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Sample records for register european pollutant

  1. The European Register of Microform Masters--Supporting International Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Werner

    With almost every country in the world doing costly microfilming to preserve the world's printed heritage, it is essential to find a way by which these vast stores of information are not knowingly duplicated. A significant contribution to this effort has been the establishment of the European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM), a shared…

  2. Overcoming boundaries of worldwide joint arthroplasty registers: the European Arthroplasty Register minimal dataset.

    PubMed

    Sadoghi, Patrick; Leithner, Andreas; Labek, Gerold

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide joint arthroplasty registers are instrumental to screen for complications or implant failures. In order to achieve comparable results a similar classification dataset is essential. The authors therefore present the European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) European Arthroplasty Register (EAR) minimal dataset for primary and revision joint arthroplasty. Main parameters include the following: date of operation, country, hospital ID-code, patient's name and prename, birthday, identification code of the implant, gender, diagnosis, preoperations, type of prosthesis (partial, total), side, cementation technique, use of antibiotics in the cement, surgical approach, and others specifically related to the affected joint. The authors believe that using this minimal dataset will improve the chance for a worldwide comparison of arthroplasty registers and ask future countries for implementation.

  3. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Schuff-Werner, Peter; Haushofer, Alexander; Szekeres, Thomas; Wallemacq, Pierre; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjörg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Jansen, Rob; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanár, Július; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Wieringa, Gijsbert

    2010-07-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re-registration are presented as an Appendix at the end of the article.

  4. The first meeting of the European Register of Cystic Echinococcosis (ERCE).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Patrizia; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Galati, Fabio; Pozio, Edoardo; Akhan, Okan; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vutova, Kamenna; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Brunetti, Enrico; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-04-28

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease endemic in southern and eastern European countries. The true prevalence of CE is difficult to estimate due to the high proportion of asymptomatic carriers who never seek medical attention and to the underreporting of diagnosed cases, factors which contribute to its neglected status. In an attempt to improve this situation, the European Register of Cystic Echinococcosis (ERCE), was launched in October 2014 in the context of the HERACLES project. ERCE is a prospective, observational, multicentre register of patients with probable or confirmed CE. The first ERCE meeting was held in November 2015 at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS) in Rome, to bring together CE experts currently involved in the Register activities, to share and discuss experiences, and future developments.Although the Register is still in its infancy, data collected at the time of writing this report, had outnumbered the total of national cases reported by the European endemic countries and published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in 2015. This confirms the need for an improved reporting system of CE at the European level. The collection of standardized clinical data and samples is expected to support a more rational, stage-specific approach to clinical management, and to help public authorities harmonize reporting of CE. A better understanding of CE burden in Europe will encourage the planning and implementation of public health policies toward its control.

  5. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  6. Report to the London Conference of Ministers on a European Register of Quality Assurance Agencies. ENQA Occasional Papers 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Ministers responsible for higher education in the Bologna signatory states welcomed in 2005 the principle of a European Register of quality assurance agencies based on national reviews. They asked ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), in cooperation with EUA (European University Association), EURASHE (European…

  7. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Code of Conduct, Version 2--2008.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Janet; Zerah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Koeller, Ursula; Blaton, Victor; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjörg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Huisman, Wim; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanár, Július; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Schuff-Werner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Européen des Professions Libérales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008.

  8. Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, N.

    1962-01-01

    The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

  9. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  10. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  11. The EC4 register of European clinical chemists and EC4 activities.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rob T P

    2002-05-21

    The freedom of movement of people and goods within the European Union (EU) has a large impact for the member states. Particularly within health care it is important to recognize, or if necessary obtain, an adequate level of the quality of profession and practice, so that citizens know that health care is offered in their country at a level comparable to other countries. The importance of recognition also applies to laboratory medicine. European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) is the organization of societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in the EU. In Europe, health care develops in the direction where patients are treated in a health care chain environment. In this chain, patients move quickly from primary health institutes to secondary and tertiary institutes, and vice versa. This situation involves many health care workers including several laboratories. Diagnosis and therapy are now 'core business' of health care. Medical laboratories play an essential role in this. The broad spectrum of medical laboratory investigations make consultancy of medical laboratory specialists ever more important. The quality of both professionals and laboratories, as well as continuity of laboratory data within and between laboratories, are of utmost importance.EC4 is active in giving support to attain such quality. In most countries, this is the case at present. EC4 plays a central role in the Coordination of Automatic Recognition of Equivalence of Standards (CARE), if such a level exists or is achieved. Such CARE is focussed at three levels, the profession, quality of laboratories and calibration of laboratory data. The EC4 Register of European Clinical Chemists is open for colleagues educated in (bio)chemistry, pharmacy, biology as well as medicine, and trained according to the EC4 Syllabus. Equivalence of standards has been granted to national training schemes of 13 European Union countries. Since its opening in 1998, the number of

  12. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    PubMed Central

    de Mouzon, J.; Goossens, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Castilla, J.A.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Korsak, V.; Kupka, M.; Nygren, K.G.; Andersen, A. Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007. METHODS From 33 countries, 1029 clinics reported 493 184 treatment cycles: IVF (120 761), ICSI (256 642), frozen embryo replacement (91 145), egg donation (15 731), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening (4638), in vitro maturation (660) and frozen oocytes replacements (3607). Overall, this represents a 7.6% increase since 2006, mostly related to an increase in all registers. IUI using husband/partner's (IUI-H) and donor (IUI-D) semen was reported from 23 countries: 142 609 IUI-H (+6.2%) and 26 088 IUI-D (+7.2%). RESULTS In 18 countries where all clinics reported, 376 971 ART cycles were performed in a population of 425.6million (886 cycles per million). The clinical pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 29.1 and 32.8% for IVF, and 28.6 and 33.0% for ICSI. Delivery rate after IUI-H was 10.2% in women aged < 40 years. In IVF/ICSI cycles, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 embryos were transferred in 21.4, 53.4, 22.7 and 2.5% of cycles, with no decline in the number of embryos per transfer since 2006. The proportion of multiple deliveries (22.3: 21.3% twin and 1.0% triplet), did not decrease compared with 2006 (20.8%) and 2005 (21.8%). In women < 40 years undergoing IUI-H, twin deliveries occurred in 11.7% and triplets in 0.5%. CONCLUSIONS In comparison with previous years, the reported number of ART cycles in Europe increased in 2007; pregnancy rates increased marginally, but the earlier decline in the number of embryos transferred and multiple births did not continue. PMID:22343707

  13. [Different modalities for registering AIDS cases. Their importance for the European epidemic].

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Cajal, N

    1988-01-01

    The high number of AIDS cases diagnosed in different European countries imposed to reconsider the opinion that European epidemic is just reflecting the American epidemic. The whole morbidity des not point out the peculiar elements of HIV infection propagation in Europe. The exponential rise of reported case number during 1987 imposes to analyse the new epidemiological situation.

  14. Metallothionein as bioindicator of freshwater metal pollution: European eel and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Vallés-Mota, P; García-Vázquez, E

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout and European eel in the field situation. River Ferrerias (North Spain) provided a good gradient of metal contamination: concentrations of heavy metals were elevated both in water and in sediments at the downstream (polluted) site and were low at the upstream (unpolluted) site. MT levels of brown trout exhibited statistically significant differences between sites. Although European eel at the polluted site had a higher MT content, differences were not significant. It is concluded that MT is a good bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout.

  15. The European and International legal framework on monitoring and response to oil pollution from ships.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Guido; Pavliha, Marko

    2010-03-01

    Oil spills cause damage to the marine environment. Such oil spills originate from land-based or sea-based sources. Sea-based sources are discharges coming from ships or offshore platforms. The origin of the pollution can be accidental or deliberate (defined also as operational). The European and international legislation in the field of monitoring and response to marine oil pollution is mainly based on the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 thereto (MARPOL 73/78) and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). To complete the international framework, and with specific reference for European Countries, also the recent European legislation is presented. Special attention is given to the prosecution of polluting vessels. The main legal problem is the coordination and integration of the two principles on jurisdiction which co-exist: the nationality of the ship and the geographical position of the ship.

  16. Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network).

    PubMed

    Perez, Laura; Declercq, Christophe; Iñiguez, Carmen; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Bouland, Catherine; Chanel, Olivier; Cirarda, Francisco B; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Haluza, Daniela; Hedlund, Britta; Cambra, Koldo; Lacasaña, Marina; Moshammer, Hanns; Otorepec, Peter; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Medina, Sylvia; Künzli, Nino

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological research suggests that near road traffic-related pollution may cause chronic disease, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies, implying that the entire "chronic disease progression" should be attributed to air pollution, no matter what the proximate cause was. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution in 10 European cities by calculating the number of cases of 1) asthma caused by near road traffic-related pollution, and 2) acute asthma events related to urban air pollution levels. We then expanded our approach to include coronary heart diseases in adults. Derivation of attributable cases required combining concentration-response function between exposures and the respective health outcome of interest (obtained from published literature), an estimate of the distribution of selected exposures in the target population, and information about the frequency of the assessed morbidities. Exposure to roads with high vehicle traffic, a proxy for near road traffic-related pollution, accounted for 14% of all asthma cases. When a causal relationship between near road traffic-related pollution and asthma is assumed, 15% of all episodes of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Without this assumption, only 2% of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Similar patterns were found for coronary heart diseases in older adults. Pollutants along busy roads are responsible for a large and preventable share of chronic disease and related acute exacerbations in European urban areas.

  17. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  18. Infant mortality and ethnicity in an indigenous European population: Novel evidence from the Finnish population register

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first analyses of infant mortality rates by indigenous ethnic group in Finland, a country that has one of the lowest relative numbers of infant deaths in the world. Using files from the Finnish population register, we identified both of the parents of children born in the period from 1975–2003 according to ethnic affiliation, socioeconomic profile, and demographic position. The infant mortality rate in homogamous Finnish unions is similar to that in homogamous Swedish unions, which reflects a lack of social disparities between the two groups. Surprisingly, infants from ethnically mixed unions have markedly lower mortality rates, with an adjusted rate ratio of 0.81 relative to homogamous Swedish unions (95% CI: 0.67–0.98). Although not empirically verified, we argue that the lower infant mortality rate in ethnically mixed unions may be due to lower levels of inbreeding, and hence related to historically low intermarriage rates between the two ethnic groups, remote consanguinities, and restricted inter-community gene flow. PMID:24572973

  19. The impact of European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings on security and enforcement of the system of digital tachograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychter, M.; Rychter, R.

    2016-09-01

    Secure digital tachograph system is indisputably a means having the great influence on road safety, enforcement of the social conditions for drivers in road transport as well as supporting the fair competition between road transport undertakings. In order to better monitor the compliance of road transport with the rules in force, inter alia the provisions on usage the digital tachographs, the European Union regulation introduces the European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings (ERRU), a system that allows a better exchange of information between Member States. The main purpose of this analysis is to present the measures for enforcement the execution of the provisions on obligation of installation and usage of digital tachographs in road transport and for improving the security of data recorded within digital tachograph system especially through exchange of the information on the most serious infringements committed by hauliers in any Member State, which may lead to the loss of good repute and the e-document engineering method used by the ERRU system.

  20. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Vergne, Phillippe; Sifakis, Nicolas; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; Kambezidis, Harry; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Düsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships. This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly be measured.

  1. [Long-term health effects of air pollution: results of the European project ESCAPE].

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Galassi, Claudia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has been recently classified among the top ten risk factors for mortality worldwide. The evidence on the long-term effects of air pollutants is mounting, mostly from multi-centre American studies or longitudinal studies conducted in single European cohorts. Recently, the EU-funded project ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) involved more than 30 cohort studies with the aim of producing pooled estimates of the long-term health effects of ambient air pollution at European level. The project developed a standardized and flexible methodology to estimate chronic exposure to several air pollutants, applied such estimates to existing cohorts in Europe, and analyzed the exposure-response relationships with different health endpoints, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory diseases among children, cardio-respiratory diseases among adults, cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence. One of the most important results has been the detection of relevant health effects of particulate matter at concentrations below the current air quality limit values in Europe.

  2. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution.

  3. Formation of N-nitrosamines by chloramination or ozonation of amines listed in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Suchul; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    We determined whether or not the chloramination or ozonation of amines and hydrazines listed in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) results in the formation of N-nitrosamines when reacted in secondary wastewater effluent. We selected 12 primary, 2 secondary, 2 tertiary amines and 3 hydrazines from the PRTRs of Japan, the USA, and Korea. In this study, based on the assumption that there is a production of N-nitrosamines by not only the original selected amines and hydrazines but also the intermediate products in case of chloramination and ozonation, it was examined whether precursors were identified by selected amines and hydrazines based on the gap of the N-nitrosamines formation potential between day 0 and day 10 rather than analyzing the contribution depending on the concentration of selected amines and hydrazines. Many of the primary amines (notably 2,6-xylidine) and all of the secondary and tertiary amines produced N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by chloramination. Furthermore, the primary amines 2,6-xylidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), 4-aminoazobenzene, p-chloroaniline, and p-cresidine produced more NDMA than did the secondary amines. The secondary amines produced mainly NDMA. Ozonation produced NDMA only from the hydrazine 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and at a higher concentration than by chloramination. We identified 2,6-xylidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), 4-aminoazobenzene, p-chloroaniline, p-cresidine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, diethylamine, 4,4'-methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine, and chinomethionat as warranting further study.

  4. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  5. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  6. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  7. Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gade, M; Alpers, W

    1999-09-30

    More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal that the seas are most polluted along the main shipping routes. The sizes of the detected oil spills vary between < 0.1 km2 and > 56 km2. SAR images acquired during descending (morning) and ascending (evening) satellite passes show different percentages of oil pollution, because most of this pollution occurs during night time and is still visible on the SAR images acquired in the morning time. Moreover, we found a higher amount of oil spills on SAR images acquired during summer (April-September) than on SAR images acquired during winter (October-March). We attribute this finding to the higher mean wind speed encountered in all three test areas during winter. By using an ERS-2 SAR image of the North Sea test area we show how the reduction of the normalized radar backscattering cross section (NRCS) by an oil spill depends on wind speed.

  8. Risk of invasive melanoma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologics: results from a collaborative project of 11 European biologic registers

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Louise K; Askling, Johan; Raaschou, Pauline; Dreyer, Lene; Hetland, Merete Lund; Strangfeld, Anja; Zink, Angela; Mariette, Xavier; Finckh, Axel; Canhao, Helena; Iannone, Florenzo; Zavada, Jakub; Morel, Jacques; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Listing, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Some studies have reported a possible association between exposure to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and an increased risk of melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive cutaneous melanomas in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with TNF inhibitors (TNFi), other biologic disease modifying drugs and non-biologic therapy. Methods Eleven biologic registers from nine European countries participated in this collaborative project. According to predefined exposure definitions, cohorts of patients with RA were selected. Using the country-specific general population of each register as reference, age, sex and calendar year standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of invasive histology-confirmed cutaneous melanoma were calculated within each register. Pooled SIR and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing biologic cohorts to biologic-naïve were calculated across countries by taking the size of the register into account. Results Overall 130 315 RA patients with a mean age of 58 years contributing 579 983 person-years were available for the analysis and 287 developed a first melanoma. Pooled SIRs for biologic-naïve, TNFi and rituximab-exposed patients were 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4), 1.2 (0.99 to 1.6) and 1.3 (0.6 to 2.6), respectively. Incidence rates in tocilizumab and abatacept-exposed patients were also not significantly increased. IRR versus biologic-naïve patients were: TNFi 1.1 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.6); rituximab 1.2 (0.5 to 2.9). Conclusions This large European collaborative project did not confirm an overall increased risk of melanoma following exposure to TNFi. PMID:27307502

  9. Gender Differences in Filicide Offense Characteristics--A Comprehensive Register-Based Study of Child Murder in Two European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; Eronen, Markku; Klier, Claudia M.; Almiron, Maria P.; Cederwall, Jenny Yourstone; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study searched for gender differences in filicidal offense characteristics and associated variables. Methods: In this binational register-based study all filicide perpetrators (75 mothers and 45 fathers) and their crimes in Austria and Finland 1995-2005 were examined for putative gender differences. The assessed variables were…

  10. Impact of ship emissions on air pollution and AOD over North Atlantic and European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej; Durka, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The iAREA project is combined of experimental and theoretical research in order to contribute to the new knowledge on the impact of absorbing aerosols on the climate system in the European Arctic (http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/iAREA). A tropospheric chemistry model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality) was used as a computational tool. The core of the model is based on a weather prediction model with environmental processes (chemistry and aerosols) implanted on-line and are interactive (i.e. providing feedback of chemistry on radiation and dynamics). The numerical grid covered the Euro-Atlantic region with the resolution of 50 km. Emissions developed by NILU in the ECLIPSE project was used (Klimont et al., 2013). The model was run for two 1-year scenarios. 2014 was chosen as a base year for simulations and analysis. Scenarios include a base run with most up-to-date emissions and a run without maritime emissions. The analysis will focus on the contribution of maritime emissions on levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants over the European Arctic, North Atlantic and coastal areas. The annual variability will be assessed based on monthly mean near-surface concentration fields. Analysis of shipping transport on near-surface air pollution over the Euro-Atlantic region will be assessed for ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5. Also, a contribution of ship emissions to AOD will be analysed.

