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Sample records for registered broiler chicken

  1. The prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella sp. among Canadian registered commercial chicken broiler flocks.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C.; Irwin, R. J.; Messier, S.; Finley, G. G.; Oggel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A nation-wide survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial broiler flocks. Environmental (litter and/or water) samples from 226 of 294 (76.9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Litter samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than water samples (47.4 v. 12.3%). Fifty different salmonella serovars were isolated. The most prevalent serovars were S. hadar, S. infantis, and S. schwarzengrund; they were isolated from samples of 98/294 (33.3%), 26/294 (8.8%), and 21/294 (7.1%) flocks, respectively. Feed samples of 39/290 (13.4%) flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the environmental samples of 9/294 (3.1%) flocks. Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 was isolated from seven flocks, and PT 13a from two flocks. PMID:1879484

  2. Seroprevalence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Allymehr, M

    2006-02-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a pleomorphic Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium of the rRNA superfamily V that is associated with respiratory disease in poultry. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of O. rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan (Urmia lake region) by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, 463 serum samples were obtained from 50 broiler flocks and 472 blood sera from 42 broiler breeder flocks. Results showed that 41 broiler flocks (82%) and 39 broiler breeder flocks (92.8%) were positive. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale antibodies were detected in 205 (44.2%) of the 463 broiler serum samples. Of the 472 blood sera examined from broiler breeder, 340 (72%) were positive. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of O. rhinotracheale antibodies is high in the broiler and broiler breeder flocks in West Azerbaijan.

  3. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  4. Echocardiographic study of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, L A; Miller, M W; Jeffrey, J S; Odom, T W

    2000-01-01

    Echocardiography was used to study cardiovascular structure and function during the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Body weight-normalized right and left ventricular diameters at both end-diastole (RVDD, LVDD) and end-systole (RVDS, LVDS) were determined weekly in broilers reared under either normobaric (altitude, 96.7 m) or hypobaric conditions (simulated altitude, 2900 m) until 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers had larger RVDD at 3 and 4 wk of age and larger RVDS at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers also had larger LVDD at 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and larger LVDS at 4 wk of age. Right (RVFS) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were smaller in hypobaric- vs. normobaric-exposed broilers at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and at 4 wk of age, respectively. Among hypobaric-exposed birds, PHS-positive (+) broilers had larger RVDD and RVDS than PHS-negative (-) broilers on week 3 and on weeks 1 and 3 after hypobaric exposure, respectively. PHS-positive (+) broilers also had smaller RVFS on week 1 after hypobaric exposure. Electrocardiographic and post-mortem data indicated that PHS+ broilers also developed right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with PHS-negative (-) broilers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHS develops as a result of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac overload and suggest that PHS+ broilers have a greater and more persistent reaction to hypoxia than PHS- broilers.

  5. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  6. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  7. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  8. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  9. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  11. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  12. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases.

  13. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  14. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), whereas the counts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  15. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  17. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  18. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  19. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  20. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  1. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  2. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  3. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens.

  4. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  5. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  6. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; Koene, P

    2003-09-01

    1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding (preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the succeeding (postprandial) interval. An experiment was conducted to investigate eating behaviour of male broiler and layer chickens by measuring meal and interval lengths. 2. Eight male broilers and 8 male layer chickens were housed individually and visually isolated in floor pens (1 m2/pen) on wood shavings. From 4 to 7 weeks of age, eating behaviour of each bird was recorded for 3 h in two conditions each week. In the first condition, the birds were not deprived from feed. In the second condition, they were 24-h food deprived and feed was provided just before the observation started. Preprandial and postprandial correlations were calculated based on data of the non-deprived condition. Before and after each observation bird and feeder were weighed to measure weight gain and feed consumption during observation. 3. Under the non-deprived condition, the broilers spent initially more, but at a later age less time on eating. The broilers had fewer meals per hour, consumed more feed per hour, and had longer meal and interval lengths than the layer chickens. After 24-h feed deprivation, the broilers had a longer first meal, consumed more feed per hour and spent more time on eating than the layer chickens. Significant preprandial correlations but no postprandial correlations were found in the broilers. In the layer chickens, both significant preprandial and postprandial correlations were found. This indicates that for regulating eating behaviour, the satiety mechanism dominates the hunger mechanism in broilers, and satiety and hunger mechanisms are equally involved in layer chickens. 4. The typical eating behaviour of broilers

