challenge in current literature on wildfire and human health. A limitation is the difficulty of estimating

  2. The Structure and Origin of Solar Plumes: Network Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, A.; Bely-Dubau, F.; Tison, E.; Wilhelm, K.

    2009-07-01

    This study is based upon plumes seen close to the solar limb within coronal holes in the emission from ions formed in the temperature region of 1 MK, in particular, the band of Fe IX 171 Å from EIT on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. It is shown, using geometric arguments, that two distinct classes of structure contribute to apparently similar plume observations. Quasi-cylindrical structures are anchored in discrete regions of the solar surface (beam plumes), and faint extended structures require integration along the line of sight (LOS) in order to reproduce the observed brightness. This second category, sometimes called "curtains," are ubiquitous within the polar holes and are usually more abundant than the beam plumes, which depend more on the enhanced magnetic structures detected at their footpoints. It is here proposed that both phenomena are based on plasma structures in which emerging magnetic loops interact with ambient monopolar fields, involving reconnection. The important difference is in terms of physical scale. It is proposed that curtains are composed of a large number of microplumes, distributed along the LOS. The supergranule network provides the required spatial structure. It is shown by modeling that the observations can be reproduced if microplumes are concentrated within some 5 Mm of the cell boundaries. For this reason, we propose to call this second population "network plumes." The processes involved could represent a major contribution to the heating mechanism of the solar corona.

  3. Quantifying wildfire impacts on air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB campaign: Contribution of fire emissions to NAAQS exceedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Odman, M. T.; Russell, A.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.; Yu, H.; Bian, H.; Munchak, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly frequent wildfires in the US have led to imposed adverse impacts on rural and urban air quality. During severe wildfire episodes, exceedances of NAAQS for ozone and PM2.5 have occurred. The US EPA allows these "exceptional events" to be exempted from being used in the designation of an area exceeding NAAQS. However, how much the wildfires contribute to elevated ozone and PM2.5 observations are poorly understood and not readily quantified. For example, the northern California wildfires of summer 2008 are suspected of causing severe air pollution in the urban areas in California. Here we employed a state of art air quality model - CMAQ equipped with the sensitivity analysis tool DDM-3D - to quantify the wildfire emissions' contribution to the exceedances of NAAQS during the 2008 summer northern California wildfires period. We simulated the air quality impacts of the 2008 northern California wildfires using CMAQ, equipped with a new SOA module including the multi-generational oxidation process. The simulation covers the period of June 15 through July 14, 2008. Three nesting grids are used with the 36-km grid covering the CONUS, the 12-km grid covering California and the 4-km grid covering most metro areas in California. All the three grids have 34 vertical layers extending to ~16km above the ground with the first layer ~18m thick. We evaluate model performance by examining ozone and PM2.5 as well as other gaseous and PM components against observations from multiple platforms: surface, airborne and space. The June-July 2008 ARCTAS-CARB campaign, which was conducted in the same period, has additional airborne data collected in flights chasing the wildfire plumes, along with the regular surface network measurements and satellite observations, providing an extensive database to evaluate model deficiencies and improve model performance in capturing the wildfire impacts on air quality. Further, having these various data allows inter-comparison of the relative

  4. Stormwater contaminant loading following southern California wildfires.

    PubMed

    Stein, Eric D; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hogue, Terri S; Burke, Megan P; Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-11-01

    Contaminant loading associated with stormwater runoff from recently burned areas is poorly understood, despite the fact that it has the potential to affect downstream water quality. The goal of the present study is to assess regional patterns of runoff and contaminant loading from wildfires in urban fringe areas of southern California. Postfire stormwater runoff was sampled from five wildfires that each burned between 115 and 658 km(2) of natural open space between 2003 and 2009. Between two and five storm events were sampled per site over the first one to two years following the fires for basic constituents, metals, nutrients, total suspended solids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were compared to data from 16 unburned natural areas and six developed sites. Mean copper, lead, and zinc flux (kg/km(2)) were between 112- and 736-fold higher from burned catchments and total phosphorus was up to 921-fold higher compared to unburned natural areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon flux was four times greater from burned areas than from adjacent urban areas. Ash fallout on nearby unburned watersheds also resulted in a threefold increase in metals and PAHs. Attenuation of elevated concentration and flux values appears to be driven mainly by rainfall magnitude. Contaminant loading from burned landscapes has the potential to be a substantial contribution to the total annual load to downstream areas in the first several years following fires.

  5. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem. This article is part of a themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216511

  6. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Rob; McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem.This article is part of a themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  7. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Rob; McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem.This article is part of a themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216511

  8. A non-plume model for the Permian protracted (266-286 Ma) basaltic magmatism in the Beishan-Tianshan region, Xinjiang, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Sheng-Chao; Li, Chusi; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    The convenient mantle plume model for the Permian protracted mafic-ultramafic intrusions and mafic dykes (266-286 Ma) in the Beishan-Tianshan region, northern Xinjiang, western China can be rejected, because their temporal-spatial distribution does not show a hotspot track predicted by such model. New zircon U-Pb ages reveal that two small mafic dyke clusters (Podong, 280.5 ± 2 Ma; Luodong, 266.2 ± 3.2 Ma) that are separated by only ~ 20 km in the Pobei area, the southernmost part of the Beishan-Tianshan region, have a large age difference of ~ 18 Ma. The older mafic dykes are characterized by nearly flat mantle-normalized rare-earth-element patterns, pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and positive εNd(t) values from 5.5 to 7.5, similar to the majority of the Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the region. The younger mafic dykes are characterized by significant light rare-earth-element enrichments as well as pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies, plus lower εNd(t) (- 1.2 to 2.6) values and higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the older mafic dykes. The observed compositional variations can be explained by source mantle heterogeneity plus different degrees of crustal contamination. Overall, the Permian mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Beishan-Tianshan region are geochemically consistent with the products of basaltic magmatism induced by lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere upwelling in a convergent tectonic zone.

  9. Fire risk, atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing assessment of wildfires in eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Rieger, D.; Walter, C.; Vogel, H.; Karali, A.; Hatzaki, M.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Vogel, B.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Gratsea, M.; Roussos, A.

    2014-10-01

    The current research study aims at investigating the atmospheric implications of a major fire event in the Mediterranean area. For this purpose, a regional aerosol model coupled online with meteorology (COSMO-ART) is applied over Greece during late summer 2007. Fire risk model results proved to be adequate in reproducing the highly destructive event, which supports further applications for national meteorological forecasts and early warning systems for fire prevention. Columnar aerosol loading field predictions are consistent with satellite maps, which further allows for the correlation of this wildfire event to the atmospheric chemistry and the radiative forcing. Gaseous chemistry resembles that in urban environments and led to nitrogen dioxide and ozone exceedances in several cities in proximity to and downwind the fire spots, respectively. Influence in Athens is found significant from the Euboean plume (45% of total surface PM10) and small (5%) from the fires in Peloponnese. Fire events are indicated by sharp increases in organic to elemental carbon (6), together with sharp decreases in secondary to total organic components (0.1), in comparison to their values during the pre- and post-fire period over Athens (1 and 0.6, respectively). The change in the radiative budget induced by the fire plume is found negative (3-day-average value up to -10 W m-2). Direct heat input is found negligible, thus the net temperature effect is also negative over land (-0.5 K). Nevertheless, positive temperature changes are found overseas (hourly value up to +2 K), due to the amplified radiation absorption by aged soot, coupled to the intense stabilization of the atmosphere above the sea surface.

  10. Pastoral wildfires in the Mediterranean: understanding their linkages to land cover patterns in managed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier; Martínez-Fernández, Jesús; Vega-García, Cristina

    2012-05-15

    The pastoral use of fire to regenerate rangelands is a major cause of wildfires in many Mediterranean countries. Despite producing important environmental impacts, this phenomenon has hardly ever been studied separately from other wildfire ignition causes. As extensive livestock breeding relies on the available pasture resources, we hypothesised that a higher rate of pastoral wildfire ignitions could be associated with land cover patterns, as these reflect the spatial arrangement of human activities in managed landscapes. To investigate these patterns, we studied landscape structure and the pastoral wildfires recorded between 1988 and 2000 in 24 Nature Park landscapes in Andalusia (Spain). The CORINE Land Cover map was reclassified according to five levels of grazing use and landscape metrics were calculated. Neural networks were developed to model the relationship between landscape metrics and pastoral wildfires, obtaining a set of significant variables which are discussed in the frame of land and livestock management in the region. We conclude that pastoral wildfire ignitions are more likely in landscapes where the pattern of being dominated by a matrix composed of several large patches of low to moderate grazing use, and having abundant small and elongated patches of higher grazing use, is more extreme. This pattern could be reflecting the persistence of numerous small livestock farms within an increasingly abandoned agrarian landscape. To prevent pastoral wildfires, land management could attempt to enlarge and merge those small patches of higher grazing use, reducing the amount of interface and their intermixture with the surrounding poorer pasture resources. PMID:22245863

  11. Pastoral wildfires in the Mediterranean: understanding their linkages to land cover patterns in managed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier; Martínez-Fernández, Jesús; Vega-García, Cristina

    2012-05-15

    The pastoral use of fire to regenerate rangelands is a major cause of wildfires in many Mediterranean countries. Despite producing important environmental impacts, this phenomenon has hardly ever been studied separately from other wildfire ignition causes. As extensive livestock breeding relies on the available pasture resources, we hypothesised that a higher rate of pastoral wildfire ignitions could be associated with land cover patterns, as these reflect the spatial arrangement of human activities in managed landscapes. To investigate these patterns, we studied landscape structure and the pastoral wildfires recorded between 1988 and 2000 in 24 Nature Park landscapes in Andalusia (Spain). The CORINE Land Cover map was reclassified according to five levels of grazing use and landscape metrics were calculated. Neural networks were developed to model the relationship between landscape metrics and pastoral wildfires, obtaining a set of significant variables which are discussed in the frame of land and livestock management in the region. We conclude that pastoral wildfire ignitions are more likely in landscapes where the pattern of being dominated by a matrix composed of several large patches of low to moderate grazing use, and having abundant small and elongated patches of higher grazing use, is more extreme. This pattern could be reflecting the persistence of numerous small livestock farms within an increasingly abandoned agrarian landscape. To prevent pastoral wildfires, land management could attempt to enlarge and merge those small patches of higher grazing use, reducing the amount of interface and their intermixture with the surrounding poorer pasture resources.

  12. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  13. 78 FR 21340 - Information Collection: Annual Wildfire Summary Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Annual Wildfire Summary Report AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection; Annual Wildfire Summary Report. DATES: Comments must be... of the year, including holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Annual Wildfire Summary...

  14. Linking the Earth's surface with the deep-mantle plume beneath a region from Iceland to the city of Perm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro; Simmons, Nathan; Grand, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Current tomography models consistently reveal three large-scale regions of strongly reduced seismic velocity in the lowermost mantle under the Pacific, Africa and a region that extends from below Iceland to the city of Perm (the Perm Anomaly). We have carried out mantle dynamic simulations (Glišović et al., GJI 2012; Glišović & Forte, EPSL 2014) of the evolution of these large-scale structures that directly incorporate: 1) robust constraints provided by joint seismic-geodynamic inversions of mantle density structure with constraints provided by mineral physics data (Simmons et al., GJI 2009); and 2) constraints on mantle viscosity inferred by inversion of a suite of convection-related and glacial isostatic adjustment data sets (Mitrovica & Forte, EPSL 2004) characterised by Earth-like Rayleigh numbers. The convection simulations provide a detailed insight into the very-long-time evolution of the buoyancy of these lower-mantle anomalies. We find, in particular, that the buoyancy associated with the Perm Anomaly generates a very long-lived superplume that is connected to the paleomagnetic location of the Siberian Traps at the time of their eruption (Smirnov & Tarduno, EPSL 2010) and also to location of North Atlantic Igneous Provinces (i.e., the opening of North Atlantic Ocean).

  15. Igniting the Secret Wildfires of the Past: Searching for Wildfire Records in Caves to Unravel Hidden Paleo-fire Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagra, G.; Treble, P. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Fairchild, I. J.; Coleborn, K.; Baker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Cave environments are sensitive to environmental changes that can affect both the δ18O composition and solute concentrations of infiltrating cave dripwater and subsequently speleothem composition. The effect of wildfire on karst processes remains poorly understood. We provide a unique analysis of the effects of an intense wildfire on δ18O composition and solute concentrations of dripwater in a shallow cave, at a forested site in southwest Australia. By determining the local controls on dripwater chemistry, i.e. vegetation cover, evapotranspiration and carbonate mineral reactions, we determine a cave dripwater signature for wildfires in semi-arid regions. The dripwater response to the wildfire is clearest in the combined δ18O and Cl signature due to increased evaporation, and decreased transpiration in the case of Cl. Other solutes such as Mg, Sr and Ca strengthen this argument when coupled with δ18O over this time period. In fact our fire response from 18O shows an approx. 2‰ increase equivalent to some of the greatest changes seen in the Quaternary record. This highlights the significance of multi-year signatures that could be mistakenly interpreted as climate variability especially when combined with other proxies that would also be affected by fire, such as speleothem growth rate. Furthermore, the potential preservation of δ18O and Ca (as a growth rate determinant) in speleothems, combined with trace elements (Mg, Sr, Cl to a lesser extent), opens a new avenue for paleo-fire records.

  16. Midcontinent rift volcanism in the Lake Superior region: Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic evidence for a mantle plume origin

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.W. Univ. of Minnesota, MN ); Shirey, S.B. )

    1990-07-10

    Between 1091 and 1098 Ma, most of a 15- to 20-km thickness of dominantly tholeiitic basalt erupted in the Midcontinent Rift System of the Lake Superior region, North American. The Portage Lake Volcanics in Michigan, which are the youngest MRS flood basalts, fall into distinctly high- and low-TiO{sub 2} types having different liquid lines of descent. Incompatible trace elements in both types of tholeiites are enriched compared to depleted or primitive mantle (La/Yb = 4.3-5.3; Th/Ta = 2.12-2.16; Zr/Y = 4.3-4.4), and both basalt types are isotopically indistinguishable. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of the Portage Lake tholeiites have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr{sub i} {approx}0.7038, {epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 {plus minus} 2, and {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2. Model ages with respect to a depleted mantle source (T{sub DM}) average about 1950-2100 Ma. Portage Lake rhyolits fall into two groups. Type I rhyolites have Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 to {minus}4.7; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2-7.8) consistent with contamination of tholeiitic rocks by 5-10% Archean crust. The one type II rhyolite analyzed has Nd and Pb isotopic compositions ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}{minus}13 to {minus}16; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}7.6-7.7) which are consistent with partial melting of Archean crust. Early Proterozoic crust was not a major contaminant of MRS rocks in the Lake Superior region. Most reported Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of MRS tholeiites from the main stage of volcanism in the Lake Superior region and of the Duluth Complex are comparable to the Nd and Pb isotopic data for Portage lake tholeiites. The isotopic enrichment of the MRS source compared to depleted mantle is striking and must have occurred at least 700 m.y. before 1100 Ma.

  17. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

  18. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.

    PubMed

    Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

  19. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  20. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  1. The potential of satellite data to study individual wildfire events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benali, Akli; López-Saldana, Gerardo; Russo, Ana; Sá, Ana C. L.; Pinto, Renata M. S.; Nikos, Koutsias; Owen, Price; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Large wildfires have important social, economic and environmental impacts. In order to minimize their impacts, understand their main drivers and study their dynamics, different approaches have been used. The reconstruction of individual wildfire events is usually done by collection of field data, interviews and by implementing fire spread simulations. All these methods have clear limitations in terms of spatial and temporal coverage, accuracy, subjectivity of the collected information and lack of objective independent validation information. In this sense, remote sensing is a promising tool with the potential to provide relevant information for stakeholders and the research community, by complementing or filling gaps in existing information and providing independent accurate quantitative information. In this work we show the potential of satellite data to provide relevant information regarding the dynamics of individual large wildfire events, filling an important gap in wildfire research. We show how MODIS active-fire data, acquired up to four times per day, and satellite-derived burnt perimeters can be combined to extract relevant information wildfire events by describing the methods involved and presenting results for four regions of the world: Portugal, Greece, SE Australia and California. The information that can be retrieved encompasses the start and end date of a wildfire event and its ignition area. We perform an evaluation of the information retrieved by comparing the satellite-derived parameters with national databases, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of both and showing how the former can complement the latter leading to more complete and accurate datasets. We also show how the spatio-temporal distribution of wildfire spread dynamics can be reconstructed using satellite-derived active-fires and how relevant descriptors can be extracted. Applying graph theory to satellite active-fire data, we define the major fire spread paths that yield

  2. Constraints on a plume in the mid-mantle beneath the Iceland region from seismic array data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchard, M.J.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Fyen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Teleseismic P waves passing through low-wave-speed bodies in the mantle are refracted, causing anomalies in their propagation directions that can be measured by seismometer arrays. Waves from earthquakes in the eastern Pacific and western North America arriving at the NORSAR array in Norway and at seismic stations in Scotland pass beneath the Iceland region at depths of ~ 1000-2000 km. Waves arriving at NORSAR have anomalous arrival azimuths consistent with a low-wave-speed body at a depth of ~ 1500 km beneath the Iceland-Faeroe ridge with a maximum diameter of ~ 250 km and a maximum wave-speed contrast of ~ 1.5 per cent. This agrees well with whole-mantle tomography results, which image a low-wave-speed body at this location with a diameter of ~ 500 km and a wave-speed anomaly of ~ 0.5 per cent, bearing in mind that whole-mantle tomography, because of its limited resolution, broadens and weakens small anomalies. The observations cannot resolve the location of the body, and the anomaly could be caused in whole or in part by larger bodies farther away, for example by a body imaged beneath Greenland by whole-mantle tomography.

  3. The Influence of Wildfire on Hillslope Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, F. K.; Inbar, A.; Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.

    2014-12-01

    In southeastern Australia wildfire occurs regularly, resulting in increased hillslope erosion. However, post-wildfire erosion processes differ depending on hillslope aspect. Equatorial (north)-facing slopes are drier than polar (south)-facing slopes and experience overland flow erosion after wildfire. By contrast, overland flow is not an active process on polar-facing slopes, even after high-intensity wildfires. These differences in post-wildfire erosion processes are accompanied by observations that slope angle and curvature also differ by hillslope aspect. An airborne LiDAR dataset flown over our study area in the Kinglake National Park, Victoria shows that the mean slope angle of polar-facing slopes is nearly 5 degrees steeper than equatorial-facing slopes. We have sought to test the hypothesis that aspect differences in post-wildfire erosion processes are sufficient to create differences in hillslope geometry. In order to test this hypothesis, we use a simple 1D model that simulates hillslope evolution over thousands of years. We limit our model to low-drainage area hillslopes where debris-flows are unlikely to occur. Erosion is modeled as nonlinear diffusion regardless of aspect during non-wildfire model years. Wildfire is modeled by changing the erosional processes on each slope aspect to reflect the effects of post-wildfire erosion according to a wildfire recurrence interval. For two years following a model wildfire we allow overland flow erosion to erode equatorial-facing slopes, whereas polar-facing slopes erode according to nonlinear diffusion for only one year following a wildfire. The erosion parameters on the polar-facing slopes are changed during this period to reflect higher post-wildfire erosion. In addition to erosional processes, we use an exponential soil production law to simulate new soil formation every model year. Our preliminary results suggest that changes in erosional magnitude associated with the different wildfire erosional processes are

  4. Wildfire susceptibility mapping: comparing deterministic and stochastic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Leuenberger, Michael; Parente, Joana; Tonini, Marj

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the probability of wildfire-occurrence in a certain area under particular environmental conditions represents a modern tool to support forest protection plans and to reduce fires consequences. This can be performed by the implementation of wildfire susceptibility mapping, normally achieved employing more or less sophisticated models which combine the predisposing variables (as raster datasets) into a geographic information systems (GIS). The selection of the appropriate variables includes the evaluation of success and the implementation of prediction curves, as well as independent probabilistic validations for different scenarios. These methods allow to define the spatial pattern of wildfire-occurrences, characterize the susceptibility of the territory, namely for specific fire causes/types, and can also account for other factors such as human behavior and social aspects. We selected Portugal as the study region which, due to its favorable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions, is by far the European country most affected by wildfires. In addition, Verde and Zêzere (2010) performed a first assessment and validation of wildfire susceptibility and hazard in Portugal which can be used as benchmarking. The objectives of the present study comprise: (1) assessing the structural forest fire risk in Portugal using updated datasets, namely, with higher spatial resolution (80 m to 25 m), most recent vegetation cover (Corine Land Cover), longer fire history (1975-2013); and, (2) comparing linear vs non-linear approaches for wildfire susceptibility mapping. The data we used includes: (i) a DEM derived from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission in a resolution of 1 arc-seconds (DEM-SRTM 25 m) to assess elevation and slope; (ii) the Corine Land Cover inventory provided by the European Environment Agency (http://www.eea.europa.eu/pt) to produce the land use land cover map; (iii) the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA) provided by the Institute for the

  5. Turbulent Plumes in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This review describes a range of natural processes leading to the formation of turbulent buoyant plumes, largely relating to volcanic processes, in which there are localized, intense releases of energy. Phenomena include volcanic eruption columns, bubble plumes in lakes, hydrothermal plumes, and plumes beneath the ice in polar oceans. We assess how the dynamics is affected by heat transfer, particle fallout and recycling, and Earth's rotation, as well as explore some of the mixing of the ambient fluid produced by plumes in a confined geometry.

  6. Effects of flow regime on stream turbidity and suspended solids after wildfire, Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Sheila F.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Wildfires occur frequently in the Colorado Front Range and can alter the hydrological response of watersheds, yet little information exists on the impact of flow regime and storm events on post-wildfire water quality. The flow regime in the region is characterized by base-flow conditions during much of the year and increased runoff during spring snowmelt and summer convective storms. The impact of snowmelt and storm events on stream discharge and water quality was evaluated for about a year after a wildfire near Boulder, Colorado, USA. During spring snowmelt and low-intensity storms, differences in discharge and turbidity at sites upstream and downstream from the burned areas were minimal. However, high-intensity convective storms resulted in dramatic increases in discharge and turbidity at sites downstream from the burned area. This study highlights the importance of using high-frequency sampling to assess accurately wildfire impacts on water quality downstream.