  11. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  12. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  13. A protocol for investigation of the effects of outdoor air pollution on stroke incidence, phenotypes and survival using the South London Stroke Register.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Pearson, Tim; Campbell, Michael J; Haining, Robert P; McLeod, Cameron W; Smeeton, Nigel; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2006-03-17

    term increases and longer term exposure to higher pollution levels), and to see if people living in more polluted areas have reduced survival following their stroke. We will use geographical information systems, robust statistical methods and powerful grid computing facilities to link and analyse the data. The datasets we will use are the South London Stroke Register database, daily monitored pollution data from national monitoring networks and modelled pollution data for London from the Greater London Authority. The South London Stroke Register records information on all patients who suffer a stroke ("incident" cases) living within a defined area. This stroke incidence dataset offers major advantages over previous studies examining the effects of pollution on hospital admissions and mortality, as not all patients with stroke are admitted or die and there may be a delay between the onset of stroke and admission or death. In addition, it contains other useful information, particularly the type of stroke people have suffered. Air pollution is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke. This study will provide robust population level evidence regarding the effects of outdoor air pollution on stroke. If it confirms the link, it will suggest to policy-makers at national and international levels that targeting policy interventions at high pollution areas may be a feasible option for stroke prevention.

  14. Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L.

  15. [First Results of Analysis of Russian Part of the European Register on Cardiac Rehabilitation EuroCaReD (European Cardiac Rehabilitation Database)].

    PubMed

    Pogosova, N V; Sokolova, O Iu; Iufereva, Iu M; Osipova, I V; Riamzina, I N

    2015-01-01

    The joint European Registry of patients with cardiovascular diseases participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs (European Cardiac Rehabilitation Database, EuroCaReD) is conducted in collaboration between the ESC and EACPR). It's main goals were to improve the routine use of cardiac rehabilitation, to develop joint standards for cardiac rehabilitation in all European countries and evidence based rehabilitation programs and to monitor any changes. In the EuroCaReD registry participated a total of 44 centers from 13 countries, including 3 centers from Russia, which enrolled 151 patients during 2010-2012. This paper is comparing the baseline demographics, clinical data and risk factors in Russian patients versus the rest of Europe. It was shown that cardiac rehabilitation patients in Russia, as in the whole cohort, are predominantly male. Elderly patients from Russia were 3 times less likely to be referred for rehabilitation than in Europe. Unlike the whole cohort Russian patients were almost never sent to rehabilitation because of heart failure or stable angina. Likewise the whole Europe Russian patients had an average of 3 cardiovascular risk factors before rehabilitation, but with some national differences in their prevalence and severity.

  16. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Light Pollution on Seasonal Functions of European Blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems. PMID:24376865

  19. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  20. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    PubMed Central

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, J; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, J; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390–429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were studied, as well as admissions stratified by age. The association for ischaemic heart disease (ICD9 410–413) and stroke (ICD9 430–438) was also studied, also stratified by age. Design: Autoregressive Poisson models were used that controlled for long term trend, season, influenza epidemics, and meteorology to assess the short-term effects of particles in each city. The study also examined confounding by other pollutants. City specific results were pooled in a second stage regression to obtain more stable estimates and examine the sources of heterogeneity. Main results: The pooled percentage increases associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and black smoke were respectively 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.8) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.8) for cardiac admissions of all ages, 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.0) and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.2) for cardiac admissions over 65 years, and, 0.8% (95% CI: 0.3 to 1.2) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7 to 1.5) for ischaemic heart disease over 65 years. The effect of PM10 was little changed by control for ozone or SO2, but was substantially reduced (CO) or eliminated (NO2) by control for other traffic related pollutants. The effect of black smoke remained practically unchanged controlling for CO and only somewhat reduced controlling for NO2. Conclusions: These effects of particulate air pollution on cardiac admissions suggest the primary effect is likely to be mainly attributable to diesel exhaust. Results for ischaemic heart disease below 65 years and for stroke over 65 years were inconclusive. PMID:12239204

  1. Arterial Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution: An Analysis in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Foraster, Maria; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Houthuijs, Danny; Oftedal, Bente; Oudin, Anna; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Penell, Johanna; Sommar, Johan N.; Sørensen, Mette; Tiittanen, Pekka; Wolf, Kathrin; Xun, Wei W.; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Bots, Michiel L.; Brunekreef, Bert; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cirach, Marta; de Faire, Ulf; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Elosua, Roberto; Erbel, Raimund; Forsberg, Bertil; Fratiglioni, Laura; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Hilding, Agneta; Jula, Antti; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Künzli, Nino; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pershagen, Göran; Phuleria, Harish C.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; Schwarze, Per E.; Søgaard, Anne J.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Swart, Wim J.R.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Turunen, Anu W.; Vineis, Paolo; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. Objectives: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. Methods: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic BP, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hypertension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated. Conclusions: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hypertension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent. Citation: Fuks KB, Weinmayr G, Foraster M, Dratva J, Hampel R, Houthuijs D, Oftedal B, Oudin A, Panasevich S, Penell J, Sommar JN, S

  2. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  3. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  4. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  5. Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol.

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, K; Schwartz, J; Spix, C; Touloumi, G; Zmirou, D; Zanobetti, A; Wojtyniak, B; Vonk, J M; Tobias, A; Pönkä, A; Medina, S; Bachárová, L; Anderson, H R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered for several air pollutants (sulphur dioxide; particulate matter, measured as total particles or as the particle fraction with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than a certain cut off, or as black smoke; nitrogen dioxide; and ozone) and health outcomes (the total and cause specific number of deaths and emergency hospital admissions). The data included fulfilled the quality criteria set by the APHEA protocol. SETTING: Fifteen European cities from 10 different countries with a total population over 25 million. METHODOLOGY: The APHEA collaborative group decided on a specific methodological procedure to control for confounding effects and evaluate the hypothesis. At the same time there was sufficient flexibility to allow local characteristics to be taken into account. The procedure included modelling of all potential confounding factors (that is, seasonal and long term patterns, meteorological factors, day of the week, holidays, and other unusual events), choosing the "best" air pollution models, and applying diagnostic tools to check the adequacy of the models. The final analysis used autoregressive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion. Effects were reported as relative risks contrasting defined increases in the corresponding pollutant levels. Each participating group applied the analyses to their own data. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology enabled results from many different European settings to be considered collectively. It represented the best available compromise between feasibility, comparability, and local adaptibility when using aggregated time series data not

  6. Ranking of chemical substances based on the Japanese Pollutant Release and Transfer Register using partial order theory and random linear extensions.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Dorte; Matsuzaki, Sanae Y; Sørensen, Peter B; Carlsen, Lars; Nielsen, Ole John

    2004-05-01

    In 1997 a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) pilot project was initiated in Japan. In 1998 the project was expanded and in 1999 a law concerning the establishment of a national PRTR was adopted. Data on the emissions of chemical substances are therefore now being reported on a continuous base. In relation to the PRTR project data on toxicity have been collected. In order to make efficient use of the collected information on emission and toxicity it is useful to group or rank the chemical substances according to the impact on human health and the environment. It has recently been argued that partial order theory (POT) in combination with the use of linear extensions (LE) may be the most objective way to create a linear rank. The methodology has been further expanded to handle larger data sets by the use of random linear extensions (RLE). In this paper the Japanese PRTR data are ranked using the POT/RLE methodology. An average rank is established for chemical substances in the 1998 and 1999 PRTR in Japan. The top 10 chemical substances in the 1998 PRTR are: dichlorvos, inorganic arsenic compounds, cobalt compounds, beryllium compounds, fenitrothion, disulfoton, parathion, diazinon, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichlorodiphenylmethane and antimony compounds. The top 10 chemical substances from the 1999 PRTR are PCBs, lead compounds, fenitrothion, dichlorvos, disulfoton, inorganic arsenic compounds, chlorothalonil, thiobencarb, chromium and HCFC-141b. The descriptor having the highest influence on the ranking of the 1998 PRTR data is the production volume, which, however, is not given in the 1999 PRTR. Further, the disagreement between the ranking with the lack of toxicity data substituted with mean and maximum values, respectively, strongly indicates a general need for further toxicological investigations.

  7. Diablo/SMAC: a novel biomarker of pollutant exposure in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Zacchino, Valentina; Minghetti, Matteo; Centoducati, Gerardo; Leaver, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Diablo (or SMAC) is a protein released from mitochondria following apoptotic stimuli and inhibits the actions of Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. IAPs regulate the activity of caspases and NFkB, the primary executioners of apoptosis and of inflammation, respectively. Thus, Diablo is important for the regulation of cellular responses to damage. In Northern Europe, statutory governmental marine monitoring programs measure various biomarkers in flounder to indicate biological effects of pollutant exposure. More recently transcriptomic techniques have been applied in flounder to gain a more comprehensive understanding of pollutant effects, and to discover novel biomarkers. In most of these studies utilising flounder, Diablo was amongst the most highly increased transcripts identified. The aim of this study was to further examine piscine Diablo, at the gene level and mRNA level, after exposure to prototypical pollutants, and in flounder caught from polluted environments. The results show that two genes encoding Diablo exist in fish species, and in flounder one of these genes is increased in liver after exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, and also in livers from fish living on contaminated estuarine sediments. Therefore, Diablo measurement has potential as a biomarker of pollutant exposure, and could indicate damaging effects of chemical contaminants.

  8. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution during commuting in European cities--recommendations and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; de Leeuw, Frank

    2014-08-15

    Commuting is considered as one of the high-exposure periods among various daily activities, especially in high vehicle-density metropolitan areas. There is a growing awareness of the need to change our transportation habits by reducing our use of cars and shifting instead to active transport, i.e. walking or cycling. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to better understand personal exposure during commuting by different modes of transport, and to suggest potential strategies to minimise exposure. The air pollutants studied include particulate matter, PM black carbon, BC and particle number concentration. We focused only in European studies in order to have comparable situation in terms of vehicle fleet and policy regulations applied. Studies on personal exposure to air pollutants during car commuting are more numerous than those dealing with other types of transport, and typically conclude by emphasising that travelling by car involves exposure to relatively high particulate matter, PM exposure concentrations. Thus, compared to other transport methods, travelling by car has been shown to involve exposure both to higher PM and BC as compared with cycling. Widespread dependence on private car transport has produced a significant daily health threat to the urban commuter. However, a forward-looking, integrated transport policy, involving the phased renovation of existing public vehicles and the withdrawal of the more polluting private vehicles, combined with incentives to use public transport and the encouragement of commuter physical exercise, would reduce commuters' exposure.

  9. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  10. European air pollution in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, A.; Bessagnet, B.; Vautard, R.; Szopa, S.; Rao, S.; Schucht, S.; Klimont, Z.; Holland, M.; Menut, L.; Meleux, F.; Rouïl, L.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution and climate change are closely related. They share both driving geophysical processes and mitigation strategies. Increased temperature, changes in weather regimes and precipitation patterns will alter the formation of pollution episodes. At the same time curbing greenhouse gases emission will also induce indirect co-benefits for air pollutant emissions. As a consequence, understanding the long-term efficiency of air pollution mitigation strategies requires the integrated implementation of comprehensive geophysical and economical models. Coupling air pollution and climate models for long term projections raise a number of scientific and technical issues. Global scale circulation outputs must be downscaled in order to provide high resolution three dimensional meteorological fields at high temporal frequency to the chemistry transport model. The computational cost of the air quality model is comparable to the cost of the regional climate model. So that the computing demand and storage call for an efficient design of a complex modelling suite. Moreover the cost of the project prohibits the implementation of large ensemble of model, thereby raising concerns on the treatment of uncertainty analyses of the projections. We present an integrated assessment of future air quality that relies on up-to-date emission scenarios and full-frame geophysical models of climate and atmospheric chemistry which are themselves embedded in monetised economical models to propose a cost-benefit assessment. Emissions: For long lived trace species, we use the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP) produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC whereas regional air quality modelling is based on the updated emissions scenarios produced in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) that offer an explicit representation of air quality policies. Climate and chemistry models: We use the latest sources of recent coordinated model intercomparison projects, each

  11. Assessment of the effects of air pollution on european monuments through a geochemical characterization of black crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comite, Valeria; Barca, Donatella; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Bonazza, Alessandra; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Ruffolo, SIlvestro Antonio; Pezzino, Antonino; Sabbioni, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focuses on spectrometric analyses carried out on black crust samples, collected from buildings and churches belonging to the European built Heritage, i.e., the Corner Palace in Venice (Italy), the Cathedral of St. Rombouts in Mechelen (Belgium), the Church of St. Eustache in Paris (France) and the Tower of London (United Kingdom). Such monuments, all built in carbonate stones, were selected for their historic and artistic relevance, as well as for their location in different urban environments. For an exhaustive account of the sampled black crusts, an approach integrating complementary techniques was used, including OM, SEM-EDS, FT-IR and LA-ICP-MS. The complete characterization of the damage layers provided information on their chemical composition, the state of conservation of the underlying substrates and the interactions between crusts and stones. In particular, the geochemical study in terms of trace elements revealed that all crusts are enriched in heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, V, and Zn) compared to substrates. The different concentrations of such elements in all analyzed crust samples can be ascribed to several factors, such as: height of sampling, morphology of the sampled surfaces (vertical or horizontal), exposure to atmospheric agents as well as to direct (road or boat traffic) or indirect (industries) sources of pollution, accumulation time of pollutants on the surface, wash out and particulate air pollution. Specifically, the crusts collected at lower heights (Corner Palace, Cathedral of St. Rombouts, Tower of London) resulted to be mainly influenced by mobile sources of pollution (vehicular or boat traffic), while samples taken at higher heights (Church of St. Eustache and Corner Palace) are generally mostly affected by stationary combustion sources. In some cases, the detailed analysis of multilayered crusts (Palazzo Corner) contributed to recognize the variation of combustion sources responsible

  12. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  13. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-05

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.

  14. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. PMID:25780232

  15. Reduced Arctic air pollution due to decreasing European and North American emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Anna R.; Palmer, Paul I.; Barlow, James M.; Finch, Douglas P.; Novelli, Paul; Jaeglé, Lyatt

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric transport of midlatitude pollutant emissions to the Arctic can result in disproportionate impacts on the receptor region. We use carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of incomplete combustion, to study changes in pollutant transport to the Arctic. Using a wavelet transform, we spectrally decompose CO mole fraction measurements from three Arctic sites (Alert, Barrow, and Zeppelin) collected by NOAA over the past 20-25 years. We show that CO concentrations have decreased by -1.0 to -1.2 ppb/yr. We find that the dampened seasonal cycle (-1.2 to -2.3 ppb/yr) is mostly due to a reduction in peak concentrations (-1.5 to -2.4 ppb/yr), which we attribute to reduced source emissions. We find no evidence to support a persistent increase in hydroxyl radical concentration. Using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model, we show that observed decreases are consistent with reductions in fossil fuel usage from Europe and North America.

  16. Phalangeal bone anomalies in the European common toad Bufo bufo from polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kolenda, Krzysztof; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Sośnicka, Wioletta

    2016-11-01

    Every spring, many of amphibians are killed by motor vehicles on roads. These road-killed animals can be used as valuable material for non-invasive studies showing the effect of environmental pollution on amphibian populations. The aims of our research were to check whether the phalanges of road-killed toads may be useful as material for histological analysis, and whether various degrees of human impact influence the level in bone abnormalities in the common toad. We also examined whether the sex and age structure of toads can differ significantly depending in the different sites. We chose three toad breeding sites where road-killed individuals had been observed: near the centre of a city, the outskirts of a city, and a rural site. We collected dead individuals during spring migration in 2013. The sex of each individual was determined and the toes were used to determine age using the skeletochronology method. While performing age estimates, we looked for abnormalities in relation to normal bone tissue structure. In urban site, females dominate males (sex ratio 2.6:1), but in populations from rural and semi-urban sites, sex ratio was reverse (1:2.2 and 1:1.4, respectively). However, we did not find any significant differences between age structure of all populations (average age of each population: approximately 4 years). We observed abnormalities in more than 80 % of all toads from the city, compared to approximately 20 % from the rural and semi-urban sites. In particular, we found hypertrophic bone cells, misaligned intercellular substance, and irregular outer edges of bones. We suggest that these malformations are caused by different pollution, e.g. with heavy metals.