  7. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M; Healing, T D; Rollins, D; Shahamat, M; Donaldson, J; Colwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Chickens on a broiler farm in southern England were found to be colonized with Campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, Lior 1 Penner 4. The farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. The serotype persisted on the farm for at least 18 months after the outbreak; its prevalence in the human population served by the farm remained high until it disappeared from the farm in 1986. The possible sources and routes of transmission of C. jejuni to the broilers on the farm were investigated. The results showed that vertical transmission, feed, litter, small mammals, and environmental or airborne cross-contamination between sheds or successive crops could be excluded as persistent sources of C. jejuni. The predominant source of C. jejuni on the farm was shown to be the water supply. Direct microscopy and fluorescent antibody methods revealed presumptive campylobacters throughout the farm's water system. Campylobacter-free chickens raised in an animal house and given water from the farm supply became colonized with the serotype of C. jejuni endemic on the farm (Lior 1 Penner 4). An intervention program based on water chlorination, shed drinking system cleaning and disinfection, and withdrawal of furazolidone from feed reduced the proportion of birds colonized with campylobacter from 81 to 7% and was associated with a 1,000- to 10,000-fold reduction in campylobacters recoverable from the carcasses. Two months after the end of the intervention program colonization of the birds returned to high levels (84%), indicating that there was a temporal association between intervention and reduced colonization with C. jejuni. Investigations continue to establish the general applicability of these findings. PMID:8476300

  8. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Kyung Woo; Jang, Seung I; Marc, Pages; Gay, Cyril G; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, Daniel A; Phillips, Kathy; Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2010-08-01

    The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between the different Clostridium spp. and the pathogenesis of GD.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  10. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  11. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  12. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Park, M S; Bautista, D A; Ritter, G D; Hong, Y H; Siragusa, G R; Lillehoj, E P

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2(+) IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2(+), BU1(+), and TCR1(+) spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  13. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P < or = 0.0001) and Y = 3,348.62x -140.18 (P < or = 0.0001) for experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The AMEn of glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  14. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  15. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  16. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  17. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  18. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  19. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2014-10-01

    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P < 0.001) immediately after 2 and 4 h crating, but no difference between the crated and the control noncrated broilers was found 24 h later. Immediately after crating, neopterin in 2- and 4-h broilers did not differ from the control, but 24 h later a decrease (P = 0.011) in plasma neopterin was found in 4-h broilers compared with the control. Simultaneously, 24 h after crating, neopterin levels in 2- and 4-h broilers decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison with the levels immediately after crating. Plasma biopterin was higher (P < 0.001) in 4-h broilers than in the control immediately after the crating. A time of sampling effect (P = 0.016) was found for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio higher 24 h after crating in comparison with its level immediately after the crating. This study shows that crating may significantly affect the immune system of broiler chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin

  20. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  1. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  2. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  3. Studies on the Cecal Microflora of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Blake, I. G.; Muirhead, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the cecal microflora isolated from broilers (5-week-old) reared under typical commercial husbandry conditions. Three hundred and twenty-five bacterial strains (randomly isolated from colonies representing 49 to 81% of the microscopic count) were isolated from cecal digesta of six animals on a rumen fluid roll tube medium (M98-5). Seventy-seven percent of these strains consisted of strict anaerobes: gram-negative, pleomorphic cocci (5.2%), Peptostreptococcus (1.5%), gram-positive rods (36.1% as Propionibacterium acnes and Eubacterium sp.), gram-negative rods (18.6% as Bacteroides clostridiiformis, B. hypermegas and B. fragilis) and sporeforming rods (15.7% as Clostridium sp.). Two types of facultatively anaerobic bacteria (gram-positive cocci and Escherichia coli) were also isolated and constituted 17.5% of the remaining flora. The distribution of the bacterial groups isolated from six cecal samples varied considerably. Data on the growth requirements of anaerobic strains indicated that many could be cultured in a simple medium consisting of an energy source, minerals, reducing agent, Trypticase, and yeast extract (or a vitamin mixture in place of yeast extract). The growth of some of these bacteria was also enhanced by CO2 and rumen fluid. These preliminary data suggest that some of the more numerous anaerobes isolated from the chicken cecum may not require complex nutrients for growth and, in fact, may be nutritionally similar to rumen anaerobes. PMID:4608322

  4. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains.