  7. Trophic regions of a hydrothermal plume dispersing away from an ultramafic-hosted vent-system: Von Damm vent-site, Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Coleman, Max; Huber, Julie A.; Reddington, Emily; Kinsey, James C.; McIntyre, Cameron; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Deep-sea ultramafic-hosted vent systems have the potential to provide large amounts of metabolic energy to both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in their dispersing hydrothermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Such vent-systems release large quantities of hydrogen and methane to the water column, both of which can be exploited by autotrophic microorganisms. Carbon cycling in these hydrothermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> may, therefore, have an important influence on open-ocean biogeochemistry. In this study, we investigated an ultramafic-hosted system on the Mid-Cayman Rise, emitting metal-poor and hydrogen sulfide-, methane-, and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids. Total organic carbon concentrations in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> ranged between 42.1 and 51.1 μM (background = 43.2 ± 0.7 μM (n = 5)) and near-field <span class="hlt">plume</span> samples with elevated methane concentrations imply the presence of chemoautotrophic primary production and in particular methanotrophy. In parts of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> characterized by persistent potential temperature anomalies but lacking elevated methane concentrations, we found elevated organic carbon concentrations of up to 51.1 μM, most likely resulting from the presence of heterotrophic communities, their extracellular products and vent larvae. Elevated carbon concentrations up to 47.4 μM were detected even in far-field <span class="hlt">plume</span> samples. Within the Von Damm hydrothermal <span class="hlt">plume</span>, we have used our data to hypothesize a microbial food web in which chemoautotrophy supports a heterotrophic community of microorganisms. Such an active microbial food web would provide a source of labile organic carbon to the deep ocean that should be considered in any future studies evaluating sources and sinks of carbon from hydrothermal venting to the deep ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210541S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210541S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Europa's dust <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Southworth, B. S.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The discovery of Jupiter's moon Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor <span class="hlt">plume</span> constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus <span class="hlt">plume</span>, we simulate possible Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span> configurations, analyze particle number density and surface deposition results, and estimate the expected flux of ice grains on a spacecraft. Due to Europa's high escape speed, observing an active <span class="hlt">plume</span> will require low-altitude flybys, preferably at altitudes of 5-100 km. At higher altitudes a <span class="hlt">plume</span> may escape detection. Our simulations provide an extensive library documenting the possible structure of Europa dust <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which can be quickly refined as more data on Europa dust <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are collected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11811242R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11811242R"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution MODIS aerosol retrieval during <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events in California for use in exposure assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raffuse, Sean M.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Craig, Kenneth J.; DeWinter, Jennifer L.; Jumbam, Loayeh K.; Fruin, Scott; James Gauderman, W.; Lurmann, Frederick W.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using the Collection 5 (C005) algorithm provides large-scale (10 × 10 km) estimates that can be used to predict surface layer concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). However, these large-scale estimates are not suitable for identifying intraurban variability of surface PM2.5 concentrations during <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events when individual <span class="hlt">plumes</span> impact populated areas. We demonstrate a method for providing high-resolution (2.5 km) kernel-smoothed estimates of AOD over California during the 2008 northern California fires. The method uses high-resolution surface reflectance ratios of the 0.66 and 2.12 µm channels, a locally derived aerosol optical model characteristic of fresh <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, and a relaxed cloud filter. Results show that the AOD derived for the 2008 northern California fires outperformed the standard product in matching observed aerosol optical thickness at three coastal Aerosol Robotic Network sites and routinely explained more than 50% of the variance in hourly surface PM2.5 concentrations observed during the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DPS....36.0902J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DPS....36.0902J"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability and Composition of Io's Pele <span class="hlt">Plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jessup, K. L.; Spencer, J.; Yelle, R.</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The Pele <span class="hlt">plume</span> is one of the largest and most dynamic of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Io. While sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas was always assumed to be a constituent of this <span class="hlt">plume</span>, spectral observations obtained in 1999 were the first to positively identify elemental sulfur (S2) (Spencer et al. 2000) within the Pele <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The S2/SO2 ratio derived from this observation provided a critical component necessary for the constraint of the magma chemistry and vent conditions of the Pele <span class="hlt">plume</span> (Zolotov and Fegley 1998). But, because the Pele <span class="hlt">plume</span> has long been known to be variable in its eruptive behavior, it is not likely that the vent conditions are invariant. Consequently, additional observations were needed to constrain the extent of the variability of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>'s composition and gas abundances. To this end, in February 2003, March 2003 and January 2004 we obtained spectra of Pele with Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in transit of Jupiter, using the 0.1 arcsec slit, for the wavelength <span class="hlt">region</span> extending from 2100-3100 Å. Contemporaneous with the spectral data we also obtained UV and visible-wavelength images of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> in reflected sunlight with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) prior to Jupiter transit, in order to constrain <span class="hlt">plume</span> dust abundance. The newly acquired STIS data show both the S2 and SO2 absorption signatures, and provide concrete evidence of temporal variability in the abundance of these gases. Likewise, the degree of dust scattering recorded in the ACS data varied as a function of the date of observation. We will present preliminary constraints on the composition and variability of the gas abundances of the Pele <span class="hlt">plume</span> as recorded within the STIS data. We will also give a brief overview of the variability of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> dust signatures relative to the gas signatures as a function of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P53B4015G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P53B4015G"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation Chemistry of Potential Europa <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudipati, M. S.; Henderson, B. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recent detection of atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen and their correlation to potential water <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Europa [Roth, Saur et al. 2014] invoked significant interest in further understanding of these potential/putative <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Europa. Unlike on Enceladus, Europa receives significant amount of electron and particle radiation. If the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> come from trailing hemisphere and in the high radiation flux <span class="hlt">regions</span>, then it is expected that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> molecules be subjected to radiation processing. Our interest is to understand to what extent such radiation alterations occur and how they can be correlated to the <span class="hlt">plume</span> original composition, whether organic or inorganic in nature. We will present laboratory studies [Henderson and Gudipati 2014] involving pulsed infrared laser ablation of ice that generates <span class="hlt">plumes</span> similar to those observed on Enceladus [Hansen, Esposito et al. 2006; Hansen, Shemansky et al. 2011] and expected to be similar on Europa as a starting point; demonstrating the applicability of laser ablation to simulate <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of Europa and Enceladus. We will present results from electron irradiation of these <span class="hlt">plumes</span> to determine how organic and inorganic composition is altered due to radiation. Acknowledgments:This research was enabled through partial funding from NASA funding through Planetary Atmospheres, and the Europa Clipper Pre-Project. B.L.H. acknowledges funding from the NASA Postdoctoral Program for an NPP fellowship. Hansen, C. J., L. Esposito, et al. (2006). "Enceladus' water vapor <span class="hlt">plume</span>." Science 311(5766): 1422-1425. Hansen, C. J., D. E. Shemansky, et al. (2011). "The composition and structure of the Enceladus <span class="hlt">plume</span>." Geophysical Research Letters 38. Henderson, B. L. and M. S. Gudipati (2014). "<span class="hlt">Plume</span> Composition and Evolution in Multicomponent Ices Using Resonant Two-Step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118(29): 5454-5463. Roth, L., J. Saur, et al. (2014). "Transient Water Vapor at Europa's South</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3210G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3210G"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic seismic signature of thermal mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goes, S.; Hansen, U.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>With increasing resolution in global tomographic models and targeted <span class="hlt">regional</span> experiments the first seismic images of mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> have emerged. In order to obtain a better idea of the expected seismic signature of a purely thermal mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span> we perform a set of three-dimensional numerical experiments with parameters relevant to the Earth's mantle. The thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> thus obtained are converted into P- and S-velocity structure taking into account the effect of temperature, pressure, an average mantle composition including phase transitions and anelasticity on the seismic velocities. Excess <span class="hlt">plume</span> temperatures were constrained to be about 300oC below the lithosphere to be consistent with surface observations. Models with depth-dependent expansivity and conductivity and temperature and depth-dependent viscosity predict <span class="hlt">plumes</span> that are 500-800 km wide in the lower mantle. An abrupt lowering of the viscosity above 660 km of at least a factor 30 can narrow upper mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> to 100-200 km. Due to the varying sensitivity of seismic velocities to temperature with depth and mineralogy, variations in amplitude and width of the seismic <span class="hlt">plume</span> do not coincide with the variations in the thermal structure of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Anomalies of 2-4% are expected in the uppermost mantle. Reduced sensitivity in the transition zone as well as complexities due to phase boundary topography may hamper imaging continuous whole mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Lower mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> that are consistent with temperature constrasts of 100-300oC below the lithosphere will have seismic amplitudes of only 0.5-1%. Seismic anelasticity structure follows the thermal structure more closely and yields <span class="hlt">plume</span> anomalies of 100-200% in dln(1/QS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118301','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118301"><span id="translatedtitle">Current research issues related to post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Research into post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> responses between different fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..122...10M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..122...10M"><span id="translatedtitle">Current research issues related to post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.</p> <p></p> <p>Research into post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> responses between different fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff and erosion processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=555719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=555719"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regimes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Malamud, Bruce D.; Millington, James D. A.; Perry, George L. W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> statistics for the conterminous United States (U.S.) are examined in a spatially and temporally explicit manner. We use a high-resolution data set consisting of 88,916 U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> over the time period 1970-2000 and consider <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurrence as a function of ecoregion (land units classified by climate, vegetation, and topography), ignition source (anthropogenic vs. lightning), and decade. For the conterminous U.S., we (i) find that <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> exhibit robust frequency-area power-law behavior in 18 different ecoregions; (ii) use normalized power-law exponents to compare the scaling of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-burned areas between ecoregions, finding a systematic change from east to west; (iii) find that <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the eastern third of the U.S. have higher power-law exponents for anthropogenic vs. lightning ignition sources; and (iv) calculate recurrence intervals for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> of a given burned area or larger for each ecoregion, allowing for the classification of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regimes for probabilistic hazard estimation in the same vein as is now used for earthquakes. PMID:15781868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=214222','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=214222"><span id="translatedtitle">Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...13...33U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...13...33U"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion efficiency and emission factors for US <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urbanski, S. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the US <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Haze Regulations. Wildland fire emission inventories (EI) provide critical inputs for atmospheric chemical transport models used by air regulatory agencies to understand and to predict the impact of fires on air quality. Fire emission factors (EF), which quantify the amount of pollutants released per mass of biomass burned, are essential input for the emission models used to develop EI. Over the past decade substantial progress has been realized in characterizing the composition of fresh biomass burning (BB) smoke and in quantifying BB EF. However, most BB studies of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning. Little information is available on EF for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the temperate forests of the conterminous US. Current emission estimates for US <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> rely largely on EF measurements from prescribed burns and it is unknown if these fires are a reasonable proxy for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Over 8 days in August of 2011 we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions from 3 <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg-1, 135 g kg-1, 7.30 g kg-1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in similar forest types, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. An examination of our study and 47 temperate forest prescribed fires from previously published studies shows a clear trend in MCE across US <span class="hlt">region</span>/fire type: southeast (MCE = 0.933) > southwest (MCE = 0.922) > northwest (MCE = 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648639"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> using machine learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Petersen, Maya L; Pfister, Gabriele G; Morefield, Philip E; Tager, Ira B; Raffuse, Sean M; Balmes, John R</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>Estimating population exposure to particulate matter during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> can be difficult because of insufficient monitoring data to capture the spatiotemporal variability of smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and satellite retrievals provide spatiotemporal data that may be useful in predicting PM2.5 during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We estimated PM2.5 concentrations during the 2008 northern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) to select an optimal prediction model from a set of 11 statistical algorithms and 29 predictor variables. The variables included CTM output, three measures of satellite aerosol optical depth, distance to the nearest fires, meteorological data, and land use, traffic, spatial location, and temporal characteristics. The generalized boosting model (GBM) with 29 predictor variables had the lowest CV root mean squared error and a CV-R2 of 0.803. The most important predictor variable was the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), followed by the CTM output and distance to the nearest fire cluster. Parsimonious models with various combinations of fewer variables also predicted PM2.5 well. Using machine learning algorithms to combine spatiotemporal data from satellites and CTMs can reliably predict PM2.5 concentrations during a major <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> event. PMID:25648639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1017110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1017110"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: Impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on weather forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grell, G. A.; Freitas, Saulo; Stuefer, Martin; Fast, Jerome D.</p> <p>2011-06-06</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">plume</span> rise algorithm for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> during the 2004 Alaska <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season on weather forecasts using model resolutions of 10km and 2km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) had a strong impact on clouds and microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 hours of the integration, but significantly stronger storms during the afternoon hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648639"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> using machine learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Petersen, Maya L; Pfister, Gabriele G; Morefield, Philip E; Tager, Ira B; Raffuse, Sean M; Balmes, John R</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>Estimating population exposure to particulate matter during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> can be difficult because of insufficient monitoring data to capture the spatiotemporal variability of smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and satellite retrievals provide spatiotemporal data that may be useful in predicting PM2.5 during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We estimated PM2.5 concentrations during the 2008 northern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) to select an optimal prediction model from a set of 11 statistical algorithms and 29 predictor variables. The variables included CTM output, three measures of satellite aerosol optical depth, distance to the nearest fires, meteorological data, and land use, traffic, spatial location, and temporal characteristics. The generalized boosting model (GBM) with 29 predictor variables had the lowest CV root mean squared error and a CV-R2 of 0.803. The most important predictor variable was the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), followed by the CTM output and distance to the nearest fire cluster. Parsimonious models with various combinations of fewer variables also predicted PM2.5 well. Using machine learning algorithms to combine spatiotemporal data from satellites and CTMs can reliably predict PM2.5 concentrations during a major <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> event.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6862K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6862K"><span id="translatedtitle">Lateral <span class="hlt">plume</span> spreading in a medium size river <span class="hlt">plume</span> using surface Lagrangian drifters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kakoulaki, Georgia; MacDonald, Daniel; Cole, Kelly</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Groups of 27 Lagrangian drifters deployed in the Merrimack River <span class="hlt">plume</span> over twelve tides, with river discharges ranging between 150-800 m3/s, are used to understand the external forcing mechanisms responsible for the extent of spreading in river <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. The transition of buoyant flow from a confined estuary to an unconfined coastal ocean introduces the complicated phenomenon of lateral spreading, which occurs preferentially near the surface and results in a flow that spreads laterally as <span class="hlt">plume</span> water propagates forward in the direction of mean flow. In this work, the temporal and spatial scales of the active spreading <span class="hlt">region</span> are estimated in the sampled <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and related to environmental parameters at the river mouth such as inflow river discharge, initial drifter velocity at the point of release, initial reduced gravity and initial internal wave speed. The initial wave speed was found to be the environmental parameter that best predicts the magnitude of the spatial and temporal scales of the active spreading <span class="hlt">region</span>. Previous studies have asserted the importance of initial <span class="hlt">plume</span> parameters in near-field <span class="hlt">plume</span> evolution and here we extrapolate this idea to the mid-field. Interestingly, we find that that lateral <span class="hlt">plume</span> spreading is arrested at approximately one inertial radius from the river mouth. We therefore propose that the shutdown of spreading is controlled almost exclusively by Coriolis force and it is responsible for converting spreading motion to spinning motion after the mid field <span class="hlt">region</span>. The outcomes of this research are widely applicable to other energetic, medium size river <span class="hlt">plume</span> systems and to the author's knowledge this is the first study to estimate lateral <span class="hlt">plume</span> expansion using observations beyond the immediate near field <span class="hlt">region</span> of a river <span class="hlt">plume</span>. This work will provide further development in understanding <span class="hlt">plume</span> dynamics and the fundamental physical processes that influence coastal ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.2011Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.2011Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river <span class="hlt">plume</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> using above-surface hyperspectral remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Weining; Yu, Qian; Tian, Yong Q.; Chen, Robert F.; Gardner, G. Bernard</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>A method for the inversion of hyperspectral remote sensing was developed to determine the absorption coefficient for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river <span class="hlt">plume</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the northern Gulf of Mexico, where water types vary from Case 1 to turbid Case 2. Above-surface hyperspectral remote sensing data were measured by a ship-mounted spectroradiometer and then used to estimate CDOM. Simultaneously, water absorption and attenuation coefficients, CDOM and chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidities, and other related water properties were also measured at very high resolution (0.5-2 m) using in situ, underwater, and flow-through (shipboard, pumped) optical sensors. We separate ag, the absorption coefficient a of CDOM, from adg (a of CDOM and nonalgal particles) based on two absorption-backscattering relationships. The first is between ad (a of nonalgal particles) and bbp (total particulate backscattering coefficient), and the second is between ap (a of total particles) and bbp. These two relationships are referred as ad-based and ap-based methods, respectively. Consequently, based on Lee's quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), we developed the so-called Extended Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA-E) to decompose adg, using both ad-based and ap-based methods. The absorption-backscattering relationships and the QAA-E were tested using synthetic and in situ data from the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) as well as our own field data. The results indicate the ad-based method is relatively better than the ap-based method. The accuracy of CDOM estimation is significantly improved by separating ag from adg (R2 = 0.81 and 0.65 for synthetic and in situ data, respectively). The sensitivities of the newly introduced coefficients were also analyzed to ensure QAA-E is robust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9765R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9765R"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Chemistry: Models, Observations and Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, Tjarda; Martin, Robert; Oppenheimer, Clive; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Cox, Tony; Jones, Rod; Durant, Adam; Kelly, Peter</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are highly chemically reactive; both in the hot, near-vent <span class="hlt">plume</span>, and also at ambient temperatures in the downwind <span class="hlt">plume</span>, as the volcanic gases and aerosol disperse into the background atmosphere. In particular, DOAS (Differential Optical Absortpion Spectroscopy) observations have identified BrO (Bromine Monoxide) in several volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> degassing into the troposphere. These observations are explained by rapid in-<span class="hlt">plume</span> autocatalytic BrO-chemistry that occurs whilst the <span class="hlt">plume</span> disperses, enabling oxidants such as ozone from background air to mix with the acid gases and aerosol. Computer modelling tools have recently been developed to interpret the observed BrO and predict that substantial ozone depletion occurs downwind. Alongside these modelling developments, advances in in-situ and remote sensing techniques have also improved our observational understanding of volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. We present simulations using the model, <span class="hlt">Plume</span>Chem, that predict the spatial distribution of gases in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, including formation of reactive halogens BrO, ClO and OClO that are enhanced nearer the <span class="hlt">plume</span> edges, and depletion of ozone within the <span class="hlt">plume</span> core. The simulations also show that in-<span class="hlt">plume</span> chemistry rapidly converts NOx into nitric acid, providing a mechanism to explain observed elevated in-<span class="hlt">plume</span> HNO3. This highlights the importance of coupled BrO-NOx chemistry, both for BrO-formation and as a production mechanism for HNO3 in BrO-influenced <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the atmosphere. Studies of coupled halogen-H2S-chemistry are consistent with in-situ Alphasense electrochemical sensor observations of H2S at a range of volcanoes, and only predict H2S-depletion if Cl is additionally elevated. Initial studies regarding the transformations of mercury within volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> suggest that significant in-<span class="hlt">plume</span> conversion of Hg0 to Hg2+ can occur in the downwind <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Such Hg2+ may impact downwind ecology through enhanced Hg-deposition, and causing enhanced biological uptake of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V51E2558F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V51E2558F"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking Iceland <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-<span class="hlt">plume</span> interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical <span class="hlt">plume</span> tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting <span class="hlt">region</span>. Above the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit, <span class="hlt">plume</span>-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting <span class="hlt">region</span> faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit than away from the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The <span class="hlt">plume</span> track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland <span class="hlt">Plume</span> has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B23F0527Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B23F0527Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions as controlled by multifactor environmental changes from 1901 through 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Tian, H.; Tao, B.; Lu, C.; Ren, W.; Liu, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> has been recognized as a critical factor which influences not only vegetation succession, but also trace gas emissions and therefore climate system. The structure and functioning of ecosystem are mildly or strongly altered by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, depending on its severity. However, the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emission has long been neglected, although large amount of trace gases and particulate matter generated in fire event are imported into the atmosphere and impact photochemistry and climate. Until recently, its significance began to capture scientific attention at <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global scales. In-situ observations and remote sensing technique have been applied to estimate fire emissions at different spatial levels. Along with changes in global climate, vegetation structure and human activities in the past several decades, <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ignition, spread, and extinguishment also experienced changes, which inevitably altered the pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions. To examine how global change have affected <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions at global level, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) with recently developed driving information on multiple environmental factors (such as climate, ambient CO2, Ozone, nitrogen deposition, and land cover change) is used to quantify the spatial distribution and temporal variation of trace gases emitted during <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events at global level from 1901 through 2010. We focus on seven trace gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrous oxide (N2O), and Ammonia (NH3). Our model simulations show that <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions decreased at global level over the past 110 years. Land cover change and human activities are two of the most important factors responsible for the declining trend of trace gas emissions. However, climate change and ambient CO2 led to an increase of trace gas emissions. Our results suggest that fire suppression and land use management are effective to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22629191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22629191"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on aerosol size distributions in rural areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alonso-Blanco, E; Calvo, A I; Fraile, R; Castro, A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14 μm, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time--before, during, and after the passing of the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> from the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>--shows that the mean geometric diameter of the fine mode in the measurements affected by the fire is smaller than the one obtained in the measurements carried out immediately before and after (0.14 μm) and presents average values of 0.11 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005146','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005146"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Venus revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Walter S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Equatorial Highlands of Venus consist of a series of quasicircular <span class="hlt">regions</span> of high topography, rising up to about 5 km above the mean planetary radius. These highlands are strongly correlated with positive geoid anomalies, with a peak amplitude of 120 m at Atla Regio. Shield volcanism is observed at Beta, Eistla, Bell, and Atla <span class="hlt">Regiones</span> and in the Hathor Mons-Innini Mons-Ushas Mons <span class="hlt">region</span> of the southern hemisphere. Volcanos have also been mapped in Phoebe Regio and flood volcanism is observed in Ovda and Thetis <span class="hlt">Regiones</span>. Extensional tectonism is also observed in Ovda and Thetis <span class="hlt">Regiones</span>. Extensional tectonism is also observed in many of these <span class="hlt">regions</span>. It is now widely accepted that at least Beta, Atla, Eistla, and Bell <span class="hlt">Regiones</span> are the surface expressions of hot, rising mantel <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Upwelling <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are consistent with both the volcanism and the extensional tectonism observed in these <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The geoid anomalies and topography of these four <span class="hlt">regions</span> show considerable variation. Peak geoid anomalies exceed 90 m at Beta and Atla, but are only 40 m at Eistla and 24 m at Bell. Similarly, the peak topography is greater at Beta and Atla than at Eistla and Bell. Such a range of values is not surprising because terrestrial hotspot swells also have a side range of geoid anomalies and topographic uplifts. Kiefer and Hager used cylindrical axisymmetric, steady-state convection calculations to show that mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> can quantitatively account for both the amplitude and the shape of the long-wavelength geoid and topography at Beta and Atla. In these models, most of the topography of these highlands is due to uplift by the vertical normal stress associated with the rising <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Additional topography may also be present due to crustal thickening by volcanism and crustal thinning by rifting. Smrekar and Phillips have also considered the geoid and topography of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Venus, but they restricted themselves to considering only the geoid-topography ratio and did not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352494"><span id="translatedtitle">Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting <span class="hlt">regional</span> hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that <span class="hlt">regional</span> increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352494"><span id="translatedtitle">Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting <span class="hlt">regional</span> hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that <span class="hlt">regional</span> increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662419','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662419"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Pyrogeography: the Current and Future Distribution of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krawchuk, Meg A.; Moritz, Max A.; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting <span class="hlt">regional</span> hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that <span class="hlt">regional</span> increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11A1135G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11A1135G"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic Seismic Signature of Thermal Mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goes, S.; Hansen, U.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>With increasing resolution in global tomographic models and targeted <span class="hlt">regional</span> experiments the first seismic images of mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> have emerged. The low velocity anomalies interpreted as <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are generally significantly more complex than the simple head-tail model of a mantle upwelling. Although some models show low velocities crossing the 660 km discontinuity, the significance of the lower mantle anomalies is still heavily debated. In order to obtain a better idea of the expected seismic signature of a mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span> we perform a set of three-dimensional numerical experiments with parameters relevant to the Earth's mantle. The thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> thus obtained are converted into P and S velocity structure taking into account the effect of temperature, pressure, an average mantle composition including phase transitions and anelasticity on the seismic velocities. Excess <span class="hlt">plume</span> temperatures were constrained to be about 300oC below the lithosphere to be consistent with surface observations. Such <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are 400-800 km wide. An abrupt lowering of the viscosity above 660 km causes additional narrowing in the upper mantle. VP (VS) anomalies range from -2.2 (-4) % above the transition zone to -0.5 (-1) % in the lower mantle. Due to the varying sensitivity of seismic velocities to temperature with depth and mineralogy, variations in amplitude and width of the seismic <span class="hlt">plume</span> do not coincide with the variations in the thermal structure of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Reduced sensitivity in the transition zone may hamper imaging continuous whole mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Seismic anelasticity structure follows the thermal structure more closely and yields <span class="hlt">plume</span> anomalies of up to 200% in dln(1/QS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8230C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8230C"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleogene Alpine tectonics and Icelandic <span class="hlt">plume</span>-related magmatism and deformation in Ireland: Evidence from the <span class="hlt">regional</span>, high resolution Tellus geophysical survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, Mark; Walsh, John; van Dam, Chris; Young, Michael; Earls, Garth; Anderson, Hugh; Adrian, Walker</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Cenozoic tectonic history of NW Europe is generally attributed to some combination of three principal controlling factors: North Atlantic opening, Alpine collision and formation of the Icelandic mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Here we present the results of an interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic imagery from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland. This dataset distinguishes four distinct dyke swarms, which together with the known extrusive history of the Antrim Lava Group and intrusive history of the central igneous complexes, supports the concept that Paleocene <span class="hlt">plume</span> activity was pulsed. Differential displacement of the dyke swarms and central igneous complexes by both sinistral and dextral strike-slip faults indicates, for the first time, that N-S Alpine compression, of Paleocene through to Oligocene age, temporally overlapped with <span class="hlt">plume</span>-related intrusions. Whilst this evidence shows, for the first time, that N-S Alpine compression was periodically overwhelmed by the dynamic stresses and uplift associated with pulsed mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span>-related deformation, related strike-slip faulting may have controlled the locus of volcanic activity and central igneous complexes, and the location of sedimentary depocentres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11C2113S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11C2113S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Europa's Dust <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor <span class="hlt">plume</span> constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus <span class="hlt">plume</span>, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span>. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two <span class="hlt">plume</span> locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, <span class="hlt">plume</span> location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span> will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span> will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the <span class="hlt">plume</span> on Enceladus, (ii) <span class="hlt">plume</span> particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the <span class="hlt">plume</span> location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active <span class="hlt">plume</span> will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352209"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic mapping of groundwater perchlorate <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sturchio, Neil C; Hoaglund, John R; Marroquin, Roy J; Beloso, Abelardo D; Heraty, Linnea J; Bortz, Sarah E; Patterson, Thomas L</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Analyses of stable isotope ratios of chlorine and oxygen in perchlorate can, in some cases, be used for mapping and source identification of groundwater perchlorate <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. This is demonstrated here for large, intersecting perchlorate <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in groundwater from a <span class="hlt">region</span> having extensive groundwater perchlorate contamination and a large population dependent on groundwater resources. The <span class="hlt">region</span> contains both synthetic perchlorate derived from rocket fuel manufacturing and testing activities and agricultural perchlorate derived predominantly from imported Chilean (Atacama) nitrate fertilizer, along with a likely component of indigenous natural background perchlorate from local wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Most samples within each <span class="hlt">plume</span> reflect either a predominantly synthetic or a predominantly agricultural perchlorate source and there is apparently a minor contribution from the indigenous natural background perchlorate. The existence of isotopically distinct perchlorate <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in this area is consistent with other lines of evidence, including groundwater levels and flow paths as well as the historical land use and areal distribution of potential perchlorate sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814737L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814737L"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on the variability and trend of ozone concentrations in the U.S. Intermountain West</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiao; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Yue, Xu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are important sources of ozone by emitting large amounts of NOx and NMVOC, main ozone precursors at both global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales. Their influences on ozone in the U.S. Intermountain West have recently received much interest because surface ozone concentrations over that <span class="hlt">region</span> showed an increasing trend in the past two decades likely due to increasing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions in a warming climate. Here we use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) as well as the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to estimate <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>' contribution on summer (June, July and August; JJA) ozone concentration variations, trends, and extremely high ozone events over the US Intermountain West for the past 22 years (1989-2010). We combine the resident time estimated from the FLEXPART 5-day backward trajectories and a high-resolution fire inventory to define a fire index representing the impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on ozone concentration at a particular site for each day of summers 1989-2010. Over 26,000 FLEXPART back-trajectories are conducted for the whole time period and for 13 CASTNet surface monitoring sites. We build a stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model of daily ozone concentrations using fire index and other meteorological variables for each site. The SMLR models explain 53% of the ozone variations (ranging from 12% to 68% for each site). We show that ozone produced from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (calculated from SMLR model) are of high variability at daily scale (ranging from 0.1 ppbv to 20.7 ppbv), but are averaged to lower values of about 0.25-3.5 ppbv for summer mean. We estimate that <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> magnify inter-annual variations of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> mean summer ozone for about 32%, compared to the result with <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> impact excluded from the SMLR model. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> ozone enhancements increase at a rate of 0.04 ppbv per year, accouting for about 20% of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> summer ozone trend during 1989-2010. Removing <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>' impact would reduce 35% (46%) of the high-ozone days with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14601"><span id="translatedtitle">The national <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> prediction program: a key piece of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bossert, J E; Bradley, M M; Hanson, H P; Schomer, C L; Sumikawa, D A</p> <p>1999-08-06</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed an initiative for a National <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Prediction Program. The program provides guidance for fire managers throughout the country, assisting them to efficiently use limited fire-fighting resources. To achieve maximum cost leveraging, the program builds upon existing physics-based atmospheric and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling efforts, a proven emergency response infrastructure, state-of-the-art computer science, and the world's most advanced supercomputers to create a comprehensive <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> prediction system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ready.gov/wildfires','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.ready.gov/wildfires"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Hazardous Materials Incidents Home Fires Household Chemical Emergencies Hurricanes Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants ... Hazardous Materials Incidents Home Fires Household Chemical Emergencies Hurricanes Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.164...49H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.164...49H"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-induced land cover modification on local meteorology: A sensitivity study of the 2003 <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, Charles; Drobinski, Philippe; Turquety, Solène</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> alter land cover creating changes in dynamic, vegetative, radiative, thermal and hydrological properties of the surface. However, how so drastic changes induced by <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and how the age of the burnt scar affect the small and meso-scale atmospheric boundary layer dynamics are largely unknown. These questions are relevant for process analysis, meteorological and air quality forecast but also for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate analysis. Such questions are addressed numerically in this study on the case of the Portugal <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in 2003 as a testbed. In order to study the effects of burnt scars, an ensemble of numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF) have been performed with different surface properties mimicking the surface state immediately after the fire, few days after the fire and few months after the fire. In order to investigate such issue in a seamless approach, the same modelling framework has been used with various horizontal resolutions of the model grid and land use, ranging from 3.5 km, which can be considered as the typical resolution of state-of-the art <span class="hlt">regional</span> numerical weather prediction models to 14 km which is now the typical target resolution of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models. The study shows that the combination of high surface heat fluxes over the burnt area, large differential heating with respect to the preserved surroundings and lower surface roughness produces very intense frontogenesis with vertical velocity reaching few meters per second. This powerful meso-scale circulation can pump more humid air from the surroundings not impacted by the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and produce more cloudiness over the burnt area. The influence of soil temperature immediately after the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ceases is mainly seen at night as the boundary-layer remains unstably stratified and lasts only few days. So the intensity of the induced meso-scale circulation decreases with time, even though it remains until full recovery of the vegetation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/505313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/505313"><span id="translatedtitle">A transport model for prediction of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linn, R.R.</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition <span class="hlt">regions</span> such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0205M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0205M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of tropospheric oxidants to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>: implications for radiative forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Fan, S.; Liu, J.; Fiore, A. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are one of the largest uncontrollable sources of trace gases and aerosols, and have profound influence on tropospheric oxidants and radiative forcing. We here investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> with a fully coupled chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3), and in particular the sensitivity to recent updates to heterogeneous chemistry. We find that co-emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning decreases OH concentrations, leading to an increase of CH4 lifetime by 0.58 yr, exceeding the arithmetic sum of separate aerosol and gas effects by about 20%. This nonlinearity results from a HOx sink via heterogeneous processes, which extends the lifetime of carbon monoxide (CO). We also show that heterogeneous processes largely suppress ozone production from biomass burning particularly over the Arctic, with the ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratio from biomass burning decreasing from 0.43 (without the aerosol HOx sink) to 0.17 (with the aerosol HOx sink). Our results suggest that heterogeneous processes can partly account for the observed lower ΔO3/ΔCO ratios in northern high latitudes versus tropical <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Given the high sensitivity of global OH to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, we show that the implied positive radiative forcing from the increase in CH4, and from the CH4-induced changes in O3 and stratospheric H2O, are of comparable magnitude to the negative direct and indirect forcing from biomass burning aerosols.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279530"><span id="translatedtitle">Land management practices associated with house loss in <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J; Driscoll, Don A; Bradstock, Ross A; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A; Stephens, Scott L; Lindenmayer, David B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (<span class="hlt">wildfires</span>) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction--clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing--to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span>. But how effective are these measures? Severe <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%-97%, which would translate to considerably fewer <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on peri-urban communities. PMID:22279530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25894116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25894116"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> altering terrestrial precursors of disinfection byproducts in forest detritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Erşan, Mahmut S; Karanfil, Tanju; Chow, Alex T</p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> occurrence and intensity are increasing worldwide causing severe disturbances to forest watersheds used for potable water supply. The effects of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on drinking water quality are not well understood, especially in terms of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and DOM-associated formation of disinfection byproducts (DBP). As the forest floor layer is a major source of terrestrial DOM, we investigated characteristics and DBP formation of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) from the 0-5 cm depth of nonburned detritus (control) and burned detritus with black ash (moderate severity) and white ash (high severity) associated with the 2013 Rim Fire in California. Spectroscopic results suggested that the aromaticity of WEOM followed white ash > control > black ash and fluorescence <span class="hlt">region</span> II (excitation 220-250 nm; emission 330-380 nm) of the emission-excitation-matrix was identified as a potential burn severity indicator. Compared to the control, WEOM from white and black ashes had lower reactivity in forming trihalomethanes (55%-of-control) and haloacetic acids (67%-of-control), but higher reactivity in forming the more carcinogenic haloacetonitrile after chlorination (244%-of-control) and N-nitrosodimethylamine after chloramination (229%-of-control). There was no change in reactivity for chloral hydrate formation, while WEOM from black ash showed a higher reactivity for haloketone formation (150%-of-control). Because <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> consumed a large portion of organic matter from the detritus layer, there was lower water extractable organic carbon (27%-of-control) and organic nitrogen (19%-of-control) yields in ashes. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> caused an overall reduction in water extractable terrestrial DBP precursor yield from detritus materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279530"><span id="translatedtitle">Land management practices associated with house loss in <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J; Driscoll, Don A; Bradstock, Ross A; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A; Stephens, Scott L; Lindenmayer, David B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (<span class="hlt">wildfires</span>) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction--clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing--to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span>. But how effective are these measures? Severe <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%-97%, which would translate to considerably fewer <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on peri-urban communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P52A..