  17. Short-term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: results from time series data from the APHEA project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, K.; Touloumi, G.; Spix, C.; Schwartz, J.; Balducci, F.; Medina, S.; Rossi, G.; Wojtyniak, B.; Sunyer, J.; Bacharova, L.; Schouten, J. P.; Ponka, A.; Anderson, H. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. DESIGN: Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (measured as black smoke or particles smaller than 10 microns in diameter (PM10)) and potential confounders. SETTING: 12 European cities in the APHEA project (Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of death. RESULTS: In western European cities it was found that an increase of 50 micrograms/m3 in sulphur dioxide or black smoke was associated with a 3% (95% confidence interval 2% to 4%) increase in daily mortality and the corresponding figure for PM10 was 2% (1% to 3%). In central eastern European cities the increase in mortality associated with a 50 micrograms/m3 change in sulphur dioxide was 0.8% (-0.1% to 2.4%) and in black smoke 0.6% (0.1% to 1.1%). Cumulative effects of prolonged (two to four days) exposure to air pollutants resulted in estimates comparable with the one day effects. The effects of both pollutants were stronger during the summer and were mutually independent. CONCLUSIONS: The internal consistency of the results in western European cities with wide differences in climate and environmental conditions suggest that these associations may be causal. The long term health impact of these effects is uncertain, but today's relatively low levels of sulphur dioxide and particles still have detectable short term effects on health and further reductions in air pollution are advisable. PMID:9180068

  18. Spotlight on fish: light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Preuer, Torsten; Kloas, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated.

  19. Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants at European Legislation Safety Concentrations: How Safe Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Raquel N.; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E. V.; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B.; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  20. Supernumerary chromosomes on Southern European populations of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Consequence of environmental pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Alexandra; Chaves, Raquel; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Ruano, Francisco; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule (Cardiidae) has a diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38, its karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 3 telocentric chromosome pairs. Hyperdiploid cells had previously been observed in two populations of the Northern Galician coasts (northwest of Spain). The supernumerary chromosomes being easily distinguished by their reduced differentiated size and by their intra- and inter-individual variability. After the recent observation of 35% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the Southern Galician coasts (Vigo) and 15% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the south of Portugal (Ria Formosa, Algarve), we attempted, in this paper, an elucidation of the nature of these supernumerary chromosomes, by differential banding technique with restriction enzymes on these hyperdiploid cells. Analysis of the restriction enzyme banding of the 2 n > 38 karyotypes led us to propose the occurrence of a chromosomal fission event involving the largest submetacentric chromosome pair. This study represents the first description of the occurrence of a possible chromosomal fission in marine bivalves. Different levels of environmental pollution are suggested as possible explanation for the differences observed on the proportion of hyperdiploid cells between the Southern Portugal population and the three Galician ones.

  1. Modelling transport and deposition of persistent organic pollutants in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Jaarsveld, J. A.; Van Pul, W. A. J.; De Leeuw, F. A. A. M.

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) transport and deposition in Europe were investigated using calculations with the TREND model based on high-resolution 1990 emission estimates. Lindane (γ-HCH) and benzo(a)pyrene were chosen to represent components found predominantly in the gas and particle phases, respectively. Atmospheric lifetimes and dispersion of gas-phase POPs are primarily determined by their solubility in water and degradation rate in soils and vegetation; they have much longer lifetimes over land than over water surfaces. Model calculations indicate that γ-HCH has the potential for dispersion throughout the hemisphere, with most of it ending up in large water bodies. Spatial distribution patterns of calculated concentrations in precipitation correlated well with those of wet deposition measurements around the North Sea, but the absolute values were too low by a factor of three. Sensitivity analyses suggest that it is the emission data rather than other model parameters that are responsible for the underestimation. For (particle-phase) B(a)P the size distribution of its carrier particles and its atmospheric degradation rate are the most important, and the most uncertain, parameters affecting dispersion and transport. Results here indicate general overestimation of concentrations by a factor of two or less, but insufficient measurements limit uncertainty analyses and validity of conclusions.

  2. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.

  3. Source apportionment of size resolved particulate matter at a European air pollution hot spot.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Klán, M; Hopke, P K

    2015-01-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization-PMF was applied to hourly resolved elemental composition of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) aerosol particles to apportion their sources in the airshed of residential district, Ostrava-Radvanice and Bartovice in winter 2012. Multiple-site measurement by PM2.5 monitors complements the source apportionment. As there were no statistical significant differences amongst the monitors, the source apportionment derived for the central site data is expected to apply to whole residential district. The apportioned sources of the fine aerosol particles were coal combustion (58.6%), sinter production-hot phase (22.9%), traffic (15%), raw iron production (3.5%), and desulfurization slag processing (<0.5%) whilst road dust (47.3%), sinter production-cold phase (27.7%), coal combustion (16.8%), and raw iron production (8.2%) were resolved being sources of the coarse aerosol particles. The shape and elemental composition of size-segregated aerosol airborne-sampled by an airship aloft presumed air pollution sources helped to interpret the PMF solution.

  4. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown. PMID:25780238

  5. The use of the shanny Lipophrys pholis for pollution monitoring: a new sentinel species for the northwestern European marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Santos, M M; Ferreira, A M; Micaelo, C; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems by organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a matter of great concern. Mussels have been extensively used as sentinel species in a large number of monitoring programs. However, the use of bivalves as the sole species has some limitations, because they are not as responsive as fish to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor agonists. Hence, for many marine areas, there is the need to validate new sentinel fish species that can be used in the assessment of pollution by organic contaminants. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is an intertidal fish that combines many characteristics required in a sentinel species: is abundant and easy to catch, has a wide geographical distribution and restrict home range. After larvae recruitment to the intertidal rocky shores, they remain in the same area for the rest of the life-cycle, thus reflecting local pollutants exposure. In order to evaluate the species sensitivity to organic contaminants under field conditions, L. pholis were collected at six sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The induction of two biomarkers extensively validated in the assessment of PAHs contamination ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) and Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FACs) was evaluated. In parallel, mussels were collected at the same locations and levels of 16 PAHs and selected heavy metals determined. Overall, the specimens collected in the urban areas showed a significant induction of EROD and FACs (up to a six-fold induction) if compared with the reference sites. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the biomarkers and PAHs levels in mussel tissues. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicate that L. pholis is responsive to organic contaminants such as PAHs, suggesting its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of these contaminants in European marine ecosystems.

  6. Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Morillo, E; Romero, A S; Maqueda, C; Madrid, L; Ajmone-Marsan, F; Grcman, H; Davidson, C M; Hursthouse, A S; Villaverde, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487-51,822 microg kg(-1), cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5-4488 microg kg(-1)). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil.

  7. Metamodeling as a tool to size vegetative filter strips for surface runoff pollution control in European watersheds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvernet, Claire; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Carluer, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, a significant presence of contaminants is found in surface water, partly due to pesticide applications. Vegetative filter strips or buffer zones (VFS), often located along rivers, are a common best management practice (BMP) to reduce non point source pollution of water by reducing surface runoff. However, they need to be adapted to the agro-ecological and climatic conditions, both in terms of position and size, in order to be efficient. The TOPPS-PROWADIS project involves European experts and stakeholders to develop and recommend BMPs to reduce pesticide transfer by drift or runoff in several European countries. In this context, IRSTEA developed a guide accompanying the use of different tools, which allows designing site-specific VFS by simulating their efficiency to limit transfers using the mechanistic model VFSMOD. This method which is very complete assumes that the user provides detailed field knowledge and data, which are not always easily available. The aim of this study is to assist the buffer sizing by using a unique tool with a reduced set of parameters, adapted to the available information from the end-users. In order to fill in the lack of real data in many practical applications, a set of virtual scenarios was selected to encompass a large range of agro-pedo-climatic conditions in Europe, considering both the upslope agricultural field and the VFS characteristics. As a first step first, in this work we present scenarios based on North-West of France climate consisting of different rainfall intensities and durations, hillslope lengths and slopes, humidity conditions, a large set of field rainfall/runoff characteristics for the contributing area, and several shallow water table depths and soil types for the VFS. The sizing method based on the mechanistic model VFSMOD was applied for all these scenarios, and a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) of the VFS optimal length was performed for all the input parameters in order to understand their

  8. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm DNA methylation changes in Arctic and European populations.

    PubMed

    Consales, Claudia; Toft, Gunnar; Leter, Giorgio; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Uccelli, Raffaella; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Eleuteri, Patrizia; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Pedersen, Henning S; Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Spanò, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], are environmental contaminants with potential endocrine disrupting activity. DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated with serum concentrations of POPs in Greenland Inuit and Korean populations. Greenland Inuits are characterized by the highest worldwide POP levels. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the relationship between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation levels in sperm of non-occupationally exposed fertile men from Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Serum levels of PCB-153 [1,2,4-trichloro-5-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)benzene], as a proxy of the total PCBs body burden, and of p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene], the main metabolite of DDT were measured. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed globally by flow cytometric (FCM) immunodetection of 5-methyl-cytosines and at specific repetitive DNA sequences (Alu, LINE-1, Satα) by PCR-pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to investigate correlations between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation. No consistent associations between exposure to POPs and sperm DNA methylation at repetitive DNA sequences were detected. A statistically significant global decrease in methylation was associated with exposure to either POP by FCM analysis. This is the first study to investigate environmental exposure to POPs and DNA methylation levels considering sperm as the target cells. Although POP exposure appears to have a limited negative impact on sperm DNA methylation levels in adult males, the global hypomethylation detected by one of the methods applied suggests that further investigation is warranted.

  9. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  10. Fluctuating wing asymmetry and hepatic concentrations of persistent organic pollutants are associated in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) chicks.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Aarnes, Jon Birger; Murvoll, Kari-Mette; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic birds, high body burdens of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with developmental effects related to growth, increased fluctuating wing asymmetry, and disruption of the thyroid hormone, vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (tocopherol) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine if morphological variables (body mass, liver mass, wing length, tarsus length and head length), fluctuating asymmetry of the wings and tarsus, growth rates and endocrine variables (thyroid hormones, retinol and tocopherol) were associated with hepatic levels of POPs (PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in 21 day old chicks of European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that fluctuating asymmetry of wing bone length (FA(WBL)) was affected by PCB-105, -118, -138, -153, and -180 (r(2)x=0.88, r(2)y=0.35, q(2)=0.29). Bivariate correlation confirmed significant positive relationships between FA(WBL) and each of these PCB congeners. In the PLS model no other biological variables were significantly affected by any of the POPs. Levels of POPs were much lower in the shag chicks than in eggs and in hatchlings from the same breeding colony, most likely due to growth dilution of the compounds. We suggest that the effects of the PCBs on FA(WBL) may be due to effects of these compounds on bone growth and bone structure. FA(WBL) may have functional effects on the fitness if it persists after fledging.

  11. Integrating health on air quality assessment--review report on health risks of two major European outdoor air pollutants: PM and NO₂.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange; Ferreira, Joana; Silveira, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Lopes, Diogo; Relvas, Hélder; Borrego, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of air pollution on the public's health has become an increasingly critical component in policy discussion. Recent data indicate that more than 70% of the world population lives in cities. Several studies reported that current levels of air pollutants in urban areas are associated with adverse health risks, namely, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. IARC recently classified outdoor air pollution and related particulate matter (PM) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the air quality improvements observed over the last few years, there is still continued widespread exceedance within Europe, particularly regarding PM and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The European Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC requires Member States to design appropriate air quality plans for zones where air quality does not comply with established limit values. However, in most cases, air quality is only quantified using a combination of monitored and modeled data and no health impact assessment is carried out. An integrated approach combining the effects of several emission abatement measures on air quality, impacts on human health, and associated implementation costs enables an effective cost-benefit analysis and an added value to the decision-making process. Hence, this review describes the basic steps and tools for integrating health into air quality assessment (health indicators, exposure-response functions). In addition, consideration is given to two major outdoor pollutants: PM and NO2. A summary of the health metrics used to assess the health impact of PM and NO2 and recent epidemiologic data are also described.

  12. Impacts of air pollution on cultural heritage corrosion at European level: What has been achieved and what are the future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Di Turo, Francesca; Proietti, Chiara; Screpanti, Augusto; Fornasier, M Francesca; Cionni, Irene; Favero, Gabriele; De Marco, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of pollutants with Cultural Heritage materials leads to artworks and materials degradation and loss, causing an unpriceless damage. This works aims to estimate the impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on limestone, copper and bronze and represents the European risk assessment for corrosion of Cultural Heritage materials. The measures and policies for atmospheric pollution reduction have cut off the SO2 concentration and consequently its impact on materials is drastically reduced. Indeed, in 1980 the number of UNESCO sites in danger was extremely high (94% for limestone, 54% for copper and 1% for bronze) while in 2010 these sites did not exceed the tolerable value of surface recession and corrosion. However, some problem related to air pollution persists. In particular, Random Forest Analysis (RFA), highlights PM10 as the main responsible for materials corrosion, in 2010. Two scenarios in 2030 have been tested, highlighting that the corrosion levels of limestone, copper and bronze exceed the tolerable limits only in the Balkan area and Turkey. Our results show the importance in the air quality modelling as a powerful tool for the UNESCO sites conservation.

  13. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Hampel, Regina; Heier, Margit; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Migliore, Enrica; Ostenson, Caes-Göran; Overvad, Kim; Pedersen, Nancy L; J, Juha Pekkanen; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Swart, Wim; Turunen, Anu W; Vineis, Paolo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5-10 μm (PMcoarse), and <10 μm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 μg/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 μg/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European

  14. Registering medicines for low-income countries: how suitable are the stringent review procedures of the World Health Organisation, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency?

    PubMed

    Doua, Joachim Y; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    New medicines are registered after a resource-demanding process. Unfortunately, in low-income countries (LICs), demand outweighs resources. To facilitate registration in LICs, stringent review procedures of the European Medicines Agency (EMA Article-58), Food and Drug Administration (FDA PEPFAR-linked review) and WHO Prequalification programme have been established. Only the PEPFAR-linked review gives approval, while the others make recommendations for approval. This study assessed the performance and discussed the challenges of these three stringent review procedures. Data from WHO, FDA, EMA, Medline and Internet were analysed. Over 60% of medicines reviewed by stringent review procedures are manufactured in India. Until 2012, WHO prequalified 400 medicines (211 vaccines, 130 antiretrovirals, 29 tuberculostatics, 15 antimalarials and 15 others). PEPFAR-linked review approved 156 antiretrovirals, while EMA Article 58 recommended approval of 3 antiretrovirals, 1 vaccine and 1 antimalarial. WHO Prequalification and PEPFAR-linked review are free of charge and as a result have accelerated access to antiretrovirals. They both built capacity in sub-Saharan Africa, although WHO prequalification relies technically on stringent regulatory authorities and financially on donors. Article-58 offers the largest disease coverage and strongest technical capacities, is costly and involves fewer LICs. To meet the high demand for quality medicines in LICs, these stringent review procedures need to enlarge their disease coverage. To improve registration, EMA Article 58 should actively involve LICs. Furthermore, LIC regulatory activities must not be fully resigned to stringent review procedure.

  15. Height growth of different European Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances in a heavily polluted and a control environment.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of height measurements and degree of needle injury on five-year-old plants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing near a phosphate fertiliser plant that emits SO(2) and fluorides. The populations of Scots pine represented in this experiment originate from 11 countries and were substantially differentiated in height growth and extent of needle necroses. Those populations which grew most rapidly were found to be the most sensitive to pollutant injury. The least productive provenances from the north of the range (Sweden, USSR) are at the same time characterized by lowest decline in height growth, lowest mortality and least extensive necroses. It is proposed that gene banks be established for the best genotypes likely to be eliminated in the heavily polluted conditions of Poland today.

  16. An indicator to map diffuse chemical river pollution considering buffer capacity of riparian vegetation--a pan-European case study on pesticides.