  5. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  6. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  7. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  8. Anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu

    2016-06-01

    To study the anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts (PSE) in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 270 one-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six groups, each with three replicates (n = 15). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and another three PSE addition groups. Chickens in three control groups were fed a basal diet without PSE supplementation. Chickens in the three PSE addition groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with PSE at 100 (T100), 200 (T200), and 300 (T300) mg/kg of feed, respectively. At 15 days of age, chickens in group NC, PC, and three PSE addition groups were challenged with an oral dose of 1 × 10(5) Eimeria tenella oocysts each chick. Chickens in group PC were fed with diclazuril solution in water for 5 days after 48 h with oocysts inoculation. The results showed that PSE and diclazuril improved growth performance and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased oocysts per gram in inoculated broiler chickens. PSE and diclazuril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased nitric oxide at 6 and 9 days post-inoculation relative to the NC group, respectively. At 6 and 9 days post-inoculation, PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet increased concentration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P < 0.05). PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the cecum of chickens at 9 days post-inoculation relative to the BC and NC group. The current results showed the anticoccidial properties, and beneficial effect on intestinal mucosa damage of PSE in broiler chickens that had been challenged by coccidiosis.

  9. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  10. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  11. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  12. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  13. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  14. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  15. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  16. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  17. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  18. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  19. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  20. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  1. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  2. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  3. Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Santurio, J M; Mallmann, C A; Rosa, A P; Appel, G; Heer, A; Dageförde, S; Böttcher, M

    1999-03-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB (0, 2.5, and 5 g/kg) and 2 of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg food). Each treatment had 4 replicates of 22 chickens. 2. All chickens treated with aflatoxin and without bentonite were adversely affected. NaB treatment at 5.0 g/kg improved body weights at 42 d of age by 31.3%, increased food intake by 23.8% and improved productive efficiency by 40.1%. Weights of liver, heart, pancreas and crop and biochemical variables were not affected by dietary NaB. However, serum phosphorous concentration was reduced by 30% compared with chickens that received aflatoxin. 3. NaB caused no adverse effects on chickens that did not receive aflatoxin. 4. It is concluded that NaB at pH 7.9 partially neutralises the effects of aflatoxins on broiler chickens when included at 5.0 g/kg in the diet.

  4. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  5. Pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Watteyn, A; Plessers, E; Wyns, H; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2013-06-01

    Gamithromycin is a new macrolide antibiotic that is only registered for use in cattle to treat respiratory disorders such as bovine respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin in broiler chickens. Gamithromycin (6 mg/kg of BW) was injected intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to six 4-wk-old chickens in a parallel study design, and blood was collected at different time points postadministration. Quantification of gamithromycin in plasma was performed using an in-house validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and the pharmacokinetics analyzed according to a 2-compartmental model. Following IV administration, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞), and α and β half-life of elimination (t1/2el α and t1/2el β) were 3,998 h•ng/mL, 0.90 h, and 14.12 h, respectively. Similar values were obtained after a SC bolus injection, i.e., 4,095 h•ng/mL, 0.34 h, and 11.63 h, for AUC0→∞, t1/2el α, and t1/2el β, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration (889.46 ng/mL) appeared at 0.13 h. Gamithromycin showed a large volume of distribution after IV as well as SC administration, 27.08 and 20.89 L/kg, respectively, and a total body clearance of 1.61 and 1.77 L/h•kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailability was 102.4%, showing that there is a complete absorption of gamithromycin after a SC bolus injection of 6 mg/kg of BW.

  6. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Shehata, Mostafa A; Rafeek, Elshimaa

    2014-01-01

    A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans.