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P52A..01N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plumes</span> on Enceladus: Lessons for Europa?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nimmo, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The possible detection of a water vapour <span class="hlt">plume</span> on Europa [1] suggests resemblances to Enceladus, a cryovolcanically active satellite [2]. How does this activity work, and what lesson does Enceladus have for <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Europa? The inferred vapour column densities of the Europa [1] and Enceladus [3] <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are similar, but the inferred velocity and mass flux of the former are higher. At Enceladus, the inferred <span class="hlt">plume</span> strength is modulated by its orbital position [4,5], suggesting that tides opening and closing cracks control the eruption behaviour [6,7]. An additional source of stress potentially driving eruptions is the effect of slow freezing of the ice shell above[7,8]. The original detection of the Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span> was close to apocentre, when polar fractures are expected to be in tension [1]. Follow-up observations at the same orbital phase did not detect a <span class="hlt">plume</span> [9], although the Galileo E12 magnetometer data may provide evidence for an earlier <span class="hlt">plume</span> [Khurana, pers. comm.]. One possible explanation for the <span class="hlt">plume</span>'s disappearance is that longer-period tidal effects are playing a role; there are hints of similar secular changes in the Enceladus data [4,5]. Another is that detectability of the Europa plumein the aurora observations also depends on variations in electron density (which affects the UV emission flux) [9]. Or it may simply be that eruptive activity on Europa is highly time-variable, as on Io. At Enceladus, the <span class="hlt">plume</span> scale height is independent of orbital position and <span class="hlt">plume</span> brightness [5]. This suggests that the vapour velocity does not depend on crack width, consistent with supersonic flow through a near-surface throat. The large scale height inferred for the Europa <span class="hlt">plume</span> likewise suggests supersonic behaviour. Continuous fallback of solid <span class="hlt">plume</span> material at Enceladus affects both the colour [10] and surface texture [2] of near-polar <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Less frequent <span class="hlt">plume</span> activity would produce subtler effects; whether the sparse available imagery at Europa [11</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069571&hterms=geyser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeyser','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069571&hterms=geyser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeyser"><span id="translatedtitle">Stealth <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> on Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, T. V.; Matson, Dennis L.; Blaney, Diana L.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Davies, Ashley</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We suggest that Io's eruptive activity may include a class of previously undetected SO2 geysers. The thermodynamic models for the eruptive <span class="hlt">plumes</span> discovered by Voyager 'involve low to moderate entropy SO2 eruptions. The resulting <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are a mixture of solid and gas which emerge from the vent and follow essentially ballistic trajectories. We show that intrusion of silicate magma into buried SO2 deposits can create the required conditions for high entropy eruptions which proceed entirely in the vapor phase. These purely gaseous <span class="hlt">plumes</span> would have been invisible to Voyager's instruments. Hence, we call them "stealth" <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Such eruptions could explain the "patchy" SO2 atmosphere inferred from recent UV and micro-wave spectral observations. The magma intrusion rate required to support the required gas production for these <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is a negligible fraction of estimated global magma intrusion rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171505','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171505"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> risk as a socioecological pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fischer, A. Paige; Spies, Thomas A; Steelman, Toddi A; Moseley, Cassandra; Johnson, Bart R; Bailey, John D.; Ager, Alan A; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Charnley, Susan; Collins, Brandon M.; Kline, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Jessica E; Littell, Jeremy; Millington, James D A; Nielsen-Pincus, Max; Olsen, Christine S; Paveglio, Travis B; Roos, Christopher I.; Steen-Adams, Michelle M; Stevens, Forrest R; Vukomanovic, Jelena; White, Eric M; Bowman, David M J S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> risk in temperate forests has become a nearly intractable problem that can be characterized as a socioecological “pathology”: that is, a set of complex and problematic interactions among social and ecological systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Assessments of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk could benefit from recognizing and accounting for these interactions in terms of socioecological systems, also known as coupled natural and human systems (CNHS). We characterize the primary social and ecological dimensions of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk pathology, paying particular attention to the governance system around <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk, and suggest strategies to mitigate the pathology through innovative planning approaches, analytical tools, and policies. We caution that even with a clear understanding of the problem and possible solutions, the system by which human actors govern fire-prone forests may evolve incrementally in imperfect ways and can be expected to resist change even as we learn better ways to manage CNHS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T41C1322L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T41C1322L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Little Shallow Entrainment in Starting Mantle <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lohmann, F. C.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Hort, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Basalts from intraplate or hotspot ocean islands show distinct geochemical signatures. Their diversity in composition is generally believed to result from the upwelling <span class="hlt">plume</span> entraining shallow mantle material during ascent, while potentially also entraining other deep <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the mantle. Here we present results from analogue laboratory experiments and numerical modelling that there is evidence for little shallow entrainment into ascending mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, i.e. most of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> signature is inherited from the source. We conducted laboratory experiments using glucose syrup contaminated with glass beads to visualize fluid flow and origin. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> is initiated by heating from below or by injecting hot, uncontaminated syrup. Particle movement is captured by a CCD camera. In our numerical experiments we solve the Stokes equations for a viscous fluid at infinite Prandtl number with passive tracer particles being used to track fluid flow and entrainment rates, simulating laboratory as well as mantle conditions. In both analogue experiments and numerical models we observe the classical <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure being embedded in a `sheath' of material from the <span class="hlt">plume</span> source <span class="hlt">region</span> that retains little of the original temperature anomaly of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> source. Yet, this sheath ascends in the `slipstream' of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> at speeds close to the ascent speed of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head, and effectively prevents the entrainment of surrounding material into the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head or <span class="hlt">plume</span> tail. We find that the source <span class="hlt">region</span> is most effectively sampled by an ascending <span class="hlt">plume</span> and that compositional variations in the source <span class="hlt">region</span> are preserved during <span class="hlt">plume</span> ascent. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> center and <span class="hlt">plume</span> sheath combined are composed of up to 85% source material. However, there is also evidence of significant entrainment of up to 30% of surrounding material into the outer layers of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> sheath. Entrainment rates are found to be influenced by mantle composition and structure, with the radial viscosity profile of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMDI13A2155H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMDI13A2155H"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismically imaging the Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plume</span> related flood basalt volcanism in Ethiopia has long been cited to have instigated continental breakup in northeast Africa. However, to date seismic images of the mantle beneath the <span class="hlt">region</span> have not produced conclusive evidence of a <span class="hlt">plume</span>-like structure. As a result the nature and even existence of a <span class="hlt">plume</span> in the <span class="hlt">region</span> and its role in rift initiation and continental rupture are debated. Previous seismic studies using <span class="hlt">regional</span> deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie northeast Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 6 other <span class="hlt">regional</span> experiments and global network stations across Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S- wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that the top 100km is dominated by focussed low velocity zones, likely associated with melt in the lithosphere/uppermost asthenosphere. Below these depths a broad SW-NE oriented sheet like upwelling extends down to the top of the transition zone. Within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity <span class="hlt">regions</span> exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. The nature of the transition zone anomalies suggests that small upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity <span class="hlt">plume</span>-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. Our images of secondary upwellings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC32B..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC32B..01T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this presentation we address federal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC21B0964N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC21B0964N"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite data driven modeling system for predicting air quality and visibility during <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and prescribed burn events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nair, U. S.; Keiser, K.; Wu, Y.; Maskey, M.; Berendes, D.; Glass, P.; Dhakal, A.; Christopher, S. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Alabama Forestry Commission (AFC) is responsible for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> control and also prescribed burn management in the state of Alabama. Visibility and air quality degradation resulting from smoke are two pieces of information that are crucial for this activity. Currently the tools available to AFC are the dispersion index available from the National Weather Service and also surface smoke concentrations. The former provides broad guidance for prescribed burning activities but does not provide specific information regarding smoke transport, areas affected and quantification of air quality and visibility degradation. While the NOAA operational air quality guidance includes surface smoke concentrations from existing fire events, it does not account for contributions from background aerosols, which are important for the southeastern <span class="hlt">region</span> including Alabama. Also lacking is the quantification of visibility. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed a state-of-the-art integrated modeling system to address these concerns. This system based on the Community Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) that ingests satellite derived smoke emissions and also assimilates NASA MODIS derived aerosol optical thickness. In addition, this operational modeling system also simulates the impact of potential prescribed burn events based on location information derived from the AFC prescribed burn permit database. A lagrangian model is used to simulate smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> for the prescribed burns requests. The combined air quality and visibility degradation resulting from these smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and background aerosols is computed and the information is made available through a web based decision support system utilizing open source GIS components. This system provides information regarding intersections between highways and other critical facilities such as old age homes, hospitals and schools. The system also includes satellite detected fire locations and other satellite derived datasets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.2745N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.2745N"><span id="translatedtitle">A post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> response in cave dripwater chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagra, Gurinder; Treble, Pauline C.; Andersen, Martin S.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Coleborn, Katie; Baker, Andy</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Surface disturbances above a cave have the potential to impact cave dripwater discharge, isotopic composition and solute concentrations, which may subsequently be recorded in the stalagmites forming from these dripwaters. One such disturbance is <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>; however, the effects of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on cave chemistry and hydrology remains poorly understood. Using dripwater data monitored at two sites in a shallow cave, beneath a forest, in southwest Australia, we provide one of the first cave monitoring studies conducted in a post-fire regime, which seeks to identify the effects of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and post-fire vegetation dynamics on dripwater δ18O composition and solute concentrations. We compare our post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> δ18O data with predicted dripwater δ18O using a forward model based on measured hydro-climatic influences alone. This helps to delineate hydro-climatic and fire-related influences on δ18O. Further we also compare our data with both data from Golgotha Cave - which is in a similar environment but was not influenced by this particular fire - as well as <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater chemistry, in an attempt to determine the extent to which <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> affects dripwater chemistry. We find in our forested shallow cave that δ18O is higher after the fire relative to modelled δ18O. We attribute this to increased evaporation due to reduced albedo and canopy cover. The solute response post-fire varied between the two drip sites: at Site 1a, which had a large tree above it that was lost in the fire, we see a response reflecting both a reduction in tree water use and a removal of nutrients (Cl, Mg, Sr, and Ca) from the surface and subsurface. Solutes such as SO4 and K maintain high concentrations, due to the abundance of above-ground ash. At Site 2a, which was covered by lower-middle storey vegetation, we see a solute response reflecting evaporative concentration of all studied ions (Cl, Ca, Mg, Sr, SO4, and K) similar to the trend in δ18O for this drip site. We open a new avenue for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008406','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008406"><span id="translatedtitle">The Plasmaspheric <span class="hlt">Plume</span> and Magnetopause Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, B. M.; Phan, T. D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present near-simultaneous measurements from two THEMIS spacecraft at the dayside magnetopause with a 1.5 h separation in local time. One spacecraft observes a high-density plasmaspheric <span class="hlt">plume</span> while the other does not. Both spacecraft observe signatures of magnetic reconnection, providing a test for the changes to reconnection in local time along the magnetopause as well as the impact of high densities on the reconnection process. When the <span class="hlt">plume</span> is present and the magnetospheric density exceeds that in the magnetosheath, the reconnection jet velocity decreases, the density within the jet increases, and the location of the faster jet is primarily on field lines with magnetosheath orientation. Slower jet velocities indicate that reconnection is occurring less efficiently. In the localized <span class="hlt">region</span> where the <span class="hlt">plume</span> contacts the magnetopause, the high-density <span class="hlt">plume</span> may impede the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling by mass loading the reconnection site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G11A1183L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G11A1183L"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing and Monitoring Hazardous Air Pollution Caused by <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> in Interior Alaska in Summer 2005 Using MODIS Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, S.; Cobb, P.; Sassen, K.; Engle, K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>By mid-August 2005, about 600 fires had burned more than 3 million acres in Alaska. Approximately 90-95 percent of the Interior Alaska was impacted by smoke and air quality reached "very unhealthy" to "dangerous" levels between August 12, and 17, 2005. MODIS level 1B images are used study the spectral characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span>. All 36 MODIS spectral bands are used to analyze the spectral characteristics of background forest and tundra, fires, clouds and smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Analysis indicates that clouds have high reflectance at visible and near infrared wavelengths and low emission at thermal infrared wavelengths. Fires have high emission at middle infrared, especially at MODIS Band 21 (3.959 microns). Vegetation covered ground has lowest reflectance at visible wavelengths. Smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> from forest fires have intermediate reflectance at visible wavelengths. The spatial coverage and temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> patches and smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are monitored using MODIS time series. The characteristics of the smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are also studied using both ground based remote sensing instrument and MODIS derived aerosol product (MOD04), which monitors aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, aerosol mass concentration, optical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H51I0728K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H51I0728K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> patterns at the wildland-urban fringe across the continental U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> threaten ecosystems and urban development across the United States, posing significant implications for land management and natural processes such as watershed hydrology. This study investigates the spatial association between large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and urbanization. Several geospatial dataset are combined to map <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity for 1984 to 2012) and housing density (SILVIS Lab Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Sustainability decadal housing density for 1940 to 2030) relative to natural wildlands across the contiguous U.S. Several buffers (i.e. 25 km) are developed around wildlands (Protected Areas Database of the United States) to quantify the change and relationship in spatial fire and housing density patterns. Since 1984, <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior is cyclical and follows general climatology, where warmer years have more and larger fires. Ignition locations also follow transportation corridors and development which provide easy accessibility to wildlands. In California, both fire frequency and total acres burned exhibit increasing trends (statistically significant at 95%). The 1980s average <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> frequency and total acres burned was 3100 fires and approximately 1200 km2, respectively. These numbers have increased to 2200 fires and over 1500 km2 in the 2010 to 2012 period alone. Initial observations also show that decennial population and area burned for four major Californian counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) show strong correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and urbanization trends. Improving our understanding of human induced <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regimes provides key information on urban fringe communities most vulnerable to the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risks and can help inform <span class="hlt">regional</span> development planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470499"><span id="translatedtitle">Housing arrangement and location determine the likelihood of housing loss due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D; Keeley, Jon E; Massada, Avi Bar; Brennan, Teresa J; Radeloff, Volker C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Surging <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> across the globe are contributing to escalating residential losses and have major social, economic, and ecological consequences. The highest losses in the U.S. occur in southern California, where nearly 1000 homes per year have been destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> since 2000. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> risk reduction efforts focus primarily on fuel reduction and, to a lesser degree, on house characteristics and homeowner responsibility. However, the extent to which land use planning could alleviate <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk has been largely missing from the debate despite large numbers of homes being placed in the most hazardous parts of the landscape. Our goal was to examine how housing location and arrangement affects the likelihood that a home will be lost when a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurs. We developed an extensive geographic dataset of structure locations, including more than 5500 structures that were destroyed or damaged by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> since 2001, and identified the main contributors to property loss in two extensive, fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> in southern California. The arrangement and location of structures strongly affected their susceptibility to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, with property loss most likely at low to intermediate structure densities and in areas with a history of frequent fire. Rates of structure loss were higher when structures were surrounded by wildland vegetation, but were generally higher in herbaceous fuel types than in higher fuel-volume woody types. Empirically based maps developed using housing pattern and location performed better in distinguishing hazardous from non-hazardous areas than maps based on fuel distribution. The strong importance of housing arrangement and location indicate that land use planning may be a critical tool for reducing fire risk, but it will require reliable delineations of the most hazardous locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039023','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039023"><span id="translatedtitle">Housing arrangement and location determine the likelihood of housing loss due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Massada, Avi Bar; Brennan, Teresa J.; Radeloff, Volker C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Surging <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> across the globe are contributing to escalating residential losses and have major social, economic, and ecological consequences. The highest losses in the U.S. occur in southern California, where nearly 1000 homes per year have been destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> since 2000. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> risk reduction efforts focus primarily on fuel reduction and, to a lesser degree, on house characteristics and homeowner responsibility. However, the extent to which land use planning could alleviate <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk has been largely missing from the debate despite large numbers of homes being placed in the most hazardous parts of the landscape. Our goal was to examine how housing location and arrangement affects the likelihood that a home will be lost when a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurs. We developed an extensive geographic dataset of structure locations, including more than 5500 structures that were destroyed or damaged by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> since 2001, and identified the main contributors to property loss in two extensive, fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> in southern California. The arrangement and location of structures strongly affected their susceptibility to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, with property loss most likely at low to intermediate structure densities and in areas with a history of frequent fire. Rates of structure loss were higher when structures were surrounded by wildland vegetation, but were generally higher in herbaceous fuel types than in higher fuel-volume woody types. Empirically based maps developed using housing pattern and location performed better in distinguishing hazardous from non-hazardous areas than maps based on fuel distribution. The strong importance of housing arrangement and location indicate that land use planning may be a critical tool for reducing fire risk, but it will require reliable delineations of the most hazardous locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314688','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314688"><span id="translatedtitle">Housing Arrangement and Location Determine the Likelihood of Housing Loss Due to <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Massada, Avi Bar; Brennan, Teresa J.; Radeloff, Volker C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Surging <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> across the globe are contributing to escalating residential losses and have major social, economic, and ecological consequences. The highest losses in the U.S. occur in southern California, where nearly 1000 homes per year have been destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> since 2000. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> risk reduction efforts focus primarily on fuel reduction and, to a lesser degree, on house characteristics and homeowner responsibility. However, the extent to which land use planning could alleviate <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk has been largely missing from the debate despite large numbers of homes being placed in the most hazardous parts of the landscape. Our goal was to examine how housing location and arrangement affects the likelihood that a home will be lost when a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurs. We developed an extensive geographic dataset of structure locations, including more than 5500 structures that were destroyed or damaged by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> since 2001, and identified the main contributors to property loss in two extensive, fire-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> in southern California. The arrangement and location of structures strongly affected their susceptibility to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, with property loss most likely at low to intermediate structure densities and in areas with a history of frequent fire. Rates of structure loss were higher when structures were surrounded by wildland vegetation, but were generally higher in herbaceous fuel types than in higher fuel-volume woody types. Empirically based maps developed using housing pattern and location performed better in distinguishing hazardous from non-hazardous areas than maps based on fuel distribution. The strong importance of housing arrangement and location indicate that land use planning may be a critical tool for reducing fire risk, but it will require reliable delineations of the most hazardous locations. PMID:22470499</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10817989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10817989"><span id="translatedtitle">Prometheus: Io's wandering <span class="hlt">plume</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kieffer, S W; Lopes-Gautier, R; McEwen, A; Smythe, W; Keszthelyi, L; Carlson, R</p> <p>2000-05-19</p> <p>Unlike any volcanic behavior ever observed on Earth, the <span class="hlt">plume</span> from Prometheus on Io has wandered 75 to 95 kilometers west over the last 20 years since it was first discovered by Voyager and more recently observed by Galileo. Despite the source motion, the geometric and optical properties of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> have remained constant. We propose that this can be explained by vaporization of a sulfur dioxide and/or sulfur "snowfield" over which a lava flow is moving. Eruption of a boundary-layer slurry through a rootless conduit with sonic conditions at the intake of the melted snow can account for the constancy of <span class="hlt">plume</span> properties. PMID:10817989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5489A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5489A"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> simulation models for risk analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ager, A.; Finney, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> simulation models are being widely used by fire and fuels specialists in the U.S. to support tactical and strategic decisions related to the mitigation of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. Much of this application has resulted from the development of a minimum travel time (MTT) fire spread algorithm (M. Finney) that makes it computationally feasible to simulate thousands of fires and generate burn probability and intensity maps over large areas (10,000 - 2,000,000 ha). The MTT algorithm is parallelized for multi-threaded processing and is imbedded in a number of research and applied fire modeling applications. High performance computers (e.g., 32-way 64 bit SMP) are typically used for MTT simulations, although the algorithm is also implemented in the 32 bit desktop FlamMap3 program (www.fire.org). Extensive testing has shown that this algorithm can replicate large fire boundaries in the heterogeneous landscapes that typify much of the wildlands in the western U.S. In this paper, we describe the application of the MTT algorithm to understand spatial patterns of burn probability (BP), and to analyze <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk to key human and ecological values. The work is focused on a federally-managed 2,000,000 ha landscape in the central interior <span class="hlt">region</span> of Oregon State, USA. The fire-prone study area encompasses a wide array of topography and fuel types and a number of highly valued resources that are susceptible to fire. We quantitatively defined risk as the product of the probability of a fire and the resulting consequence. Burn probabilities at specific intensity classes were estimated for each 100 x 100 m pixel by simulating 100,000 <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> under burn conditions that replicated recent severe <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events that occurred under conditions where fire suppression was generally ineffective (97th percentile, August weather). We repeated the simulation under milder weather (70th percentile, August weather) to replicate a "wildland fire use scenario" where suppression is minimized to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8539B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8539B"><span id="translatedtitle">Using SEVIRI fire observations to drive smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in the CMAQ air quality model: a case study over Antalya in 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldassarre, G.; Pozzoli, L.; Schmidt, C. C.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T.; Menzel, W. P.; Whitburn, S.; Coheur, P.-F.; Kavgaci, A.; Kaiser, J. W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Among the atmospheric emission sources, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are episodic events characterized by large spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, accurate information on gaseous and aerosol emissions from fires for specific <span class="hlt">regions</span> and seasons is critical for air quality forecasts. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in geostationary orbit provides fire observations over Africa and the Mediterranean with a temporal resolution of 15 min. It thus resolves the complete fire life cycle and captures the fires' peak intensities, which is not possible in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire emission inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). We evaluate two different operational fire radiative power (FRP) products derived from SEVIRI, by studying a large forest fire in Antalya, Turkey, in July-August 2008. The EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) has higher FRP values during the fire episode than the <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). It is also in better agreement with the co-located, gridded MODIS FRP. Both products miss small fires that frequently occur in the <span class="hlt">region</span> and are detected by MODIS. Emissions are derived from the FRP products. They are used along-side GFAS emissions in smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. In comparisons with MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), CO and NH3 observations show that including the diurnal variability of fire emissions improves the spatial distribution and peak concentrations of the simulated smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> associated with this large fire. They also show a large discrepancy between the currently available operational FRP products, with the LSA SAF being the most appropriate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1363P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1363P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plume</span> dynamics in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pieri, Alexandre B.; Falasca, Fabrizio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection is characterized by the presence of intense coherent structures called <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. With additional system rotation along an axis parallel to gravity, individual <span class="hlt">plumes</span> can merge together to form larger thermal structures. In this paper, we propose an efficient way to quantify <span class="hlt">plume</span> merging using three accessible statistics: <span class="hlt">plume</span> vorticity, <span class="hlt">plume</span> number and <span class="hlt">plume</span> area. Using this approach, we show that <span class="hlt">plume</span> merging is more intense for moderate values of the Rossby number, around Ro ≈ 1. Merging is spatially localized near boundary layers, determining what we call the "merging <span class="hlt">region</span>". Inside this <span class="hlt">region</span>, vertical heat transport by individual <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is enhanced. Outside the merging <span class="hlt">region</span>, on the other hand, rotating <span class="hlt">plumes</span> transport less heat than in the non-rotating case. Since the total heat transport is enhanced by rotation in the turbulent regime explored here, this implies that outside the merging <span class="hlt">region</span> the vortical structures of background turbulence transport heat more effectively than in the non-rotating case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESRv..105...71S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESRv..105...71S"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> soil erosion in the Mediterranean: Review and future research directions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakesby, R. A.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> increased dramatically in frequency and extent in the European Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span> from the 1960s, aided by a general warming and drying trend, but driven primarily by socio-economic changes, including rural depopulation, land abandonment and afforestation with flammable species. Published research into post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> hydrology and soil erosion, beginning during the 1980s in Spain, has been followed by studies in other European Mediterranean countries together with Israel and has now attained a sufficiently large critical mass to warrant a major review. Although variations in climate, vegetation, soil, topography and fire severity cause differences in Mediterranean post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> erosion, the long history of human landscape impact up to the present day is responsible for some its distinctive characteristics. This paper highlights these characteristics in reviewing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> impacts on hydrology, soil properties and soil erosion by water. The 'mosaic' nature of many Mediterranean landscapes (e.g. an intricate land-use pattern, abandoned terraces and tracks interrupting slopes) may explain sometimes conflicting post-fire hydrological and erosional responses at different sites and spatial scales. First-year post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> soil losses at point- (average, 45-56 t ha - 1 ) and plot-scales (many < 1 t ha - 1 and the majority < 10 t ha - 1 in the first year) are similar to or even lower than those reported for fire-affected land elsewhere or other disturbed (e.g. cultivated) and natural poorly-vegetated (e.g. badlands, rangeland) land in the Mediterranean. The few published losses at larger-scales (hillslope and catchment) are variable. Thin soil and high stone content can explain supply-limited erosion preceding significant protection by recovering vegetation. Peak erosion can sometimes be delayed for years, largely through slow vegetation recovery and temporal variability of erosive storms. Preferential removal of organic matter and nutrients in the commonly thin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V31A1953H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V31A1953H"><span id="translatedtitle">NRL Satellite Volcanic Ash <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawkins, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Richardson, K.; Solbrig, J.; Miller, S. D.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Bankert, R.; Lee, T.; Kent, J.; Tsui, T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Naval Research Laboratory’s (NRL) Marine Meteorology Division (NRL-MRY) is assembling a unique suite of near real-time digital satellite products geared towards monitoring volcanic ash <span class="hlt">plumes</span> which can create hazardous aviation conditions. Ash <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection, areal extent, <span class="hlt">plume</span> top height and mass loading will be extracted via automated algorithms from a combination of geostationary (GEO) and low earth orbiting (LEO) data sets that take advantage of their complimentary strengths since no one sensor has the required spectral, spatial and temporal attributes needed. This product suite would then be available to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) and other interested users via web distribution. Initially, GOES-West and the Japanese MTSAT data will be incorporated to view volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> within the north Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>. Although GEO sensor spectral channels are not optimized for ash detection, temporal changes over limited timeframes can assist in <span class="hlt">plume</span> extraction, but not for those at the highest latitudes. Examples with multi-channel techniques will be highlighted via animations. LEO sensors provide a suite of spectral channels unmatched on GEO platforms and permit enhanced ash <span class="hlt">plume</span> monitoring. NRL has exploited the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and SeaWiFS via a “dust enhancement technique” that has demonstrated positive <span class="hlt">plume</span> monitoring results. Multi-channel methods using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) will be highlighted to take advantage of the numerous NOAA LEO satellites carrying this wide swath sensor with frequent volcano overpasses at the higher latitudes. The DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) provides daytime visible/infrared, as well as night time visible data which has shown value in spotting ash <span class="hlt">plumes</span> when sufficient lunar illumination is present. The following suite of products is potentially available for over twenty (20) volcano sites world-wide via our NexSat web site: http</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817425M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817425M"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2016 Case for Mantle <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> and a <span class="hlt">Plume</span>-Fed Asthenosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, Jason P.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> discrepancies between idealized <span class="hlt">plume</span>/hotspot models and geochronological observations will also be briefly discussed. A further consequence of the existence of strong deep mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is that hot <span class="hlt">plume</span> material should preferentially pond at the base of the lithosphere, draining towards and concentrating beneath the <span class="hlt">regions</span> where the lithosphere is thinnest, and asthenosphere is being actively consumed to make new tectonic plates - mid-ocean ridges. This <span class="hlt">plume</span>-fed asthenosphere hypothesis makes predictions for the structure of asthenosphere flow and anisotropy, patterns of continental edge-volcanism linked to lateral <span class="hlt">plume</span> drainage at continental margins, patterns of cratonic uplift and subsidence linked to passage from hotter <span class="hlt">plume</span>-influenced to cooler non-<span class="hlt">plume</span>-influenced <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the upper mantle, and variable non-volcanic versus volcanic modes of continental extension linked to rifting above '~1425K cool normal mantle' versus 'warm <span class="hlt">plume</span>-fed asthenosphere' <span class="hlt">regions</span> of upper mantle. These will be briefly discussed. My take-home message is that "Mantle <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> are almost certainly real". You can safely bet they will be part of any successful paradigm for the structure of mantle convection. While more risky, I would also recommend betting on the potential reality of the paradigm of a <span class="hlt">plume</span>-fed asthenosphere. This is still a largely unexplored subfield of mantle convection. Current observations remain very imperfect, but seem more consistent with a <span class="hlt">plume</span>-fed asthenosphere than with alternatives, and computational and geochemical advances are making good, falsifiable tests increasingly feasible. Make one!</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950041672&hterms=manga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmanga','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950041672&hterms=manga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmanga"><span id="translatedtitle">The interaction of <span class="hlt">plume</span> heads with compositional discontinuities in the Earth's mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manga, Michael; Stone, Howard A.; O'Connell, Richard J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The effects of compositional discontinuities of density and viscosity in the Earth's mantle on the ascent of mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span> heads is studied using a boundary integral numerical technique. Three specific problems are considered: (1) a <span class="hlt">plume</span> head rising away from a deformable interface, (2) a <span class="hlt">plume</span> head passing through an interface, and (3) a <span class="hlt">plume</span> head approaching the surface of the Earth. For the case of a <span class="hlt">plume</span> attached to a free-surface, the calculated time-dependent <span class="hlt">plume</span> shapesare compared with experimental results. Two principle modes of <span class="hlt">plume</span> head deformation are observed: <span class="hlt">plume</span> head elingation or the formation of a cavity inside the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head. The inferred structure of mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, namely, a large <span class="hlt">plume</span> head with a long tail, is characteristic of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> attached to their source <span class="hlt">region</span>, and also of buoyant material moving away from an interface and of buoyant material moving through an interface from a high- to low-viscosity <span class="hlt">region</span>. As a rising <span class="hlt">plume</span> head approaches the upper mantle, most of the lower mantle will quickly drain from the gap between the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head and the upper mantle if the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head enters the upper mantle. If the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head moves from a high- to low-viscosity <span class="hlt">region</span>, the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head becomes significantly elongated and, for the viscosity contrasts thought to exist in the Earth, could extend from the 670 km discontinuity to the surface. <span class="hlt">Plume</span> heads that are extended owing to a viscosity decrease in the upper mantle have a cylindrical geometry. The dynamic surface topography induced by <span class="hlt">plume</span> heads is bell-shaped when the top of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head is at depths greater than about 0.1 <span class="hlt">plume</span> head radii. As the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head approaches the surface and spreads, the dynamic topography becomes plateau-shaped. The largest stresses are produced in the early stages of <span class="hlt">plume</span> spreading when the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head is still nearly spherical, and the surface expression of these stresses is likely to be dominated by radial extension. As the <span class="hlt">plume</span> spreads, compressional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59800&keyword=animation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79378769&CFTOKEN=54224793','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59800&keyword=animation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79378769&CFTOKEN=54224793"><span id="translatedtitle">CHLORINATED SOLVENT <span class="hlt">PLUME</span> CONTROL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1791.1302M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1791.1302M"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars Methane <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Tracer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mischna, M. A.; Banfield, D.; Sykes, I.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Putative releases of methane from the martian surface may be challenging to detect from orbit. Successful detections depend on the character of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> itself (duration, magnitude, expanse), but also on the observing platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gOPUL0oIQc','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gOPUL0oIQc"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes detect <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of methane emitted from Mars during its summer and spring seasons. High levels of methane are indicated by warmer colors. The m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002270&hterms=sulfur&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsulfur','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002270&hterms=sulfur&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsulfur"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur <span class="hlt">plumes</span> off Namibia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur <span class="hlt">plumes</span> rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The <span class="hlt">plumes</span> come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002296&hterms=russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drussia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002296&hterms=russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drussia"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span>, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the <span class="hlt">region</span> off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51Q0348N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51Q0348N"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the Effects of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Severity on Snow Water Equivalent in the Sierra Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, A.; Cunningham, S.; Sodergren, C.; Anzelc, J.; Cate, N.; Arya, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is a crucial component of the California water supply. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems in this <span class="hlt">region</span> have reduced snowpack and resulted in earlier snowmelt. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> frequency and severity in the Sierra Nevada have also increased, due to higher temperatures, drought, and a legacy of fire suppression policies leading to fuel loads augmented beyond the historic range of variability. These combined factors have the potential to severely impact California water supply. Using 2014 California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate data and automated classification of various Landsat imagery, this study geospatially quantified the effects of low, moderate, and high- severity <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on snowpack and snow water equivalent (SWE) in the Sierra Nevada. An assessment of modeled SWE data were also conducted to examine its usefulness in better understanding areas effected by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. Results indicate little to no significant change in post-fire SWE for high and moderate severity <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, however, delineated a significant decrease in post-fire SWE in the low severity <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. Additionally, tests show little no significant change in fractional snow cover post-fire. This use of remote sensing and modeled data will assist in decision and policy making related to management of forest ecosystems and water resources within the Sierra Nevada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044756','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044756"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote <span class="hlt">region</span> where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> effects in arctic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20981570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20981570"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing effects analysis for integrated, large-scale <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, David E; Gilbertson-Day, Julie W; Ager, Alan A</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the design and development of a quantitative, geospatial risk assessment tool intended to facilitate monitoring trends in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk over time and to provide information useful in prioritizing fuels treatments and mitigation measures. The research effort is designed to develop, from a strategic view, a first approximation of how both fire likelihood and intensity influence risk to social, economic, and ecological values at <span class="hlt">regional</span> and national scales. Three main components are required to generate <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk outputs: (1) burn probability maps generated from <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> simulations, (2) spatially identified highly valued resources (HVRs), and (3) response functions that describe the effects of fire (beneficial or detrimental) on the HVR. Analyzing fire effects has to date presented a major challenge to integrated risk assessments, due to a limited understanding of the type and magnitude of changes wrought by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> to ecological and other nonmarket values. This work advances <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> effects analysis, recognizing knowledge uncertainty and appropriately managing it through the use of an expert systems approach. Specifically, this work entailed consultation with 10 fire and fuels program management officials from federal agencies with fire management responsibilities in order to define quantitative resource response relationships as a function of fire intensity. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept application of the wildland fire risk assessment tool, using the state of Oregon as a case study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597870"><span id="translatedtitle">Situating hazard vulnerability: people's negotiations with <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> environments in the U.S. southwest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collins, Timothy W; Bolin, Bob</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This article is based on a multimethod study designed to clarify influences on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> hazard vulnerability in Arizona's White Mountains, USA. Findings reveal that multiple factors operating across scales generate socially unequal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risks. At the household scale, conflicting environmental values, reliance on fire insurance and firefighting institutions, a lack of place dependency, and social vulnerability (e.g., a lack of financial, physical, and/or legal capacity to reduce risks) were found to be important influences on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. At the <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale, the shift from a resource extraction to environmental amenity-based economy has transformed ecological communities, produced unequal social distributions of risks and resources, and shaped people's social and environmental interactions in everyday life. While working-class locals are more socially vulnerable than amenity migrants to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> hazards, they have also been more active in attempting to reduce risks in the aftermath of the disastrous 2002 Rodeo-Chediski fire. Social tensions between locals and amenity migrants temporarily dissolved immediately following the disaster, only to be exacerbated by the heightened perception of risk and the differential commitment to hazard mitigation displayed by these groups over a 2-year study period. Findings suggest that to enhance <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> safety, environmental managers should acknowledge the environmental benefits associated with hazardous landscapes, the incentives created by risk management programs, and the specific constraints to action for relevant social groups in changing human-environmental context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26485585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26485585"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest Structure Affects Soil Mercury Losses in the Presence and Absence of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Homann, Peter S; Darbyshire, Robyn L; Bormann, Bernard T; Morrissette, Brett A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Soil is an important, dynamic component of <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global mercury (Hg) cycles. This study evaluated how changes in forest soil Hg masses caused by atmospheric deposition and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> are affected by forest structure. Pre and postfire soil Hg measurements were made over two decades on replicate experimental units of three prefire forest structures (mature unthinned, mature thinned, clear-cut) in Douglas-fir dominated forest of southwestern Oregon. In the absence of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, O-horizon Hg decreased by 60% during the 14 years after clearcutting, possibly the result of decreased atmospheric deposition due to the smaller-stature vegetative canopy; in contrast, no change was observed in mature unthinned and thinned forest. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> decreased O-horizon Hg by >88% across all forest structures and decreased mineral-soil (0 to 66 mm depth) Hg by 50% in thinned forest and clear-cut. The <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-associated soil Hg loss was positively related to the amount of surface fine wood that burned during the fire, the proportion of area that burned at >700 °C, fire severity as indicated by tree mortality, and soil C loss. Loss of soil Hg due to the 200,000 ha <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> was more than four times the annual atmospheric Hg emissions from human activities in Oregon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23750590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23750590"><span id="translatedtitle">Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zauscher, Melanie D; Wang, Ying; Moore, Meagan J K; Gaston, Cassandra J; Prather, Kimberly A</p> <p>2013-07-16</p> <p>Intense <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> burning >360000 acres in San Diego during October, 2007 provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on local air quality and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) aging. The size-resolved mixing state of individual particles was measured in real-time with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for 10 days after the fires commenced. Particle concentrations were high county-wide due to the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>; 84% of 120-400 nm particles by number were identified as BBA, with particles <400 nm contributing to mass concentrations dangerous to public health, up to 148 μg/m(3). Evidence of potassium salts heterogeneously reacting with inorganic acids was observed with continuous high temporal resolution for the first time. Ten distinct chemical types shown as BBA factors were identified through positive matrix factorization coupled to single particle analysis, including particles comprised of potassium chloride and organic nitrogen during the beginning of the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, ammonium nitrate and amines after an increase of relative humidity, and sulfate dominated when the air mass back trajectories passed through the Los Angeles port <span class="hlt">region</span>. Understanding BBA aging processes and quantifying the size-resolved mass and number concentrations are important in determining the overall impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on air quality, health, and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnMan..44..441C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnMan..44..441C"><span id="translatedtitle">Situating Hazard Vulnerability: People's Negotiations with <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Environments in the U.S. Southwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collins, Timothy W.; Bolin, Bob</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This article is based on a multimethod study designed to clarify influences on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> hazard vulnerability in Arizona’s White Mountains, USA. Findings reveal that multiple factors operating across scales generate socially unequal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risks. At the household scale, conflicting environmental values, reliance on fire insurance and firefighting institutions, a lack of place dependency, and social vulnerability (e.g., a lack of financial, physical, and/or legal capacity to reduce risks) were found to be important influences on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. At the <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale, the shift from a resource extraction to environmental amenity-based economy has transformed ecological communities, produced unequal social distributions of risks and resources, and shaped people’s social and environmental interactions in everyday life. While working-class locals are more socially vulnerable than amenity migrants to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> hazards, they have also been more active in attempting to reduce risks in the aftermath of the disastrous 2002 Rodeo-Chediski fire. Social tensions between locals and amenity migrants temporarily dissolved immediately following the disaster, only to be exacerbated by the heightened perception of risk and the differential commitment to hazard mitigation displayed by these groups over a 2-year study period. Findings suggest that to enhance <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> safety, environmental managers should acknowledge the environmental benefits associated with hazardous landscapes, the incentives created by risk management programs, and the specific constraints to action for relevant social groups in changing human-environmental context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005E%26PSL.237..175L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005E%26PSL.237..175L"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">plume</span> models and melt generation in East Africa: A dynamic modeling approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chiao, Ling-Yun; van Keken, Peter E.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The hypothesis that thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> contribute to the Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa is now widely accepted. The controversy lies on how many <span class="hlt">plumes</span> exist and where they may be located. In this study we show numerical experiments of mantle convection models for a number of thermal <span class="hlt">plume</span> models and discuss the implications for the melt generation in East Africa. We investigate how the <span class="hlt">plume(s</span>), the Tanzania craton, and the African lithospheric structure may interplay to result in the magmatism distribution in East Africa since the Eocene. Our results demonstrate that the variable thickness of the lithosphere modulates melt generation. A single-<span class="hlt">plume</span> model cannot reproduce the observations consistently. Double-<span class="hlt">plume</span> models with <span class="hlt">plumes</span> located at Afar and Kenya <span class="hlt">regions</span> are viable with reasonable physical properties. The distribution of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material, however, is sensitive to the angle at which the Tanzania craton and <span class="hlt">regions</span> of thick lithosphere approach the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, as the African plate moves. Models that have present-day location of the second <span class="hlt">plume</span> (Kenya <span class="hlt">plume</span>) under the Eastern rift or the interior of the Tanzania craton can best match the basalt distribution. Our model results suggest that the basaltic eruptions associated with the Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span> tap a relatively deep source of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> body in general, whereas melting occurs at shallower depths for the Kenya <span class="hlt">plume</span> except for the Eocene episode. The magmatism is derived from a more depleted mantle source in the low-Ti basalt province of northwestern Ethiopia. Our experiments indicate the thermal influence of the Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span> but predict an absence of <span class="hlt">plume</span>-derived melts, suggesting the melt generation within lithosphere triggered by thermal influence of Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span> in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. Our model results suggest that <span class="hlt">plume</span> plays an active role on the initiation of the rifting process in East Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980897"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on ozone exceptional events in the Western u.s.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaffe, Daniel A; Wigder, Nicole; Downey, Nicole; Pfister, Gabriele; Boynard, Anne; Reid, Stephen B</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> generate substantial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As such, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> contribute to elevated ozone (O3) in the atmosphere. However, there is a large amount of variability in the emissions of O3 precursors and the amount of O3 produced between fires. There is also significant interannual variability as seen in median O3, organic carbon and satellite derived carbon monoxide mixing ratios in the western U.S. To better understand O3 produced from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, we developed a statistical model that estimates the maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 as a function of several meteorological and temporal variables for three urban areas in the western U.S.: Salt Lake City, UT; Boise, ID; and Reno, NV. The model is developed using data from June-September 2000-2012. For these three locations, the statistical model can explain 60, 52, and 27% of the variability in daily MDA8. The Statistical Model Residual (SMR) can give information on additional sources of O3 that are not explained by the usual meteorological pattern. Several possible O3 sources can explain high SMR values on any given day. We examine several cases with high SMR that are due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> influence. The first case considered is for Reno in June 2008 when the MDA8 reached 82 ppbv. The <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> influence for this episode is supported by PM concentrations, the known location of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> at the time and simulations with the Weather and Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) which indicates transport to Reno from large fires burning in California. The contribution to the MDA8 in Reno from the California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> is estimated to be 26 ppbv, based on the SMR, and 60 ppbv, based on WRF-Chem. The WRF-Chem model also indicates an important role for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in producing O3 during transport from the California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We hypothesize that enhancements in PAN due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions may lead to <span class="hlt">regional</span> enhancements in O3 during high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980897"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on ozone exceptional events in the Western u.s.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaffe, Daniel A; Wigder, Nicole; Downey, Nicole; Pfister, Gabriele; Boynard, Anne; Reid, Stephen B</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> generate substantial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As such, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> contribute to elevated ozone (O3) in the atmosphere. However, there is a large amount of variability in the emissions of O3 precursors and the amount of O3 produced between fires. There is also significant interannual variability as seen in median O3, organic carbon and satellite derived carbon monoxide mixing ratios in the western U.S. To better understand O3 produced from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, we developed a statistical model that estimates the maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 as a function of several meteorological and temporal variables for three urban areas in the western U.S.: Salt Lake City, UT; Boise, ID; and Reno, NV. The model is developed using data from June-September 2000-2012. For these three locations, the statistical model can explain 60, 52, and 27% of the variability in daily MDA8. The Statistical Model Residual (SMR) can give information on additional sources of O3 that are not explained by the usual meteorological pattern. Several possible O3 sources can explain high SMR values on any given day. We examine several cases with high SMR that are due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> influence. The first case considered is for Reno in June 2008 when the MDA8 reached 82 ppbv. The <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> influence for this episode is supported by PM concentrations, the known location of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> at the time and simulations with the Weather and Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) which indicates transport to Reno from large fires burning in California. The contribution to the MDA8 in Reno from the California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> is estimated to be 26 ppbv, based on the SMR, and 60 ppbv, based on WRF-Chem. The WRF-Chem model also indicates an important role for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in producing O3 during transport from the California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We hypothesize that enhancements in PAN due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions may lead to <span class="hlt">regional</span> enhancements in O3 during high</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6855M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6855M"><span id="translatedtitle">FIRESTORM: Modelling the water quality risk of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, C. I.; Sheridan, G. J.; Smith, H. G.; Jones, O.; Chong, D.; Tolhurst, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>,000 pre-processed spatially distributed fire intensity and flame height maps, generated by a fire behaviour simulator. This part of the model predicts the annual risk of the water supply catchment burning and the spatial extent and severity of the burn. These spatial fire severity maps may be combined with vegetation maps and information on soils to determine initial conditions for modelling of sediment and associated contaminant loads delivered to reservoirs. Erosion and water quality models that form part of the overall model framework include a catchment-scale constituent load model to represent widespread rainfall events and a semi-distributed runoff and erosion connectivity model applied at the small catchment scale for convective storm events. Recent work has shown that localised, intense convective storms may also generate debris flows after fire in south-eastern Australia. Therefore, for the application of the model framework to reservoirs supplying Melbourne, an empirical debris flow erosion model is included. For the localised event models, sediment is routed from sub-catchments through the main channel network to the reservoir boundary. These erosion models are modular so that FIRESTORM may be adapted for use in a <span class="hlt">region</span> of the world that experiences different dominant erosion processes. FIRESTORM will enable water supply managers to estimate the current water quality risk of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and allow scenario testing to explore the effect of mitigation strategies (e.g. planned burning, post-fire erosion control measures) designed to reduce fire impacts and the magnitude of loads entering reservoirs. This model will be a valuable new tool for better decision making to protect future water supplies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1952..227D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1952..227D"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveillance sensor for autonomous <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Vries, Jan S.; Kemp, Rob A. W.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Autonomous <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> detection systems may help to reduce hazards resulting from large wildland fires. In many situations <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> start in the duff below trees and shrubs, which are hidden from direct view by groundbased sensors overlooking forests and wildlands. Mid- and thermal infrared measurements only detect <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> when the fire has become a crownfire, and, by then, it usually has developed into a large <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. Therefore, the early discovery of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> using groundbased, autonomous sensors should be performed by detecting smoke clouds rather than the heat of the fire, since smoke becomes earlier visible above the trees as a result of convection than the heat of the fire. A demonstration sensor is being developed to show the feasibility of an affordable system for autonomous wildland fire detection. The system is designed to minimize false alarms by simultaneously analyzing the temporal, spatial and spectral information in the acquired imagery. The groundbased sensor will be horizon scanning and will employ linear CCD's for better contrast sensitivity in three different spectral bands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3082..175K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3082..175K"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic image generation of factory stack and cooling tower <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuo, Shiao D.; Schott, John R.</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>A new model for generating synthetic images of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> has been developed using a radiometrically based ray-tracing algorithm. Existing <span class="hlt">plume</span> models that describe the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> (constituents, concentration, particulate sizing, and temperature) are used to generate AutoCAD models for input into the code. The effects of scattered light using Mie theory and radiative transfer, as well as thermal self-emission/absorption from within the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, are modeled for different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The ray-tracing accounts for direct sunlight, scattered skylight, reflected sunlight from the background, and thermal self-emission from both the atmosphere and background. Synthetic generated images of a cooling tower <span class="hlt">plume</span>, composed of water droplets, and a factor stack <span class="hlt">plume</span>, composed of methyl chloride, are produced for visible, MWIR, and LWIR bands. Images of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> from different view angles are also produced. Observations are made on the interaction between the <span class="hlt">plume</span> and its background and possible effects for remote sensing. Images are made of the methyl chloride <span class="hlt">plume</span> in which the concentration and temperature are varied to determine the sensitivity of the radiance reaching the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6698S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6698S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical recalcitrance of biochar and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> charcoal: how similar are they?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Merino, Agustin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The enhanced chemical resistance to biological degradation of pyrogenic materials, either produced during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (charcoal) or by man (biochar), makes them long-term carbon sinks once incorporated in soils. In spite of their fundamental similarities, studies comparing the chemical recalcitrance of biochar and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> charcoal are scarce because analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Using solid-state 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we characterized the chemical recalcitrance of pyrogenic materials generated from the same unburnt feedstooks (litter and dead wood from Pinus banksiana): (a) charcoal from a high-intensity <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and (b) biochar obtained by slow pyrolysis [3 treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C]. For quantification, the spectra were divided into four <span class="hlt">regions</span> representing different chemical environments of the 13C nucleus: alkyl C (0-45 ppm), O-alkyl C (45-110 ppm), olefinic and aromatic C(110-160 ppm), and carbonyl C (160-210 ppm). As an indicator of chemical recalcitrance, the degree of aromaticity (%) was calculated as follow: aromatic-C ∗ 100 / (alkyl C+ O alkyl-C + aromatic-C). The pyrogenic materials derived from wood show higher degrees of aromaticity (68 to 88%) than pyrogenic material derived from litter (40 to 88%). When comparing biochar and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> charcoal, biochars produced at 500 and 650°C always have higher degrees of aromaticity than <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> charcoals, irrespective of the original feedstock. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> charcoals always show a more heterogeneous chemical composition, with alkyl and O-alkyl compounds present even in charcoal generated at very high temperatures (temperatures up to 950 °C were recorded on the litter surface during the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>). However, biochars produced at 500 and 650 °C are mostly aromatic, and only the biochars produced at 350 °C show partial contribution of alkyl-C compounds. Our results suggest that biochar-type pyrogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078036"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk preferences in strategic <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> decision making: a choice experiment with U.S. <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> managers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Hand, Michael S; Calkin, David E; Venn, Tyron J; Thompson, Matthew P</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Federal policy has embraced risa management as an appropriate paradigm for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events, potential economic costs and risas of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risa aversion, and risa seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers respond to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risa, including the potential effect of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (on ecological values, structures, and safety) and the likelihood of different fire outcomes. We use responses to a choice experiment questionnaire of U.S. federal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> managers to measure attitudes toward several components of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risa and to test whether observed risa attitudes are consistent with the efficient allocation of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression resources. Our results indicate that fire managers' decisions are consistent with nonexpected utility theories of decisions under risa. Managers may overallocate firefighting resources when the likelihood or potential magnitude of damage from fires is low, and sensitivity to changes in the probability of fire outcomes depends on whether probabilities are close to one or zero and the magnitude of the potential harm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323078','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323078"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation and Cheatgrass Suppression Following Great Basin <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The occurrence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in Great Basin environments has become an annual event. The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) plays a very large role in the frequency and size of these <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. With each passing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season, more and more habitats are converted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=334902','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=334902"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> cause long-term plant community conversion in a western Great Plains steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> vary dramatically across rangeland ecosystems. Frequent fire can promote productivity and biodiversity in some locations (Fuhlendorf et al. 2006), but in other <span class="hlt">regions</span> this same disturbance can cause catastrophic ecosystem shifts, including the loss of dominant plant sp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=214052','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=214052"><span id="translatedtitle">Runoff and erosion effects after prescribed fire and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on volcanic ash-cap soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>AFTER PRESCRIBED BURNS AT THREE LOCATIONS AND ONE <span class="hlt">WILDFIRE</span>, RAINFALL SIMULATIONS STUDIES WERE COMPLETED TO COMPARE POSTFIRE RUNOFF RATES AND SEDIMENT YIELDS ON ASH-CAP SOIL IN CONIFER FOREST <span class="hlt">REGIONS</span> OF NOTHERN IDAHO AND WESTERN MONTANA. THE MEASURED FIRE EFFECTS WERE DIFFERENTIATED BY BURN SEVERITY ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33B1569M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33B1569M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal relative humidity patterns and extreme <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molini, L.; Fiorucci, P.; D'Andrea, M.; Parodi, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Extremely hot temperature, strong winds and the actions of arsonists are usually referred as major causes of the thousands <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> which spread every year through the Mediterranean countries. Of all these <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, only few rare events can be considered as a major threat to the population and a civil protection emergency. Since, in case of severe weather conditions, the causes of fire ignition are often related with negligence, it is extremely important to be able to predict and discriminate extreme danger conditions, in order to avoid fire ignitions by means of preventive actions. Many peculiarities make Mediterranean <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> different from other natural risk: the most relevant is that fire ignitions are human caused in more than 90% of fire events. Fire spread is related with vegetation cover, orography, and fuel moisture content and wind conditions. The ability of fire fighters to cope with the fire front is also a major factor in determining the area potentially covered by a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and the damages caused by the event. In literature all these aspects are considered, in order to define tools able to predict and manage <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. Finding precursors for extreme <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> throughout Mediterranean <span class="hlt">regions</span> is the focus of this work. As Mediterranean storms are usually related with extreme precipitation and consequent floods, in this paper we propose to consider extreme <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Mediterranean as a specular aspect of "traditional" Mediterranean storms. While floods are related with soil moisture conditions, vegetation cover, topography and their main trigger are extreme precipitation events, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are usually considered as the complex results of several heterogeneous aspect, and strong winds and high temperature are often considered as the main drivers in extreme <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk conditions. In this work, we considered the extreme events occurred during the 2007 summer season , highlighting the extremely low relative humidity of the air at the soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611596S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611596S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure on Sardinia, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2393D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2393D"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> PyC. Here, we study relationships between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A23D..05O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A23D..05O"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower Boundary Layer and Ozone Profiles Over Fresno during <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Omolayo, S. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Ozone is a secondary pollutant in the troposphere that is largely formed as a result of photolytic reactions related to ozone precursors such as methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds like isoprene, benzene etc.). Hence, processes and factors regulating emissions of ozone precursors are important in controlling spatial and temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Giving favorable meteorological conditions, large scale <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in fuel rich areas have been recognized for their potential to significantly affect the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global distributions of tropospheric O3, and also increases the background surface ozone concentrations above the NAAQS level, even in areas that may be hundreds of miles away from <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> locations. Improving <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone forecast thus requires not only the knowledge of the amount of ozone precursors released into the atmosphere and ozone produced during <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, but also information on boundary layer dynamics and vertical ozone transport. In this study effort is made to characterize ozone transport in the lower urban boundary layer during <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events. In this regard, tethersonde and ozonesonde measurements were made over Fresno California in the period the <span class="hlt">region</span> was affected by smoke particles from the Moonlight fire in September 2007 and the Telegraph fire in July 2008. Analysis of the profiles data showed that the Fresno Eddy, in addition to boundary layer dynamics, particularly the down mixing of high ozone concentration in the residual boundary layer, were significant factors influencing hourly measured ground level ozone concentration at the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B12A..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B12A..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Evidence for Self-Organized Patterns in California <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Sizes: Implications for Landscape Resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Povak, N. A.; Hessburg, P. F.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p> for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in this <span class="hlt">region</span> averaged 1.7 for most ecoregions, which are well within prior estimates for fires in other <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. Potential bottom-up drivers, including topographic features such as aspect and slope patches, also fit well to power-law distributions, and scaling parameter estimates matched closely with fire-size distributions. Significant differences in fire size distributions among ecoregions likely indicate top-down controls from broad-scale geological and climatic factors. These results suggest that ecosystems within California are likely resilient to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> disturbances <10000 ha, and are best modeled with P/GB2 statistical distributions. Likewise, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> across this range likely respond to topographic and broad-scale climate influences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900010398','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900010398"><span id="translatedtitle">An analytic model of axisymmetric mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span> due to thermal and chemical diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Mian; Chase, Clement G.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An analytic model of axisymmetric mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> driven by either thermal diffusion or combined diffusion of both heat and chemical species from a point source is presented. The governing equations are solved numerically in cylindrical coordinates for a Newtonian fluid with constant viscosity. Instead of starting from an assumed <span class="hlt">plume</span> source, constraints on the source parameters, such as the depth of the source <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the total heat input from the <span class="hlt">plume</span> sources, are deduced using the geophysical characteristics of mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> inferred from modelling of hotspot swells. The Hawaiian hotspot and the Bermuda hotspot are used as examples. Narrow mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are expected for likely mantle viscosities. The temperature anomaly and the size of thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> underneath the lithosphere can be sensitive indicators of <span class="hlt">plume</span> depth. The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">plume</span> is likely to originate at a much greater depth than the Bermuda <span class="hlt">plume</span>. One suggestive result puts the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">plume</span> source at a depth near the core-mantle boundary and the source of the Bermuda <span class="hlt">plume</span> in the upper mantle, close to the 700 km discontinuity. The total thermal energy input by the source <span class="hlt">region</span> to the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">plume</span> is about 5 x 10(10) watts. The corresponding diameter of the source <span class="hlt">region</span> is about 100 to 150 km. Chemical diffusion from the same source does not affect the thermal structure of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119..223L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119..223L"><span id="translatedtitle">Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in coniferous forests of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Ewell, Carol M.; Reiner, Alicia L.; Fites, Jo Ann; Dow, Christopher B.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> provide essential information to the state of California, USA, and other governments that have enacted emission reductions. <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> can release a substantial amount of GHGs and other compounds to the atmosphere, so recent increases in fire activity may be increasing GHG emissions. Quantifying <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions however can be difficult due to inherent variability in fuel loads and consumption and a lack of field data of fuel consumption by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. We compare a unique set of fuel data collected immediately before and after six <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in coniferous forests of California to fuel consumption predictions of the first-order fire effects model (FOFEM), based on two different available fuel characterizations. We found strong <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in the performance of different fuel characterizations, with FOFEM overestimating the fuel consumption to a greater extent in the Klamath Mountains than in the Sierra Nevada. Inaccurate fuel load inputs caused the largest differences between predicted and observed fuel consumption. Fuel classifications tended to overestimate duff load and underestimate litter load, leading to differences in predicted emissions for some pollutants. When considering total ground and surface fuels, modeled consumption was fairly accurate on average, although the range of error in estimates of plot level consumption was very large. These results highlight the importance of fuel load input to the accuracy of modeled fuel consumption and GHG emissions from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in coniferous forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMDI21A2249P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMDI21A2249P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapse in Thermal <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pears, M. I.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dobson, D. P.; Davies, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Collapsing thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> have been investigated through experimental and numerical simulations. Collapsing <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are an uncommon fluid dynamical phenomenon, usually seen when the buoyancy source is turned off. A series of fluid dynamical experiments were conducted on thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> at a variety of temperature and viscosity contrasts, in a 26.5 cm^3 cubic tank heated by a constant temperature heater 2 cm in diameter and no-slip bottom and top surfaces. Working fluids included Lyle's Golden Syrup and ADM's Liquidose 436 syrup, which have strongly-temperature dependent viscosity and high Pr number (10^3-10^7 at experimental conditions). Visualisation included white light shadowgraphs and PIV of the central plane. Temperature contrasts ranged from 3-60°C, and two differing forms of collapse were identified. At very low temperature differences 'no rise' collapse was discovered, where the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> stagnate in the lower third of the tank before collapsing. At temperature differences between 10-23°C normal evolution occurred until 'lens shape' collapse developed between midway and two-thirds of the distance from the base. The lens shape originated in the top of the conduit and was present throughout collapse. At temperatures above ΔT=23°C the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> follow the expected growth and shape and flatten out at the top of the tank. Thermal collapse remains difficult to explain given experimental conditions (continuous heating). Instead it is possible that small density differences arising from crystallization at ambient temperatures changes <span class="hlt">plume</span> buoyancy-inducing collapse. We show results on the evolution of the refractive index of the syrup through time to ascertain this possibility. Preliminary numerical results using Fluidity will be presented to explore a greater parameter range of viscosity contrasts and tank aspect ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.H31D1437L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.H31D1437L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> impact on hydrologic processes using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Logan, R. J.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>As large magnitude <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> persist across the western United States, understanding their impact on hydrologic behavior and predicting <span class="hlt">regional</span> streamflow response is increasingly important. Sediment and debris flows, as well as elevated flood levels in burned watersheds are often addressed, but <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> also alter the timing and overall volume of both short and long-term runoff, making the prediction of post-fire streamflow critical for water resources management. Watershed models are a powerful tool for both representing <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff response and discerning the processes that induce that response. In the current study, selected <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-impacted basins across the western United States are modeled using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) in order to develop a generalized approach. This distributed-parameter, physical process based watershed model allows us to target specific processes, while still having the flexibility to account for uncertainty and complex physical interactions that are not explicitly represented in model parameterization. Two change detection modeling approaches are considered. First, models calibrated using pre-fire data are applied to the post-fire period and residuals between simulated and observed flow are examined to quantify the response in each specific watershed. Here an analysis of the model's ability to detect long-term response is also presented. Second, the post-fire conditions are modeled by adjusting appropriate parameters, and the parameter differences are used to guide process learning. In this latter method, parameters are specifically tailored to represent processes affected by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, and scenarios with different parameter interactions are statistically compared. The results of these analyses are synthesized to provide a framework for predicting <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> runoff response using PRMS, which will ultimately empower water resource decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7387571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7387571"><span id="translatedtitle">Rocket <span class="hlt">plume</span> burn hazard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket <span class="hlt">plume</span> flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft. PMID:7387571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5125H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5125H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plumes</span> Do Not Exist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamilton, W. B.; Anderson, D. L.; Foulger, G. R.; Winterer, E. L.</p> <p></p> <p>Hypothetical <span class="hlt">plumes</span> from the deep mantle are widely assumed to provide an abso- lute hotspot reference frame, inaugurate rifting, drive plates, and profoundly influence magmatic and tectonic evolution of oceans and continents. Many papers on local to global tectonics, magmatism, and geochemistry invoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, and assign to the man- tle whatever properties, dynamics, and composition are needed to enable them. The fixed-<span class="hlt">plume</span> concept arose from the Emperor-Hawaii seamount-and-island province, the 45 Ma inflection in which was assumed to record a 60-degree change in direction by the Pacific plate. Paleomagnetic latitudes and smooth Pacific spreading patterns show that such a change did not occur. Other Pacific chains once assumed to be syn- chronous with, and Euler-parallel to, Hawaii have proved to be neither. Thermal and physical properties of Hawaiian lithosphere falsify <span class="hlt">plume</span> predictions. Rationales for fixed hotspots elsewhere also have become untenable as databases enlarged. Astheno- sphere is everywhere near solidus temperature, so buoyant melt does not require a local heat source but, rather, needs a thin roof or crack or tensional setting for egress. MORB and ocean-island basalt (OIB) broadly intergrade in composition, but MORB typically is richer in refractory elements and their radiogenic daughters, whereas OIB commonly is richer in fusible elements and their daughters. MORB and OIB contrasts are required by melt behavior and do not indicate unlike source reservoirs. MORB melts rise, with minimal reaction, through hot asthenosphere, whereas OIB melts re- act, and thereby lose substance, by crystallizing refractories and retaining and assim- ilating subordinate fusibles, with thick, cool lithosphere and crust. There is no need for hypotheses involving chaotic <span class="hlt">plume</span> behavior or thousands of km of lateral flow of <span class="hlt">plume</span> material, nor for postulates of SprimitiveT lower mantle contrary to cos- & cedil;mological and thermodynamic considerations. <span class="hlt">Plume</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11H3089W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11H3089W"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Seacions Ozonesonde Measurements from St. Louis MO: Providing Insight into How Cross Country <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> and Descending Stratospheric Air over the Great Plains Impact <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilkins, J. L.; Morris, G.; de Foy, B.; Fishman, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>As part of the SouthEast American Consortium for Intensive Ozone Network Study (SEACIONS) mission, 32 ozonesondes were launched from Forest Park in mid-town St. Louis between 8 Aug and 23 Sept 2013. These launches were supported by concurrent co-located continuous ground level ozone measurements at Saint Louis University's St. Louis Ozone Garden. During the operation of this site, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> from both Idaho's Beaver Creek (~115K acres) and California's RIM fire (~258k acres) generated copious amounts of pollution. In addition, widespread agricultural fires in the Midwest were also taking place. To interpret our observations over St. Louis, we used multiple satellite-derived products and retrievals in conjunction with trajectory calculations from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. We examined a blocking high pressure event [Aug 26-30] which led to ozonesonde profile changes resulting from Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in addition to the smoke from the fires. This case study involved two mixed layer O3 enhancements, which could be spotted at multiple sites within the SEACIONS ozonesonde network. Our findings illustrate how satellite measurements can be used to assess the contribution of the transport of pollution from various sources to local air quality.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396557"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> seasonality and land use: when do <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> prefer to burn?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bajocco, Sofia; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Ricotta, Carlo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Because of the increasing anthropogenic fire activity, understanding the role of land-use in shaping <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regimes has become a major concern. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have been carried out on the relationship between land-use and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> patterns, in order to identify land-use types where fire behaves selectively, showing a marked preference (or avoidance) in terms of fire incidence. By contrast, the temporal aspects of the relationship between landuse types and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurrence have received far less attention. The aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2006 to identify land-use types where <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> occur earlier or later than expected from a random null model. The study highlighted a close relationship between the timing of fire occurrence and land-cover that is primarily governed by two complementary processes: climatic factors that act indirectly on the timing of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> determining the spatial distribution of land-use types, and human population and human pressure that directly influence fire ignition. From a practical viewpoint, understanding the temporal trends of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> within the different land-use classes can be an effective decision-support tool for fire agencies in managing fire risk and for producing provisional models of fire behavior under changing climatic scenarios and evolving landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S24A..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S24A..05T"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical Methods for CO2 Leak Detection and <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Monitoring at the Southeast <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Carbon Sequestration (SECARB) Anthropogenic Test Site near Citronelle, Alabama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trautz, R. C.; Koperna, G. J.; Riestenberg, D. E.; Daley, T. M.; Rhudy, R. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The SECARB project is the largest demonstration of CO2 capture, transportation, injection and storage from a coal-fired power station in the US. In August 2012, SECARB began capturing CO2 emitted by Unit 5 at Plant Barry north of Mobile, Alabama and injecting it into the Paluxy Formation at a depth of 9,400 ft above the Citronelle oilfield. Vertical seismic profile (VSP), cross-well and distributed acoustic sensing using fiber optics are being used to check for CO2 leakage out of the storage reservoir and track the CO2 <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The acquisition plan includes one pre- and post-CO2 injection survey using an 80-level VSP array with a vibroseis source and cross-well using a piezoelectric source. "Snapshot" VSP surveys are performed every 6-12 months using a shorter 18-level geophone array installed on production tubing in the observation well. Good quality results were produced for both the 80-level VSP and cross-well baseline surveys. Mixed results were obtained using the 18-level VSP array due to the smaller aperture, large depth to the target and thin sand layers receiving injected CO2. Time-lapse differencing shows weak illumination at the CO2 injection depth for only one far-offset source point. The lack of bright spots prompted SECARB to move the second cross-well survey up in the schedule. A second cross-well survey was conducted in June 2014. This time the hydrophones were deployed in the production tubing to avoid removing the 18-level array. The acquired data exhibited signal degradation compared to the baseline survey and tube waves interfered with the reflections. First arrivals were used to build a post-injection velocity tomogram. Differencing of the pre- and post-injection tomograms was performed, producing a time-lapse image of good quality. The resulting image (Figure) shows a significant velocity difference, indicating the CO2 <span class="hlt">plume</span> has moved roughly 400 ft in zone. More importantly, no velocity anomaly or leakage is evident above the storage reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0840K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0840K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> around southern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurs in this area. The main cause of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=290146&keyword=tourism&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79265377&CFTOKEN=59484052','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=290146&keyword=tourism&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79265377&CFTOKEN=59484052"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Health and Economic Impacts Case Study###</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Since 2008 eastern North Carolina experienced 6 major <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, far exceeding the historic 50 year expected rate of return. Initiated by the lighting strikes, these fires spread across multiple feet deep, dry and extremely vulnerable peat bogs. The fires produced massive amounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3110K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3110K"><span id="translatedtitle">Water repellency diminishes peatland evaporation after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kettridge, Nick; Lukenbach, Max; Hokanson, Kelly; Devito, Kevin; Hopkinson, Chris; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Peatlands are a critically important global carbon reserve. There is increasing concern that such ecosystems are vulnerable to projected increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> severity under a changing climate. Severe fires may exceed peatland ecological resilience resulting in the long term degradation of this carbon store. Evaporation provides the primary mechanisms of water loss from such environments and can regulate the ecological stress in the initial years after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. We examine variations in evaporation within burned peatlands after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> through small scale chamber and large scale remote sensing measurements. We show that near-surface water repellency limits peatland evaporation in these initial years post fire. Water repellent peat produced by the fire restricts the supply of water to the surface, reducing evaporation and providing a strong negative feedback to disturbance. This previously unidentified feedback operates at the landscape scale. High surface temperatures that result from large reductions in evaporation within water repellent peat are observed across the 60,000 ha burn scar three months after the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. This promotes high water table positions at a landscape scale which limit the rate of peat decomposition and supports the post fire ecohydrological recovery of the peatlands. However, severe burns are shown to exceed this negative feedback response. Deep burns at the peatland margins remove the hydrophobic layer, increasing post fire evaporation and leaving the peatland vulnerable to drying and associated ecological shifts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1480K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1480K"><span id="translatedtitle">Water repellency diminishes peatland evaporation after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kettridge, N.; Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K. J.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Hopkinson, C.; Waddington, J. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Peatlands are a critically important global carbon reserve. There is increasing concern that such ecosystems are vulnerable to projected increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> severity under a changing climate. Severe fires may exceed peatland ecological resilience resulting in the long term degradation of this carbon store. Evaporation provides the primary mechanisms of water loss from such environments and can regulate the ecological stress in the initial years after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. We examine variations in evaporation within burned peatlands after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> through small scale chamber and large scale remote sensing measurements. We show that near-surface water repellency limits peatland evaporation in these initial years post fire. Water repellent peat produced by the fire restricts the supply of water to the surface, reducing evaporation and providing a strong negative feedback to disturbance. This previously unidentified feedback operates at the landscape scale. High surface temperatures that result from large reductions in evaporation within water repellent peat are observed across the 60,000 ha burn scar three months after the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. This large scale reduction in evaporation promotes high water table positions at a landscape scale which limits the rate of peat decomposition and supports the post fire ecohydrological recovery of the peatlands. However, severe burns are shown to exceed this negative feedback response. Deep burns at the peatland margins remove the hydrophobic layer, increasing post fire evaporation and leaving the peatland vulnerable to drying and associated ecological shifts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..473P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..473P"><span id="translatedtitle">The estimation of territiry predeposition to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panchenko, Ekaterina; Dukarev, Anatoly</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> have significant environmental effects. The indirect damages because of fires are an emission of various combustion products such as aerosols, greenhouse gases and carcinogen. Analysis of smoke emission show that from 1 ha burning area emitted aerosols from 0.2 to 1 ton. The aim of our research is to estimate biomass burning emission: Biomass Burning Emission=BA x FL x CE x EF, where BA is Burned Area (ha); FL is forest litter cover (cm); CE is Combustion Efficiency (0-1), depends on a class of fire danger; EF is Emission Factor (kg emitted / kg dry-mass burnt). Consequently for estimation of biomass burning emission it is necessary to analyze of territory predisposition to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and give characteristic of combustion material types for detection fire hazard, for prognosis fire origin and extension. Prognosis of occurrence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and definition of emissions is possible by means of data of depth forest litter, types of vegetation and type of landscapes including concrete weather conditions (seasons, length of arid period, current temperature, wind speed and its direction). The investigated object is the territory Tomskii district near to the city of Tomsk (56° 31 N-85°08 E) - with the population more than 500 thousand people. The conducted analysis of investigated territory and the calculation will be basic prognostic model for researching <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=226354','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=226354"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific review of great basin <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=230529','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=230529"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific Review of Great Basin <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=234423','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=234423"><span id="translatedtitle">Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..1111676P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..1111676P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and relevant meteorological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1174988','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1174988"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced <span class="hlt">plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny</p> <p>2004-08-17</p> <p>An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration <span class="hlt">region</span> as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in <span class="hlt">plume</span> divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the <span class="hlt">plume</span> divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH53B2486A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH53B2486A"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Structure and Formation of On-disk Coronal <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonsson, S.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Winebarger, A. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Plumes</span>" are feather-like features found on the solar disk, in the plage-like field concentrations of quiet <span class="hlt">regions</span>. On-disk <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are analogous to polar/coronal-hole <span class="hlt">plumes</span> but have not been studied in detail in the past. We research their formation and characteristics, such as lifetime, intensity and magnetic setting at the feet. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images in the 171 Å filter and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms, both from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), are analyzed with the IDL SolarSoftWare package and used to study the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. We find that on-disk <span class="hlt">plumes</span> form at the places of converging magnetic fields, and disappear when those fields disperse. However, <span class="hlt">plumes</span> disappear after nearby events, such as flares, or with the emergence of opposite polarity. The lifetime of each <span class="hlt">plume</span> tends to be several days, although some appear and disappear within several hours. On-disk <span class="hlt">plumes</span> outline magnetic fields close to the sun, allowing a better understanding of fine magnetic structures than before. Additionally, since <span class="hlt">plumes</span> must be heated to around 600,000 K to be visible in 171 Å, their formation and characteristics could tell about how they, and therefore the corona, are heated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9H-PIQ6XvM4','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9H-PIQ6XvM4"><span id="translatedtitle">LAMP Observes the LCROSS <span class="hlt">Plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This video shows LAMP’s view of the LCROSS <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The first half of the animation shows the LAMP viewport scanning across the horizon, passing through the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, and moving on. The second half of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS43C1292S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS43C1292S"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil <span class="hlt">plume</span> models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as <span class="hlt">plume</span> centerline trajectory and <span class="hlt">plume</span> radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant <span class="hlt">plume</span> on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant <span class="hlt">plume</span>, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant <span class="hlt">plume</span> becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5747H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5747H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fluid Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, U.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Plumes</span> form as instabilities from thermal boundary layers of convecting systems.The shape, the size and the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is strongly influenced by the vis- cosity of the material. Employing a numerical scheme the evolution of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in fluids with strong temperature and temperature-pressure dependent viscosity has been stud- ied. The strong dependence of viscosity on temperature leads to a pulse-like evolution of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.Pulses of hot material rise episodically through the pre-established low viscosity channels. In a later stage the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> generate extended network-like struc- tures in the thermal boundary layers. Pressure dependence of the viscosity leads to a significant cooling of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.Furthe a fragmentation of one <span class="hlt">plume</span> into several smaller ones is commonly observed. While internal convection takes place within the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head, only little entrainment of material is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008492','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008492"><span id="translatedtitle">Crater Formation Due to Lunar <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Impingement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marsell, Brandon</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Thruster <span class="hlt">plume</span> impingement on a surface comprised of small, loose particles may cause blast ejecta to be spread over a large area and possibly cause damage to the vehicle. For this reason it is important to study the effects of <span class="hlt">plume</span> impingement and crater formation on surfaces like those found on the moon. Lunar soil, also known as regolith, is made up of fine granular particles on the order of 100 microns.i Whenever a vehicle lifts-off from such a surface, the exhaust <span class="hlt">plume</span> from the main engine will cause the formation of a crater. This crater formation may cause laterally ejected mass to be deflected and possibly damage the vehicle. This study is a first attempt at analyzing the dynamics of crater formation due to thruster exhaust <span class="hlt">plume</span> impingement during liftoff from the moon. Though soil erosion on the lunar surface is not considered, this study aims at examining the evolution of the shear stress along the lunar surface as the engine fires. The location of the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of high shear stress will determine where the crater begins to form and will lend insight into how big the crater will be. This information will help determine the probability that something will strike the vehicle. The final sections of this report discuss a novel method for studying this problem that uses a volume of fluid (VOF)ii method to track the movement of both the exhaust <span class="hlt">plume</span> and the eroding surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511576','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511576"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating Irregular Source Geometries for Ionian <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDoniel, W. J.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.; Buchta, D. A.; Freund, J.; Kieffer, S. W.</p> <p>2011-05-20</p> <p>Volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Io respresent a complex rarefied flow into a near-vacuum in the presence of gravity. A 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to investigate the gas dynamics of such <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, with a focus on the effects of source geometry on far-field deposition patterns. A rectangular slit and a semicircular half annulus are simulated to illustrate general principles, especially the effects of vent curvature on deposition ring structure. Then two possible models for the giant <span class="hlt">plume</span> Pele are presented. One is a curved line source corresponding to an IR image of a particularly hot <span class="hlt">region</span> in the volcano's caldera and the other is a large area source corresponding to the entire caldera. The former is seen to produce the features seen in observations of Pele's ring, but with an error in orientation. The latter corrects the error in orientation, but loses some structure. A hybrid simulation of 3D slit flow is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060051749&hterms=supply+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsupply%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060051749&hterms=supply+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsupply%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle">Enceladus' Water Vapour <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+pollution+AND+control&pg=4&id=ED072928','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+pollution+AND+control&pg=4&id=ED072928"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Visible <span class="hlt">Plumes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brennan, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline discusses <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with contaminants that are visible to the naked eye. Information covers: (1) history of air pollution control regulations, (2) need for methods of evaluating…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6139588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6139588"><span id="translatedtitle">Buoyant <span class="hlt">plume</span> calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our <span class="hlt">plume</span> heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.5055B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.5055B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PLUME</span> and research sotware</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baudin, Veronique; Gomez-Diaz, Teresa</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">PLUME</span> open platform (https://www.projet-<span class="hlt">plume</span>.org) has as first goal to share competences and to value the knowledge of software experts within the French higher education and research communities. The project proposes in its platform the access to more than 380 index cards describing useful and economic software for this community, with open access to everybody. The second goal of <span class="hlt">PLUME</span> focuses on to improve the visibility of software produced by research laboratories within the higher education and research communities. The "development-ESR" index cards briefly describe the main features of the software, including references to research publications associated to it. The platform counts more than 300 cards describing research software, where 89 cards have an English version. In this talk we describe the theme classification and the taxonomy of the index cards and the evolution with new themes added to the project. We will also focus on the organisation of <span class="hlt">PLUME</span> as an open project and its interests in the promotion of free/open source software from and for research, contributing to the creation of a community of shared knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26370111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26370111"><span id="translatedtitle">Pervasive Effects of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> on Foliar Endophyte Communities in Montane Forest Trees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, M M Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H; Arnold, A Elizabeth</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect <span class="hlt">regional</span> fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> mycoflora. Together, these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53B3217T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53B3217T"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the Physicochemical and Activation Properties of Aerosols within Smoke <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Wang, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Pekour, M. S.; Shilling, J. E.; Fortner, E.; Chand, D.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Senum, G.; Schmid, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and controlled agricultural burns are known to be a major source of fine particles and organic aerosols at northern temperate latitudes during the summer months. However, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol during transport and the potential impact of this evolution on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity has rarely been studied for these events. During the DOE-sponsored Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) conducted in the summer and fall of 2013, over 30 research flights sampled biomass burning <span class="hlt">plumes</span> from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Northwestern United States and agricultural burns in the Mid-South <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States. A large suite of instruments aboard the DOE G-1 (Gulfstream-1) measured the chemical, physical, and optical properties of biomass burning aerosol with an emphasis on black carbon. A Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS), Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer - Airborne (UHSAS-A), and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP) were used to measure the aerosol size distribution from 15 - 3,000 nm at 1-Hz. A dual column CCN counter measured the CCN number concentration at supersaturations of 0.25% and 0.50% at a time resolution of 1-Hz and the aerosol chemical composition was measured using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, Aerodyne, Inc). The SP-AMS was operated in two modes: (i) as a traditional high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Inc.), which measured chemical composition of non-refractory aerosols and (ii) as the SP-AMS which measured chemical composition of the refractory black carbon-containing (rBC) particle coating and rBC aerosol mass. Utilizing the aforementioned measurements, a CCN closure study is used to investigate the emitted aerosol hygroscopicity, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol, and the potential impacts on cloud microphysics from the different fuel sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL20009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL20009L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of ambient turbulence on a particle <span class="hlt">plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Adrian C. H.; Er, J. W.; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We investigated experimentally the effects of ambient turbulence on a particle <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent ambient water was generated by a random jet array in a glass tank. Glass beads of different particle diameters were released continuously into this turbulent ambient using a submerged hourglass, forming particle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with a constant efflux velocity; different initial velocities were tested for each particle size. We focused on the <span class="hlt">region</span> in which the integral length scale of the ambient eddies is larger than that of the particle <span class="hlt">plume</span> size. Following the arguments of Hunt (1994) and the observation of Hubner (2004) on a single-phase <span class="hlt">plume</span>, it is expected that in this <span class="hlt">region</span>, the internal structure or Lagrangian spreading of the particle <span class="hlt">plume</span>, will not be significantly affected, but the <span class="hlt">plume</span> centerline would meander due to the ambient turbulence leading to an increase in the Eulerian width. In the presentation, first, we will present our preliminary experimental data which showed that this is also true for two-phase particle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Second, based on this observation, we developed a theoretical framework using a stochastic approach to predict the spreading of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Predictions of the model will be compared with our experimental data. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN31A1254N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN31A1254N"><span id="translatedtitle">An improved algorithm for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakau, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Satellite information of wild fire location has strong demands from society. Therefore, Understanding such demands is quite important to consider what to improve the wild fire detection algorithm. Interviews and considerations imply that the most important improvements are geographical resolution of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> product and classification of fire; smoldering or flaming. Discussion with fire service agencies are performed with fire service agencies in Alaska and fire service volunteer groups in Indonesia. Alaska Fire Service (AFS) makes 3D-map overlaid by fire location every morning. Then, this 3D-map is examined by leaders of fire service teams to decide their strategy to fighting against wild fire. Especially, firefighters of both agencies seek the best walk path to approach the fire. Because of mountainous landscape, geospatial resolution is quite important for them. For example, walking in bush for 1km, as same as one pixel of fire product, is very tough for firefighters. Also, in case of remote wild fire, fire service agencies utilize satellite information to decide when to have a flight observation to confirm the status; expanding, flaming, smoldering or out. Therefore, it is also quite important to provide the classification of fire; flaming or smoldering. Not only the aspect of disaster management, <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emits huge amount of carbon into atmosphere as much as one quarter to one half of CO2 by fuel combustion (IPCC AR4). Reduction of the CO2 emission by human caused <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> is important. To estimate carbon emission from <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, special resolution is quite important. To improve sensitivity of wild fire detection, author adopts radiance based <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> detection. Different from the existing brightness temperature approach, we can easily consider reflectance of background land coverage. Especially for GCOM-C1/SGLI, band to detect fire with 250m resolution is 1.6μm wavelength. In this band, we have much more sunlight reflection. Therefore, we need to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CSR....29..556M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CSR....29..556M"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modeling of the Patos Lagoon coastal <span class="hlt">plume</span>, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marques, W. C.; Fernandes, E. H.; Monteiro, I. O.; Möller, O. O.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The Southern Brazilian Shelf (SBS) is a freshwater-influenced <span class="hlt">region</span>, but studies on the dynamics of coastal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are sparse and lack in space-time resolution. Studies on the dynamics of the Patos Lagoon <span class="hlt">plume</span> are even more limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the principal physical forcing for the formation and behavior of the Patos Lagoon coastal <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The study is carried out through 3D numerical modeling experiments and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Results showed that the amount of freshwater is the principal physical forcing controlling the <span class="hlt">plume</span> formation. The Coriolis effect enhances the northward transport over the shelf, while the tidal effects contribute to intensify horizontal and vertical mixing, which are responsible for spreading the freshwater over the shelf. The wind effect, on the other hand, is the main mechanism controlling the behavior of the Patos Lagoon coastal <span class="hlt">plume</span> over the inner SBS in synoptic time scales. Southeasterly and southwesterly winds contribute to the northeastward displacement of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, breaking the vertical stratification of the inner continental shelf. Northeasterly and northwesterly winds favor ebb conditions in the Patos Lagoon, contributing to the southwestward displacement of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> enhancing the vertical stratification along and across-shore. The EOF analysis reveals two modes controlling the variability of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> on the surface. The first mode (explaining 70% of the variability) is associated to the southwestward transportation of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> due to the dominance of north quadrant winds, while the second mode (explaining 19% of the variability) is associated to the intermittent migration of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> northeastward due to the passage of frontal systems over the area. Large scale <span class="hlt">plumes</span> can be expected during winter and spring months, and are enhanced during El Niño events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370580"><span id="translatedtitle">Birth, life, and death of a solar coronal <span class="hlt">plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We analyze a solar polar-coronal-hole (CH) <span class="hlt">plume</span> over its entire ≈40 hr lifetime, using high-resolution Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data. We examine (1) the <span class="hlt">plume</span>'s relationship to a bright point (BP) that persists at its base, (2) <span class="hlt">plume</span> outflows and their possible contribution to the solar wind mass supply, and (3) the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. We find that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> started ≈2 hr after the BP first appeared and became undetectable ≈1 hr after the BP disappeared. We detected radially moving radiance variations from both the <span class="hlt">plume</span> and from interplume <span class="hlt">regions</span>, corresponding to apparent outflow speeds ranging over ≈(30-300) km s{sup –1} with outflow velocities being higher in the 'cooler' AIA 171 Å channel than in the 'hotter' 193 Å and 211 Å channels, which is inconsistent with wave motions; therefore, we conclude that the observed radiance variations represent material outflows. If they persist into the heliosphere and <span class="hlt">plumes</span> cover ≈10% of a typical CH area, these flows could account for ≈50% of the solar wind mass. From a differential emission measure analysis of the AIA images, we find that the average electron temperature of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> remained approximately constant over its lifetime, at T {sub e} ≈ 8.5 × 10{sup 5} K. Its density, however, decreased with the age of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, being about a factor of three lower when the <span class="hlt">plume</span> faded compared to when it was born. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> died due to a density reduction rather than to a temperature decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS21A1607W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS21A1607W"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal modulation on the Changjiang River <span class="hlt">plume</span> in summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>WU, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Tide effects on the structure of the near-field Changjiang River <span class="hlt">Plume</span> and on the extension of the far-field <span class="hlt">plume</span> have often been neglected in analysis and numerical simulations, which is the focus of this study. Numerical experiments highlighted the crucial role of the tidal forcing in modulating the Changjiang River <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Without the tidal forcing, the <span class="hlt">plume</span> results in an unrealistic upstream extension along the Jiangsu Coast. With the tidal forcing, the vertical mixing increases, resulting in a strong horizontal salinity gradient at the northern side of the Changjiang River mouth along the Jiangsu Coast, which acts as a dynamic barrier and restricts the northward migration of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. Furthermore, the tidal forcing produces a bi-directional <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure in the near field and the <span class="hlt">plume</span> separation is located at the head of the submarine canyon. A significant bulge occurs around the head of submarine canyon and rotates anticyclonically, which carries large portion of the diluted water towards the northeast and merges into the far-field <span class="hlt">plume</span>. A portion of the diluted water moves towards the southeast, which is mainly caused by tidal ratification. This bi-directional <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure is more evident under certain wind condition. During the neap tide with the reduced tidal energy, the near-field <span class="hlt">plume</span> extends farther offshore and the bulge becomes less evident. These dynamic behaviors are maintained and fundamentally important in the <span class="hlt">region</span> around the river mouth even under the summer monsoon and the shelf currents, although in the far field the wind forcing and shelf currents eventually dominate the <span class="hlt">plume</span> extension.<br />H. Wu<img class="jpg" border=0 width=600px src="/meetings/fm11/program/tables/OS21A-1607_T1.jpg"></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...793...86P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...793...86P"><span id="translatedtitle">Birth, Life, and Death of a Solar Coronal <span class="hlt">Plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pucci, Stefano; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Romoli, Marco</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We analyze a solar polar-coronal-hole (CH) <span class="hlt">plume</span> over its entire ≈40 hr lifetime, using high-resolution Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data. We examine (1) the <span class="hlt">plume</span>'s relationship to a bright point (BP) that persists at its base, (2) <span class="hlt">plume</span> outflows and their possible contribution to the solar wind mass supply, and (3) the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. We find that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> started ≈2 hr after the BP first appeared and became undetectable ≈1 hr after the BP disappeared. We detected radially moving radiance variations from both the <span class="hlt">plume</span> and from interplume <span class="hlt">regions</span>, corresponding to apparent outflow speeds ranging over ≈(30-300) km s-1 with outflow velocities being higher in the "cooler" AIA 171 Å channel than in the "hotter" 193 Å and 211 Å channels, which is inconsistent with wave motions; therefore, we conclude that the observed radiance variations represent material outflows. If they persist into the heliosphere and <span class="hlt">plumes</span> cover ≈10% of a typical CH area, these flows could account for ≈50% of the solar wind mass. From a differential emission measure analysis of the AIA images, we find that the average electron temperature of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> remained approximately constant over its lifetime, at T e ≈ 8.5 × 105 K. Its density, however, decreased with the age of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, being about a factor of three lower when the <span class="hlt">plume</span> faded compared to when it was born. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> died due to a density reduction rather than to a temperature decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000501','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000501"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-derived aerosol radiative forcing from the 2004 British Columbia <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guo, S.; Leighton, H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The British Columbia <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> of 2004 was one of the largest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models to assess the effect of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081889"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span>, Bastrop County, Texas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>On September 4, 2011, a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service <span class="hlt">Region</span> 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770036956&hterms=pulp+paper&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpulp%2Bpaper','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770036956&hterms=pulp+paper&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpulp%2Bpaper"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of stack <span class="hlt">plume</span> properties from satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Staylor, W. F.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>LANDSAT imagery data were analyzed to determine the quantitative properties of a stack <span class="hlt">plume</span> emitted from a moderate-sized pulp mill. Overlapping, consecutive-day MSS data provided <span class="hlt">plume</span>/no <span class="hlt">plume</span> radiances upwelling from the area of interest. These values from both the <span class="hlt">plume</span> and its shadow were used to evaluate <span class="hlt">plume</span> radius, height, particle concentration and scattering function, and total particle loading. Imagery data from a 10 by 10 km <span class="hlt">region</span> in the vicinity of the mill were normalized to correct for minor atmospheric, solar and viewing angle changes for the two observation days, and cloud shadow data were used to evaluate sky radiance. The effects of the Sun angle, surface reflectance, SNR and spatial resolution are treated in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC14A..03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC14A..03W"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic water deficit and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>: predicting spatial patterns in forest ecosystem sensitivity to warming and earlier spring snowmelt. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerling, A. L.; Keyser, A.; Milostan, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Western U.S. forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> area burned increased significantly in recent decades, with much of the increase in the US Rocky Mountains (Westerling et al 2006). While Westerling et al (2006) noted that interannual variability in aggregate <span class="hlt">regional</span> forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> has been highly correlated with <span class="hlt">regional</span> indices of warming and spring snowmelt, our analysis of the hydroclimatic conditions coincident with the occurrence of large forest <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in recent decades reveals that sensitivity of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in specific forest areas has been characterized by a narrow range of climatic conditions: long-term average snow-free season of ~2-4 months and relatively high cumulative water-year actual evapotranspiration (AET). These forests have shown large increases in cumulative water year moisture deficit concomitant with large increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in recent years with warmer than average temperatures and earlier spring snowmelt. Forests with high AET and snow-free seasons between 4 and 5 months have exhibited significant but more moderate increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity. Mean snow-free season length and cumulative AET may also be predictive of forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> sensitivity to projected warming. Recent climate change impact studies indicate that the same forests where <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity has exhibited the most sensitivity to observed warming in recent decades may continue to exhibit large increases in the next few decades, until reductions in fuel availability and continuity become dominant constraints on the growth of large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (e.g., Westerling et al 2011a, Litschert et al 2012, Westerling et al unpublished data). We also find that similar forests that may have been buffered from recent climate change by elevation or latitude may also show very large increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> under projected warming. Conversely, warmer, drier forests where recent changes in moisture deficit and fire activity have been more moderate (particularly those with snow-free seasons ~4-5 months), are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC14A..03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC14A..03W"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic water deficit and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>: predicting spatial patterns in forest ecosystem sensitivity to warming and earlier spring snowmelt. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerling, A. L.; Keyser, A.; Milostan, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Western U.S. forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> area burned increased significantly in recent decades, with much of the increase in the US Rocky Mountains (Westerling et al 2006). While Westerling et al (2006) noted that interannual variability in aggregate <span class="hlt">regional</span> forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> has been highly correlated with <span class="hlt">regional</span> indices of warming and spring snowmelt, our analysis of the hydroclimatic conditions coincident with the occurrence of large forest <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in recent decades reveals that sensitivity of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in specific forest areas has been characterized by a narrow range of climatic conditions: long-term average snow-free season of ~2-4 months and relatively high cumulative water-year actual evapotranspiration (AET). These forests have shown large increases in cumulative water year moisture deficit concomitant with large increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in recent years with warmer than average temperatures and earlier spring snowmelt. Forests with high AET and snow-free seasons between 4 and 5 months have exhibited significant but more moderate increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity. Mean snow-free season length and cumulative AET may also be predictive of forest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> sensitivity to projected warming. Recent climate change impact studies indicate that the same forests where <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity has exhibited the most sensitivity to observed warming in recent decades may continue to exhibit large increases in the next few decades, until reductions in fuel availability and continuity become dominant constraints on the growth of large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (e.g., Westerling et al 2011a, Litschert et al 2012, Westerling et al unpublished data). We also find that similar forests that may have been buffered from recent climate change by elevation or latitude may also show very large increases in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> under projected warming. Conversely, warmer, drier forests where recent changes in moisture deficit and fire activity have been more moderate (particularly those with snow-free seasons ~4-5 months), are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43B2310L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43B2310L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plumes</span> are a source of plasmaspheric hiss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laakso, H. E.; Horne, R. B.; Santolik, O.; Escoubet, C.; Masson, A.; Taylor, M. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The plasmaspheric hiss is regularly observed in the inner magnetosphere, particularly in the plasmasphere and in the related high-density <span class="hlt">regions</span> such as in the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Even the phenomenon is well known for long time, the generation mechanism of hiss remains still open. The hiss is important because it is believed to cause loss of radiation belt particles. We have investigated the hiss emission during the Cluster perigee passes and found enhanced emission to occur both in the plasmaspheric <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and in the plasmasphere. However, their wave characteristics differ significantly. Due to the polar orbits of the four Cluster spacecraft, each spacecraft provides two snapshots of hiss, separated by a few hours, on the two opposing hemispheres, so differences in wave characteristics between two hemispheres can be discerned. Furthermore the four spacecraft follow each other within an hour, so the temporal variation of hiss over the same hemisphere can be observed as well. Occasionally the spacecraft are simultaneously located in the same flux tube in the both hemispheres. Most of the time hiss does not vary much within an hour (except for some spatial variations) even if the geomagnetic conditions vary. However, hemispheric differences are significant: all observations in the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> show that the wave vector is parallel with the local magnetic field vector and the waves propagate away from the equatorial <span class="hlt">region</span> of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. In the plasmasphere at lower L shells the hiss is observed as well but here in both hemispheres the waves propagate towards the equator and the wave vector has a larger angle with the magnetic field. We conclude that the equatorial <span class="hlt">plume</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> is a source of hiss and the waves are refracted and reflected from high latitudes towards lower L shells and into the plasmasphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036813"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">plume</span> source localization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pang, Shuo; Farrell, Jay A</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical <span class="hlt">plume</span> using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The vehicle is capable of detecting above-threshold chemical concentration and sensing the fluid flow velocity at the vehicle location. This paper reviews instances of biological <span class="hlt">plume</span> tracing and reviews previous strategies for a vehicle-based <span class="hlt">plume</span> tracing. The main contribution is a new source-likelihood mapping approach based on Bayesian inference methods. Using this Bayesian methodology, the source-likelihood map is propagated through time and updated in response to both detection and nondetection events. Examples are included that use data from in-water testing to compare the mapping approach derived herein with the map derived using a previously existing technique. PMID:17036813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI34A..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI34A..06G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span> capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of <span class="hlt">plume</span>-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed <span class="hlt">plume</span> material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis <span class="hlt">plume</span> and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos <span class="hlt">plume</span> stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the <span class="hlt">plume</span> stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the <span class="hlt">region</span> between the <span class="hlt">plume</span> stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of <span class="hlt">plume</span> material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward <span class="hlt">plume</span> flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of <span class="hlt">plume</span> flow. Subsequent anchoring of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of <span class="hlt">plume</span> material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of <span class="hlt">plume</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...818..203W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...818..203W"><span id="translatedtitle">Converging Supergranular Flows and the Formation of Coronal <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.; Muglach, K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Earlier studies have suggested that coronal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are energized by magnetic reconnection between unipolar flux concentrations and nearby bipoles, even though magnetograms sometimes show very little minority-polarity flux near the footpoints of <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Here we use high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to clarify the relationship between <span class="hlt">plume</span> emission and the underlying photospheric field. We find that <span class="hlt">plumes</span> form where unipolar network elements inside coronal holes converge to form dense clumps, and fade as the clumps disperse again. The converging flows also carry internetwork fields of both polarities. Although the minority-polarity flux is sometimes barely visible in the magnetograms, the corresponding EUV images almost invariably show loop-like features in the core of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, with the fine structure changing on timescales of minutes or less. We conclude that the SDO observations are consistent with a model in which <span class="hlt">plume</span> emission originates from interchange reconnection in converging flows, with the <span class="hlt">plume</span> lifetime being determined by the ∼1 day evolutionary timescale of the supergranular network. Furthermore, the presence of large EUV bright points and/or ephemeral <span class="hlt">regions</span> is not a necessary precondition for the formation of <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which can be energized even by the weak, mixed-polarity internetwork fields swept up by converging flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007924&hterms=fade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfade','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007924&hterms=fade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfade"><span id="translatedtitle">Converging Supergranular Flows and the Formation of Coronal <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.; Muglach, K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Earlier studies have suggested that coronal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are energized by magnetic reconnection between unipolar flux concentrations and nearby bipoles, even though magnetograms sometimes show very little minority-polarity flux near the footpoints of <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Here we use high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to clarify the relationship between <span class="hlt">plume</span> emission and the underlying photospheric field. We find that <span class="hlt">plumes</span> form where unipolar network elements inside coronal holes converge to form dense clumps, and fade as the clumps disperse again. The converging flows also carry internetwork fields of both polarities. Although the minority-polarity flux is sometimes barely visible in the magnetograms, the corresponding EUV images almost invariably show loop-like features in the core of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, with the fine structure changing on timescales of minutes or less. We conclude that the SDO observations are consistent with a model in which <span class="hlt">plume</span> emission originates from interchange reconnection in converging flows, with the <span class="hlt">plume</span> lifetime being determined by the approximately 1-day evolutionary timescale of the supergranular network. Furthermore, the presence of large EUV bright points and/or ephemeral <span class="hlt">regions</span> is not a necessary precondition for the formation of <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which can be energized even by the weak, mixed-polarity internetwork fields swept up by converging flows.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/314170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/314170"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of a diagnostic <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling system (HIGRAD/BEHAVE) with a self-determining <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling system (HIGRAD/FIRETEC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reisner, J.; Linn, R.; Bossert, J.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>In this paper details of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling system are illustrated. First the dynamical model, HIGRAD, capable of accurately resolving <span class="hlt">regions</span> of strong gradients, is described. Next, the two <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> models FIRETEC and BEHAVE are introduced. Unlike the traditional point-functional approach used in the BEHAVE-like fire model, FIRETEC is a self-determining fire model. The benefits of the HIGRAD/FIRETEC approach with respect to HIGRAD/BEHAVE are shown in the results section of this paper. Two major conclusions are drawn in this section. The first conclusion is that the rate of spread of a fire to a first approximation is independent of the local wind velocity. The second conclusion is that HIGRAD/FIRETEC can be used to develop point-functions for use in HIGRAD/BEHAVE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6153G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6153G"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate variability and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk and occurrence in northern Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia Codron, J. C.; Rasilla, D.; Diego, C.; Carracedo, V.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In spite of their reputation of wetness, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are a frequent event in Cantabria (Northern Spain), but their seasonality does not match the typical warm season maximum generalized in most of the Iberian Peninsula. They occur at the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring (January to March), being mostly anthropogenically triggered due to the necessity of preparing pastures in the uplands. However, catastrophic episodes of generalized burning are controlled by different atmospheric mechanisms, namely the occurrence of "Suradas", a downslope windstorms which combines high winds speeds and low humidities, and long periods of drought in late fall and winter. This contribution analyzes long term trends (1961 onwards) of several climatic variables during the highest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk period in order to assess to what extent the occurrence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> may be linked to the recent climatic variability. Raw meteorological values of temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation are transformed into a well-known meteorological fire weather index, the Canadian Forest Fire Index (FWI). Besides, monthly values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index we used to assess the spatial and temporal magnitude and intensity of droughts. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate has become warmer and drier, due to the combined effects of increases in temperatures, sunshine duration, and the decrease in relative humidity and precipitation, variables that are likely to play an important role in drought. Unknown in the 60s, 70s and most of the 80s, drought has become a relatively frequent phenomenon during the last two decades, and, in fact, the two most extreme episodes of drought at century scale, during 1989-1990 and 1993, occur in the 90. However, both the frequency and the intensity of "Suradas" have reduced, and consequently, the high fire risk episodes are now less frequent, but their absolute maximum values remain unchanged. Those <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate trends are strongly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212883H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212883H"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Northern Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heel, Michael; Sass, Oliver; Friedmann, Arne; Wetzel, Karl-Friedrich</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> in the northern Alps are rare compared to e.g. the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span>. However, fires occurring on the dry, south-exposed slopes of the inner-alpine valleys can constitute a significant disturbance of the ecosystems in the sub-alpine belt. We reconstructed the younger <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> history (last few centuries) of a part of the the Northern Limestone Alps using chronicles, forestry and fire brigade records as well as historical pictures (postcards, aerial photos etc.), local names and interviews with local people. The long-term fire frequency was investigated using mire drillings, charcoal in soils and dendrochronology. In the surrounding of the Karwendel, Wetterstein and Mieminger Mountains we have identified c. 400 forest fires to date. The earliest detected fire dates to more than 2900 years; the largest one (in 1705) affected an area of several thousand hectares. Approximately 90% of the fires are man-made (negligence, arson, railway) which explains the concentration on the south-exposed slopes of the densely populated Inn valley. Most of the larger fires take place in the altitudinal belt between 1400 and 1900 m a.s.l.; apart from very few exceptions, they are restricted to southerly orientations. Locally, mean recurrence intervals of 200-300 years occur which is similar to e.g. boreal forests in Canada. We observed a strong seasonality with 40% of the fires occurring in spring and 30% in summer. There is a weak correlation with the weather conditions in the one or two weeks before the fire with dry periods promoting <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ignition and burnt area size; however, there are many exceptions from the rule. The 1940ies stands out for more than twice as much fires than in all other decades which is both due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. Today, there is an apparent trend towards more frequent and smaller fires. The frequency is biased by the multitude of available documentation today (e.g. websites of fire brigades), while the decreasing size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53A3199M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53A3199M"><span id="translatedtitle">Emissions of Black Carbon Aerosols from Alaskan Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouteva, G.; Fahrni, S. M.; Rogers, B. M.; Wiggins, E. B.; Santos, G.; Czimczik, C. I.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Boreal <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are a major source of carbonaceous aerosols. Emissions from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in Alaska represent ~ 33% of all open biomass combustion emissions of black carbon (BC) in the United States. BC contributes to atmospheric warming and accelerates melting of ice and snow. With fire frequency and burned area projected to increase in boreal <span class="hlt">regions</span>, BC has the potential to become an important positive feedback to climate change. Quantifying the emissions, constraining the sources and better understanding the transportation patterns of BC to the polar <span class="hlt">regions</span> are therefore critical for constraining the strength of this feedback. We present results from direct measurements of BC from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in Alaska during the summer of 2013 collected as a part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) campaign. Fine aerosol particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected at two locations: Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed and Delta Junction Agricultural and Forestry Experimental Site. Using a Sunset OCEC analyzer, we separated BC from organic carbon aerosols, measured concentrations and analyzed the radiocarbon (14C) content with accelerator mass spectrometry. We also analyzed the total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotope composition of the bulk PM2.5 with EA-IRMS. We compared the temporal dynamics of BC concentrations and isotopic composition with active fire/thermal anomaly information from MODIS. Our results show that boreal forest fire emissions in interior Alaska increased BC concentrations by up to an order of magnitude above background levels. The mean Δ14C value of fire-emitted BC was 120‰ with a range of +99‰ to +149‰ after correcting for contributions from background BC. This range was in good agreement with measurements of the depth of burn in soil organic carbon layers from interior wildland fires, and Δ14C profiles. High fire periods also corresponded to elevated C:N ratios. The δ15N of the aerosols was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027379','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027379"><span id="translatedtitle">Technology and the study of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>: Middle school students study the impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fox-Gliessman, D.; Kerski, J.J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Various technologies that can assist students in exploring the human and environmental impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and in communicating their findings are discussed. <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> occur in many parts of the world, and provide an excellent opportunity for students to study local and global interdisciplinary issues using technology. Prior to the beginning of the field study, students take instructions in both their math and science classes about the distinction and appropriate uses of quantitative and qualitative data. Use of computer programs such as Excel spreadsheets which can contain data, and interaction of research and technology group with students, can help them collect best of the information and in making an accurate report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GBioC..15..435F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GBioC..15..435F"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile organic trace gases emitted from North American <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friedli, H. R.; Atlas, E.; Stroud, V. R.; Giovanni, L.; Campos, T.; Radke, L. F.