    PubMed

    Weissteiner, Christof J; Pistocchi, Alberto; Marinov, Dimitar; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Sala, Serenella

    2014-06-15

    Vegetated riparian areas alongside streams are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling chemical loads from diffuse agricultural sources entering water bodies. Based on a recently compiled European map of riparian zones and a simplified soil chemical balance model, we propose a new indicator at a continental scale. QuBES (Qualitative indicator of Buffered Emissions to Streams) allows a qualitative assessment of European rivers exposed to pesticide input. The indicator consists of normalised pesticide loads to streams computed through a simplified steady-state fate model that distinguishes various chemical groups according to physico-chemical behaviour (solubility and persistence). The retention of pollutants in the buffer zone is modelled according to buffer width and sorption properties. While the indicator may be applied for the study of a generic emission pattern and for a chemical of generic properties, we demonstrate it to the case of agricultural emissions of pesticides. Due to missing geo-spatial data of pesticide emissions, a total pesticide emission scenario is assumed. The QuBES indicator is easy to calculate and requires far less input data and parameterisation than typical chemical-specific models. At the same time, it allows mapping of (i) riparian buffer permeability, (ii) chemical runoff from soils, and (iii) the buffered load of chemicals to the stream network. When the purpose of modelling is limited to identifying chemical pollution patterns and understanding the relative importance of emissions and natural attenuation in soils and stream buffer strips, the indicator may be suggested as a screening level, cost-effective alternative to spatially distributed models of higher complexity.

  17. Short-term forecast of air pollutants' concentrations over the central European part of Russia on the basis of COSMO-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G.; Revokatova, A.; Kirsanov, A.; Rivin, G.

    2012-04-01

    A state-of-the-art chemical-transport model COSMO-ART including a mesoscale nonhydrostatic meteorological model COSMO and a model of atmospheric chemistry ART is used to predict concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the centre of the European part of Russia under different synoptic conditions and with effect of biomass burning. Data on emissions prepared by TNO and concentrations calculated by MOZART are used as boundary and initial conditions in ART. To specify emissions in Moscow megapolis additionally, we started to develop a technology of assimilation of observed concentration. The results of the numerical experiments show that the model is able to simulate adequately the spatial-temporal features of concentration fields. It gives the perspectives to predict pollution of the Moscow megalopolis, taking into account natural and anthropogenic sources under real weather conditions, to carry out case study on assessing the impact of special pollution sources. We would like to thank Bernhard Vogel, Hieke Vogel and their colleagues as well as Christoph Knot for their kind assistance and regular consultations.

  18. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from Portugal versus European incidence: A critical overview.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds, such as organohalogenated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, which can be found in all types of environmental compartments. Their presence in the aquatic environment is a worldwide problem, with emphasis on sediments which act as depository and consequently as a source of hydrophobic, recalcitrant and harmful compounds. Besides, these pollutants might affect the reproduction and mortality of living organisms, diverging in their potential to bioaccumulate in tissues. The present paper aims to review the occurrence of POPs in sediments and biota from the coastal, estuarine and river areas of Portugal. The list of the studied compounds comprises organohalogenated compounds, PAHs, organometallic compounds, pesticides, sterols, fatty acids and pharmaceutical compounds. The contamination of sediments by various pollutants is presented, such as PAHs up to 7,350 ng g(-1) found in Sado estuary and polychlorinated biphenyls up to 62.2 ng g(-1) in the case of sediments collected in Ria de Aveiro. The occurrence of these persistent toxic substances in sediments demonstrates aquatic contamination from agricultural, industrial and urban discharges and the concern about the potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife and humans. In fact, several classes of POPs have also been found in biota, such as polychlorinated biphenyls up to 810.9 ng g(-1) in sentinel fish from the Douro River estuary and pesticides in bivalves from the Sado River estuary. The importance of further systematic research on sediments and biota is here highlighted to compare the contamination of these two reservoirs; to assess their spatial and temporal variation; and to determine other classes of POPs that were not investigated yet (e.g., industrial compounds, estrogens and many classes of pharmaceuticals).

  19. Integrating long-term water and sediment pollution data, in assessing chemical status within the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Tueros, Itziar; Borja, Angel; Larreta, Joana; Rodríguez, J Germán; Valencia, Victoriano; Millán, Esmeralda

    2009-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection and improvement of estuarine (transitional) and coastal waters, attempting to achieve good water status by 2015; this includes, within the assessment, biological and chemical elements. The European Commission has proposed a list of priority dangerous substances (including metals such as Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb), with the corresponding list of environmental quality standards (EQS), to assess chemical status, but only for waters. In this contribution, a long-term (1995-2007) dataset of transitional and coastal water and sediment trace elements concentrations, from the Basque Country (northern Spain), has been used to investigate the response of these systems to water treatment programmes. Moreover, the approach proposed in the WFD, for assessing water chemical status (the 'one out, all out' approach), is compared with the integration of water and sediment data, into a unique assessment. For this exercise, background levels are used as reference conditions, identifying the boundary between high and good chemical status. EQS are used as the boundary between good and moderate chemical status. This contribution reveals that the first approach can lead to misclassification, with the second approach representing the pattern shown by the long-term data trends. Finally, the management implications, using each approach are discussed.

  20. Radiocarbon pollution and self-purification of humus in chernozems of the East-European plain in 1900-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. V.; Khokhlova, O. S.; Galitskii, V. V.; Chichagova, O. A.; Zazovskaya, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamics of the 14C content in the humus of chernozems in 1900-2008 are considered. The elevated 14C content in the atmosphere because of nuclear weapons tests has led to the contamination of humus with bomb radiocarbon. In 1966-1968, the 14C reserves in the profiles of chernozems exceeded the background ones by 15%; in 1978, by 12%; and, in 1998, by 2%. By the year of 2008, its reserves became equal to the background ones. The 14C distribution along the soil profiles changed. By 1978, the 0- to 30-cm-thick soil layer became free from radiocarbon due to its self-purification; however, at depths of 40-70 and 100-115 cm, its weak accumulation was registered. By 2008, the whole soil profile was free from 14C. The main mechanism of the soil self-purification from radiocarbon is suggested to be the constant substitution of fragments of humus compound structures for those of fresh organic matter entering the soils with the 14C content being in equilibrium with the atmospheric one, i.e., due to the renewal of the carbon in the humus. The rate of the carbon renewal and its migration in the soils are assed based on the 14C concentrations in the humus.

  1. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  2. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile as biomarkers of pollution in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from German rivers.

    PubMed

    Nagel, F; Kammann, U; Wagner, C; Hanel, R

    2012-02-01

    In the light of the alarming decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) population, there is an urgent need to define ecological indicators for eel habitat quality. Due to an increasing shortage of glass eels available for local stock enhancement, the decision of whether restocking is a valuable management tool to increase high-quality silver eel escapement to the sea needs to be evaluated. Organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are among the major threats to fish in their habitat. Therefore, the aim of the investigation presented here was to examine metabolites of PAHs in eel bile as one possible marker for habitat quality. In total, 170 yellow eels were collected in the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Havel, Schlei, Eider, Trave, Warnow, Peene, Uecker, and Oder in 2009. PAH metabolites in eel bile were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Metabolites of pyrene and phenanthrene were investigated. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel bile varied significantly between several rivers, with the highest mean concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene in eel bile from the river Trave (2421 and 632 ng/ml). Moreover, huge differences in the ratio of 1-hydroxypyrene to 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, with the highest mean value in eel bile from the river Ems (7.43) and the lowest mean value in eel bile from the river Uecker (0.70), indicate different sources of PAH contamination. A comparative analysis of PAH-metabolite contamination of eels in different river systems is seen as a first step toward a classification of freshwater habitats for restocking purposes.

  3. On Vocal Registers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollien, Harry

    A vocal register is a series or range of consecutive frequencies that can be produced with nearly identical voice quality. On the basis of research three fundamental registers can be defined and described: pulse, a low range of phonation; modal, a middle or "normal" range; and loft, a high range, described by some as falsetto. These…

  4. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  5. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  6. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  7. Improved feedback shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.

    1972-01-01

    Design of feedback shift register with three tap feedback decoding scheme is described. Application for obtaining sequence synchronization patterns is examined. Operation of the circuitry is described and drawings of the systems are included.

  8. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  9. Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

    2003-02-01

    Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European

  10. Vitellogenin gene expression in the intertidal blenny Lipophrys pholis: a new sentinel species for estrogenic chemical pollution monitoring in the European Atlantic coast?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Santos, M M; Castro, L Filipe C; Reis-Henriques, M A; Lima, D; Vieira, M N; Monteiro, N M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of estrogenic chemicals (ECs) in the aquatic environment is a growing problem. While most attention was initially given to fresh water and estuarine ecosystems, it is now evident that coastal marine areas are also vulnerable to these pollutants. The use of vitellogenin induction in male fish, a specific biomarker of EC exposure, has been the most widely applied methodology. However, in some occasions, the high mobility and migratory behaviour of common sentinel fish species makes data interpretation difficult. Hence, there is the need to validate new sentinel marine fish species which should display, among other features, a strong homing behaviour. The shanny, Lipophrys pholis, is an intertidal fish that combines many of the required characteristics for a sentinel species: abundance and easy of catch, wide geographical distribution and restricted home range. Thus, in order to evaluate, in the field, the species sensitivity to ECs, L. pholis males were collected at two sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The vitellogenin II gene (VTGII) was isolated and its liver expression evaluated by RT-PCR in the field samples. A significant induction of gene expression was observed in the specimens collected in the urban area, if compared to the reference site, which suggests exposure to ECs. Moreover, a 21-days laboratory exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of ethinylestradiol (EE2) was also performed. A significant induction of L. pholis VTGII gene in EE2 exposed males was observed suggesting similar sensitivity to that of other marine/estuarine fishes. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicates that L. pholis is responsive to ECs, thus favouring its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of ECs in European marine ecosystems.

  11. Processor register error correction management

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  12. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  13. Hello! Are You Registered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  14. Trends and patterns of cancer mortality in European countries.

    PubMed

    Antunes, J L F; Toporcov, T N; de Andrade, F P

    2003-10-01

    This study aims at documenting differentials in the cancer mortality profile of European countries during the recent process of intense geo-political transformations. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe provided information on cancer mortality and several covariates for each country. In contrast with the European Union and Nordic countries, Central and Eastern Europe presented higher current levels and increasing trend of cancer mortality. Age-standardized rates for overall cancer mortality increased at an annual average of 2.43% in Central and Eastern European countries during the period from 1980 to 2001, while the European Union, Nordic countries and Switzerland underwent an average decrease of 7.27% per year. Trends in cancer death rates were associated with indices of welfare and socio-economic status at the country level: gross national product, health expenditure, unemployment, food intake, smoking habits and air pollution. Concurrent with this observation, we registered an extended gap in standings for these figures between richer and poorer European countries. These observations suggest that part of cancer mortality in Central and Eastern Europe could be prevented with current technology and health promotion. The drop of rates in Nordic and Western European countries indicates a progress in cancer control that, regrettably, does not hold for the whole Continent.

  15. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  16. Restructuring registered nurse curricula.

    PubMed

    Hegge, M

    1995-01-01

    National initiatives in higher education, health reform, and the nursing curriculum revolution are applied to five curricular patterns for registered nurse (RN) upward mobility baccalaureate education. American Association of Higher Education principles for quality baccalaureate education are applied to the curricular models. The patterns described are: community model, health promotion model, nursing diagnosis model, case management model, and caring model. Three educational strategies for prompting paradigm shifts in RNs who return to school are discussed: collaborative learning, portfolios, and self-assessments. These learning strategies are designed to move the adult student through Perry's phases of cognitive development from duality to relativism. The combination of fresh new curriculum patterns and collaborative learning strategies can empower nurses to discover new paradigms with which to transform the profession.

  17. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  18. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs) associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model). Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km) could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27). Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution

  19. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…

  20. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  1. A new risk assessment approach for the prioritization of 500 classical and emerging organic microcontaminants as potential river basin specific pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Dulio, Valeria; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; De Deckere, Eric; Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Ginebreda, Antoni; De Cooman, Ward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2011-05-01

    Given the huge number of chemicals released into the environment and existing time and budget constraints, there is a need to prioritize chemicals for risk assessment and monitoring in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD). This study is the first to assess the risk of 500 organic substances based on observations in the four European river basins of the Elbe, Scheldt, Danube and Llobregat. A decision tree is introduced that first classifies chemicals into six categories depending on the information available, which allows water managers to focus on the next steps (e.g. derivation of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), improvement of analytical methods, etc.). The priority within each category is then evaluated based on two indicators, the Frequency of Exceedance and the Extent of Exceedance of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). These two indictors are based on maximum environmental concentrations (MEC), rather than the commonly used statistically based averages (Predicted Effect Concentration, PEC), and compared to the lowest acute-based (PNEC(acute)) or chronic-based thresholds (PNEC(chronic)). For 56% of the compounds, PNECs were available from existing risk assessments, and the majority of these PNECs were derived from chronic toxicity data or simulated ecosystem studies (mesocosm) with rather low assessment factors. The limitations of this concept for risk assessment purposes are discussed. For the remainder, provisional PNECs (P-PNECs) were established from read-across models for acute toxicity to the standard test organisms Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas and Selenastrum capricornutum. On the one hand, the prioritization revealed that about three-quarter of the 44 substances with MEC/PNEC ratios above ten were pesticides. On the other hand, based on the monitoring data used in this study, no risk with regard to the water phase could be found for eight of the 41 priority substances, indicating a first success of

  2. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  3. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  4. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  5. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Robertsson, O.; Ranstam, J.; Sundberg, M.; W-Dahl, A.; Lidgren, L.

    2014-01-01

    We are entering a new era with governmental bodies taking an increasingly guiding role, gaining control of registries, demanding direct access with release of open public information for quality comparisons between hospitals. This review is written by physicians and scientists who have worked with the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) periodically since it began. It reviews the history of the register and describes the methods used and lessons learned. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:217–22. PMID:24986492

  6. Effects of diesel/biodiesel blends on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a passenger vehicle operated over the European and the Athens driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    This paper presents the regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions of a diesel passenger vehicle, operated with low sulphur automotive diesel and soy methyl ester blends. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted under real driving conditions (Athens Driving Cycle, ADC) and compared with those of a modified New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, equipped with an indirect injection diesel engine, fuelled with diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20% respectively. Unregulated emissions of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 nitro-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate matter were measured. Qualitative hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the SOF. Regulated emissions of NO x, CO, HC, CO 2, and PM were also measured over the two test cycles. It was established that some of the emissions measured over the (hot-start) NEDC differed from the real-world cycle. Significant differences were also observed in the vehicle's fuel consumption between the two test cycles. The addition of biodiesel reduced the regulated emissions of CO, HC and PM, while an increase in NO x was observed over the ADC. Carbonyl emissions, PAHs and nitro-PAHs were reduced with the addition of biodiesel over both driving cycles.

  7. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  8. Lipid increases in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Scotland 1986-2008: an assessment of physical parameters and the influence of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ian W; Macgregor, Kenneth; Godfrey, Jason D; Harris, Lynsay; Duguid, Alistair

    2015-05-01

    Recruitment of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has fallen steadily in recent decades, with current levels understood to be at around 5% of those in the 1970s, and the species is now widely recognised as being endangered. Changes in ocean currents, climate shifts, habitat loss, overfishing, barriers to migration, increased predation, plastic litter and exposure to chemicals have all been postulated as potential causative factors. Several studies have shown a general decline in eel quality (lower lipid content and body condition) over time that may be linked to reduced reproductive success. In this study, data from an eel sampling campaign in 1987 are compared with recent data (2004-2008) for eels in Scotland to assess any temporal changes in eel quality indicators and also to assess any links between current levels of chemical exposure and eel quality. Mean lipid levels, as a percentage of wet muscle mass, were higher in 2004-2008 (37 ± 1.9% SE) than in 1986 (21 ± 0.9% SE). By contrast, mean body condition index (K) was slightly lower in the latter period. Considering the 2004-2008 samples, significant inter-site variation was observed for condition index K, while intra-site variation was observed for lipid content and physical parameters relative to age (i.e. mass/age, length/age and lipid/age ratios); however, the variations observed could not be linked to differences in chemical body burdens, indicating that no chemical impacts on the parameters assessed are discernible during the continental life stage of eels in Scotland.

  9. Registered Nurse Education and the Registered Nurse Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Howard Allan

    This effort compares the graduates of the three types of Registered Nurse (RN) education programs (three-year Diploma in Nursing, two-year Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN), and four-year Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing). The basic objective is to determine whether they are perfect substitutes, especially whether ADN graduates can adequately…

  10. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  11. Putting Central Registers to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    1977-01-01

    Cites shortcomings of existing centralized state systems for processing child protection case records. Diagnostic, monitoring and statistical functions of these registers are described as severely limited by inaccurate and incomplete reporting. Confidentiality of records, subjects' access to records and problems of verification are discussed. (BF)

  12. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.2 Federal Register. (a) The subscription price for the paper edition of...