  7. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  8. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  9. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Jun; YU, Hai-Yang; ZHANG, Jun-Ling; WANG, Xing-Man; LI, Jin-Pei; HU, Tao; HU, Yong; WANG, Ming-Li; SHEN, Yong-Zhou; XU, Jing-Dong; HAN, Guo-Xiang; CHEN, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent. PMID:27890904

  10. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  11. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  12. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction typing and sequencing of mitochondrial D-loop region in broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harumi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Naito, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to comprehend a feature of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mainly of general broiler chickens in Japan. We typed two SNP sites (199C/T and 792A/G) of the D-loop region in mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) in 359 broiler (182 chunky and 177 cobb) and 506 layer (233 White Leghorn, 140 Barred Plymouth Rock and 133 Rhode Island Red) chickens. The SNP of 199C or 792A by AS-PCR was observed in the chunky and cobb chickens, and not in the layers. The haplotype 199T/792G was observed in a part of cobb and all layers. By the result of AS-PCR haplotyping and the broiler brands, the D-loop region was sequenced in 44 broiler chickens (20 chunky and 24 cobb) and compared with the layers' sequence data. Among the broiler and layer chickens, 21 SNP sites (including one insertion) and 11 sequence haplotypes were observed. Haplotype variation or correspondence was observed in and between the broiler brands. This study provides important information to establish a chicken meat traceability system by SNP haplotyping of mtDNA in Japan.

  13. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  14. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  15. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in cecal counts of B. bacteriovorus, which parasitizes susceptible gram-negative pathogens. Topinambur led to significantly smaller numbers of total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and C. perfringens as well as to reduced levels of endotoxins in the blood compared with those for control birds. Increased body weights resulting from topinambur consumption were observed on day 35 of the trial period (P < 0.05). The relative weights of the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius, however, were higher (P < 0.05) for topinambur-treated broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  16. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  17. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  18. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM.

  19. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  20. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  1. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  2. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  3. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin as dietary additives for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, M S; Odetallah, N H; Robinson, R K

    1999-03-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin alone, or in combination, on the growth of broiler chickens was monitored over a period of 8 weeks. 2. The maximum improvement in body weight over the controls was 10.8% with both additives in the diet but the use of bacitracin alone induced a 9.1% improvement. 3. Food conversion was reduced by zinc bacitracin alone but was improved by the use of L. acidophilus and bacitracin in combination. 4. The combination treatment increased abdominal fat deposition in the female chickens by 31%.

  5. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  6. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, J. G.; Zhang, J. L.; Qu, H. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Yan, Y. F.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  7. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  8. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  9. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  10. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  11. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  12. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  13. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  14. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  15. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  16. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  17. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  18. Combined effects of muscular dystrophy, ecological stress, and selenium on blood antioxidant status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V; Stoyanchev, Krasimir; Bozakova, Nadia; Jotova, Ivanka

    2011-09-01

    The results obtained in this study demonstrated that experimentally induced alimentary muscular dystrophy (MD) in Cobb 500 broiler chickens resulted in increased plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), deviations in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD (decrease), and CAT (increase) as well as reduction in plasma concentrations of trace elements Cu, Zn, and Se in affected birds. These data evidenced the presence of oxidative stress in birds with MD, reared both under conditions of ecological comfort and ecological stress. The increased MDA and САТ levels and the reduced Cu,Zn-SOD, Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations in healthy chickens reared under unfavorable microclimatic conditions such as higher air temperature and humidity, higher ammonia concentrations, and lower light intensity were indicative about an induced ecological stress. After the 10-day oral treatment with a selenium-containing preparation, the levels of MDA, Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, Cu, Zn, and Se attained their normal values in chickens with MD, reared under ecologically comfortable conditions. According to our results, ecological stress was shown to exert independently a significant adverse effect upon the levels of the studied parameters and possibly to be a cause for their slower and not complete normalization despite the selenium therapy in experimental broiler chickens.

  19. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens.

  1. Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J

    2005-03-01

    A 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.

  2. Estimating danofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens based on physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Liu, Y M; Zeng, Z L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was firstly developed for danofloxacin in healthy broiler chickens after a single oral administration at 5 mg/kg bw. Then, the model extrapolation from healthy chickens to those infected with Pasteurella multocidaones was performed. The healthy model was validated through a comparison of predicted and previously published concentrations, which indicated that the healthy PBPK model had good predictive ability in plasma, lung, muscle, liver, and kidney, especially at the later sampling time points. Multiple dosing of administration was incorporated into the healthy and infected models. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into both models to predict the withdrawal times of danofloxacin in healthy and infected chickens, which were estimated to be 3 and 2 days, respectively.