</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Trace gases from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and prescribed burns were collected from the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft at fire locations in temperate forests (Montana, Colorado) and sage scrub (California). Comprehensive compositions for hydrocarbons, partially oxidized hydrocarbons (POHC), halocarbons, alkyl nitrates, and some sulfur compounds were determined in 99 samples. All of these trace gas emission groups correlated linearly with CO emissions. Fires in temperate forests emitted ˜28% more nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and 120% more POHC than the California fire and the molecular weight range of the emitted hydrocarbons was higher. The POHC contribution relative to NMHC emissions is significant: 26 and 38% for California and temperate forests, respectively. Since the observed POHCs (mostly ketones, aldehydes, and furans) typically react faster than many NMHC and undergo cascades of photochemical degradations, they should be included in calculations of the effect that fires have on the local and global oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The composition of the hydrocarbons and POHCs in the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> varied with combustion efficiency, displaying a distinct pattern, which reflected fire chemistry. Interfire differences were evident among fires in temperate forests. The dominant halocarbon emissions from all fires were methyl halides. The emission ratio was always largest for methyl chloride and was dependent on vegetation and fire location. C1-C5 alkyl nitrates were found in all fire emissions and showed little dependence on the location of the fire. The major organic sulfur compound measured was carbonyl sulfide. Minor amounts of dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide were observed. Budget estimates for emissions from fires in temperate forests were made based on the measured emission ratios and published carbon monoxide estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..112.3307M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..112.3307M"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace gas and particulate emissions from the 2003 southern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mühle, J.; Lueker, T. J.; Su, Y.; Miller, B. R.; Prather, K. A.; Weiss, R. F.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In October 2003, thirteen major <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in southern California burned more than 300,000 hectares of mainly chaparral biome. High-precision in situ trace gas and particle measurements of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in La Jolla, California, showed a high degree of correlation among carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons, and methyl halide mixing ratios, as well as with particle number concentrations (10-300 nm and 500-2500 nm aerodynamic diameter). Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles (50-2500 nm range) showed that 70-85% had typical biomass burning signatures (levoglucosan coupled with potassium). Only 5-18% of particles in the 50-300 nm range had vehicle signatures. Molar trace gas enhancement ratios (ERs) versus ethane and CO2 were calculated and showed a narrow age distribution, consistent with the short distance from the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. ERs for N2O and CH3CCl3 versus CO2 were determined, but correlations were poor. No significant CH2Cl2 or CHCl3 emissions were detected. CO2 emissions from the nearby Cedar fire were estimated both with a simple Lagrangian atmospheric transport model and a burned area approach and extrapolated to 11 Tg CO2 for the total burned area in southern California. Total CO2, CH4, C2-hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, methyl chloride, methyl iodide, and PM2.5 emissions were ˜0.2-3.5% of yearly global extratropical forest fire emissions and more than 28% of CH4, C6H6, and PM2.5 2003 San Diego and South Coast Air Basins anthropogenic emissions. Particle distributions and single particle chemistry are discussed. PM2.5 considerably exceeded the EPA short-term exposure limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6900W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6900W"><span id="translatedtitle">Altered peat hydrophysical properties following drainage and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> increases peatland vulnerability to ecosystem regime shift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waddington, James; Kettridge, Nick; Sherwood, James; Granath, Gustaf</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Northern peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reservoir, composed largely of legacy carbon which is no longer part of the active carbon cycle. However, it is unclear whether this legacy carbon is vulnerable as a result of enhanced peat smouldering and combustion under the moderate drying conditions predicted for northern peatlands as a result of climate change and/or disturbance from forestry, mining, and associated transport development. A significant loss in legacy carbon as a result of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> has already been observed in smaller tropical peatlands where deep peat soils have been destabilized due to severe drainage and a shift in vegetation. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> recovery of a northern peatland several decades post drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern <span class="hlt">regions</span> triggers a shift in vegetation composition, previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands, when accompanied by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> resulted in a shift of the peat surface down the peat profile, exposing denser peat at the surface. In undisturbed northern peatlands where depth of burn is typically low, low-density near-surface peats help regulate water-table position and near-surface moisture availability post-fire, both of which are favourable to Sphagnum recolonization. As a result of drainage and fire at the study site, the self-regulating properties of the low-density Sphagnum surface were lost. We demonstrate that changes in peat hydrophysical properties increased hydrological limitations to Sphagnum recovery leading to the conversion to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> regime, which will further deplete the legacy carbon stored in the peat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/635205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/635205"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled Weather and <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Behavior Modeling at Los Alamos: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bossert, James E.; Harlow, Francis H.; Linn, Rodman R.; Reisner, Jon M.; White, Andrew B.; Winterkamp, Judith L.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Over the past two years, researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have been engaged in coupled weather/<span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling as part of a broader initiative to predict the unfolding of crisis events. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> prediction was chosen for the following reasons: (1) few physics-based <span class="hlt">wild-fire</span> prediction models presently exist; (2) LANL has expertise in the fields required to develop such a capability; and (3) the development of this predictive capability would be enhanced by LANL`s strength in high performance computing. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> behavior models have historically been used to predict fire spread and heat release for a prescribed set of fuel, slope, and wind conditions (Andrews 1986). In the vicinity of a fire, however, atmospheric conditions are constantly changing due to non-local weather influences and the intense heat of the fire itself. This non- linear process underscores the need for physics-based models that treat the atmosphere-fire feedback. Actual <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> prediction with full-physics models is both time-critical and computationally demanding, since it must include <span class="hlt">regional</span>- to local-scale weather forecasting together with the capability to accurately simulate both intense gradients across a fireline, and atmosphere/fire/fuel interactions. Los Alamos has recently (January 1997) acquired a number of SGI/Cray Origin 2000 machines, each presently having 32 to 64 processors. These high performance computing systems are part of the Department of Energy`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). While offering impressive performance now, upgrades to the system promise to deliver over 1 Teraflop (10(12) floating point operations per second) at peak performance before the turn of the century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23977120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23977120"><span id="translatedtitle">Land use planning and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>: development policies influence future probability of housing loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897612"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating mercury emissions resulting from <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in forests of the Western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Webster, Jackson P; Kane, Tyler J; Obrist, Daniel; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R</p> <p>2016-10-15</p> <p>Understanding the emissions of mercury (Hg) from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg sources. Emissions of Hg from soils resulting from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Western United States was estimated for the 2000 to 2013 period, and the potential emission of Hg from forest soils was assessed as a function of forest type and soil-heating. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> released an annual average of 3100±1900kg-Hgy(-1) for the years spanning 2000-2013 in the 11 states within the study area. This estimate is nearly 5-fold lower than previous estimates for the study <span class="hlt">region</span>. Lower emission estimates are attributed to an inclusion of fire severity within burn perimeters. Within reported <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> perimeters, the average distribution of low, moderate, and high severity burns was 52, 29, and 19% of the total area, respectively. Review of literature data suggests that that low severity burning does not result in soil heating, moderate severity fire results in shallow soil heating, and high severity fire results in relatively deep soil heating (<5cm). Using this approach, emission factors for high severity burns ranged from 58 to 640μg-Hgkg-fuel(-1). In contrast, low severity burns have emission factors that are estimated to be only 18-34μg-Hgkg-fuel(-1). In this estimate, <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> is predicted to release 1-30gHgha(-1) from Western United States forest soils while above ground fuels are projected to contribute an additional 0.9 to 7.8gHgha(-1). Land cover types with low biomass (desert scrub) are projected to release less than 1gHgha(-1). Following soil sources, fuel source contributions to total Hg emissions generally followed the order of duff>wood>foliage>litter>branches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70124275','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70124275"><span id="translatedtitle">Land use planning and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>: development policies influence future probability of housing loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D.; Massada, Avi Bar; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3743760','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3743760"><span id="translatedtitle">Land Use Planning and <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span>: Development Policies Influence Future Probability of Housing Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Syphard, Alexandra D.; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3353560','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3353560"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> on Aerosol Size Distributions in Rural Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; Fraile, R.; Castro, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14 μm, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time—before, during, and after the passing of the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> from the wildfires—shows that the mean geometric diameter of the fine mode in the measurements affected by the fire is smaller than the one obtained in the measurements carried out immediately before and after (0.14 μm) and presents average values of 0.11 μm. PMID:22629191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..439E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..439E"><span id="translatedtitle">An EO-Based Approach to Modelling Ecosystem Health in Response to <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> in Central Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Aaron; Petropoulos, George P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Assessment of ecosystem health is becoming more relevant in a world where ecosystems are being used unsustainably and have been showing increased signs of stress and dysfunction. Therefore, this research has set out to establish an Earth Observation (EO) based methodology in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to establish and monitor the indicators of ecosystem health in a <span class="hlt">region</span> affected by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in Central Greece. A further goal has been to assess the responses of ecosystem health to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and urban expansion in the studied <span class="hlt">region</span>. The methodology integrated GIS software and EO data to assess ecosystem characteristics including: vigour, organisation and resilience. The characteristics were quantified using remote sensing techniques focusing on Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images derived from Landsat imagery from 1999-2011. Topographic features including slope and aspect were extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). These elements were then assigned weightings based upon research and combined in a model to produce a map of ecosystem health. The map of ecosystem health was validated against a compound topographic index that was produced for the study <span class="hlt">region</span>, completed by overlaying the layers in Google Earth. This software allowed for a direct comparison of each layer. The results of the model have demonstrated correlations with past <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and the associated recovery. The findings are in agreement with the hypothesis that ecosystem health maps can illustrate the effect <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> have on ecosystem health, thus providing useful information to land managers and policy makers who manage <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The results further demonstrate that the resolution of Landsat imagery is excellent for obtaining a general overview of ecosystem health mapping. The methods described in this study could provide more detailed information if applied to high resolution imagery such as Worldview or IKONOS data. Results could be further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JApA...36..185D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JApA...36..185D"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Coronal <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> and the Fast Solar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dwivedi, Bhola N.; Wilhelm, Klaus</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The spectral profiles of the coronal Ne viii line at 77 nm have different shapes in quiet-Sun <span class="hlt">regions</span> and Coronal Holes (CHs). A single Gaussian fit of the line profile provides an adequate approximation in quiet-Sun areas, whereas, a strong shoulder on the long-wavelength side is a systematic feature in CHs. Although this has been noticed since 1999, no physical reason for the peculiar shape could be given. In an attempt to identify the cause of this peculiarity, we address three problems that could not be conclusively resolved, in a review article by a study team of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) (Wilhelm et al. 2011): (1) The physical processes operating at the base and inside of <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, as well as their interaction with the Solar Wind (SW). (2) The possible contribution of <span class="hlt">plume</span> plasma to the fast SW streams. (3) The signature of the First-Ionization Potential (FIP) effect between <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and inter-<span class="hlt">plume</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> (IPRs). Before the spectroscopic peculiarities in IPRs and <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in Polar Coronal Holes (PCHs) can be further investigated with the instrument Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it is mandatory to summarize the results of the review to place the spectroscopic observations into context. Finally, a <span class="hlt">plume</span> model is proposed that satisfactorily explains the plasma flows up and down the <span class="hlt">plume</span> field lines and leads to the shape of the neon line in PCHs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..277..370B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..277..370B"><span id="translatedtitle">DSMC simulation of Europa water vapor <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berg, J. J.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A computational investigation of the physics of water vapor <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Europa was performed with a focus on characteristics relevant to observation and spacecraft mission operations. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to model the <span class="hlt">plume</span> expansion assuming a supersonic vent source. The structure of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> was determined, including the number density, temperature, and velocity fields. The possibility of ice grain growth above the vent was considered and deemed probable for large (diameter > ∼20 m) vents at certain Mach numbers. Additionally, preexisting grains of three diameters (0.1, 1, 50 μm) were included and their trajectories examined. A preliminary study of photodissociation of H2O into OH and H was performed to demonstrate the behavior of daughter species. A set of vent parameters was evaluated including Mach number (Mach 2, 3, 5), reduced temperature as a proxy for flow energy loss to the <span class="hlt">region</span> surrounding the vent, and mass flow rate. <span class="hlt">Plume</span> behavior was relatively insensitive to these factors, with the notable exception of mass flow rate. With an assumed mass flow rate of ∼1000 kg/s, a canopy shock occurred and a maximum integrated line of sight column density of ∼1020 H2O molecules/m2 was calculated, comparing favorably with observation (Roth et al., 2014a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3746U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3746U"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical redistribution of zooplankton in an oligotrophic lake associated with reduction in ultraviolet radiation by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urmy, Samuel S.; Williamson, Craig E.; Leach, Taylor H.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Overholt, Erin P.; Warren, Joseph D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We used a natural experiment to test whether <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke induced changes in the vertical distribution of zooplankton in Lake Tahoe by decreasing incident ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fires have a variety of effects on aquatic ecosystems, but these impacts are poorly understood and have rarely been observed directly. UV is an important driver of zooplankton vertical migration, and <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> may alter it over large spatial scales. We measured UV irradiance and the distribution of zooplankton on two successive days. On one day, smoke haze from a nearby <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> reduced incident UV radiation by up to 9%, but not irradiance in the visible spectrum. Zooplankton responded by positioning themselves, on average, 4.1 m shallower in the lake. While a limited data set such as this requires cautious interpretation, our results suggest that smoke from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> can change the UV environment and distribution of zooplankton. This process may be important in drought-prone <span class="hlt">regions</span> with increasingly frequent <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, and globally due to widespread biomass burning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112841N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112841N"><span id="translatedtitle">Desertification and other ecological impacts produced by the historic Rodeo-Chediski <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> of 2000, Arizona, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Stropki, C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> of water bars, wattles, k-rails, and aerial seeding and mulching of herbaceous plants to mitigate that anticipated accelerated post-fire soil erosion, began immediately after the fire was extinguished and it was declared safe for people to enter the burned area and initiate rehabilitation. An assessment of the impacts of the Rodeo-Chediski <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on soil erosion was carried out on two watersheds situated at the headwaters of the Little Colorado River. One of the watersheds experienced a high severity burn and the other a low-to-medium severity burn. Estimates of soil erosion on a watershed-basis and relative to physiographic characteristics on the two watersheds following the (a) high-intensity summer monsoonal rains and (2) low-intensity winter precipitation and spring snowmelt-runoff events are presented and compared with estimates of soil erosion following other <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Monitoring of soil erosion and other hydrologic and ecological parameters is continuing to obtain a longer, more comprehensive picture of the impacts of this catastrophic <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> event. The Rodeo-Chediski <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> altered the species composition and impacted the production of herbaceous plants on the burned watersheds studied. Effects of the post-fire vegetation changes reduced the capabilities of watersheds to support livestock and some of the other larger herbivores in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. When these watersheds will return to pre-fire conditions is largely unknown. Not only must the forage resources be restored but the magnitude of post-fire soil erosion and accompanying nutrient losses must be mitigated. Post-fire rehabilitation efforts including the seeding of herbaceous species and installation of controls to reduce soil erosion and sedimentation processes have helped to accelerate this recovery to some extent. A much longer time will obviously be required for severely burned areas to recover than those areas burned by at a low severity. Portions of the latter have already returned</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812626M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812626M"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of vegetation cover after 25 years since the last <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> (Río Verde, Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climatic conditions play an important role in the post-fire vegetation recovery as well as other factors like topography, soil, and pre and post-fire land use (Shakesby, 2011; Robichaud et al., 2013). This study deals with the characterization of the vegetation cover status in an area affected by a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> 25 years ago. Namely, the objectives are to: i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>; and ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The study area is mainly located in the Rio Verde watershed (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain). It corresponds to an area affected by a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8,156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1700 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The Andalucía <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Government <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover maps were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI index were calculated and mapped for both years in order to compare the status of vegetation cover. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let map the most recovered areas affected by the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in 1991. The vegetation indexes indicated that</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051884&hterms=lower+mantle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlower%2Bmantle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051884&hterms=lower+mantle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlower%2Bmantle"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of axisymmetric mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Olson, Peter; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, Charles</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The structure of axisymmetric subsolidus thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in the earth's lower mantle is inferred from calculations of axisymmetric thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in an infinite Prandtl number fluid with thermally activated viscosity. The velocity and temperature distribution is determined for axisymmetric convection above a heated disk in an incompressible fluid cylinder 2,400 km in height and 1,200 km in diameter. Several calculations of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with heat transport in the range 100-400 GW, similar to the advective heat transport at the Hawaiian hotspot, are presented. Hotspot formation by <span class="hlt">plumes</span> originating at the base of the mantle requires both large viscosity variations and a minimum heat transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036938','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036938"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2007 southern California <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>: Lessons in complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keeley, J.E.; Safford, H.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Franklin, J.; Moritz, M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The 2007 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season in southern California burned over 1,000,000 ac (400,000 ha) and included several megafires. We use the 2007 fires as a case study to draw three major lessons about <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> complexity in southern California. First, the great majority of large fires in southern California occur in the autumn under the influence of Santa Ana windstorms. These fires also cost the most to contain and cause the most damage to life and property, and the October 2007 fires were no exception because thousands of homes were lost and seven people were killed. Being pushed by wind gusts over 100 kph, young fuels presented little barrier to their spread as the 2007 fires reburned considerable portions of the area burned in the historic 2003 fire season. Adding to the size of these fires was the historic 2006-2007 drought that contributed to high dead fuel loads and long distance spotting. As in 2003, young chaparral stands and fuel treatments were not reliable barriers to fire in October 2007. Second, the Zaca Fire in July and August 2007 showed that other factors besides high winds can sometimes combine to create conditions for large fires in southern California. Spring and summer fires in southern California chaparral are usually easily contained because of higher fuel moisture and the general lack of high winds. However, the Zaca Fire burned in a remote wilderness area of rugged terrain that made access difficult. In addition, because of its remoteness, anthropogenic ignitions have been low and stand age and fuel loads were high. Coupled with this was severe drought that year that generated fuel moisture levels considerably below normal for early summer. A third lesson comes from 2007 conifer forest fires in the southern California mountains. In contrast to lower elevation chaparral, fire suppression has led to major increases in conifer forest fuels that can lead to unnaturally severe fires when ignitions escape control. The Slide and Grass Valley</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7340S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7340S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> in Northern Eurasia and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The presentation considers dynamics of fire regimes in Northern Eurasia (limited to territories of Russia) and their impacts on ecosystems and major global biogeochemical cycles. Historically, fire regimes in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> were defined by natural climate variability, previous fire history and the level of direct human impact. The climate specifics over the last three decades in Russia substantially impacted fire extent, frequency and severity. Regular occurrence of mega(catastrophic) fires becomes a distinct feature of current fire regimes. Megafires (e.g., 1998, 2003, 2008, 2010) lead to degradation of ecosystems and the profound depletion of biodiversity, substantial increase of emissions, create special atmospheric and seasonal weather over large areas, cause considerable damage to the economy and infrastructure, as well as adversely affect the living conditions and health of the population in the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of fire spread. Based on a synthesis of remote sensing and ground data, the total area of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in Russia between 1998-2010 is assessed at 106.9 x 106 ha or 8.23 x 106 ha yr-1, varying from 4.2 (1999) up to 17.3 x 106 ha yr-1 (2003). The uncertainty of the assessment of burnt area was estimated at ± 9%, and direct emissions of carbon at ± 23% (CI 0.9). As a rule, ~90% of the burnt area is located in Asian Russia, mainly in its southern half. About two-thirds (65.1%) of the total burned area is situated on forest land, 18.9% happened on agricultural land, 8.7% - on grass- and shrubland, and 7.3% - on wetland. The total amount of fuel that was consumed between 1998-2010 was assessed at 1.57 x 109 t C, or 121.0 Tg C yr-1. Interannual variability of this value is high - from 50 (2000) up to 231 Tg C yr-1 (2003) depending on fire season type and geographical location of the fire. On average, our results are quite close to estimates given by the GFED3 - the latter are +11.5% by area, and +13.2% by emissions. The majority of carbon emissions were provided by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27632528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27632528"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a <span class="hlt">region</span> located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this <span class="hlt">region</span> is susceptible to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27632528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27632528"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a <span class="hlt">region</span> located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this <span class="hlt">region</span> is susceptible to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5025183','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5025183"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a <span class="hlt">region</span> located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this <span class="hlt">region</span> is susceptible to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.3437Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.3437Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical biomass burning smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p> initially oblong <span class="hlt">plumes</span> become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in <span class="hlt">plume</span> geometry. We provide a parameterization of <span class="hlt">plume</span> shape that can help atmospheric models estimate the effects of <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on weather, climate, and air quality. <span class="hlt">Plume</span> age, the age of smoke furthest down-<span class="hlt">plume</span>, is lognormally distributed with a median of 2.8 h (25th and 75th percentiles at 1.3 h and 4.0 h), different from the median ages reported in other studies. Intercomparison of our results with previous studies shows that the shape, height, optical depth, and lifetime characteristics reported for tropical biomass burning <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on three continents are dissimilar and distinct from the same characteristics of non-tropical <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..585..797K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..585..797K"><span id="translatedtitle">Species separation in rocket exhaust <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and analytic <span class="hlt">plume</span> flow models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppenwallner, G.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Species separation in the exhaust <span class="hlt">plume</span> of control thrusters of satellites is of main importance for the contamination analysis. Contamination concerns mainly scientific instruments or sensitive surfaces.. In continuum fluid dynamics a multi- component gas mixture can be treated as mixture with mean properties and with a flow field independent composition. This basic feature of continuum flow ceases to be valid in the rarefied flow regimes. In this regime there are two main mechanism which cause a separation of species in the flow field. a. Strong velocity gradients or streamline curvature. Strong stream line curvatures with large centrifugal forces exist close to the nozzle throat of sonic free jets [Sherman] or at the nozzle lip. Heavy gas constituents will not be able to follow these strong stream line curvatures. b. Different thermal velocity or thermal diffusivity of heavy and light gas constituents The transition from continuum to free molecular <span class="hlt">plume</span> expansion can approximately be described by the sudden freeze model of Bird. At the freezing point molecular collisions suddenly cease and the further expansion is given by the velocity vector of the individual molecules at this freezing point. As light molecules have a larger thermal speed c than the heavy ones their spreading potential is also higher. This mechanism will also produce an enrichment of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> boundary with light molecules. The approaches to model species separation in exhaust <span class="hlt">plumes</span> as result of the above mechanism will be reviewed. To gain more insight into the separation the following cases are analyzed in detail: [B ]The free molecular supersonic expansion from a freezing plane. □ The various analytic <span class="hlt">plume</span> flow models and their capability to predict the lateral spreading at the <span class="hlt">plume</span> boundary (e.g. Simmons, Boynton, Brook, DLR) □ DSMC test case calculations of single and two-species <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with mass separation. (M. Ivanov, ITAM) Based on this analysis a new 3 <span class="hlt">region</span> model for species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.1996S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.1996S"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing of aerosol particles within the Habshan pollution <span class="hlt">plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D.; Jensen, T.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The Habshan industrial site in the United Arab Emirates produces a <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale pollution <span class="hlt">plume</span> associated with oil and gas processing, discharging high loadings of sulfates and chlorides into the atmosphere, which interact with the ambient aerosol population. Aerosol particles and trace gas chemistry at this site were studied on two flights in the summer of 2002. Measurements were collected along vertical <span class="hlt">plume</span> profiles to show changes associated with atmospheric processing of particle and gas components. Close to the outlet stack, particle concentrations were over 10,000 cm-3, dropping to <2000 cm-3 in more dilute <span class="hlt">plume</span> around 1500 m above the stack. Particles collected close to the stack and within the dilute <span class="hlt">plume</span> were individually measured for size, morphology, composition, and mixing state using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Close to the stack, most coarse particles consisted of mineral dust and NaCl crystals from burning oil brines, while sulfate droplets dominated the fine mode. In more dilute <span class="hlt">plume</span>, at least 1500 m above the stack, the particle spectrum was more diverse, with a significant increase in internally mixed particle types. Dilute <span class="hlt">plume</span> samples consisted of coarse NaCl/silicate aggregates or NaCl-rich droplets, often with a sulfate component, while fine-fraction particles were of mixed cation sulfates, also internally mixed with nanospherical soot or silicates. Thus, both chloride and sulfate components of the pollution <span class="hlt">plume</span> rapidly reacted with ambient mineral dust to form coated and aggregate particles, enhancing particle size, hygroscopicity, and reactivity of the coarse mode. The fine-fraction sulfate-bearing particles formed in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> contribute to <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport of sulfates, while coarse sulfate-bearing fractions locally reduced the SO2 loading through sedimentation. The chloride- and sulfate-bearing internally mixed particles formed in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> markedly changed the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH52A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH52A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> simulation methods to assess <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure in a Mediterranean fire-prone area (Sardinia, Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salis, M.; Ager, A.; Arca, B.; Finney, M.; Bacciu, V. M.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal patterns of fire spread and behavior are dependent on interactions among climate, topography, vegetation and fire suppression efforts (Pyne et al. 1996; Viegas 2006; Falk et al. 2007). Humans also play a key role in determining frequency and spatial distribution of ignitions (Bar Massada et al, 2011), and thus influence fire regimes as well. The growing incidence of catastrophic <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> has led to substantial losses for important ecological and human values within many areas of the Mediterranean basin (Moreno et al. 1998; Mouillot et al. 2005; Viegas et al. 2006a; Riaño et al. 2007). The growing fire risk issue has led to many new programs and policies of fuel management and risk mitigation by environmental and fire agencies. However, risk-based methodologies to help identify areas characterized by high potential losses and prioritize fuel management have been lacking for the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Formal risk assessment requires the joint consideration of likelihood, intensity, and susceptibility, the product of which estimates the chance of a specific loss (Brillinger 2003; Society of Risk Analysis, 2006). Quantifying fire risk therefore requires estimates of a) the probability of a specific location burning at a specific intensity and location, and b) the resulting change in financial or ecological value (Finney 2005; Scott 2006). When large fires are the primary cause of damage, the application of this risk formulation requires modeling fire spread to capture landscape properties that affect burn probability. Recently, the incorporation of large fire spread into risk assessment systems has become feasible with the development of high performance fire simulation systems (Finney et al. 2011) that permit the simulation of hundreds of thousands of fires to generate fine scale maps of burn probability, flame length, and fire size, while considering the combined effects of weather, fuels, and topography (Finney 2002; Andrews et al. 2007; Ager and Finney 2009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">43 CFR 4.416 - Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. 4.416 Section 4.416 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Board of Land Appeals § 4.416 Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. The Board must decide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">43 CFR 4.416 - Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. 4.416 Section 4.416 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Board of Land Appeals § 4.416 Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. The Board must decide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">43 CFR 4.416 - Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. 4.416 Section 4.416 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Board of Land Appeals § 4.416 Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. The Board must decide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">43 CFR 4.416 - Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. 4.416 Section 4.416 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Board of Land Appeals § 4.416 Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. The Board must decide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405597"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-accidental health impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella</p> <p>2014-11-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title43-vol1-sec4-416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">43 CFR 4.416 - Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. 4.416 Section 4.416 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Board of Land Appeals § 4.416 Appeals of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management decisions. The Board must decide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245643','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245643"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Accidental Health Impacts of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Smoke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure. PMID:25405597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-20/pdf/2010-975.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-20/pdf/2010-975.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 3193 - Information Collection; Annual <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-20</p> <p>... about <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression efforts by State and local fire fighting agencies in order to support... Service works cooperatively with State and local fire fighting agencies to support their fire suppression... Forest Service regarding State and local <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression efforts. Without this information,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835918"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Behavior Modeling System at Los Alamos National Laboratory for Operational Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S.W. Koch; R.G.Balice</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>To support efforts to protect facilities and property at Los Alamos National Laboratory from damages caused by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, we completed a multiyear project to develop a system for modeling the behavior of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">region</span>. This was accomplished by parameterizing the FARSITE <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior model with locally gathered data representing topography, fuels, and weather conditions from throughout the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">region</span>. Detailed parameterization was made possible by an extensive monitoring network of permanent plots, weather towers, and other data collection facilities. We also incorporated a database of lightning strikes that can be used individually as repeatable ignition points or can be used as a group in Monte Carlo simulation exercises and in other randomization procedures. The assembled modeling system was subjected to sensitivity analyses and was validated against documented fires, including the Cerro Grande Fire. The resulting modeling system is a valuable tool for research and management. It also complements knowledge based on professional expertise and information gathered from other modeling technologies. However, the modeling system requires frequent updates of the input data layers to produce currently valid results, to adapt to changes in environmental conditions within the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">region</span>, and to allow for the quick production of model outputs during emergency operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.5308H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.5308H"><span id="translatedtitle">Two views of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Fundamentally contradictory interpretations of the isotopic compositions of Hawaiian basalts persist, even among authors who agree that the Hawaiian hotspot is caused by a deep-mantle <span class="hlt">plume</span>. One view holds that the <span class="hlt">regional</span> isotopic pattern of the volcanoes reflects large-scale heterogeneities in the basal thermal boundary layer of the mantle. These are drawn into the rising <span class="hlt">plume</span> conduit, where they are vertically stretched and ultimately sampled by volcanoes. The alternative view is that the <span class="hlt">plume</span> resembles a "uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding," with fertile plums of pyroxenite and/or enriched peridotite scattered in a matrix of more refractory peridotite. In a rising <span class="hlt">plume</span>, the plums melt before the matrix, and the final melt composition is controlled significantly by the bulk melt fraction. Here we show that the uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding model is inconsistent with several geochemical observations: (1) the relative melt fractions inferred from La/Yb ratios in shield-stage basalts of the two parallel (Kea- and Loa-) volcanic chains, (2) the systematic Pb-isotopic differences between the chains, and the absence of such differences between shield and postshield phases, (3) the systematic shift to uniformly depleted Nd-isotopic compositions during rejuvenated volcanism. We extend our previous numerical simulation to the low melt production rates calculated far downstream (200-400 km) from shield volcanism. Part of these melts, feeding rejuvenated volcanism, are formed at pressures of ˜5 GPa in the previously unmelted underside of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, from material that originally constituted the uppermost part of the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1122312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1122312"><span id="translatedtitle">Representative Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Development for Elevated Releases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the <span class="hlt">region</span> where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive <span class="hlt">plume</span> to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric <span class="hlt">plume</span> movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a <span class="hlt">plume</span>, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative <span class="hlt">plume</span> as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated <span class="hlt">plume</span> based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a <span class="hlt">plume</span> starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7945P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7945P"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> mass from passive UV satellite measurements by GOME-2 polarization measurement devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.; Fromm, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Wallow <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> of 2011 was one of the most devastating fires ever in Arizona, burning over 2,000 km2 in the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The fire originated in the Bear Wallow Wilderness area in June, 2011, and raged for more than a month. The intense heat of the fire caused the formation of a pyro-convective cloud. The resulting smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span>, partially located above low-lying clouds, was detected by several satellite instruments, including GOME-2 on June 2. The UV Aerosol Index, indicative of aerosol absorption, reached a maximum of 12 on that day, pointing to an elevated <span class="hlt">plume</span> with moderately absorbing aerosols. We have performed extensive model calculations assuming different aerosol optical properties to determine the total aerosol optical depth of the <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> altitude, needed to constrain the aerosol optical depth, was obtained from independent satellite measurements. The model results were compared with UV Aerosol Index and UV reflectances measured by the GOME-2 polarization measurement devices, which have a spatial resolution of roughly 10x40 km2. Although neither the exact aerosol optical properties nor optical depth can be obtained with this method, the range in aerosol optical depth values that we calculate, combined with the assumed specific extinction mass factor of 5 m2/kg lead us to a rough estimate of the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> mass that cannot, at present, be assessed in another way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053027"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">WILDFIRE</span> IGNITION RESISTANCE ESTIMATOR WIZARD SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, M.; Robinson, C.; Gupta, N.; Werth, D.</p> <p>2012-10-10</p> <p>This report describes the development of a software tool, entitled “WildFire Ignition Resistance Estimator Wizard” (<span class="hlt">WildFIRE</span> Wizard, Version 2.10). This software was developed within the <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Ignition Resistant Home Design (WIRHD) program, sponsored by the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, Infrastructure Protection & Disaster Management Division. <span class="hlt">WildFIRE</span> Wizard is a tool that enables homeowners to take preventive actions that will reduce their home’s vulnerability to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> ignition sources (i.e., embers, radiant heat, and direct flame impingement) well in advance of a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> event. This report describes the development of the software, its operation, its technical basis and calculations, and steps taken to verify its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......485S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......485S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest Recovery after Four <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> in Western Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satterberg, Kevin</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> in mixed conifer forests have increased in size and occurrence over the past decades and are expected to increase in the future because of a warming climate leading to longer fire seasons. To better understand that impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on forests, research focusing on the connection between severity of the fire and forest recovery is needed. Research on immediate fire effects and post-fire recovery within five years of fires have been reported, however long term effects are largely unexplored. To understand long term recovery in mixed conifer forests after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, four <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> from the 2003 fire season in western Montana were sampled in the field and via remote sensing. Analysis of field data and satellite imagery shows lower tree density in high severity burns and significant differences in recovery rates between severity classes. This research contributes to the scientific knowledge of long term effects of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in mixed conifer forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011210','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011210"><span id="translatedtitle">Two classes of volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McEwen, A.S.; Soderblom, L.A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Comparison of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 images of the south polar <span class="hlt">region</span> of Io has revealed that a major volcanic eruption occured there during the period between the two spacecraft encounters. An annular deposit ???1400 km in diameter formed around the Aten Patera caldera (311??W, 48??S), the floor of which changed from orange to red-black. The characteristics of this eruption are remarkably similar to those described earlier for an eruption centered on Surt caldera (338??W, 45??N) that occured during the same period, also at high latitude, but in the north. Both volcanic centers were evidently inactive during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters but were active sometime between the two. The geometric and colorimetric characteristics, as well as scale of the two annular deposits, are virtually identical; both resemble the surface features formed by the eruption of Pele (255??W, 18??S). These three very large <span class="hlt">plume</span> eruptions suggest a class of eruption distinct from that of six smaller <span class="hlt">plumes</span> observed to be continously active by both Voyagers 1 and 2. The smaller <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, of which Prometheus is the type example, are longer-lived, deposit bright, whitish material, erupt at velocities of ???0.5 km sec-1, and are concentrated at low latitudes in an equatorial belt around the satellite. The very large Pele-type <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, on the other hand, are relatively short-lived, deposit darker red materials, erupt at ???1.0 km sec-1, and (rather than restricted to a latitudinal band) are restricted in longitude from 240?? to 360??W. Both direct thermal infrared temperature measurements and the implied color temperatures for quenched liquid sulfur suggest that hot spot temperatures of ???650??K are associated with the large <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and temperatures 650??K), sulfur is a low-viscosity fluid (orange and black, respectively); at other temperatures it is either solid or has a high viscosity. As a result, there will be two zones in Io's crust in which liquid sulfur will flow freely: a shallow zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1366S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1366S"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The <span class="hlt">region</span> leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the <span class="hlt">region</span> accommodates more growth in the future, the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2872403','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2872403"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>von Glasow, Roland</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on <span class="hlt">plume</span> dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic <span class="hlt">plume</span> reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic <span class="hlt">plume</span>. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis. PMID:20368458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368458"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>von Glasow, Roland</p> <p>2010-04-13</p> <p>Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the <span class="hlt">plume</span>, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on <span class="hlt">plume</span> dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic <span class="hlt">plume</span> reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic <span class="hlt">plume</span>. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11D..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11D..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">40 Million Years of the Iceland <span class="hlt">Plume</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parnell-Turner, R. E.; White, N.; Henstock, T.; Maclennan, J.; Murton, B. J.; Jones, S. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The V-shaped ridges, straddling the mid oceanic ridges to the North and South of Iceland, provide us with a linear record of transient mantle convective circulation. Surprisingly, we know little about the structure of these ridges: prior to this study, the most recent <span class="hlt">regional</span> seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the 1960s. During the Summer of 2010, we acquired over 3,000 km of seismic reflection data across the oceanic basin South of Iceland. The cornerstones of this programme are two 1000 km flowlines, which traverse the basin from Greenland to the European margin. The geometry of young V-shaped ridges near to the oceanic spreading center has been imaged in fine detail; older ridges, otherwise obscured in gravity datasets by sediment cover, have been resolved for the first time. We have mapped the sediment-basement interface, transformed each profile onto an astronomical time scale, and removed the effects of long wavelength plate cooling. The resulting chronology of Icelandic <span class="hlt">plume</span> activity provides an important temporal frame of reference for <span class="hlt">plume</span> flux over the past 40 million years. The profiles also cross major contourite drift deposits, notably the Gardar, Bjorn and Eirik drifts. Fine-scale sedimentary features imaged here demonstrate distinct episodes of drift construction; by making simple assumptions about sedimentation rates, we can show that periods of drift formation correspond to periods of enhanced deep water circulation which is in turn moderated by <span class="hlt">plume</span> activity. From a <span class="hlt">regional</span> point of view, this transient behaviour manifests itself in several important ways. Within sedimentary basins fringing the North Atlantic, short lived <span class="hlt">regional</span> uplift events periodically interrupt thermal subsidence from Eocene times to the present day. From a paleoceanographic perspective, there is good correlation between V-shaped ridge activity and changes in overflow of the ancient precursor to North Atlantic Deep Water. This complete history of the Iceland</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010409"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical Review of Health Impacts of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Smoke Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reid, Colleen E.; Brauer, Michael; Johnston, Fay H.; Jerrett, Michael; Balmes, John R.; Elliott, Catherine T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> activity is predicted to increase in many parts of the world due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns from global climate change. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> smoke contains numerous hazardous air pollutants and many studies have documented population health effects from this exposure. Objectives: We aimed to assess the evidence of health effects from exposure to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke and to identify susceptible populations. Methods: We reviewed the scientific literature for studies of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure on mortality and on respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal health. Within those reviewed papers deemed to have minimal risk of bias, we assessed the coherence and consistency of findings. Discussion: Consistent evidence documents associations between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure and general respiratory health effects, specifically exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Growing evidence suggests associations with increased risk of respiratory infections and all-cause mortality. Evidence for cardiovascular effects is mixed, but a few recent studies have reported associations for specific cardiovascular end points. Insufficient research exists to identify specific population subgroups that are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure. Conclusions: Consistent evidence from a large number of studies indicates that <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure is associated with respiratory morbidity with growing evidence supporting an association with all-cause mortality. More research is needed to clarify which causes of mortality may be associated with <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke, whether cardiovascular outcomes are associated with <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke, and if certain populations are more susceptible. Citation: Reid CE, Brauer M, Johnston FH, Jerrett M, Balmes JR, Elliott CT. 2016. Critical review of health impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect 124:1334–1343; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409277 PMID:27082891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A54E..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A54E..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow <span class="hlt">region</span>. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred <span class="hlt">region</span> for convective injection into the LS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54E..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54E..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow <span class="hlt">region</span>. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred <span class="hlt">region</span> for convective injection into the LS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21H..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21H..01T"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemistry in Power Plant and Urban <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> over Forested and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Regions</span> during SOS (1990s) and SENEX (2013) field intensives (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Flocke, F. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Nenes, A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W.; Atlas, E. L.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kaiser, J.; Lee, Y.; Brock, C. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; De Gouw, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Extensive forested <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the southeastern United States show high emissions of biogenic reactive hydrocarbons such as isoprene, while emissions of these compounds are typically much lower from agricultural areas. The Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field intensives during the 1990s contributed to an improved understanding of ozone (O3) formation resulting from nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from urban areas and power plants in the presence and absence of the biogenic hydrocarbons. Decreases in NOx emissions from power plants and urban areas have contributed to the widespread reduction of ambient O3 over the southeastern US during the past two decades. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), NOx, and their reaction products made at successive distances downwind of emission sources during the SOS (1999) and the Southeast Nexus (SENEX, 2013) campaigns reflect the modulation of the photochemical processing of biogenic VOCs by ambient NOx concentrations. The results constrain the ambient levels of HOx radicals as a function of NOx, and they reflect the mechanisms of the coupling between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions that form species such as ozone, formaldehyde, PeroxyAcetic Nitric anhydride (PAN), nitric acid, as well as, inorganic and organic aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JVGR..118...15E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JVGR..118...15E"><span id="translatedtitle">Paraná Magmatic Province Tristan da Cunha <span class="hlt">plume</span> system: fixed versus mobile <span class="hlt">plume</span>, petrogenetic considerations and alternative heat sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ernesto, M.; Marques, L. S.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Molina, E. C.; Ussami, N.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Bellieni, G.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Paleomagnetic reconstructions demonstrate that the Tristan da Cunha (TC) <span class="hlt">plume</span>, which is usually related to the genesis of the high- and low-Ti flood tholeiites of the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP), was located ˜1000 km south of the Paraná Province at the time of the magma eruptions. Assuming <span class="hlt">plume</span> mobility, and considering the low-velocity zone identified in the northern portion of the PMP as the TC 'fossil' <span class="hlt">plume</span> (˜20° from the present TC position), the <span class="hlt">plume</span> migrated southward from 133-132 (main volcanic phase) to 80 Ma at a rate of about 40 mm/yr. From 80 Ma to Present the <span class="hlt">plume</span> remained virtually fixed, leaving a track (Walvis Ridge) compatible with the African plate movement. However, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data do not support that the tholeiites from Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise and Paraná can result from mixing dominated by the TC <span class="hlt">plume</span> and mid-ocean ridge basalt components. The similarity among the high-Ti basalts from Rio Grande Rise, part of Walvis Ridge (525A) and the Paraná Province suggests that delaminated subcontinental lithospheric mantle must be considered in their genesis. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> thermal anomalies in deep mantle mapped by geoid and seismic tomography data offer an alternative non-<span class="hlt">plume</span>-related heat source for the generation of intracontinental magmatic provinces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063548&hterms=wisconsin+fast+plants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwisconsin%2Bfast%2Bplants','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063548&hterms=wisconsin+fast+plants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwisconsin%2Bfast%2Bplants"><span id="translatedtitle">Scanning thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant <span class="hlt">plumes</span> were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6638H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6638H"><span id="translatedtitle">Injection of lightning-produced NOx, water vapor, <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions, and stratospheric air to the UT/LS as observed from DC3 measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Schwartz, M. J.; Barth, M. C.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>During the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment in summer 2012, airborne measurements were performed in the anvil inflow/outflow of thunderstorms over the Central U.S. by three research aircraft. A general overview of Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon in situ measurements (CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, and black carbon) is presented. In addition, a joint flight on 29 May 2012 in a convective line of isolated supercell storms over Oklahoma is described based on Falcon, National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream-V (NSF/NCAR-GV), and NASA-DC8 trace species in situ and lidar measurements. During DC3 some of the largest and most destructive <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in New Mexico and Colorado state's history were burning, which strongly influenced air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow <span class="hlt">region</span>. Lofted biomass burning (BB) <span class="hlt">plumes</span> were frequently observed in the mid- and upper troposphere (UT) in the vicinity of deep convection. The impact of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) and BB emissions was analyzed on the basis of mean vertical profiles and tracer-tracer correlations (CO-NOx and O3-NO). On a regular basis DC3 thunderstorms penetrated the tropopause and injected large amounts of LNOx into the lower stratosphere (LS). Inside convection, low O3 air (~80 nmol mol-1) from the lower troposphere was rapidly transported to the UT/LS <span class="hlt">region</span>. Simultaneously, O3-rich stratospheric air masses (~100-200 nmol mol-1) were present around and below the thunderstorm outflow and enhanced UT-O3 mixing ratios significantly. A 10 year global climatology of H2O data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder confirmed that the Central U.S. is a preferred <span class="hlt">region</span> for convective injection into the LS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES..tmp....3S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES..tmp....3S"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon record of the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing <span class="hlt">regional</span> fire regimes. The results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the <span class="hlt">regional</span> vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618236"><span id="translatedtitle">Episodic Impacts from California <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimbrough, Sue; Hays, Michael; Preston, Bill; Vallero, Daniel A; Hagler, Gayle S W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and <span class="hlt">regional</span> background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a near-road measurement study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, the effects of distant <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality were indicated over a several day period in the summer of 2009. Area-wide elevated particulate levoglucosan (maximum of 0.83 μg/m(3)) and roadside measurements of ultraviolet light-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) in comparison to black carbon (Delta-C) were apparent over the three-day period. Back-trajectory modeling and satellite images supported the measurement results and indicated the transport of air pollutants from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> burning in southern California. Separating roadside measurements under apparent biomass burning event (Delta-C > 1000 ng m(-3)) and nonevent (Delta-C < 1000 ng m(-3)) periods, and constraining to specific days of week, wind speed range, wind direction from the road and traffic volume range, roadside carbon monoxide, black carbon, total particle number count (20-200 nm), and accumulation mode particle number count (100-200 nm) increased by 65%, 146%, 58%, and 366%, respectively, when biomass smoke was indicated. Meanwhile, ultrafine particles (20-100 nm) decreased by 35%. This episode indicates that the presence of aged <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke may interact with freshly emitted ultrafine particles, resulting in a decrease of particles in the ultrafine mode. PMID:26618236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618236"><span id="translatedtitle">Episodic Impacts from California <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimbrough, Sue; Hays, Michael; Preston, Bill; Vallero, Daniel A; Hagler, Gayle S W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and <span class="hlt">regional</span> background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a near-road measurement study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, the effects of distant <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality were indicated over a several day period in the summer of 2009. Area-wide elevated particulate levoglucosan (maximum of 0.83 μg/m(3)) and roadside measurements of ultraviolet light-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) in comparison to black carbon (Delta-C) were apparent over the three-day period. Back-trajectory modeling and satellite images supported the measurement results and indicated the transport of air pollutants from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> burning in southern California. Separating roadside measurements under apparent biomass burning event (Delta-C > 1000 ng m(-3)) and nonevent (Delta-C < 1000 ng m(-3)) periods, and constraining to specific days of week, wind speed range, wind direction from the road and traffic volume range, roadside carbon monoxide, black carbon, total particle number count (20-200 nm), and accumulation mode particle number count (100-200 nm) increased by 65%, 146%, 58%, and 366%, respectively, when biomass smoke was indicated. Meanwhile, ultrafine particles (20-100 nm) decreased by 35%. This episode indicates that the presence of aged <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke may interact with freshly emitted ultrafine particles, resulting in a decrease of particles in the ultrafine mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048004','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048004"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved Airborne System for Sensing <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054402&hterms=firefly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfirefly','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054402&hterms=firefly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfirefly"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement in detection of small <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sleigh, William J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Detecting and imaging small <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> with an Airborne Scanner is done against generally high background levels. The Airborne Scanner System used is a two-channel thermal IR scanner, with one channel selected for imaging the terrain and the other channel sensitive to hotter targets. If a relationship can be determined between the two channels that quantifies the background signal for hotter targets, then an algorithm can be determined that removes the background signal in that channel leaving only the fire signal. The relationship can be determined anywhere between various points in the signal processing of the radiometric data from the radiometric input to the quantized output of the system. As long as only linear operations are performed on the signal, the relationship will only depend on the system gain and offsets within the range of interest. The algorithm can be implemented either by using a look-up table or performing the calculation in the system computer. The current presentation will describe the algorithm, its derivation, and its implementation in the Firefly <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Detection System by means of an off-the-shelf commercial scanner. Improvement over the previous algorithm used and the margin gained for improving the imaging of the terrain will be demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563175"><span id="translatedtitle">FIRETEC: A transport description of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linn, R.R.; Harlow, F.H.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature and in some instances they are necessary for the natural maintenance and evolution of forests. Investigators have attempted to describe the behavior (speed, direction, modes of spread) of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> for over fifty years. Current models for numerical description are mainly algebraic and based on statistical or empirical ideas. The authors describe, in contrast, a transport model called FIRETEC, which is a self-determining fire behavior model. The use of transport formulations connects the propagation rates to the full conservation equations for energy, momentum, species concentrations, mass, and turbulence. In this text, highlights of the model formulation and results are described. The goal of the FIRETEC model is to describe average behavior of the gases and fuels. It represents the essence of the combination of many small-scale processes without resolving each process in complete detail. The FIRETEC model is implemented into a computer code that examines line-fire propagation in a vertical spatial cut parallel to the direction of advancement. With this code the authors are able to examine wind effects, slope effects, and the effects of nonhomogeneous fuel distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1996SPIE.2914..170F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1996SPIE.2914..170F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">PCI-based <span class="hlt">WILDFIRE</span> reconfigurable computing engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fross, Bradley K.; Donaldson, Robert L.; Palmer, Douglas J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>WILDFORCE is the first PCI-based custom reconfigurable computer that is based on the Splash 2 technology transferred from the National Security Agency and the Institute for Defense Analyses, Supercomputing Research Center (SRC). The WILDFORCE architecture has many of the features of the <span class="hlt">WILDFIRE</span> computer, such as field- programmable gate array (FPGA) based processing elements, linear array and crossbar interconnection, and high- performance memory and I/O subsystems. New features introduced in the PCI-based <span class="hlt">WILDFIRE</span> systems include memory/processor options that can be added to any processing element. These options include static and dynamic memory, digital signal processors (DSPs), FPGAs, and microprocessors. In addition to memory/processor options, many different application specific connectors can be used to extend the I/O capabilities of the system, including systolic I/O, camera input and video display output. This paper also discusses how this new PCI-based reconfigurable computing engine is used for rapid-prototyping, real-time video processing and other DSP applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20023215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20023215"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and evaluation of a state-of-the-science reactive <span class="hlt">plume</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karamchandani, P.; Santos, L.; Sykes, I.; Zhang, Y.; Tonne, C.; Seigneur, C.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>The authors describe the development and evaluation of a new reactive <span class="hlt">plume</span> model that combines a state-of-the-science puff model with an optimized chemistry model that accurately represents the chemistry of a power plant <span class="hlt">plume</span> at various stages of its evolution. The puff model uses a second-order closure scheme, allowing for an accurate treatment of dispersion and the influence of turbulent concentration fluctuations on chemical rates. The model was tested using helicopter <span class="hlt">plume</span> measurements from the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) Nashville/Middle Tennessee Ozone Study. The model was applied for 6 days in June and July of 1995, and the model's ability to estimate physical and chemical <span class="hlt">plume</span> characteristics, such as <span class="hlt">plume</span> width and reactive species concentrations, was evaluated using the helicopter measurements. The best model results are for July 7, 1995, a case corresponding to a high NO{sub x} isolated power plant <span class="hlt">plume</span> traveling over rural <span class="hlt">regions</span>--model estimates of NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and O{sub 3} are highly correlated with measured values, and most of the measured <span class="hlt">plume</span> centerline concentrations are reproduced to within 30%. For scenarios involving the interaction of the tracked <span class="hlt">plume</span> with urban <span class="hlt">plumes</span> or with other power plant <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, model estimates of ozone concentrations are poorly correlated with observations, emphasizing the difficulty of characterizing such <span class="hlt">plumes</span> from both measurement and modeling perspectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.3385P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.3385P"><span id="translatedtitle">The spatial domain of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney <span class="hlt">region</span> we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. We examined whether the management responses to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> as a whole, but further away than <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4539P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4539P"><span id="translatedtitle">The spatial domain of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk and response in the Wildland Urban Interface in Sydney, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In order to quantify the risks from fire at the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of 999 fires in the Sydney <span class="hlt">region</span> we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting more than 2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances further than 10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. We examined whether the management responses to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> as a whole, but further away than <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407033"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane <span class="hlt">regions</span> where forest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407033"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane <span class="hlt">regions</span> where forest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34B..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34B..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics Following <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Alberta, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.; Anderson, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Severe <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> has been shown to increase the magnitude and advance the timing of rainfall-generated stormflows across a range of hydro-climate <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Loss of canopy and forest floor interception results in increased net precipitation which, along with the removal of forest organic layers and increased shorter-term water repellency, can result in strongly increased surface flow pathways and efficient routing of precipitation to streams. These abrupt changes have the potential to exacerbate flood impacts and alter the timing of runoff delivery to streams. However, while these effects are well documented in drier temperate mountain <span class="hlt">regions</span>, changes in post-fire rainfall-runoff processes are less well understood in colder, more northern, snowfall dominated regimes. The objectives of this study are to explore longer term precipitation and runoff dynamics of burned and unburned (reference) watersheds from the Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) after the 2003 Lost Creek <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in the front-range Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada. Streamflow and precipitation were measured in 5 watersheds (3.7 - 10.4 km2) for 10 years following the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> (2005-2014). Measurements were collected from a dense network of meteorological and hydrometric stations. Stormflow volume, peak flow, time to peak flow, and total annual streamflow were compared between burned and reference streams. Event-based data were separated into 3 post-fire periods to detect changes in rainfall-runoff dynamics as vegetation regenerated. Despite large increases in post-fire snowpacks and net summer rainfall, rainfall-generated runoff from fire-affected watersheds was not large in comparison to that reported from more temperate snowfall-dominated Rocky Mountain hydrologic settings. High proportions of groundwater contribution to annual runoff regimes (as opposed to surface flow pathways) and groundwater storage were likely contributors to greater watershed resistance to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> effects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013711"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA A-Train and Terra Observations of the 2010 Russian <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; DaSilva, A.; Torres, O.; Levy, R.; Duncan, B. N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> raged throughout western Russia and parts of Eastern Europe during a persistent heat wave in the summer of 2010. Anomalously high surface temperatures (35 - 41 C) and low relative humidity (9 - 25 %) from mid- June to mid-August 2010 shown by analysis of radiosonde data from multiple sites in western Russia were ideal conditions for the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> to thrive. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over western Russian indicate persistent subsidence during the heat wave. Daily three-day back-trajectories initiated over Moscow reveal a persistent anticyclonic circulation for 18 days in August, coincident with the most intense period of fire activity observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This unfortunate meteorological coincidence allowed transport of polluted air from the <span class="hlt">region</span> of intense fires to Moscow and the surrounding area. We demonstrate that the 2010 Russian <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are unique in the record of observations obtained by remote-sensing instruments on-board NASA satellites: Aura and Aqua (part of the A-Train Constellation) and Terra. Analysis of the distribution of MODIS fire products and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), UV aerosol index (AI) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and total column carbon monoxide (CO) from Aqua s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) show that the <span class="hlt">region</span> in the center of western Russia surrounding Moscow (52-58 deg N, 33 -43 deg E) is most severely impacted by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> emissions. Over this area, AIRS CO, OMI AI, and MODIS AOT are significantly enhanced relative to the historical satellite record during the first 18 days in August when the anti-cyclonic circulation persisted. By mid-August, the anti-cyclonic circulation was replaced with westerly transport over Moscow and vicinity. The heat wave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19798367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19798367"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> and layer heights using scanning lidar data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovalev, Vladimir A; Petkov, Alexander; Wold, Cyle; Urbanski, Shawn; Min Hao, Wei</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The methodology of using mobile scanning lidar data for investigation of smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> rise and high-resolution smoke dispersion is considered. The methodology is based on the lidar-signal transformation proposed recently [Appl. Opt. 48, 2559 (2009)]. In this study, similar methodology is used to create the atmospheric heterogeneity height indicator (HHI), which shows all heights at which the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> heterogeneity was detected by a scanning lidar. The methodology is simple and robust. Subtraction of the initial lidar signal offset from the measured lidar signal is not required. HHI examples derived from lidar scans obtained with the U.S. Forest Service, Fire Sciences Laboratory mobile lidar in areas polluted by <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> are presented, and the basic details of the methodology are discussed. PMID:19798367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870037659&hterms=brass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbrass','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870037659&hterms=brass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbrass"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft and satellite thermographic systems for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> mapping and assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Myers, J. S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Two complementary sensors, the DAEDALUS DEI-1260 Multispectral Scanner aboard the NASA U-2 aircraft and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration orbiting satellites were tested for their applicability in monitoring and predicting parameters such as fire location, temperature and rate of spread, soil heating and cooling rates, and <span class="hlt">plume</span> characteristics and dimensions. In addition, the satellite system was tested for its ability to extend the relationships found between fire characteristics and biospheric consequences to <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global scales. An overall system design is presented, and special requirements are documented for the application of this system for fire research and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri02-4152/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri02-4152/"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> on the Hydrology of Capulin and Rito de los Frijoles canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Veenhuis, Jack E.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In June of 1977, the La Mesa <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon in Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both watersheds are characterized by abundant and extensive archeological sites that could be affected by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion, which typically occur after a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>' effects on streamflow in both canyons. The magnitude of large stormflows increased dramatically after these <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>; peak flows at the most downstream streamflow-gaging station in Frijoles and Capulin Canyons increased to about 160 times the maximum recorded flood prior to the fire. Maximum peak flow was 3,030 cubic feet per second at the gaging station in Frijoles Canyon (drainage area equals 18.1 square miles) and 3,630 cubic feet per second at the most downstream crest-stage gage in Capulin Canyon (drainage area equals 14.1 square miles). The pre-fire maximum peak flow recorded in these two canyons was 19 and an estimated 25 cubic feet per second, respectively. As vegetation reestablished itself during the second year, the post-fire annual maximum peak flow decreased to about 10 to 15 times the pre-fire annual maximum peak flow. During the third year, maximum annual peak flows decreased to about three to five times the pre-fire maximum peak flow. In the 22 years since the La Mesa <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, flood magnitudes have not completely returned to pre-fire size. Post-fire flood magnitudes in Frijoles and Capulin Canyons do not exceed the maximum floods per drainage area for physiographic <span class="hlt">regions</span> 5 and 6 in New Mexico. For a burned watershed, however, the peak flows that occur after a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> are several orders of magnitude larger than normal forested watershed peak</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3335B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3335B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation recovery assessment following large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Mediterranean Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Mediterranean ecosystems have evolved along with fire, adapting to quick recovering following <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events. However, vegetation species respond differently to the changes in fire regimes that have been observed in the past decades in the Mediterranean. These changes, which occurred mainly due to socio-economic and climatic changes, led to dramatic modifications of landscape composition and structure (Malkinson et al., 2011). Post-fire vegetation recovery depends on environmental factors such as landscape features and climatic variables and on specific plant traits; however it also depends on the differentiated response of each species to the characteristics of fire regimes, such as recurrence, severity and extent. The complexity of the interactions between these factors emphasizes the importance of assessing quantitatively post-fire recovery as well as the role of driving factors of regeneration over different <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the Mediterranean. In 2006, Spain experienced the fire season with larger fires, restricted to a relatively small <span class="hlt">region</span> of the province of Galicia, that represents more than 60% of total burned area of this fire season (92000ha out of 148827 ha). The 2007 fire season in Greece was remarkably severe, registering the highest value of burnt area (225734 ha) since 1980. Finally, in 2010 a very large <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> of about 5000 ha occurred in Mount Carmel, Israel, with major social and environmental impacts. The work relies on monthly NDVI data from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the period from September 1998 - August 2011 for Spain, Greece and Israel. Here we have applied the same sequential methodology developed at our laboratory, starting by the identification of very large burnt scars by means of a spatial cluster analysis followed by the application of the monoparametric model (Gouveia et al., 2010; Bastos et al., 2011) in order to study post-fire vegetation dynamics. Post-fire recovery times were estimated for burnt scars from each</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014287"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) <span class="hlt">plume</span> and <span class="hlt">plume</span> effects study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Sheldon D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The objective was to characterize the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) propulsion and attitude control system engine exhaust <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and predict the resultant <span class="hlt">plume</span> impingement pressure, heat loads, forces, and moments. Detailed description is provided of the OMV gaseous nitrogen (GN2) thruster exhaust <span class="hlt">plume</span> flow field characteristics calculated with the RAMP2 snd SFPGEN computer codes. Brief descriptions are included of the two models, GN2 thruster characteristics and RAMP2 input data files. The RAMP2 flow field could be recalculated by other organizations using the information presented. The GN2 flow field can be readily used by other organizations who are interested in GN2 <span class="hlt">plume</span> induced environments which require local flow field properties which can be supplied using the SFPGEN GN2 model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01073&hterms=geyser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeyser','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01073&hterms=geyser&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeyser"><span id="translatedtitle">Io <span class="hlt">Plume</span> Monitoring (frames 1-36)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A sequence of full disk Io images was taken prior to Galileo's second encounter with Ganymede. The purpose of these observations was to view all longitudes of Io and search for active volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. The images were taken at intervals of approximately one hour corresponding to Io longitude increments of about ten degrees. Because both the spacecraft and Io were traveling around Jupiter the lighting conditions on Io (e.g. the phase of Io) changed dramatically during the sequence. These images were registered at a common scale and processed to produce a time-lapse 'movie' of Io. This movie combines all of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> monitoring frames obtained by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.<p/>The most prominent volcanic <span class="hlt">plume</span> seen in this movie is Prometheus (latitude 1.6 south, longitude 153 west). The <span class="hlt">plume</span> becomes visible as it moves into daylight, crosses the center of the disk, and is seen in profile against the dark of space at the edge of Io. This <span class="hlt">plume</span> was first seen by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979 and is believed to be a geyser-like eruption of sulfur dioxide snow and gas. Although details of the <span class="hlt">region</span> around Prometheus have changed in the seventeen years since Voyager's visit, the shape and height of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> have not changed significantly. It is possible that this geyser has been erupting nearly continuously over this time. Galileo's primary 24 month mission includes eleven orbits around Jupiter and will provide observations of Jupiter, its moons and its magnetosphere.<p/>North is to the top of all frames. The smallest features which can be discerned range from 13 to 31 kilometers across. The images were obtained between the 2nd and the 6th of September, 1996.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GGG.....9.8005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GGG.....9.8005S"><span id="translatedtitle">Channeling at the base of the lithosphere during the lateral flow of <span class="hlt">plume</span> material beneath flow line hot spots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sleep, Norman H.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Chains of volcanic edifices lie along flow lines between <span class="hlt">plume</span>-fed hot spots and the thin lithosphere at ridge axes. Discovery and Euterpe/Musicians Seamounts are two examples. An attractive hypothesis is that buoyant <span class="hlt">plume</span> material flows along the base of the lithosphere perpendicular to isochrons. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> material may conceivably flow in a broad front or flow within channels convectively eroded into the base to the lithosphere. A necessary but not sufficient condition for convective channeling is that the expected stagnant-lid heat flow for the maximum temperature of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material is comparable to the half-space surface heat flow of the oceanic lithosphere. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical calculations confirm this inference. A second criterion for significant convective erosion is that it needs to occur before the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material thins by lateral spreading. Scaling relationships indicate spreading and convection are closely related. Mathematically, the Nusselt number (ratio of convective to conductive heat flow in the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material) scales with the flux (volume per time per length of flow front) of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material. A blob of unconfined <span class="hlt">plume</span> material thus spreads before the lithosphere thins much and evolves to a slowly spreading and slowly convecting warm <span class="hlt">region</span> in equilibrium with conduction into the base of the overlying lithosphere. Three-dimensional calculations illustrate this long-lasting (and hence observable) state of <span class="hlt">plume</span> material away from its <span class="hlt">plume</span> source. A different flow domain occurs around a stationary hot <span class="hlt">plume</span> that continuously supplies hot material. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> convectively erodes the overlying lithosphere, trapping the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material near its orifice. The <span class="hlt">region</span> of lithosphere underlain by <span class="hlt">plume</span> material grows toward the ridge axis and laterally by convective thinning of the lithosphere at its edges. The hottest <span class="hlt">plume</span> material channels along flow lines. Geologically, the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of lithosphere underlain by either warm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMDI41A1738H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMDI41A1738H"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertically Discontinuous Seismic Signatures From Continuous Thermochemical <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, A. C.; Kincaid, C.; Savage, B.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>To interpret seismic signatures associated with mantle upwellings, we must understand the distribution of thermochemical heterogeneities within mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Thermochemical heterogeneities are expected to arise within <span class="hlt">plumes</span> by the incorporation of subducted lithosphere (Eclogite and Harzburgite) that has reached the <span class="hlt">plume</span> source <span class="hlt">region</span> (thermal boundary layers in the mantle). We analyze laboratory experiments in conjunction with seismic velocity models to predict the seismic signature of thermochemical <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Laboratory experiments are fully three-dimensional and use glucose syrup (Rayleigh number: 106) to model the mantle and a two-layer subducted lithosphere, where composition (viscosity and density) is controlled by water content. Experiments show heterogeneous upwellings with variations in both temperature and composition that are more complex than predicted in previous <span class="hlt">plume</span> models. Spatial distributions for temperature and composition in representative, repeatable types of thermochemical upwellings are tracked through time, scaled to mantle values and used to calculate predicted seismic velocities. Apparent seismic velocity signals are estimated for patterns in thermochemical heterogeneity with length scales ranging from 1 to 300 km and excess temperatures from 50 to 300°C. Results show that if <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are purely thermal they can be identified in the usual way, by slow velocities. However, if <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are a mixture of compositions, as predicted by laboratory models, their velocity structure is more complex. An Ecolgite lens within a <span class="hlt">plume</span> at ~300km depth with an excess temperature of 250°C can have the same velocity as regular mantle with no excess temperature. A Harzburgite lobe of a <span class="hlt">plume</span> head (up to half of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> volume) at 300km depth with an excess temperature of 225°C can have the same Vs as regular mantle with no excess temperature, but can only mask up to 55°C in Vp. Spatial variations in temperature control velocity structure above 300km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.3991L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.3991L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of vegetation fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> dynamics and aerosol load using UV scanning lidar and fire-atmosphere modelling during the Mediterranean Letia 2010 experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy-Cancellieri, V.; Augustin, P.; Filippi, J. B.; Mari, C.; Fourmentin, M.; Bosseur, F.; Morandini, F.; Delbarre, H.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Vegetation fires emit large amount of gases and aerosols which are detrimental to human health. Smoke exposure near and downwind of fires depends on the fire propagation, the atmospheric circulations and the burnt vegetation. A better knowledge of the interaction between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and atmosphere is a primary requirement to investigate fire smoke and particle transport. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of an UV scanning lidar to characterize the fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> and consequently validate fire-atmosphere model simulations. An instrumented burn was conducted in a Mediterranean area typical of ones frequently concern by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> with low dense shrubs. Using Lidar measurements positioned near the experimental site, fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> was thoroughly characterized by its optical properties, edge and dynamics. These parameters were obtained by combining methods based on lidar inversion technique, wavelet edge detection and a backscatter barycenter technique. The smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> displacement was determined using a digital video camera coupled with the Lidar. The simulation was performed using a meso-scale atmospheric model in a large eddy simulation configuration (Meso-NH) coupled to a fire propagation physical model (ForeFire) taking into account the effect of wind, slope and fuel properties. A passive numerical scalar tracer was injected in the model at fire location to mimic the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The simulated fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> width remained within the edge smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> obtained from lidar measurements. The maximum smoke injection derived from lidar backscatter coefficients and the simulated passive tracer was around 200 m. The vertical position of the simulated <span class="hlt">plume</span> barycenter was systematically below the barycenter derived from the lidar backscatter coefficients due to the oversimplified properties of the passive tracer compared to real aerosols particles. Simulated speed and horizontal location of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> compared well with the observations derived from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..509L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..509L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of wildland fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> dynamics and aerosol load using UV scanning lidar and fire-atmosphere modelling during the Mediterranean Letia 2010 experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy-Cancellieri, V.; Augustin, P.; Filippi, J. B.; Mari, C.; Fourmentin, M.; Bosseur, F.; Morandini, F.; Delbarre, H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Vegetation fires emit large amount of gases and aerosols which are detrimental to human health. Smoke exposure near and downwind of fires depends on the fire propagation, the atmospheric circulations and the burnt vegetation. A better knowledge of the interaction between <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> and atmosphere is a primary requirement to investigate fire smoke and particle transport. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of an UV scanning lidar to characterise the fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> and consequently validate fire-atmosphere model simulations. An instrumented burn was conducted in a Mediterranean area typical of ones frequently subject to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> with low dense shrubs. Using lidar measurements positioned near the experimental site, fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> was thoroughly characterised by its optical properties, edge and dynamics. These parameters were obtained by combining methods based on lidar inversion technique, wavelet edge detection and a backscatter barycentre technique. The smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> displacement was determined using a digital video camera coupled with the lidar. The simulation was performed using a mesoscale atmospheric model in a large eddy simulation configuration (Meso-NH) coupled to a fire propagation physical model (ForeFire), taking into account the effect of wind, slope and fuel properties. A passive numerical scalar tracer was injected in the model at fire location to mimic the smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span>. The simulated fire smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> width remained within the edge smoke <span class="hlt">plume</span> obtained from lidar measurements. The maximum smoke injection derived from lidar backscatter coefficients and the simulated passive tracer was around 200 m. The vertical position of the simulated <span class="hlt">plume</span> barycentre was systematically below the barycentre derived from the lidar backscatter coefficients due to the oversimplified properties of the passive tracer compared to real aerosol particles. Simulated speed and horizontal location of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> compared well with the observations derived from</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148647&keyword=regulatory+AND+theory&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78949291&CFTOKEN=92823761','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148647&keyword=regulatory+AND+theory&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78949291&CFTOKEN=92823761"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPARING AND LINKING <span class="hlt">PLUMES</span> ACROSS MODELING APPROACHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>River <span class="hlt">plumes</span> carry many pollutants, including microorganisms, into lakes and the coastal ocean. The physical scales of many stream and river <span class="hlt">plumes</span> often lie between the scales for mixing zone <span class="hlt">plume</span> models, such as the EPA Visual <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> model, and larger-sized grid scales for re...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043104','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043104"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> size and risk changes due to fuels treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cochrane, M.A.; Moran, C.J.; Wimberly, M.C.; Baer, A.D.; Finney, M.A.; Beckendorf, K.L.; Eidenshink, J.; Zhu, Z.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Human land use practices, altered climates, and shifting forest and fire management policies have increased the frequency of large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> several-fold. Mitigation of potential fire behaviour and fire severity have increasingly been attempted through pre-fire alteration of wildland fuels using mechanical treatments and prescribed fires. Despite annual treatment of more than a million hectares of land, quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of existing fuel treatments at reducing the size of actual <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> or how they might alter the risk of burning across landscapes are currently lacking. Here, we present a method for estimating spatial probabilities of burning as a function of extant fuels treatments for any wildland fire-affected landscape. We examined the landscape effects of more than 72 000 ha of wildland fuel treatments involved in 14 large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> that burned 314 000 ha of forests in nine US states between 2002 and 2010. Fuels treatments altered the probability of fire occurrence both positively and negatively across landscapes, effectively redistributing fire risk by changing surface fire spread rates and reducing the likelihood of crowning behaviour. Trade offs are created between formation of large areas with low probabilities of increased burning and smaller, well-defined <span class="hlt">regions</span> with reduced fire risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B41B0116B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B41B0116B"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Effects of Brazilian Forest <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> on the Carbon Monoxide Concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhoi, S.; Qu, J.; Dasgupta, S.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Forest <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> have dramatically increased in recent years due to global warming and extreme dry conditions. Forest <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> spew out a significant amount of atmospheric pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, due to incomplete burning of the biomass. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a high increase of carbon monoxide leads to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood which decreases the oxygen intake capacity of human body and at moderate concentration angina, impaired vision and reduced brain function may occur. As compared to Northern America where significant amount of carbon monoxide released is caused by combustion devices and furnace, the increase of carbon monoxide concentration in Brazilian <span class="hlt">regions</span> is mainly attributed to the forest fires. In this study, carbon monoxide datasets from the Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) have been analyzed to see the amount of increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, ire, particularly in summer of 2003. The study reveals that there is a significant increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23077574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23077574"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity rise and mire deforestation at the triassic-jurassic boundary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Henrik I; Lindström, Sofie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The end-Triassic mass extinction event (∼201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T-J boundary strata has suggested widespread <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian-Sinemurian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T-J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall <span class="hlt">regional</span> vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25208298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25208298"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B; Mackey, Brendan G; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. We studied the impacts of a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1), which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1) depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest <span class="hlt">region</span>, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160232','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160232"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for Biomass Carbon Stock Change Due to <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> in Temperate Forest Landscapes in Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B.; Mackey, Brendan G.; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. We studied the impacts of a <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha−1, which represented 6–7% and 9–14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha−1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest <span class="hlt">region</span>, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23077574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23077574"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity rise and mire deforestation at the triassic-jurassic boundary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Henrik I; Lindström, Sofie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The end-Triassic mass extinction event (∼201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T-J boundary strata has suggested widespread <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian-Sinemurian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T-J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall <span class="hlt">regional</span> vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3471965','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3471965"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petersen, Henrik I.; Lindström, Sofie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The end-Triassic mass extinction event (∼201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T–J boundary strata has suggested widespread <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian–Sinemurian mire <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T–J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall <span class="hlt">regional</span> vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990008057&hterms=beer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbeer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990008057&hterms=beer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbeer"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 Western <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Rinsland, Curtis P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In the summer of 1994 the 0.07/ cm resolution infrared Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) acquired spectral data over two <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, one in central Oregon on August 3 and the other near San Luis Obispo, California, on August 15. The spectrometer was on board a NASA DC-8 research aircraft, flying at an altitude of 12 km. The spectra from both fires clearly show features due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and ethylene at significantly higher abundance and temperature than observed in downlooking spectra of normal atmospheric and ground conditions. Column densities are derived for several species, and molar ratios are compared with previous biomass fire measurements. We believe that this is the first time such data have been acquired by airborne spectral remote sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029012','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span> threaten mercury stocks in northern soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V54D..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V54D..03N"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrification of Ash in Icelandic Volcanic <span class="hlt">Plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicoll, K.; Aplin, K. L.; Houghton, I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Volcanic ash is known to charge electrically, producing some of the most spectacular displays of lightning on the planet. Lightning activity within volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> can be sensed remotely using systems such as the United Kingdom Met Office long-range lightning detection network, ATDnet, which recorded over 16 000 lightning strokes during the 2011 Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland. These remote sensing techniques can only be fully exploited if the charging mechanisms in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> are well understood. Although the exact details of ash charging processes will vary from one eruption to another, triboelectrification, fractoemission, and the ''dirty thunderstorm'' mechanism are all thought to play a role in the electrification of ash near the vent. In addition to near-vent charging, observations show that charging can also occur in volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> up to hundreds of kilometres from the source <span class="hlt">region</span>. The sustained nature of this charge in the presence of electrically conducting air suggests that a self-charging mechanism through the action of ash-to-ash contact charging (triboelectrification), may also play a role in the electrification of volcanic ash. This work describes a laboratory investigation into triboelectric charging of ash from the 2010 and 2011 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn in Iceland respectively. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated, specifically in terms of the normalized span of the particle size distribution. As well as triboelectrificiation, natural radioactivity in some volcanic ash could also contribute to self-charging of volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which is also examined here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5062048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5062048"><span id="translatedtitle">The FireWork air quality forecast system with near-real-time biomass burning emissions: Recent developments and evaluation of performance for the 2015 North American <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Anderson, Kerry; Moran, Michael D.; Beaulieu, Paul-André; Davignon, Didier; Cousineau, Sophie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Environment and Climate Change Canada’s FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS) as an input to the operational <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS). To demonstrate the capability of the system we analyzed two forecast periods in 2015 (June 2–July 15, and August 15–31) when fire activity was high, and observed fire-smoke-impacted areas in western Canada and the western United States. Modeled PM2.5 surface concentrations were compared with surface measurements and benchmarked with results from the operational RAQDPS, which did not consider near-real-time biomass burning emissions. Model performance statistics showed that FireWork outperformed RAQDPS with improvements in forecast hourly PM2.5 across the <span class="hlt">region</span>; the results were especially significant for stations near the path of fire <span class="hlt">plume</span> trajectories. Although the hourly PM2.5 concentrations predicted by FireWork still displayed bias for areas with active fires for these two periods (mean bias [MB] of –7.3 µg m−3 and 3.1 µg m−3), it showed better forecast skill than the RAQDPS (MB of –11.7 µg m−3 and –5.8 µg m−3) and demonstrated a greater ability to capture temporal variability of episodic PM2.5 events (correlation coefficient values of 0.50 and 0.69 for FireWork compared to 0.03 and 0.11 for RAQDPS). A categorical forecast comparison based on an hourly PM2.5 threshold of 30 µg m−3 also showed improved scores for probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI), and false alarm rate (FAR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1514054A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1514054A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between satellite <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> databases in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário; DaCamara, Carlos</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>For Europe, several databases of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> based on the satellite imagery are currently available and being used to conduct various studies and produce official reports. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) burned area perimeters database comprises fires with burnt area greater than 1.0 ha occurred in the Europe countries during the 2000 - 2011 period. The MODIS Burned Area Product (MCD45A1) is a monthly global Level 3 gridded 500m product containing per-pixel burning, quality information, and tile-level metadata. The Burned Area Product was developed by the MODIS Fire Team at the University of Maryland and is available April 2000 onwards. Finally, for Portugal the National Forest Authority (AFN) discloses the national mapping of burned areas of the years 1990 to 2011, based on Landsat imagery which accounts for fires larger than 5.0 ha. This study main objectives are: (i) provide a comprehensive description of the datasets, its limitations and potential; (ii) do preliminary statistics on the data; and, (iii) to compare the MODIS and EFFIS satellite <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> databases throughout/across the entire European territory, based on indicators such as the spatial location of the burned areas and the extent of area burned annually and complement the analysis for Portugal will the inclusion of database AFN. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8284M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8284M"><span id="translatedtitle">Warning against the dangers of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13H1259H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13H1259H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span>: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Honeycutt, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on rangeland production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882943"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span>-Migration Dynamics: Lessons from Colorado's Fourmile Canyon Fire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Hunter, Lori M; Champ, Patricia A</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The number of people living in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> prone wildland-urban interface (WUI) communities is on the rise. Yet, no prior study has investigated <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-induced residential relocation from WUI areas after a major fire event. To provide insight into the association between socio-demographic and socio-psychological characteristics and <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> related intention to move, we use data from a survey of WUI residents in Boulder and Larimer Counties, Colorado. The data were collected two months after the devastating Fourmile Canyon fire destroyed 169 homes and burned over 6,000 acres of public and private land. Although working with a small migrant sample, logistic regression models demonstrate that survey respondents intending to move in relation to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> incidence do not differ socio-demographically from their non-migrant counterparts. They do, however, show significantly higher levels of risk perception. Investigating destination choices shows a preference for short distance moves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/Emergency/WildFires.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/Emergency/WildFires.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfires</span>: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Wildfires</span>: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11B3698A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11B3698A"><span id="translatedtitle">WIFIRE Data Model and Catalog for <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Data and Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altintas, I.; Crawl, D.; Cowart, C.; Gupta, A.; Block, J.; de Callafon, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The WIFIRE project (wifire.ucsd.edu) is building an end-to-end cyberinfrastructure for real-time and data-driven simulation, prediction and visualization of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> behavior. WIFIRE may be used by <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> management authorities in the future to predict <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> rate of spread and direction, and assess the effectiveness of high-density sensor networks in improving fire and weather predictions. WIFIRE has created a data model for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> resources including sensed and archived data, sensors, satellites, cameras, modeling tools, workflows and social information including Twitter feeds. This data model and associated <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> resource catalog includes a detailed description of the HPWREN sensor network, SDG&E's Mesonet, and NASA MODIS. In addition, the WIFIRE data-model describes how to integrate the data from multiple heterogeneous sources to provide detailed fire-related information. The data catalog describes 'Observables' captured by each instrument using multiple ontologies including OGC SensorML and NASA SWEET. Observables include measurements such as wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity, as well as their accuracy and resolution. We have implemented a REST service for publishing to and querying from the catalog using Web Application Description Language (WADL). We are creating web-based user interfaces and mobile device Apps that use the REST interface for dissemination to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> modeling community and project partners covering academic, private, and government laboratories while generating value to emergency officials and the general public. Additionally, the Kepler scientific workflow system is instrumented to interact with this data catalog to access real-time streaming and archived <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> data and stream it into dynamic data-driven <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> models at scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95Q.142W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95Q.142W"><span id="translatedtitle">Obama administration outlines new strategy for <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wendel, JoAnna</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>As the <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> season approaches, the Obama administration has released its new National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy, developed by federal, state, tribal, and community partners. The strategy outlines new approaches to maintain healthy `landscapes, prepare communities for the fire season, and better address the nation's fire threats. "Through more strategic coordination with local communities the National Cohesive Strategy will help us better protect 46 million homes in 70,000 communities from catastrophic <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>," U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8537P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8537P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">plumes</span> collapse?: Experimental results and applications to Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pears, M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p> time-scales are faster than the time-scales of buoyant rise. A naïve Rayleigh number analysis suggested that even a ΔT as low as 1°C is above Rayleigh critical for the size of the convecting <span class="hlt">region</span>. We will also present preliminary 3-D velocimetry results. Our results imply a much wider range of fluid dynamical behaviours for thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which suggests that the dynamics of Earth <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is probably not as straight-forward as previously hypothesised.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMDI13A2151P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMDI13A2151P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">plumes</span> collapse?: Experimental results and applications to Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pears, M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> time-scales are faster than the time-scales of buoyant rise. A naïve Rayleigh number analysis suggested that even a ΔT as low as 1° is above Rayleigh critical for the size of the convecting <span class="hlt">region</span>. We will also present preliminary 3-D velocimetry results. Our results imply a much wider range of fluid dynamical behaviours for thermal <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which suggests that the dynamics of Earth <span class="hlt">plumes</span> is probably not as straight-forward as previously hypothesised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1030971','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1030971"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Smoke <span class="hlt">Plume</span>-Rise and Dispersion from Southern United States Prescribed Burns with Daysmoke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Achtemeier, Gary, L.; Goodrick, Scott, A.; Liu, Yongqiang; Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Hu, Yongtao; Odman, Mehmet, Talat.</p> <p>2011-08-19</p> <p>We present Daysmoke, an empirical-statistical <span class="hlt">plume</span> rise and dispersion model for simulating smoke from prescribed burns. Prescribed fires are characterized by complex <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure including multiple-core updrafts which makes modeling with simple <span class="hlt">plume</span> models difficult. Daysmoke accounts for <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure in a three-dimensional veering/sheering atmospheric environment, multiple-core updrafts, and detrainment of particulate matter. The number of empirical coefficients appearing in the model theory is reduced through a sensitivity analysis with the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST). Daysmoke simulations for 'bent-over' <span class="hlt">plumes</span> compare closely with Briggs theory although the two-thirds law is not explicit in Daysmoke. However, the solutions for the 'highly-tilted' <span class="hlt">plume</span> characterized by weak buoyancy, low initial vertical velocity, and large initial <span class="hlt">plume</span> diameter depart considerably from Briggs theory. Results from a study of weak <span class="hlt">plumes</span> from prescribed burns at Fort Benning GA showed simulated ground-level PM2.5 comparing favorably with observations taken within the first eight kilometers of eleven prescribed burns. Daysmoke placed <span class="hlt">plume</span> tops near the lower end of the range of observed <span class="hlt">plume</span> tops for six prescribed burns. Daysmoke provides the levels and amounts of smoke injected into <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale air quality models. Results from CMAQ with and without an adaptive grid are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00703&hterms=god&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgod','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00703&hterms=god&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgod"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Volcanic <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> on Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This color image, acquired during Galileo's ninth orbit around Jupiter, shows two volcanic <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Io. One <span class="hlt">plume</span> was captured on the bright limb or edge of the moon (see inset at upper right), erupting over a caldera (volcanic depression) named Pillan Patera after a South American god of thunder, fire and volcanoes. The <span class="hlt">plume</span> seen by Galileo is 140 kilometers (86 miles) high and was also detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Galileo spacecraft will pass almost directly over Pillan Patera in 1999 at a range of only 600 kilometers (373 miles).<p/>The second <span class="hlt">plume</span>, seen near the terminator (boundary between day and night), is called Prometheus after the Greek fire god (see inset at lower right). The shadow of the 75-kilometer (45- mile) high airborne <span class="hlt">plume</span> can be seen extending to the right of the eruption vent. The vent is near the center of the bright and dark rings. <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> on Io have a blue color, so the <span class="hlt">plume</span> shadow is reddish. The Prometheus <span class="hlt">plume</span> can be seen in every Galileo image with the appropriate geometry, as well as every such Voyager image acquired in 1979. It is possible that this <span class="hlt">plume</span> has been continuously active for more than 18 years. In contrast, a <span class="hlt">plume</span> has never been seen at Pillan Patera prior to the recent Galileo and Hubble Space Telescope images.<p/>North is toward the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) per picture element. This composite uses images taken with the green, violet and near infrared filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The images were obtained on June 28, 1997, at a range of more than 600,000 kilometers (372,000 miles).<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22266147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22266147"><span id="translatedtitle">ZnO thin film deposition using colliding plasma <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and single plasma <span class="hlt">plume</span>: Structural and optical properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gupta, Shyam L. Thareja, Raj K.</p> <p>2013-12-14</p> <p>We report the comparative study on synthesis of thin films of ZnO on glass substrates using IR laser ablated colliding plasma <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and conventional pulsed laser deposition using 355 nm in oxygen ambient. The optical properties of deposited films are characterized using optical transmission in the UV-visible range of spectrum and photoluminescence measurements. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy are used to investigate the surface morphology of synthesized ZnO films. The films synthesized using colliding <span class="hlt">plumes</span> created with 1064 nm are non-polar a-plane ZnO with transmission in UV-visible (300–800 nm) <span class="hlt">region</span> ∼60% compared to polycrystalline thin film deposited using single <span class="hlt">plume</span> which has chunk deposition and poor optical response. However, deposition with 355 nm single <span class="hlt">plume</span> shows polar c-axis oriented thin film with average roughness (∼thickness) of ∼86 nm (∼850 nm) compared to ∼2 nm (∼3 μm) for 1064 nm colliding <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. These observed differences in the quality and properties of thin films are attributed to the flux of mono-energetic plasma species with almost uniform kinetic energy and higher thermal velocity reaching the substrate from interaction/stagnation zone of colliding plasma <span class="hlt">plumes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001246"><span id="translatedtitle">Trying not to get burned: understanding homeowners' <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk-mitigation behaviors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia A; Flores, Nicholas</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Three causes have been identified for the spiraling cost of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression in the United States: climate change, fuel accumulation from past <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression, and development in fire-prone areas. Because little is likely to be performed to halt the effects of climate on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk, and because fuel-management budgets cannot keep pace with fuel accumulation let alone reverse it, changing the behaviors of existing and potential homeowners in fire-prone areas is the most promising approach to decreasing the cost of suppressing <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the wildland-urban interface and increasing the odds of homes surviving <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> education efforts encourage homeowners to manage their property to decrease <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. Such programs may be more effective with a better understanding of the factors related to homeowners' decisions to undertake <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk-reduction actions. In this study, we measured whether homeowners had implemented 12 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk-mitigation measures in 2 Colorado Front Range counties. We found that <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> information received from local volunteer fire departments and county <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> specialists, as well as talking with neighbors about <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, were positively associated with higher levels of mitigation. Firsthand experience in the form of preparing for or undertaking an evacuation was also associated with a higher level of mitigation. Finally, homeowners who perceived higher levels of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk on their property had undertaken higher levels of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-risk mitigation on their property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..50.1139B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..50.1139B"><span id="translatedtitle">Trying Not to Get Burned: Understanding Homeowners' <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Risk-Mitigation Behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia A.; Flores, Nicholas</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Three causes have been identified for the spiraling cost of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression in the United States: climate change, fuel accumulation from past <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> suppression, and development in fire-prone areas. Because little is likely to be performed to halt the effects of climate on <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk, and because fuel-management budgets cannot keep pace with fuel accumulation let alone reverse it, changing the behaviors of existing and potential homeowners in fire-prone areas is the most promising approach to decreasing the cost of suppressing <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the wildland-urban interface and increasing the odds of homes surviving <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> events. <span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> education efforts encourage homeowners to manage their property to decrease <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk. Such programs may be more effective with a better understanding of the factors related to homeowners' decisions to undertake <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk-reduction actions. In this study, we measured whether homeowners had implemented 12 <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk-mitigation measures in 2 Colorado Front Range counties. We found that <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> information received from local volunteer fire departments and county <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> specialists, as well as talking with neighbors about <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>, were positively associated with higher levels of mitigation. Firsthand experience in the form of preparing for or undertaking an evacuation was also associated with a higher level of mitigation. Finally, homeowners who perceived higher levels of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk on their property had undertaken higher levels of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-risk mitigation on their property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471625"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing seasonal patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we applied landscape scale <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues. PMID:25471625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471625"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing seasonal patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we applied landscape scale <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046069"><span id="translatedtitle">The key host for an invasive forest pathogen also facilitates the pathogen's survival of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in California forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beh, Maia M; Metz, Margaret R; Frangioso, Kerri M; Rizzo, David M</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in sudden oak death-impacted forests occurred in 2008 in the Big Sur <span class="hlt">region</span> of California, creating the rare opportunity to study the interaction between an invasive forest pathogen and a historically recurring disturbance. To determine whether and how the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, survived the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, we completed intensive vegetation-based surveys in forest plots that were known to be infested before the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. We then used 24 plot-based variables as predictors of P. ramorum recovery following the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. The likelihood of recovering P. ramorum from burned plots was lower than in unburned plots both 1 and 2 yr following the fires. Post-fire recovery of P. ramorum in burned plots was positively correlated with the number of pre-fire symptomatic California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), the key sporulating host for this pathogen, and negatively correlated with post-fire bay laurel mortality levels. Patchy burn patterns that left green, P. ramorum-infected bay laurel amidst the charred landscape may have allowed these trees to serve as inoculum reservoirs that could lead to the infection of newly sprouting vegetation, further highlighting the importance of bay laurel in the sudden oak death disease cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032380','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032380"><span id="translatedtitle">The hidden cost of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>: Economic valuation of health effects of <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke exposure in Southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richardson, L.A.; Champ, P.A.; Loomis, J.B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There is a growing concern that human health impacts from exposure to <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke are ignored in estimates of monetized damages from <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. Current research highlights the need for better data collection and analysis of these impacts. Using unique primary data, this paper quantifies the economic cost of health effects from the largest <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> in Los Angeles County's modern history. A cost of illness estimate is $9.50 per exposed person per day. However, theory and empirical research consistently find that this measure largely underestimates the true economic cost of health effects from exposure to a pollutant in that it ignores the cost of defensive actions taken as well as disutility. For the first time, the defensive behavior method is applied to calculate the willingness to pay for a reduction in one <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> smoke induced symptom day, which is estimated to be $84.42 per exposed person per day. ?? 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.2035K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.2035K"><span id="translatedtitle">A spreading drop model for <span class="hlt">plumes</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koch, D. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Many of the large-scale, <span class="hlt">plume</span>-related features on Venus can be modeled by a buoyant viscous drop, or <span class="hlt">plume</span> head, as it rises and spreads laterally below a free fluid surface. The drop has arbitrary density and viscosity contrast and begins as a sphere below the surface of a fluid half space. The boundary integral method is used to solve for the motion of the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head and for the topography, geoid, and stress at the fluid surface. As the <span class="hlt">plume</span> approaches the surface, stresses in the fluid above it cause it to spread and become thin below the surface. During the spreading, the surface swell above evolves through various stages whose morphologies resemble several different <span class="hlt">plume</span>-related features observed on Venus. When the <span class="hlt">plume</span> head first approaches the surface, a high broad topographic dome develops, with a large geoid, and radial extensional deformation patterns. At later stages, the topography subsides and becomes plateau-like, the geoid to topography ratio (GTR) decreases, and the dominant stress pattern consists of a band of concentric extension surrounded by a band of concentric compression. We find that a low-viscosity model <span class="hlt">plume</span> head (viscosity that is 0.1 times the mantle viscosity) produces maximum topography that is 20% lower, and swell features which evolve faster, than for an isoviscous <span class="hlt">plume</span>. We compare model results with both the large-scale highland swells, and smaller-scale features such as coronae and novae. The dome-shaped highlands with large GTRs such as Beta, Atla, and Western Eistla <span class="hlt">Regiones</span> may be the result of early stage <span class="hlt">plume</span> motion, while the flatter highlands such as Ovda and Thetis <span class="hlt">Regiones</span> which have lower GTRs may be later stage features. Comparison of model results with GTR data indicates that the highlands result from <span class="hlt">plume</span> heads with initial diameters of about 1000 km. On a smaller scale, an evolutionary sequence may begin with novae (domes having radial extensional deformation), followed by features with radial and concentric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......251B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......251B"><span id="translatedtitle">Midwave infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometry of combustion <span class="hlt">plumes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, Kenneth C.</p> <p></p> <p>A midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) was used to successfully capture and analyze hyperspectral imagery of combustion <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Jet engine exhaust data from a small turbojet engine burning diesel fuel at a low rate of 300 cm3/min was collected at 1 cm -1 resolution from a side-<span class="hlt">plume</span> vantage point on a 200x64 pixel window at a range of 11.2 meters. Spectral features of H2O, CO, and CO2 were present, and showed spatial variability within the <span class="hlt">plume</span> structure. An array of thermocouple probes was positioned within the <span class="hlt">plume</span> to aid in temperature analysis. A single-temperature <span class="hlt">plume</span> model was implemented to obtain spatially-varying temperatures and <span class="hlt">plume</span> concentrations. Model-fitted temperatures of 811 +/- 1.5 K and 543 +/- 1.6 K were obtained from <span class="hlt">plume</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> in close proximity to thermocouple probes measuring temperatures of 719 K and 522 K, respectively. Industrial smokestack <span class="hlt">plume</span> data from a coal-burning stack collected at 0.25 cm-1 resolution at a range of 600 meters featured strong emission from NO, CO, CO2, SO 2, and HCl in the spectral <span class="hlt">region</span> 1800-3000 cm-1. A simplified radiative transfer model was employed to derive temperature and concentrations for clustered <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the 128x64 pixel scene, with corresponding statistical error bounds. The hottest <span class="hlt">region</span> (closest to stack centerline) was 401 +/- 0.36 K, compared to an in-stack measurement of 406 K, and model-derived concentration values of NO, CO2, and SO2 were 140 +/- 1 ppmV, 110,400 +/- 950 ppmV, and 382 +/- 4 ppmV compared to in-stack measurements of 120 ppmV (NOx), 94,000 ppmV, and 382 ppmV, respectively. In-stack measurements of CO and HCl were not provided by the stack operator, but model-derived values of 19 +/- 0.2 ppmV and 111 +/- 1 ppmV are reported near stack centerline. A deployment to Dugway Proving Grounds, UT to collect hyperspectral imagery of chemical and biological threat agent simulants resulted in weak spectral signatures from several species. <span class="hlt">Plume</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051356&hterms=McGregor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMcGregor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051356&hterms=McGregor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMcGregor"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plume</span> impingement study for reaction control system of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcgregor, R. D.; Lohn, P. D.; Haflinger, D. E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A study has been performed to assess <span class="hlt">plume</span> impingement effects from the reaction control system of NASA's OMV. A key aspect of this modeling effort has been the use of the direct Monte Carlo method as an integral part of the nozzle/<span class="hlt">plume</span> flowfield modeling and to compute the impingement effects for configurations in which vehicle structure or multiple <span class="hlt">plumes</span> resulted in highly three-dimensional rarefied <span class="hlt">plume</span> flowfields. The calculation of the flowfield for a pair of interacting thruster <span class="hlt">plumes</span> has shown that backflow in the <span class="hlt">region</span> between the thrusters is greatly enhanced by the interaction of the two <span class="hlt">plumes</span>. Although the present analyses have focussed on impingement force and heating effects, this methodology would also be valuable for contamination assessments since it properly accounts for the species separation effects that are inherent in the nonequilibrium nature of rarefied gas flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..167..390F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..167..390F"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal nitrogen <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and their relationship with seagrass distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandes, Milena B.; Benger, Simon; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Gaylard, Sam; Bryars, Simon</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Urbanised coastlines are affected by cumulative impacts from a variety of anthropogenic stressors, but spatial information on the distribution of these stressors at the local scale is scarce, hindering the ability of managers to prioritise mitigation options. This work investigated the spatial footprint of land-based nitrogen discharges to a metropolitan coastline and assessed the potential role of this stressor alone on seagrass dynamics at the scale of the ecosystem. The macroalga Caulocystis cephalornithos was used as a time-integrative sampler of nitrogen in the water column over 202 sites monitored across an area of ˜800 km2. The stable isotopic signature of nitrogen in tissues (δ15N) was used to map <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of anthropogenic origin. The surface area of these <span class="hlt">plumes</span> was found to be proportional to nitrogen loads from land. The largest <span class="hlt">plume</span> was associated with discharges from an industrialised estuary and a wastewater treatment plant, where a monthly nitrogen load in excess of 110 tonnes affected an area >80 km2. The location and size of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> changed with seasons as a result of wind forcing and rainfall/wastewater reuse. The location of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> was compared to published seagrass distribution obtained from video transects. Dense seagrass meadows only occurred in areas unimpacted by <span class="hlt">plumes</span> throughout the year, mostly in shallow (<5 m) <span class="hlt">regions</span> for Amphibolis antarctica, and deeper (5-10 m) for Posidonia sp., possibly as a result of this species higher tolerance of low light conditions. This higher tolerance might also explain why Posidonia sp. is observed to preferentially recolonise areas of previous loss in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. While a decrease in the spatial footprint of nutrient <span class="hlt">plumes</span> has created conditions for natural seagrass recolonisation in some areas, it did not halt seagrass loss in others, suggesting the influence of additional stressors such as wave dynamics and light attenuation due to turbid/coloured stormwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70124301','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70124301"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2003 and 2007 <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in southern California: Chapter 5 in Natural Disasters and Adaptation to Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Boulter, Sarah; Palutikof, Jean; Karoly, David John; Guitart, Daniela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although many residents of southern California have long recognised that <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are an ongoing, constant risk to lives and property, the enormity of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> fire hazard caught the world’s attention during the southern California firestorms of 2003 (Figure 5.1). Beginning on 21 October, a series of fourteen <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> broke out across the five-county <span class="hlt">region</span> under severe Santa Ana winds, and within two weeks, more than 300,000 ha had burned (Keeley et al., 2004). The event was one of the costliest in the state’s history, with more than 3,600 homes damaged or destroyed and twenty-four fatalities. Suppression costs for the 12,000 firefighters have been estimated at US$120 million, and the total response and damage cost has been estimated at more than US$3 billion (COES, 2004). [Excerpt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3727L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3727L"><span id="translatedtitle">3-d numerical modeling for the interaction of mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> with cratonic keel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, S.; Kuo, B.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The magmatism of the Ethiopian and east African plateaus is one of the largest active continental igneous provinces on Earth. Great volumes of volcanic deposits have been thought to be originated from the upwelling mantle or <span class="hlt">plumes</span> under the African continent [e.g., Ebinger et al., 1989]. Major, trace element and radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd and Pb) and the dating data [George et al., 1998] suggest that there are at least two mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, i.e., the latter Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span> and earlier Kenya <span class="hlt">plume</span>, beneath the East African rift system. It was proposed [e.g., Rogers et al., 2000] that the northeastward plate motion over the Kenya <span class="hlt">plume</span> produced the magmatism from southern Ethiopia to northern Tanzania since about 45 Ma, and that the Afar <span class="hlt">plume</span> later generated the magma in the Ethiopia Plateau. Meanwhile, it has been found that the Tanzania Craton in central Africa has survived the thermal erosion of the mantle <span class="hlt">plumes</span> and the extensional tectonics in this <span class="hlt">region</span> [e.g., Ritsema and van Heijst, 2000]. Here we investigate how the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material changes its directions when it meets the tectonically stable cratonic keel using 3-D numerical experiments. The stronger temperature dependence of viscosity as well as the hotter <span class="hlt">plumes</span> can at times provide higher buoyancy flux and determine how far the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material can reach. In the meantime, the cratonic keel can divert the <span class="hlt">plume</span> material and induce the edge-driven convection. Numerical models have been designed to address the double-<span class="hlt">plume</span> hypothesis, in which the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> were initiated at different periods of time and interacted with the cratonic keel on a moving plate. The numerical models and a comparison between the models and geological constraints will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.250..173N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.250..173N"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting sediment delivery from debris flows after <span class="hlt">wildfire</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyman, Petter; Smith, Hugh G.; Sherwin, Christopher B.; Langhans, Christoph; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Sheridan, Gary J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Debris flows are an important erosion process in <span class="hlt">wildfire</span>-prone landscapes. Predicting their frequency and magnitude can therefore be critical for quantifying risk to infrastructure, people and water resources. However, the factors contributing to the frequency and magnitude of events remain poorly understood, particularly in <span class="hlt">regions</span> outside western USA. Against this background, the objectives of this study were to i) quantify sediment yields from post-fire debris flows in southeast Australian highlands and ii) model the effects of landscape attributes on debris flow susceptibility. Sediment yields from post-fire debris flows (113-294 t ha- 1) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than annual background erosion rates from undisturbed forests. Debris flow volumes ranged from 539 to 33,040 m3 with hillslope contributions of 18-62%. The distribution of erosion and deposition above the fan were related to a stream power index, which could be used to model changes in yield along the drainage network. Debris flow susceptibility was quantified with a logistic regression and an inventory of 315 debris flow fans deposited in the first year after two large <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> (total burned area = 2919 km2). The differenced normalised burn ratio (dNBR or burn severity), local slope, radiative index of dryness (AI) and rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar) were significant predictors in a susceptibility model, which produced excellent results in terms identifying channels that were eroded by debris flows (Area Under Curve, AUC = 0.91). Burn severity was the strongest predictor in the model (AUC = 0.87 when dNBR is used as single predictor) suggesting that fire regimes are an important control on sediment delivery from these forests. The analysis showed a positive effect of AI on debris flow probability in landscapes where differences in moisture regimes due to climate are associated with large variation in soil hydraulic properties. Overall, the results from this study based in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000003','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000003"><span id="translatedtitle">Stormwater <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection by MODIS imagery in the southern California coastal ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nezlin, N.P.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Diehl, D.W.; Jones, B.H.; Johnson, S.C.; Mengel, M.J.; Reifel, K.M.; Warrick, J.A.; Wang, M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Stormwater <span class="hlt">plumes</span> in the southern California coastal ocean were detected by MODIS-Aqua satellite imagery and compared to ship-based data on surface salinity and fecal indicator bacterial (FIB) counts collected during the Bight'03 <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Water Quality Program surveys in February-March of 2004 and 2005. MODIS imagery was processed using a combined near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR-SWIR) atmospheric correction method, which substantially improved normalized water-leaving radiation (nLw) optical spectra in coastal waters with high turbidity. <span class="hlt">Plumes</span> were detected using a minimum-distance supervised classification method based on nLw spectra averaged within the training areas, defined as circular zones of 1.5-5.0-km radii around field stations with a surface salinity of S 33.0 ('ocean'). The <span class="hlt">plume</span> optical signatures (i.e., the nLw differences between '<span class="hlt">plume</span>' and 'ocean') were most evident during the first 2 days after the rainstorms. To assess the accuracy of <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection, stations were classified into '<span class="hlt">plume</span>' and 'ocean' using two criteria: (1) '<span class="hlt">plume</span>' included the stations with salinity below a certain threshold estimated from the maximum accuracy of <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection; and (2) FIB counts in '<span class="hlt">plume</span>' exceeded the California State Water Board standards. The salinity threshold between '<span class="hlt">plume</span>' and 'ocean' was estimated as 32.2. The total accuracy of <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection in terms of surface salinity was not high (68% on average), seemingly because of imperfect correlation between <span class="hlt">plume</span> salinity and ocean color. The accuracy of <span class="hlt">plume</span> detection in terms of FIB exceedances was even lower (64% on average), resulting from low correlation between ocean color and bacterial contamination. Nevertheless, satellite imagery was shown to be a useful tool for the estimation of the extent of potentially polluted <span class="hlt">plumes</span>, which was hardly achievable by direct sampling methods (in particular, because the grids of ship-based stations covered only small parts of the <span class="hlt">plumes</span> detected via</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981495','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stocks, Brian J.; Gauthier, Sylvie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal <span class="hlt">regions</span> will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980–2009) fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI), and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs); these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980–2009 period) under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period) under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years) are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often) as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses. PMID:27513660</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27513660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27513660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hope, Emily S; McKenney, Daniel W; Pedlar, John H; Stocks, Brian J; Gauthier, Sylvie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal <span class="hlt">regions</span> will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980-2009) fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI), and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs); these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980-2009 period) under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period) under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years) are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often) as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses. PMID:27513660</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413418F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413418F"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of SWC techniques to mitigate soil degradation following <span class="hlt">wildfires</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferreira, A. J. D.; Prats-Alegre, S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Bento, C.; Shakesby, R. A.; Stoof, C. R.; Ritsema, C. J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Forest fires are the main deleterious process in Mediterranean sub-humid <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The increasing frequency of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>, with increasingly reduced return periods, as a result of global change (i.e. climatic and management practices changes) leads to severe soil degradation processes, widely spread throughout the landscape. Several strategies have been developed in an attempt to prevent the occurrence of forest fires and reduce its magnitudes when they happen, as point out by the authors in several other works. Nevertheless, when they occur, several techniques can be applied to mitigate the degradation processes in burned areas. This paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the various techniques used to reduce the degradation processes, based on the literature and in field trials. In addition to the implementation costs and the effectiveness in reducing soil erosion processes, the paper addresses the questions of feasibility and ecological relevance. Since the costs may be prohibitive, specially if wide areas are burned, we propose strategic guidelines to target sensitive interventions in burned areas to attain the maximum conservation impacts with the least costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27513660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27513660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wildfire</span> Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hope, Emily S; McKenney, Daniel W; Pedlar, John H; Stocks, Brian J; Gauthier, Sylvie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal <span class="hlt">regions</span> will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future <span class="hlt">wildfire</span> area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980-2009) fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI), and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs); these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980-2009 period) under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period) under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years) are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often) as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41B1092P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41B1092P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">wildfires</span> on surface reflectance from a savanna ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poudyal, R.; Gatebe, C. K.; Ichoku, C. M.; Varnai, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>During an airborne field campaign in South Africa in 2005, NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) flew aboard South Africa Weather Service, Aerocommander 690A and measured surface bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) over savanna comprised mostly of grasses and a few scattered trees. Savannas cover half the surface of Africa, large areas of Australia, South America, and India. . The <span class="hlt">region</span> that was studied is located in Kruger National Park in northeastern South Africa, which was heavily affected by the <span class="hlt">wildfires</span>. The CAR measured surface reflectance along its flight path covering both burned and unburned areas. . In this study, we compared surface reflectance between burnt and un-burnt areas at various wavelengths (340nm, 380nm, 472nm, 682nm, 870nm, 1036nm, 1219nm, 1273nm, and 2205nm) at satellite sub-pixel scales. We found a relative burnt surface reflectance decrease of between 8 and 65% due to fires. These results not only serve to highlight the importance of biomass burning and effects on the energy budgets, but also the need to determine the effects of albedo changes due to fires on soil moisture budget, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and runoff, all of which govern the land-surface component of the water cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H24A..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H24A..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing <span class="hlt">plumes</span> of heavy metals and radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The understanding of the transport be