  15. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.2 Federal Register. (a) The subscription price for the paper edition of...

  16. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.2 Federal Register. (a) The subscription price for the paper edition of...

  17. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58... Governmental registers. (a) The Office will maintain a Departmental Register to record governmental interests required to be recorded by Executive Order 9424. This Departmental Register will not be open to...

  18. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  19. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  20. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  1. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  2. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.2 Federal Register. (a) The subscription price for the paper edition of...

  3. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  4. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58... Governmental registers. (a) The Office will maintain a Departmental Register to record governmental interests required to be recorded by Executive Order 9424. This Departmental Register will not be open to...

  5. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58... Governmental registers. (a) The Office will maintain a Departmental Register to record governmental interests required to be recorded by Executive Order 9424. This Departmental Register will not be open to...

  6. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.2 Federal Register. (a) The subscription price for the paper edition of...

  7. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1... RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of railroad... employment. The register shall indicate which of those employees claims a first right of hire. (b)...

  8. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58... Governmental registers. (a) The Office will maintain a Departmental Register to record governmental interests required to be recorded by Executive Order 9424. This Departmental Register will not be open to...

  9. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  10. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58... Governmental registers. (a) The Office will maintain a Departmental Register to record governmental interests required to be recorded by Executive Order 9424. This Departmental Register will not be open to...

  11. 75 FR 8425 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Masterpieces of European...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Masterpieces of European Painting... European Painting from Dulwich Picture Gallery,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  12. Rocket Altitude Test Facilities Register

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Classification of Document UNCLASSIFIED 5. Originator Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development North Atlantic Treaty Organization...Emphasis was put on facilities capable of performing research and development tests. This AGARDograph was prepared at the request of the Propulsion... RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 7RUEANCELLE 92200 NEUILLY SUR SEINE FRANCE AGARDo^raph N0^97 , Rocket Altitude Test Facilities Register /^ri c^ris

  13. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  14. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  15. The Fundamental Spatial Data in the Public Administration Registers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čada, V.; Janečka, K.

    2016-06-01

    The system of basic registers was launched in the Czech Republic in 2012. The system provides a unique solution to centralize and keep actual most common and widely used information as a part of the eGovernment. The basic registers are the central information source for information systems of public authorities. In October 2014, the Czech government approved the conception of The Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020 (GeoInfoStrategy) that serves as a basis for the NSDI. The paper describes the challenges in building the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) in the Czech Republic with focus on the fundamental spatial data and related basic registers. The GeoInfoStrategy should also contribute to increasing of the competitiveness of the economy. Therefore the paper also reflects the Directive 2014/61/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on measures to reduce the cost of deploying high-speed electronic communication networks. The Directive states that citizens as well as the private and public sectors must have the opportunity to be part of the digital economy. A high quality digital infrastructure underpins virtually all sectors of a modern and innovative economy. To ensure a development of such infrastructure in the Czech Republic, the Register of passive infrastructure providing information on the features of passive infrastructure has to be established.

  16. 77 FR 38342 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of June 25, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  17. 77 FR 1521 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of January 9, 16, 23, 30, February 6, 13, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  18. 76 FR 8788 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of February 14, 21, 28, March 7, 14, 21, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  19. Queuing register uses fluid logic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.

  20. 76 FR 10410 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of February 21, 28, March 7, 14, 21, 28, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville...

  1. 77 FR 61644 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of October 8, 15, 22, 29, November 5, 12, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  2. 77 FR 5063 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DATE: Week of January 30, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  3. 77 FR 59678 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of October 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, November 5, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  4. 77 FR 15142 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 12, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  5. 75 FR 80083 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of December 20, 27, 2010, January 3, 10, 17, 24, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  6. 77 FR 2572 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of January 16, 23, 30, February 6, 13, 20, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  7. 76 FR 55718 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of September 5, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  8. 76 FR 16459 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 21, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  9. 76 FR 46329 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of August 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, September 5, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  10. 75 FR 55832 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2010- 0002]. DATES: Weeks of September 13, 20, 27, October 4, 11, 18, 2010. PLACE:...

  11. 77 FR 17102 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Week of March 26, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville...

  12. 75 FR 64367 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DATE: Weeks of October 18, 25, November 1, 8, 15, 22, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  13. 77 FR 48564 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of August 13, 20, 27, September 3, 10, 17, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  14. 75 FR 62894 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Weeks of October 11, 18, 25, November 1, 8, 15, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  15. 75 FR 28303 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2010- 0002]. DATE: Week of May 24, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville...

  16. 77 FR 57597 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DATE: Weeks of September 17, 24, October 1, 8, 15, 22, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  17. 75 FR 34489 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of June 14, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  18. 76 FR 52717 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ] DATE: Weeks of August 22, 29, September 5, 12, 19, 26, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  19. 76 FR 1653 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of January 10, 17, 24, 31, February 7, 14, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  20. 76 FR 62868 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of October 10, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  1. 77 FR 3804 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Week of January 30, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  2. 76 FR 48919 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of August 8, 15, 22, 29, September 5, 12, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  3. 76 FR 41529 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Week of July 11, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville...

  4. 76 FR 4393 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Dates: Weeks of January 24, 31, February 7, 14, 21, 28, 2011. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  5. 77 FR 70488 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission DATES: Weeks of November 26, December 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 2012 PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  6. Shift register generators and applications to coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    The most important properties of shift register generated sequences are exposed. The application of shift registers as multiplication and division circuits leads to the generation of some error correcting and detecting codes.

  7. 76 FR 70779 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY: Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of November 14, 21, 28, December 5, 12, 19, 2011. Place: Commissioners'...

  8. 77 FR 67689 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of November 5, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  9. 75 FR 65674 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of October 25; November 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  10. 77 FR 304 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of January 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, February 6, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  11. 76 FR 78952 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Week of December 19, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  12. 76 FR 64400 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of October 17, 24, 31, November 7, 14, 21, 2011. PLACE:...

  13. 76 FR 11525 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORTY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of February 28, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  14. 75 FR 67408 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Weeks of November 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, December 6, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  15. 75 FR 68630 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Week of November 1, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  16. 75 FR 59749 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of September 27, October 4, 11, 18, 25, and November 1, 2010. Place: Commissioners'...

  17. 76 FR 24540 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of April 25, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  18. 78 FR 127 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of December 31, 2012, January 7, 14, 21, 28, February 4, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners'...

  19. 77 FR 67838 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of November 12, 19, 26, December 3, 10, 17, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  20. 76 FR 66095 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of October 24, 31, November 7, 14, 21, 28, 2011. PLACE:...

  1. 76 FR 6837 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of February 7, 14, 21, 28, March 7, 14, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  2. California OCS Delegation Agreements Federal Register Notices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These federal register notices notify to the public that EPA has delegated authority to the agencies in the Federal Register Notices for sources within the 25 nautical miles of California's seaward boundary.

  3. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pest Bed Bugs EPA Registered Bed Bug Products EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products Resources Bed Bug Main ... Bugs Tips Joint Statement on Bed Bug Control EPA has developed a search tool that can help ...

  4. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  5. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  6. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  7. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily Federal Register in paper or microfiche form shall be made available to the following without charge:...

  8. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily Federal Register in paper or microfiche form shall be made available to the following without charge:...

  9. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  10. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  11. 31 CFR 8.27 - Enrollment registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enrollment registers. 8.27 Section 8... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.27 Enrollment registers. The Director shall maintain, for public inspection, a register of all persons enrolled to practice before the Bureau and...

  12. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  13. 36 CFR 1253.8 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Register. 1253.8... AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF NARA FACILITIES AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.8 Federal Register. The location and business hours of the Office of the Federal Register are posted at http://www.archives.gov, and codified...

  14. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  15. 36 CFR 1253.8 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Federal Register. 1253.8... AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF NARA FACILITIES AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.8 Federal Register. The location and business hours of the Office of the Federal Register are posted at http://www.archives.gov, and codified...

  16. 31 CFR 8.27 - Enrollment registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enrollment registers. 8.27 Section 8... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.27 Enrollment registers. The Director shall maintain, for public inspection, a register of all persons enrolled to practice before the Bureau and...

  17. What If? Conditionals in Educational Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, Max M.; Crossley, Scott A.; Jeuniaux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many corpus linguistic studies have investigated classification of texts into genres and registers, but relatively few of these studies have looked at linguistic features in educational registers. From a pedagogical perspective it is important to determine whether certain linguistic features behave differently across registers within particular…

  18. 36 CFR 1253.8 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Register. 1253.8... AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF NARA FACILITIES AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.8 Federal Register. The location and business hours of the Office of the Federal Register are posted at http://www.archives.gov, and codified...

  19. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  20. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  1. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  2. 31 CFR 8.27 - Enrollment registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enrollment registers. 8.27 Section 8... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.27 Enrollment registers. The Director shall maintain, for public inspection, a register of all persons enrolled to practice before the Bureau and...

  3. 36 CFR 1253.8 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Register. 1253.8... AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF NARA FACILITIES AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.8 Federal Register. The location and business hours of the Office of the Federal Register are posted at http://www.archives.gov, and codified...

  4. 31 CFR 8.27 - Enrollment registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enrollment registers. 8.27 Section 8... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.27 Enrollment registers. The Director shall maintain, for public inspection, a register of all persons enrolled to practice before the Bureau and...

  5. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  6. 31 CFR 8.27 - Enrollment registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enrollment registers. 8.27 Section 8... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.27 Enrollment registers. The Director shall maintain, for public inspection, a register of all persons enrolled to practice before the Bureau and...

  7. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  8. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  9. Continuous-data FIFO bubble shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    Simple loop first-in-first-out (FIFO) bubble memory shift register has continuous storage capability. Bubble shift register simplifies chip-control electronics by enabling all control functions to be alined at same bit. FIFO shift register is constructed from passive replicator and annihilator combinations.

  10. The National Register of Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed

    2002-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and materials are: "The National Register of Historic Places Today" (C. D. Shull); "The (Economic) Value of National Register Listing" (D. D. Rypkema); "The National Register and Heritage…

  11. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  12. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials ... Trials GuLF Study What NIEHS is Doing on Water Pollution Survival of the resilient: rapid killifish evolution ...

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  16. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  17. Wavefunctions for topological quantum registers

    SciTech Connect

    Ardonne, E. . E-mail: ardonne@kitp.ucsb.edu; Schoutens, K.

    2007-01-15

    We present explicit wavefunctions for quasi-hole excitations over a variety of non-abelian quantum Hall states: the Read-Rezayi states with k {>=} 3 clustering properties and a paired spin-singlet quantum Hall state. Quasi-holes over these states constitute a topological quantum register, which can be addressed by braiding quasi-holes. We obtain the braid properties by direct inspection of the quasi-hole wavefunctions. We establish that the braid properties for the paired spin-singlet state are those of 'Fibonacci anyons', and thus suitable for universal quantum computation. Our derivations in this paper rely on explicit computations in the parafermionic conformal field theories that underly these particular quantum Hall states.

  18. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  19. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  20. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  1. Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    The register contains descriptive information about the instruments identified (over 135) along with any associated validation studies and publications, and copies of the instruments themselves when available.

  2. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Corella, Susana; García-Pérez, Javier; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER). Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci. PMID:18702814

  3. Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

    2012-05-01

    Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that

  4. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. Registered Nurse Persistence in Baccalaureate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krov, Kathleen Nadler

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to increase the number of baccalaureate prepared registered nurses to safely meet the complex healthcare needs of citizens of the United States. Since there is no research on the characteristics of registered nurse students persisting in baccalaureate education, this quantitative descriptive case study was designed to identify the…

  7. 76 FR 40944 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of July 11, 18, 25, August 1, 8, 15, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  8. 75 FR 76055 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Date: Weeks of December 6, 13, 20, 27, 2010, January 3, 10, 2011. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public...

  9. 76 FR 81542 - Sunshine Federal Register

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of December 26, 2011, January 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  10. 78 FR 32280 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of May 27, June 3, 10, 17, 24, July 1, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  11. 76 FR 21782 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of April 18, 25; May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30; June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  12. A simplified, compact static shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. L.; Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Shift register was developed which uses only one D type flip-flop and improves packaging density by approximately 25% over the usual arrangement. Circuit is compromise between full master-slave arrangement and dynamic shift register, with limitation only of length of time that clock can be held high during new data entry.

  13. 75 FR 52047 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of August 23, 30, and September 6, 13, 20, 27, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  14. 76 FR 30205 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of May 23, 30, June 6, 13, 20, 27, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  15. 75 FR 33855 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of June 14, 21, 28, July 5, 12, 19, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  16. 75 FR 37478 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Weeks of June 28, July 5, 12, 19, 26, August 2, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  17. 76 FR 78952 - Sunshine Federal Register; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register; Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of December 19, 26, 2011, January 2, 9, 16, 23, 2012. PLACE:...

  18. 75 FR 29369 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of May 24, 31, June, 7, 14, 21, 28, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  19. 77 FR 73694 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 238 (Tuesday, December 11, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 73694] [FR Doc No: 2012-29954] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATES: Weeks of December 10, 17, 24, 31,...

  20. 76 FR 17460 - SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission DATES: Weeks of March 28, April 4, 11, 18, 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE:...

  1. 75 FR 23822 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice DATES: Weeks of May 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, June 7, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public and closed. Week...

  2. Development in Children's Comprehension of Linguistic Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Greene-Havas, Maia; Gillespie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    For socially appropriate communication, speakers must command a variety of linguistic styles, or "registers", that vary according to social context and social relationships. This study examined preschool children's ability to use a speaker's register choice to infer the identity of their addressee. Four-year-olds could draw correct inferences…

  3. 76 FR 20385 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of April 11, 18, 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  4. 76 FR 55424 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency holding the meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Weeks of September 5, 12, 19, 26, and October 3, 10, 2011. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  5. 75 FR 17452 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Dates: Weeks of April 5, 12, 19, 26, May 3, 10, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  6. 78 FR 25320 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013- 0001]. DATES: Weeks of April 29, May 6, 13, 20, 27, June 3, 2013. PLACE:...

  7. 75 FR 68840 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 216 (Tuesday, November 9, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 68840] [FR Doc No: 2010-28393] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0002] Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Dates: Weeks of November 8, 15, 22,...

  8. 75 FR 39991 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of July 12, 19, 26, August 2, 9, 16, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  9. Controlling Multiple Registers on a Computer Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, Stanley S.

    1987-01-01

    Number of addressable registers increased. Monitoring and controlling interface circuit expands capabilities of DR11-C (or equivalent) input/output port for computer that communicates with peripheral equipment via UNIBUS (or equivalent) data bus. Using only three address locations on bus, unit enables any number of external registers to be addressed, read, or written.

  10. 76 FR 36161 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of June 20, 27, July 4, 11, 18, 25, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  11. 76 FR 16016 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of March 21, 28, April 4, 11, 18, 25, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners'...

  12. 77 FR 3513 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 15 (Tuesday, January 24, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 3513-3514] [FR Doc No: 2012-1526] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0002] Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. [[Page 3514

  13. 76 FR 42751 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of July 18, 25, August 1, 8, 15, 22, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  14. 78 FR 35071 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013- 0001] DATES: Weeks of June 10, 17, 24, July 1, 8, 15, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  15. 75 FR 82094 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 249 (Wednesday, December 29, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 82094-82095] [FR Doc No: 2010-32921] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0002] Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of December 27,...

  16. 77 FR 62539 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Weeks of October 8, 15, 22, 29, November 5, 12, 19, 2012. PLACE:...

  17. 76 FR 11290 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of February 28, March 7, 14, 21, 28, April 4, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  18. 76 FR 23341 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of April 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  19. 76 FR 58312 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of September 19, 26, and October 3, 10, 17, 24, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  20. 75 FR 45679 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2010- 0002]. DATE: Weeks of August 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, and September 6, 2010. PLACE:...

  1. 75 FR 26293 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of May 10, 17, 24, 31, June, 7, 14, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  2. 75 FR 18907 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2010- 0002] DATE: Weeks of April 12, 19, 26, May 3, 10, 17, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  3. 76 FR 18809 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of April 4, 11, 18, 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners'...

  4. 77 FR 20077 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of April 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, May 7, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  5. 76 FR 24933 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  6. 75 FR 30865 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of May 31, June, 7, 14, 21, 28, July 5, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  7. 75 FR 48381 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of August 9, 16, 23, 30, and September 6, 13, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  8. 77 FR 4839 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATES: Weeks of January 30, February 6, 13, 20, 27, March 5, 2012. Place:...

  9. 76 FR 53980 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of August 29, September 5, 12, 19, 26, and October 3, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  10. 78 FR 48203 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 152 (Wednesday, August 7, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 48203-48204] [FR Doc No: 2013-19171] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013- 0001]. DATES: Week of August 5, 2013....

  11. 76 FR 76199 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of December 5, 12, 19, 26, 2011, January 2, 9, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  12. 77 FR 27099 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Weeks of May 7, 14, 21, 28, June 4, 11, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference...

  13. Register Formation among Sri Lankan University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubair, Cala A.

    2011-01-01

    This linguistic and ethnographic project examines register formation among a community of Sri Lankan university youth. The Raggers group at the University of Peradeniya (Kandy, Sri Lanka) has strict rules forbidding the use of English and supporting a register of Sinhala made up of linguistic features from different Sinhala varieties. Detailing…

  14. 76 FR 37853 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of June 27, July 4, 11, 18, 25, August 1, 2011. PLACE:...

  15. 75 FR 39057 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Weeks of July 5, 12, 19, 26, August 2, 9, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  16. 76 FR 5626 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Weeks of January 31, February 7, 14, 21, 28, March 7, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room,...

  17. 76 FR 63329 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 197 (Wednesday, October 12, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 63329-63330] [FR Doc No: 2011-26461] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATES: Weeks of October 10, 17,...

  18. 75 FR 13800 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of March 22, 29, April 5, 12, 19, 26, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  19. 76 FR 14107 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. [NRC-2011- 0006]. DATE: Weeks of March 14, 21, 28, April 4, 11, 18, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners'...

  20. 75 FR 22166 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of April 26, May 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555...

  1. Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1 (PC database for purchase)   NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating document analysis and recognition technologies and information retrieval systems. NIST Special Database 25 contains page images from the 1994 Federal Register and much more.

  2. 78 FR 13099 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC... 2, 2013 9:30 a.m. Meeting With Organization of Agreement States (OAS) and Conference of...

  3. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier in life that may affect the risk of MS. This register has no systematic follow-up data except for survival. The DMSR has over the years published nationwide incidence- and prevalence data from Denmark and has been involved in a number of 'historical prospective' studies to elucidate the association between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS.

  4. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  5. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  6. [Interest in registered partnership higher than expected].

    PubMed

    Harmsen, C N; Latten, J J

    1998-10-01

    "Since 1 January 1998 non-married couples of the same or opposite sex [in the Netherlands have been] allowed to have their partnership officially registered. In the first half of 1998 about 1.8 thousand couples of the same sex and 0.8 thousand of opposite sex were registered. These numbers are somewhat higher than the [legislators] expected at the time of introduction of this legal provision. The average age of persons who registered their partnership is considerably higher than that of persons who married. The average age difference between two male partners is almost twice as large as between two marrying persons." (EXCERPT)

  7. Registered access: a 'Triple-A' approach.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-12-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users.

  8. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  9. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns), over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR) of towns situated at a distance of less than 2 km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a) the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b) a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463), paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140), food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111), metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123) and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099). Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality. Nevertheless, some of

  10. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the...

  11. Tester periodically registers dc amplifier characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, D.; Wenzel, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Motor-driven switcher-recorder periodically registers the zero drift and gain drift signals of a dc amplifier subjected to changes in environment. A time coding method is used since several measurements are shared on a single recorder trace.

  12. Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the Mediterranean Basin: results from the MED-PARTICLES project.

    PubMed

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Perez, Noemi; Pey, Jorge; Perrino, Cinzia; Berti, Giovanna; Gandini, Martina; Poluzzi, Vanes; Ferrari, Silvia; de la Rosa, Jesus; Pascal, Mathilde; Samoli, Evangelia; Kelessis, Apostolos; Sunyer, Jordi; Alessandrini, Ester; Stafoggia, Massimo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies reported significant variability of air pollutants across Europe with the lowest concentrations generally found in Northern Europe and the highest in Southern European countries. Within the MED-PARTICLES project the spatial and temporal variations of long-term PM and gaseous pollutants data were investigated in traffic and urban background sites across Southern Europe. The highest PM levels were observed in Greece and Italy (Athens, Thessaloniki, Turin and Rome) while all traffic sites showed high NO2 levels, frequently exceeding the established limit value. High PM2.5/PM10 ratios were calculated indicating that fine particles comprise a large fraction of PM10, with the highest values found in the urban background sites. It seems that although in traffic sites the concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly higher than those registered in urban background sites, the coarse fraction PM2.5-10 is more important at the traffic sites. This fact is probably due to the high levels of resuspended road dust in sites highly affected by traffic, a phenomenon particularly relevant for Mediterranean countries. The long-term trends of air pollutants revealed a significant decrease of the concentration levels for PM, SO2 and CO while for NO2 no clear trend or slightly increasing trends were observed. This reduction could be attributed to the effectiveness of abatement measures and strategies and also to meteorological conditions and to the economic crisis that affected Southern Europe.

  13. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  14. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  15. Netherlands to Aid Central, Eastern Europe in Halting Pollution Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)

  16. The Norwegian immunisation register--SYSVAK.

    PubMed

    Trogstad, L; Ung, G; Hagerup-Jenssen, M; Cappelen, I; Haugen, I L; Feiring, B

    2012-04-19

    The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage. Notification to SYSVAK is mandatory, based on personal identification numbers. This allows follow up of individual vaccination schedules and linkage of SYSVAK data to other national health registers for information on outcome diagnoses, such as the surveillance system for communicable diseases. Information from SYSVAK is used to determine vaccine coverage in a timely manner. Coverage can be broken down to regional/local levels and used for active surveillance of vaccination coverage and decisions about interventions. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, an adaptation of SYSVAK enabled daily surveillance of vaccination coverage on national and regional levels. Currently, data from SYSVAK are used, among others, in studies on adverse events related to pandemic vaccination. Future challenges include maximising usage of collected data in surveillance and research, and continued improvement of data quality. Immunisation registers are rich sources for high quality surveillance of vaccination coverage, effectiveness, vaccine failure and adverse events, and gold mines for research.

  17. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Air Quality Index (AQI) The EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is ... For more tools to help you learn about air quality, visit Tracking Air Quality . Top of Page File ...

  18. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  19. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  20. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  1. Voice Register in Mon: Acoustics and Electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Arthur S.; Tiede, Mark K.; Luangthongkum, Theraphan

    2016-01-01

    Mon is spoken in villages in Thailand and Myanmar. The dialect of Ban Nakhonchum, Thailand has two voice registers, modal and breathy; these phonation types, along with other phonetic properties, distinguish minimal pairs. Four native speakers of this dialect recorded repetitions of 14 randomized words (seven minimal pairs) for acoustic analysis. We used a subset of these pairs in a listening test to verify the perceptual robustness of the register distinction. Acoustic analysis found significant differences in noise component, spectral slope, and fundamental frequency. In a subsequent session four speakers were also recorded using electroglottography (EGG), which showed systematic differences in the contact quotient (CQ). The salience of these properties in maintaining the register distinction is discussed in the context of possible tonogenesis for this language. PMID:26636544

  2. PM 0,5 and Health effects in an extreme pollution episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, K. N.; Nastos, P. T.; Gialouris, A.; Zontanos, M.; Saratsiotis, D.; Mavroidakos, J.; Khan, U.; Tissera, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    The mega cities' pollution problem during the last two decades, occupied the whole European scientific community, Asia and the U.S.A. The atmosphere remains suffocating due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly in infants, old people and patients suffering chronic diseases. After 1980 many governments applied restrictions to maintain a clearer atmosphere. Particulate matters are everywhere, they are inhaled, they enter the lungs, migrate through the blood stream and finally, they deposit in several organs which leads to severe consequences. Wind remains the only restraining factor of PM concentrations, but this is not the desired solution. The issue of atmospheric pollution and its influence on health are both the main aim of this study, which consists of monitoring and mapping PM 0.5 in six areas of Athens and examining the relation of the quantity inhaled by pedestrians and number of health incidents during an acute pollution episode in GAA in November 2008.In this empirical model, values of PM inhaled by humans at a height of two metres above ground are shown as number/ litre and μg/m3. In fact, a lot of patients appeared in the city's hospital emergency centres needing assistance. Most of them exhibit the PM symptomatology which includes: dyspnea, dry cough, lacrimation, headache, arrhythmias. This symptoms are firstly by K.N.Grigoropoulos et al. 2008 (Fresenious Environment Bulletin issue b September 2008.pp 1426-1431) Although this situation is already widely known to everyone, governments continue to ignore it systematically. The time is probably right for the European Community to apply restrictions on PM1.

  3. 78 FR 52308 - Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment Companies Required To Register...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 4 RIN 3038-AD75 Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment... pools for which they are registered as CPOs. 17 CFR 4.14(a)(4). B. Harmonization Proposal In response to.... Commenters advocated different approaches to harmonization. Some suggested that where requirements...

  4. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health.

  5. 7 CFR 959.103 - Registered handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., packing, and marketing shall be recorded by the committee as a registered handler. Any other person who... registration through committee bulletins or published notice in local newspapers of general distribution,...

  6. 7 CFR 959.103 - Registered handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., packing, and marketing shall be recorded by the committee as a registered handler. Any other person who... registration through committee bulletins or published notice in local newspapers of general distribution,...

  7. 7 CFR 959.103 - Registered handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., packing, and marketing shall be recorded by the committee as a registered handler. Any other person who... registration through committee bulletins or published notice in local newspapers of general distribution,...

  8. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In... shall so indicate and shall specify that the mark has been in use in commerce. (b) In an application to... statement of lawful use in commerce may be omitted. (c) An application under section 66(a) of the Act is...

  9. Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each…

  10. Stance in Spoken and Written University Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the linguistic expression of stance and evaluation in university registers, focusing especially on academic research writing and to a lesser extent classroom teaching. The present study extends previous research in two ways: (1) it compares and contrasts the use of a wide range of lexico-grammatical features used…

  11. Register of Environmental Engineering Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aulenbach, Donald B., Ed.

    This document outlines undergraduate programs leading to degrees in environmental engineering from 22 schools across the country. The register includes general information on the school and program as well as specific information on admission requirements, degree requirements, course work, and faculty and student data. A copy of the questionnaire…

  12. Electronic Cash Registers Are Valuable Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Edward, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Electronic cash registers can perform functions ranging from simple change and tax computation to sophisticated merchandise accounting and inventory control information and records. The manager needs to outline the needed capabilities such as capacity, programmability, and servicing availability. User comments suggest varied benefits, uses, and…

  13. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  14. Registered Nursing Alumni Surveys, 1990-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    Since 1990, California's College of the Canyons (CoC) has conducted annual surveys of graduates from its Registered Nursing (RN) program. Between 1990 and 1994, surveys were sent to 193 RN graduates, with completed questionnaires received from 124 alumni. An analysis of responses for each year revealed the following: (1) 91.7% of the respondents…

  15. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In... shall so indicate and shall specify that the mark has been in use in commerce. (b) In an application to... statement of lawful use in commerce may be omitted. (c) An application under section 66(a) of the Act is...

  16. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... employees with at least one year of service who have declared their current availability for rail...

  17. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  18. Aerosol particle number concentration measurements in five European cities using TSI-3022 condensation particle counter over a three-year period during health effects of air pollution on susceptible subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle; Paatero, Pentti; Kulmala, Markku; Bellander, Tom; Berglind, Niklas; Bouso, Laura; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Sunyer, Jordi; Cattani, Giorgio; Marconi, Achille; Cyrys, Josef; von Klot, Stephanie; Peters, Annette; Zetzsche, Katrin; Lanki, Timo; Pekkanen, Juha; Nyberg, Fredrik; Sjövall, Billy; Forastiere, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    In this study, long-term aerosol particle total number concentration measurements in five metropolitan areas across Europe are presented. The measurements have been carried out in Augsburg, Barcelona, Helsinki, Rome, and Stockholm using the same instrument, a condensation particle counter (TSI model 3022). The results show that in all of the studied cities, the winter concentrations are higher than the summer concentrations. In Helsinki and in Stockholm, winter concentrations are higher by a factor of two and in Augsburg almost by a factor of three compared with summer months. The winter maximum of the monthly average concentrations in these cities is between 10,000 cm(-3) and 20,000 cm(-3), whereas the summer min is approximately 5000-6000 cm(-3). In Rome and in Barcelona, the winters are more polluted compared with summers by as much as a factor of 4-10. The winter maximum in both Rome and Barcelona is close to 100,000 cm(-3), whereas the summer minimum is > 10,000 cm(-3). During the weekdays the maximum of the hourly average concentrations in all of the cities is detected during the morning hours between 7 and 10 a.m. The evening maxima were present in Barcelona, Rome, and Augsburg, but these were not as pronounced as the morning ones. The daily maxima in Helsinki and Stockholm are close or even lower than the daily minima in the more polluted cities. The concentrations between these two groups of cities are different with a factor of about five during the whole day. The study pointed out the influence of the selection of the measurement site and the configuration of the sampling line on the observed concentrations.

  19. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce.

  20. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for...

  1. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for...

  2. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  3. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for...

  4. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  5. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  6. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for...

  7. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for...

  8. Respect as experienced by registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Clara D

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to ascertain how registered nurses convey and experience respect in their day-to-day work environment with other registered nurses. Nurses generally feel respected when they are acknowledged for a job well done and for what they as individuals bring to the situation, including knowledge, skills, and experience. Findings revealed that communication was a key factor in conveying and experiencing respect, including what is communicated, how it is communicated, and what is not communicated. Experiencing respect was linked to collaboration, acknowledgment, autonomy, support, and fairness. Important findings in this study were barriers to conveying respect. Barriers were described as lack of time, lack of understanding of roles, inability to develop collegial relationships, not being shown respect, and lack of self-awareness.

  9. Assessing registered nurses' clinical skills in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sonya; McDonald, Sinead; Rainey, Debbie

    The aim of this article is to explore the views of registered nurses undertaking the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), incorporating an integrated preparatory skills workshop. The workshop and the OSCE were audited with particular regard to the student experience. This article describes the audit process and the results of three questionnaires: one carried out before the OSCE assessment, a second immediately after the workshop and a third four days after the assessment. The results provide an insight into the student experience.

  10. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. PMID:27822098

  11. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  12. 75 FR 56015 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the Letterkenny Army Depot Southeastern (SE) Area and Letterkenny...

  13. 76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule...

  14. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request...

  15. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  16. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroGeographics - their pan-European umbrella association, contribute to the ELF through an enrichment of data coverage. As a result, over 20 European countries will be covered with the ELF topo Base Map in 2016. Most countries will contribute also with other harmonized thematic data for viewing or down-loading. To overcome the heterogeneity of data resources and diversity of languages in tens of European countries, ELF builds on the existing INSPIRE rules and its own coordination and interoperability measures. ELF realisation empowers the implementation of INSPIRE in Europe and it complements related activities of European NMCAs, e.g. Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (CUZK), which provides a large portfolio of spatial data/services and contributes significantly to the NSDI of Czech Republic. CUZK is also responsible for the Base Register of Territorial Identification, Addresses and Real Estates (RUIAN) - an important pillar of Czech e-Government. CUZK became an early-bird in implementing INSPIRE and it provides to the ELF a number of compliant datasets and web services. CUZK and the Polish NMCA (GUGiK) collaborate in the Central-European ELF Pilot (cluster) and test various cross-border prototypes. The presentation combines the national and crossborder view and experiences of CUZK and the European perspective of EuroGeographics.

  17. Optimizing instruction scheduling and register allocation for register-file-connected clustered VLIW architectures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haijing; Yang, Xu; Wang, Siye; Zhang, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Clustering has become a common trend in very long instruction words (VLIW) architecture to solve the problem of area, energy consumption, and design complexity. Register-file-connected clustered (RFCC) VLIW architecture uses the mechanism of global register file to accomplish the inter-cluster data communications, thus eliminating the performance and energy consumption penalty caused by explicit inter-cluster data move operations in traditional bus-connected clustered (BCC) VLIW architecture. However, the limit number of access ports to the global register file has become an issue which must be well addressed; otherwise the performance and energy consumption would be harmed. In this paper, we presented compiler optimization techniques for an RFCC VLIW architecture called Lily, which is designed for encryption systems. These techniques aim at optimizing performance and energy consumption for Lily architecture, through appropriate manipulation of the code generation process to maintain a better management of the accesses to the global register file. All the techniques have been implemented and evaluated. The result shows that our techniques can significantly reduce the penalty of performance and energy consumption due to access port limitation of global register file.

  18. Molecular implementation of molecular shift register memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N. (Inventor); Onuchic, Jose N. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic shift register memory (20) at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are based on a chain of electron transfer molecules (22) and the information is shifted by photoinduced (26) electron transfer reactions. Thus, multi-step sequences of charge transfer reactions are used to move charge with high efficiency down a molecular chain. The device integrates compositions of the invention onto a VLSI substrate (36), providing an example of a molecular electronic device which may be fabricated. Three energy level schemes, molecular implementation of these schemes, optical excitation strategies, charge amplification strategies, and error correction strategies are described.

  19. The Named-State Register File

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Readings and Examples, chapter The DEC PDP- 10, pages 43-45. McGraw-Hill, 1971. [11] A. D. Berenbaum, D. R. Ditzel, and H. R. McLellan . "Architectural...34 IEEE Micro, 12(2):23-39, April 1992. [24] Keith Diefendorff and Michael Allen. "Organization of the Motorola 88110 superscalar RISC microprocessor...34 IEEE Micro, 12(2):40-63, April 1992. [25] David R. Ditzel and H. R. McLellan . "Register allocation for free: The C Machine stack cache." Proc. Symp

  20. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  1. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  2. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  3. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  4. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  5. 76 FR 45666 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... incorrect text published in the Federal Register of July 27, 2011, regarding Provisions Common to Registered... Sec. 40.6(a), the text ``other than a rule delisting or withdrawing the certification of a...

  6. The Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register: optimisation of rheumatic disease assessments using register-enriched data.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, J K; Askling, J; Arkema, E V

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic options are constantly emerging for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of newly introduced anti-rheumatic treatment alternatives, registers are an important source of information. The Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (SRQ) collects clinical data on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as other rheumatic diseases, and may be enriched with data on comorbid conditions, prescription drug dispensings, and mortality from national data sources in Sweden. In this setting, many different outcomes can be investigated over a long period of time in a diverse population of patients recruited in daily clinical practice.

  7. Universal Verification Methodology Based Register Test Automation Flow.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hun; Cho, Yong Kwan; Park, Sun Kyu

    2016-05-01

    In today's SoC design, the number of registers has been increased along with complexity of hardware blocks. Register validation is a time-consuming and error-pron task. Therefore, we need an efficient way to perform verification with less effort in shorter time. In this work, we suggest register test automation flow based UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). UVM provides a standard methodology, called a register model, to facilitate stimulus generation and functional checking of registers. However, it is not easy for designers to create register models for their functional blocks or integrate models in test-bench environment because it requires knowledge of SystemVerilog and UVM libraries. For the creation of register models, many commercial tools support a register model generation from register specification described in IP-XACT, but it is time-consuming to describe register specification in IP-XACT format. For easy creation of register model, we propose spreadsheet-based register template which is translated to IP-XACT description, from which register models can be easily generated using commercial tools. On the other hand, we also automate all the steps involved integrating test-bench and generating test-cases, so that designers may use register model without detailed knowledge of UVM or SystemVerilog. This automation flow involves generating and connecting test-bench components (e.g., driver, checker, bus adaptor, etc.) and writing test sequence for each type of register test-case. With the proposed flow, designers can save considerable amount of time to verify functionality of registers.

  8. The Benefits and Challenges of Registered Apprenticeship: The Sponsors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert; Eyster, Lauren; Chambers, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) of the U.S. Department of Labor oversees the registered apprenticeship system by issuing standards, monitoring state agencies, and promoting registered apprenticeship. Registered apprenticeship program "sponsors" are individual employers or groups of employers (sometimes in collaboration with…

  9. 49 CFR 604.10 - Agreement with registered charter providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with registered charter providers. 604... registered charter providers. (a) A recipient may provide charter service directly to a customer consistent with an agreement entered into with all registered charter providers in the recipient's...

  10. 27 CFR 29.57 - Failure to register; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to register... register; penalty. Any person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up who fails to register the still or distilling apparatus is subject to a fine of not more...

  11. 7 CFR 800.31 - Who must register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must register. 800.31 Section 800.31 Agriculture... § 800.31 Who must register. Each person who has engaged in foreign commerce grain business totaling 15,000 or more metric tons during the preceding or current calendar year must register with the...

  12. 5 CFR 332.401 - Order on registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order on registers. 332.401 Section 332... SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.401 Order on registers... names of eligibles on the appropriate register in accordance with their numerical ratings, except...

  13. 7 CFR 57.690 - Person required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Person required to register. 57.690 Section 57.690... § 57.690 Person required to register. Egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg... hatcheries, are required to register with the Department by furnishing their name, place of business,...

  14. 21 CFR 1.230 - When must you register?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must you register? 1.230 Section 1.230 Food... When must you register? The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility that manufactures/processes, packs or holds food for consumption in the United States must register the facility no later...

  15. 46 CFR 535.602 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Register notice. 535.602 Section 535.602... § 535.602 Federal Register notice. (a) A notice of any filed agreement will be transmitted to the Federal Register within seven days of the date of filing. (b) The notice will include: (1) A short...

  16. 7 CFR 800.31 - Who must register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who must register. 800.31 Section 800.31 Agriculture... § 800.31 Who must register. Each person who has engaged in foreign commerce grain business totaling 15,000 or more metric tons during the preceding or current calendar year must register with the...

  17. 22 CFR 230.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... AND CONDITIONS § 230.06 Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer... on the date that the name of the new Noteholder is entered on the Note Register required to...

  18. 5 CFR 332.401 - Order on registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order on registers. 332.401 Section 332... SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.401 Order on registers... names of eligibles on the appropriate register in accordance with their numerical ratings, except...

  19. 5 CFR 2.1 - Competitive examinations and eligible registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... registers. 2.1 Section 2.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.1 Competitive examinations and eligible registers. (a... career or career-conditional register because of service in the armed forces, and the names of...

  20. 15 CFR 270.103 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 270.103 Section 270.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Federal Register. The Director will promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of the...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.204 - Federal Register publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register publications. 3015.204 Section 3015... Register publications. (a) Program regulations. Most grant programs have program-specific regulations, which are published in the Federal Register and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations. In...

  2. 40 CFR 720.70 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 720.70... CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Disposition of Notices § 720.70 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. In accordance with section 5(d)(2) of the Act, after EPA receives...

  3. 7 CFR 3015.204 - Federal Register publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Register publications. 3015.204 Section 3015... Register publications. (a) Program regulations. Most grant programs have program-specific regulations, which are published in the Federal Register and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations. In...

  4. 12 CFR 128.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan application register. 128.6 Section 128.6... § 128.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the OCC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203 must enter...

  5. 7 CFR 57.690 - Person required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Person required to register. 57.690 Section 57.690... § 57.690 Person required to register. Egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg... hatcheries, are required to register with the Department by furnishing their name, place of business,...

  6. 46 CFR 535.602 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Register notice. 535.602 Section 535.602... § 535.602 Federal Register notice. (a) A notice of any filed agreement will be transmitted to the Federal Register within seven days of the date of filing. (b) The notice will include: (1) A short...

  7. 12 CFR 390.147 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan application register. 390.147 Section 390....147 Loan application register. State savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the FDIC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203...

  8. 12 CFR 390.147 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan application register. 390.147 Section 390....147 Loan application register. State savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the FDIC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203...

  9. 22 CFR 204.14 - Transferability of guaranty; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.14 Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. The Lender of any... Register required to be maintained by the Paying Agent pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency...

  10. 40 CFR 720.70 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 720.70... CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Disposition of Notices § 720.70 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. In accordance with section 5(d)(2) of the Act, after EPA receives...

  11. 12 CFR 1102.304 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 1102.304 Section... Description of Office, Procedures, Public Information § 1102.304 Federal Register publication. The ASC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 1.230 - When must you register?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When must you register? 1.230 Section 1.230 Food... When must you register? The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility that manufactures/processes, packs or holds food for consumption in the United States must register the facility no later...

  13. 49 CFR 7.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 7.3 Section 7... Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.3 Publication in the Federal Register. This section implements 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(1), and prescribes rules governing publication in the Federal Register of...

  14. 22 CFR 129.3 - Requirement to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirement to register. 129.3 Section 129.3... OF BROKERS § 129.3 Requirement to register. (a) Any U.S. person, wherever located, and any foreign...” (as defined in § 129.2) is required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls....

  15. 12 CFR 128.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan application register. 128.6 Section 128.6... § 128.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the OCC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203 must enter...

  16. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  17. 12 CFR 1301.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 1301.3... Publication in the Federal Register. Subject to the application of the FOIA exemptions and exclusions (5 U.S.C..., publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions...

  18. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenure on appointment from register. 315... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301 Tenure on appointment from register. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an...

  19. 22 CFR 230.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... AND CONDITIONS § 230.06 Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer... on the date that the name of the new Noteholder is entered on the Note Register required to...

  20. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6... REQUIREMENTS § 528.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance...

  1. 7 CFR 800.31 - Who must register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who must register. 800.31 Section 800.31 Agriculture... § 800.31 Who must register. Each person who has engaged in foreign commerce grain business totaling 15,000 or more metric tons during the preceding or current calendar year must register with the...

  2. 12 CFR 309.3 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 309.3 Section 309... OF INFORMATION § 309.3 Federal Register publication. The FDIC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions of its central and...

  3. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenure on appointment from register. 315... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301 Tenure on appointment from register. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an...

  4. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6... REQUIREMENTS § 528.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance...

  5. 40 CFR 720.70 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 720.70... CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Disposition of Notices § 720.70 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. In accordance with section 5(d)(2) of the Act, after EPA receives...

  6. 7 CFR 800.31 - Who must register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must register. 800.31 Section 800.31 Agriculture... § 800.31 Who must register. Each person who has engaged in foreign commerce grain business totaling 15,000 or more metric tons during the preceding or current calendar year must register with the...

  7. 15 CFR 270.103 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 270.103 Section 270.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Federal Register. The Director will promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of the...

  8. 5 CFR 2.1 - Competitive examinations and eligible registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... registers. 2.1 Section 2.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.1 Competitive examinations and eligible registers. (a... career or career-conditional register because of service in the armed forces, and the names of...

  9. 12 CFR 309.3 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 309.3 Section 309... OF INFORMATION § 309.3 Federal Register publication. The FDIC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions of its central and...

  10. 40 CFR 720.70 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 720.70... CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Disposition of Notices § 720.70 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. In accordance with section 5(d)(2) of the Act, after EPA receives...

  11. 49 CFR 1103.1 - Register of practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Register of practitioners. 1103.1 Section 1103.1... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.1 Register of practitioners. The Board maintains a register containing the names of all non-attorneys entitled to...

  12. 12 CFR 4.13 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 4.13 Section 4.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND... Publication in the Federal Register. The OCC publishes certain documents in the Federal Register for...

  13. 46 CFR 535.602 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Register notice. 535.602 Section 535.602... § 535.602 Federal Register notice. (a) A notice of any filed agreement will be transmitted to the Federal Register within seven days of the date of filing. (b) The notice will include: (1) A short...

  14. 49 CFR 1103.1 - Register of practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Register of practitioners. 1103.1 Section 1103.1... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.1 Register of practitioners. The Board maintains a register containing the names of all non-attorneys entitled to...

  15. 15 CFR 270.103 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 270.103 Section 270.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Federal Register. The Director will promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of the...

  16. 7 CFR 800.33 - How to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to register. 800.33 Section 800.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... § 800.33 How to register. Any person who is required or desires to register must submit an...

  17. 7 CFR 800.31 - Who must register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must register. 800.31 Section 800.31 Agriculture... § 800.31 Who must register. Each person who has engaged in foreign commerce grain business totaling 15,000 or more metric tons during the preceding or current calendar year must register with the...

  18. 21 CFR 1.230 - When must you register?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When must you register? 1.230 Section 1.230 Food... When must you register? The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility that manufactures/processes, packs or holds food for consumption in the United States must register the facility no later...

  19. 12 CFR 4.13 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 4.13 Section 4.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND... Publication in the Federal Register. The OCC publishes certain documents in the Federal Register for...

  20. 27 CFR 29.57 - Failure to register; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to register... register; penalty. Any person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up who fails to register the still or distilling apparatus is subject to a fine of not more...

  1. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenure on appointment from register. 315... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301 Tenure on appointment from register. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an...

  2. 5 CFR 332.401 - Order on registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order on registers. 332.401 Section 332... SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.401 Order on registers... names of eligibles on the appropriate register in accordance with their numerical ratings, except...

  3. 22 CFR 204.14 - Transferability of guaranty; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.14 Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. The Lender of any... Register required to be maintained by the Paying Agent pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency...

  4. 21 CFR 1.230 - When must you register?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must you register? 1.230 Section 1.230 Food... When must you register? The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility that manufactures/processes, packs or holds food for consumption in the United States must register the facility no later...

  5. 49 CFR 1103.1 - Register of practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Register of practitioners. 1103.1 Section 1103.1... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.1 Register of practitioners. The Board maintains a register containing the names of all non-attorneys entitled to...

  6. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  7. 22 CFR 129.3 - Requirement to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirement to register. 129.3 Section 129.3... OF BROKERS § 129.3 Requirement to register. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who engages in brokering activities (see § 129.2) is required to register with...

  8. 22 CFR 230.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... AND CONDITIONS § 230.06 Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer... on the date that the name of the new Noteholder is entered on the Note Register required to...

  9. 32 CFR 505.11 - Federal Register publishing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Federal Register publishing requirements. 505.11... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.11 Federal Register publishing requirements. (a) The Federal Register. There are three types of documents relating to the Privacy Act Program...

  10. 22 CFR 129.3 - Requirement to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirement to register. 129.3 Section 129.3... OF BROKERS § 129.3 Requirement to register. (a) Any U.S. person, wherever located, and any foreign...” (as defined in § 129.2) is required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls....

  11. 22 CFR 204.14 - Transferability of guaranty; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.14 Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. The Lender of any... Register required to be maintained by the Paying Agent pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency...

  12. 12 CFR 4.13 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 4.13 Section 4.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND... Publication in the Federal Register. The OCC publishes certain documents in the Federal Register for...

  13. 22 CFR 204.14 - Transferability of guaranty; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.14 Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. The Lender of any... Register required to be maintained by the Paying Agent pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency...

  14. 5 CFR 332.401 - Order on registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order on registers. 332.401 Section 332... SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.401 Order on registers... names of eligibles on the appropriate register in accordance with their numerical ratings, except...

  15. 12 CFR 1102.304 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 1102.304 Section... Description of Office, Procedures, Public Information § 1102.304 Federal Register publication. The ASC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a)...

  16. 5 CFR 2.1 - Competitive examinations and eligible registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... registers. 2.1 Section 2.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.1 Competitive examinations and eligible registers. (a... career or career-conditional register because of service in the armed forces, and the names of...

  17. 12 CFR 1102.304 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 1102.304 Section... Description of Office, Procedures, Public Information § 1102.304 Federal Register publication. The ASC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a)...

  18. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6... REQUIREMENTS § 528.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance...

  19. 7 CFR 3015.204 - Federal Register publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Register publications. 3015.204 Section 3015... Register publications. (a) Program regulations. Most grant programs have program-specific regulations, which are published in the Federal Register and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations. In...

  20. 49 CFR 384.220 - National Driver Register information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Driver Register information. 384.220... § 384.220 National Driver Register information. Before issuing a CDL to any person, the State shall, within the period of time specified in § 384.232, perform the check of the National Driver Register...

  1. 49 CFR 1103.1 - Register of practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Register of practitioners. 1103.1 Section 1103.1... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.1 Register of practitioners. The Board maintains a register containing the names of all non-attorneys entitled to...

  2. 12 CFR 1070.12 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 1070.12... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 1070.12 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. The CFPB shall separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance...

  3. 12 CFR 309.3 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 309.3 Section 309... OF INFORMATION § 309.3 Federal Register publication. The FDIC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions of its central and...

  4. 49 CFR 7.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 7.3 Section 7... Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.3 Publication in the Federal Register. This section implements 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(1), and prescribes rules governing publication in the Federal Register of...

  5. 22 CFR 230.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... AND CONDITIONS § 230.06 Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer... on the date that the name of the new Noteholder is entered on the Note Register required to...

  6. 27 CFR 29.57 - Failure to register; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to register... register; penalty. Any person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up who fails to register the still or distilling apparatus is subject to a fine of not more...

  7. 22 CFR 230.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... AND CONDITIONS § 230.06 Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer... on the date that the name of the new Noteholder is entered on the Note Register required to...

  8. 15 CFR 270.103 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 270.103 Section 270.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Federal Register. The Director will promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of the...

  9. 5 CFR 2.1 - Competitive examinations and eligible registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... registers. 2.1 Section 2.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.1 Competitive examinations and eligible registers. (a... career or career-conditional register because of service in the armed forces, and the names of...

  10. 46 CFR 535.602 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Register notice. 535.602 Section 535.602... § 535.602 Federal Register notice. (a) A notice of any filed agreement will be transmitted to the Federal Register within seven days of the date of filing. (b) The notice will include: (1) A short...

  11. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  12. 49 CFR 7.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 7.3 Section 7... Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.3 Publication in the Federal Register. This section implements 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(1), and prescribes rules governing publication in the Federal Register of...

  13. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  14. 49 CFR 1103.1 - Register of practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Register of practitioners. 1103.1 Section 1103.1... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.1 Register of practitioners. The Board maintains a register containing the names of all non-attorneys entitled to...

  15. 12 CFR 1070.12 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 1070.12... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 1070.12 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. The CFPB shall separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance...

  16. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  17. 21 CFR 1.230 - When must you register?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When must you register? 1.230 Section 1.230 Food... When must you register? The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility that manufactures/processes, packs or holds food for consumption in the United States must register the facility no later...

  18. 22 CFR 204.14 - Transferability of guaranty; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.14 Transferability of guaranty; Note Register. The Lender of any... Register required to be maintained by the Paying Agent pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency...

  19. 22 CFR 129.3 - Requirement to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirement to register. 129.3 Section 129.3... OF BROKERS § 129.3 Requirement to register. (a) Any U.S. person, wherever located, and any foreign...” (as defined in § 129.2) is required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls....

  20. 7 CFR 57.690 - Person required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Person required to register. 57.690 Section 57.690... § 57.690 Person required to register. Egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg... hatcheries, are required to register with the Department by furnishing their name, place of business,...

  1. 22 CFR 232.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer or pledge an Eligible Note to any Person. Any such assignment... Note Register required to be maintained by the Fiscal Agent pursuant to the Fiscal Agency...

  2. 7 CFR 800.33 - How to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to register. 800.33 Section 800.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... § 800.33 How to register. Any person who is required or desires to register must submit an...

  3. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  4. 12 CFR 309.3 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 309.3 Section 309... OF INFORMATION § 309.3 Federal Register publication. The FDIC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions of its central and...

  5. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  6. 5 CFR 2.1 - Competitive examinations and eligible registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... registers. 2.1 Section 2.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.1 Competitive examinations and eligible registers. (a... career or career-conditional register because of service in the armed forces, and the names of...

  7. 49 CFR 7.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 7.3 Section 7... Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.3 Publication in the Federal Register. This section implements 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(1), and prescribes rules governing publication in the Federal Register of...

  8. 7 CFR 800.33 - How to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to register. 800.33 Section 800.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... § 800.33 How to register. Any person who is required or desires to register must submit an...

  9. 7 CFR 3015.204 - Federal Register publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register publications. 3015.204 Section 3015... Register publications. (a) Program regulations. Most grant programs have program-specific regulations, which are published in the Federal Register and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations. In...

  10. 27 CFR 29.57 - Failure to register; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to register... register; penalty. Any person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up who fails to register the still or distilling apparatus is subject to a fine of not more...

  11. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6... REQUIREMENTS § 528.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance...

  12. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6... REQUIREMENTS § 528.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance...

  13. 7 CFR 57.690 - Person required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Person required to register. 57.690 Section 57.690... § 57.690 Person required to register. Egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg... hatcheries, are required to register with the Department by furnishing their name, place of business,...

  14. 32 CFR 505.11 - Federal Register publishing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Register publishing requirements. 505.11... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.11 Federal Register publishing requirements. (a) The Federal Register. There are three types of documents relating to the Privacy Act Program...

  15. 7 CFR 800.33 - How to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to register. 800.33 Section 800.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... § 800.33 How to register. Any person who is required or desires to register must submit an...

  16. 12 CFR 390.147 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan application register. 390.147 Section 390....147 Loan application register. State savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the FDIC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203...

  17. 27 CFR 29.57 - Failure to register; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to register... register; penalty. Any person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up who fails to register the still or distilling apparatus is subject to a fine of not more...

  18. 7 CFR 57.690 - Person required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Person required to register. 57.690 Section 57.690... § 57.690 Person required to register. Egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg... hatcheries, are required to register with the Department by furnishing their name, place of business,...

  19. 12 CFR 4.13 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 4.13 Section 4.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND... Publication in the Federal Register. The OCC publishes certain documents in the Federal Register for...

  20. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  1. 5 CFR 332.401 - Order on registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order on registers. 332.401 Section 332... SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.401 Order on registers... names of eligibles on the appropriate register in accordance with their numerical ratings, except...

  2. 12 CFR 1301.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 1301.3... Publication in the Federal Register. Subject to the application of the FOIA exemptions and exclusions (5 U.S.C..., publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions...

  3. 12 CFR 1102.304 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 1102.304 Section... Description of Office, Procedures, Public Information § 1102.304 Federal Register publication. The ASC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a)...

  4. 12 CFR 128.6 - Loan application register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan application register. 128.6 Section 128.6... § 128.6 Loan application register. Savings associations and other lenders required to file Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the OCC in accordance with 12 CFR part 203 must enter...

  5. 15 CFR 270.103 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 270.103 Section 270.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Federal Register. The Director will promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of the...

  6. 32 CFR 505.11 - Federal Register publishing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Federal Register publishing requirements. 505.11... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.11 Federal Register publishing requirements. (a) The Federal Register. There are three types of documents relating to the Privacy Act Program...

  7. 22 CFR 232.06 - Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transferability of Guarantee; Note Register... Register. A Noteholder may assign, transfer or pledge an Eligible Note to any Person. Any such assignment... Note Register required to be maintained by the Fiscal Agent pursuant to the Fiscal Agency...

  8. 40 CFR 720.70 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 720.70... CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Disposition of Notices § 720.70 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. In accordance with section 5(d)(2) of the Act, after EPA receives...

  9. 7 CFR 800.33 - How to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to register. 800.33 Section 800.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... § 800.33 How to register. Any person who is required or desires to register must submit an...

  10. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  11. 12 CFR 309.3 - Federal Register publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register publication. 309.3 Section 309... OF INFORMATION § 309.3 Federal Register publication. The FDIC publishes the following information in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public: (a) Descriptions of its central and...

  12. Coherence and Contextuality: Linguistic Features of Register in the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Rosemary L.

    1989-01-01

    Classifies three domains of register: "field" (context); "mode" (function); and "tenor" (role interaction). Examines examples of student writing for evidence of register. Asserts that an identification of registers permits teachers and researchers to understand features of text coherence. Suggests implications for…

  13. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  14. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  15. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  16. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  17. 17 CFR 31.27 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... membership. 31.27 Section 31.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.27 Registered futures association membership. Each person registered or required... futures association which is registered under section 17 of the Act and which provides for the...

  18. 17 CFR 31.27 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... membership. 31.27 Section 31.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.27 Registered futures association membership. Each person registered or required... futures association which is registered under section 17 of the Act and which provides for the...

  19. 17 CFR 31.27 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... membership. 31.27 Section 31.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.27 Registered futures association membership. Each person registered or required... futures association which is registered under section 17 of the Act and which provides for the...

  20. 77 FR 11345 - Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment Companies Required To Register...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... 17 CFR Part 4 Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment Companies Required To....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. ``Regulation 4.5 Harmonization'' must be in..., http://comments.cftc.gov/PublicComments/CommentList.aspx?id=973 . C. Proposed Harmonization...

  1. Village registers for vital registration in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Singogo, E; Kanike, E; van Lettow, M; Cataldo, F; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Harries, A D

    2013-08-01

    Paper-based village registers were introduced 5 years ago in Malawi as a tool to measure vital statistics of births and deaths at the population level. However, usage, completeness and accuracy of their content have never been formally evaluated. In Traditional Authority Mwambo, Zomba district, Malawi, we assessed 280 of the 325 village registers with respect to (i) characteristics of village headmen who used village registers, (ii) use and content of village registers, and (iii) whether village registers provided accurate information on births and deaths. All village headpersons used registers. There were 185 (66%) registers that were regarded as 95% completed, and according to the registers, there were 115 840 people living in the villages in the catchment area. In 2011, there were 1753 births recorded in village registers, while 6397 births were recorded in health centre registers in the same catchment area. For the same year, 199 deaths were recorded in village registers, giving crude death rates per 100 000 population of 189 for males and 153 for females. These could not be compared with death rates in health centre registers due to poor and inconsistent recording in these registers, but they were compared with death rates obtained from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey that reported 880 and 840 per 100 000 for males and females, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows that village registers are a potential source for vital statistics. However, considerable inputs are needed to improve accuracy of births and deaths, and there are no functional systems for the collation and analysis of data at the traditional authority level. Innovative ways to address these challenges are discussed, including the use of solar-powered electronic village registers and mobile phones, connected with each other and the health facilities and the District Commissioner's office through the cellular network and wireless coverage.

  2. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  3. Work force policy perspectives: registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Friss, L O

    1981-01-01

    If the decline in full-time labor force participation by registered nurses in hospitals is to be reversed, the issue of equal pay for comparable work must be addressed. Under pressure for cost containment, policies tend to focus on labor force economics rather than on limitations of services. While the two are interrelated, wage policies must be considered independently. This article describes the network which determines how nurse salaries are set: the relationship between the private sector, the general schedule and the Veteran's Administration. The effects of this system are documented, using testimony from a case in the tenth circuit, as well as comparisons with other reference groups: policemen, teachers, laborers, and VA career fields. The evidence suggests that there is a need for policy intervention. Prime areas for action are the comparability practices by governments, particularly in the areas of classification standards and pay setting. Hospital personnel practices which continue past effects of occupational segregation also should be changed.

  4. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  5. 77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical... provisions in the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical...

  6. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On December 21, 2012, the...'') natural resource damage claims brought pursuant to Sections 1002 and 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act, 33...

  7. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  8. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  9. European registration: today, tomorrow, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Currie, W J

    1990-05-01

    Within the European Community (EC) countries the national pharmaceutical regulatory systems work with varying degrees of efficiency and scientific sophistication. At the Community level the objective of mutual recognition has failed to be realized. To achieve for one registration application within the EC, timely and simultaneous marketing approvals throughout the member states will require changes to the present regulatory procedures or the single market concept for pharmaceuticals will not be realized. To have the greatest chances for success we should move cautiously, identifying and correcting deficiencies in the present procedures, which are known from experience, rather than abandoning such hard won knowledge for a new system with all its attendant potential unknowns and uncertainty. The free movement of drugs within the Internal European market will be a reality. The question remaining is at what price will it be achieved? It is vital to the European economy and consumer, as well as to the innovative pharmaceutical industry, that Europe does not exchange its present competitive edge in the time to develop and register new drugs for a costly drug lag. The experiment must equally succeed as a torch showing the way forward not only for an enlarging European Community, but also to the ever increasing interest in global harmonization of drug regulation.

  10. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  11. [Diagnoses in the Camberwell-register, a cumulative psychiatric register of cases].

    PubMed

    Jakubaschk, J; Hurry, J

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation indicates that the diagnostic labels applied to mentally ill patients are changed frequently. Of a sample of 100 such patients, 20 received a second diagnosis, differing from the initial one, within 4 weeks, while within 2 years the diagnostic category had been changed for over half the cases. How far these changes reflect the frequency with which psychiatric conditions succeed one another, and how far the extent to which different psychiatrists apply different names to the same clinical picture, remains an open question. It was further established that even a model psychiatric case register such as the Camberwell Register, which is well organized and has highly-experienced staff, could not monitor all diagnostic changes.

  12. 75 FR 73080 - Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period of Draft National Pollutant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems...

  13. 76 FR 8734 - Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period of Draft National Pollutant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems...

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); Asbestos NESHAP Revision: 1990 Final Rule (55 FR 48406)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 20, 1990 Final Rule of Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Revision for the Asbestos NESHAP.

  15. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  16. Evaluation of GAFCHROMIC registered EBT film for CyberKnife registered dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Ellen E.; Daskalov, George M.

    2007-06-15

    External beam therapy (EBT) GAFCHROMIC registered film is evaluated for dosimetry and characterization of the CyberKnife registered radiation beams. Percentage depth doses, lateral beam profiles, and output factors are measured in solid water using EBT GAFCHROMIC registered film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ) for the 6 MV radiation beams of diameter 5 to 60 mm produced by the CyberKnife registered (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). The data are compared to those measured with the PTW 60008 diode and the Wellhofer CC01 ion chamber in water. For the small radiation field sizes used in stereotactic radiosurgery, lateral electronic disequilibrium and steep dose gradients exist in a large portion of these fields, requiring the use of high-resolution measurement techniques. For small beams, the detector size approaches the dimensions of the beam and adversely affects measurement accuracy in regions where the gradient varies across the detector. When film is the detector, the scanning system is usually the resolution-limiting component. Radiographic films based upon silver halide (AgH) emulsions are widely used for relative dosimetry of external radiation treatment beams in the megavoltage energy range, because of their good spatial resolution and capability to provide integrated dosimetry over two dimensions. Film dosimetry, however, has drawbacks due to its steep energy dependence at low photon energies as well as film processor and densitometer artifacts. EBT radiochromic film, introduced in 2004 specifically for IMRT dosimetry, may be a detector of choice for the characterization of small radiosurgical beams, because of its near-tissue equivalence, radiation beam energy independence, high spatial resolution, and self developing properties. For radiation beam sizes greater than 10 mm, the film measurements were identical to those of the diode and ion chamber. For the smaller beam diameters of 7.5 and 5 mm, however, there were differences in the data measured with

  17. Perceptions of select registered nurses of the continuing competence program of the Saskatchewan registered nurses' association.

    PubMed

    Bassendowski, Sandra; Petrucka, Pammla

    2009-12-01

    Nursing is a self-regulating profession, and most professional nursing jurisdictions across Canada have undertaken the creation of Continuing Competence Programs (CCPs), with the goals of promoting good nursing practice, encouraging continuous learning, contributing to the quality of nursing practice, and optimizing client outcomes. Most CCPs call for a professional portfolio to collect, synthesize, and analyze professional experiences, including documentation of peer feedback and preparation of a learning plan. In the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, there is a self-reflective tool that enables registered nurses to self-rate their achievement of a set of foundational competencies. This article explores the perceptions that select registered nurses have about the CCP in Saskatchewan and how their view of the degree of professional control (as assessed through locus of control) that they have affects their perspective about the outcomes of the program. The study was designed to assess how perceived locus of control was related to how registered nurses view the implementation of the CCP in Saskatchewan.

  18. Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988).

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, E-J; Beek, Titia; Dijkhoff, Laura; Gronau, Quentin F; Acosta, Alberto; Adams (Jr.), Reginald B; Albohn, Daniel N; Allard, Eric S; Benning, Stephen D; Blouin- Hudon, Eve-Marie; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Caldwell, Tracy L; Calin-Jageman, Robert J; Capaldi, Colin A; Carfagno, Nicholas S; Chasten, Kelsie T; Cleeremans, Axel; Connell, Louise; DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fischer, Agneta H; Foroni, Francesco; Hess, Ursula; Holmes, Kevin J; Jones, Jacob L H; Klein, Olivier; Koch, Christopher; Korb, Sebastian; Lewinski, Peter; Liao, Julia D; Lund, Sophie; Lupiáñez, Juan; Lynott, Dermot; Nance, Christin N; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Özdog˘ru, Asil Ali; Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Pearson, Bethany; Powis, Christina; Riding, Sarah; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Senden, Morgane; Shea-Shumsky, Noah B; Sobocko, Karin; Soto, Jose A; Steiner, Troy G; Talarico, Jennifer M; van Allen, Zack M; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Wainwright, Bethany; Wayand, Joseph F; Zeelenberg, Rene; Zetzer, Emily E; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-11-01

    According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout"). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the "smile" and "pout" conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16.

  19. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  20. Selective data segment monitoring system. [using shift registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, M. N. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High speed data monitoring apparatus is described for displaying the bit pattern of a selected portion of a block of transmitted data comprising a shift register for receiving the transmitted data and for temporarily containing the consecutive data bits. A programmable sync detector for monitoring the contents of the shift register and for generating a sync signal when the shift register contains a predetermined sync code is included. A counter is described for counting the data bits input to the shift register after the sync signal is generated and for generating a count complete signal when a selected number of data bits have been input to the register. A data storage device is used for storing the contents of the shift register at the time the count complete signal is generated.