  3. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  4. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  5. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  6. Effects of dietary copper supplementation on production performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B; Biswas, A; Ghosh, P R

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the effect of copper (Cu) supplementation on growth performance and biochemical profiles of blood and meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240 d-old broiler chicks (Vencobb-100) were randomly divided into 12 groups, each of 20 chicks (4 treatments x 3 replicates). The basal diet (T₁) contained 215 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP), 12·76 MJ kg⁻¹ ME, 32 g kg⁻¹ total calcium and 5 g kg⁻¹ total phosphorus. T₂, T₃ and T₄ were formulated to contain an additional 75, 150 and 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO₄, 5H₂O) was used as the source of Cu. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride, and an elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in the chickens fed with 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed at the 3rd and 6th week of the experiment. Total cholesterol in meat decreased significantly in the birds fed with dietary Cu at 250 mg kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed. Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of d 21 and d 42 of the experiment, and the result was found to be commercially beneficial for the chickens receiving 150 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₃) of diet. The concentration of Cu in breast muscle and liver increased significantly at the end of experiment. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation with dietary Cu may be beneficial for production performance and plasma biochemical characteristics of broiler chickens.

  7. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  8. Effect of sand and wood-shavings bedding on the behavior of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shields, S J; Garner, J P; Mench, J A

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different bedding types, sand and wood shavings, on the behavior of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 6 pens were divided down the center and bedded half with sand and half with wood shavings. Male broilers (10/pen) were observed by scan sampling at 5- or 12-min intervals throughout the 6-wk growth period during the morning (between 0800 to 0900 h), afternoon (1200 to 1500 h), and night (2300 to 0600 h). There was a significant behavior x substrate x week interaction during the day (P < 0.0001) and at night (P < 0.0002). Drinking, dustbathing, preening, and sitting increased in frequency on the sand side but decreased on the wood shavings side during the day, as did resting at night. In general, broilers performed a greater proportion of their total behavioral time budget on the sand (P < 0.0001) as they aged. Broilers used the divider between the 2 bedding types to perch; perching behavior peaked during wk 4. In experiment 2, male broilers were housed in 8 pens (50 birds/pen) bedded only in sand or wood shavings. Bedding type had no effect on behavioral time budgets (P = 0.8946), although there were age-related changes in behavior on both bedding types. These results indicate that when given a choice, broilers increasingly performed many of their behaviors on sand, but if only one bedding type was provided they performed those behaviors with similar frequency on sand or wood shavings.

  9. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  10. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection.

  11. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers.

  12. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  13. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  14. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  16. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  17. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  19. Sensor-based monitoring of the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Ammon, C; Volkamer, L; Sürie, C; Radko, D

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a dielectric measurement to evaluate the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. 2. The study focussed on surveying the occurrence of FPD during the growing period of one broiler chicken flock. A scoring system consisting of 5 categories was used to assess the prevalence and severity of FPD macroscopically. Additionally, the dielectric constant (DC) of both foot pads of 50 chickens was measured in a triple iteration with the MoistureMeter D (Delfin Technologies, Kuopio, Finland) on three different dates. 3. On all measurement days, DC and FPD score were negatively correlated. The severity of FPD increased during the growing period, and severe lesions occurred at an early stage. 4. Further research is necessary to develop an effective early warning system for FPD in poultry houses. However, the non-invasive measurement of DC provides a reliable method for the objective assessment of occurrence and severity of FPD.

  20. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    PubMed

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-04-11

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  1. Protective potential of Lactobacillus species in lead toxicity model in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, M F; Liang, J B; Ebrahimi, R; Soleimani, A F; Rezaeizadeh, A; Abdullah, N; Shokryazdan, P

    2016-11-02

    To alleviate adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity, diverse range of removing methods have been suggested, that is usage of algae, agricultural by-products and microorganisms. Here, we investigated lead (Pb) biosorption efficacy by two lactic acid bacteria species (LABs) in broiler chickens. In an in vitro study, Pb was added to culture medium of LABs (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44) in the form of lead acetate. Results showed that these LABs were able to absorb more than 90% of Pb from the culture medium. In follow-up in vivo study, LABs mixture was added to diet of broiler chickens contained lead acetate (200 mg/kg). Pb exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activity in liver. The changes were recovered back to normal level upon LABs supplementation. Moreover, addition of LABs eliminated the liver tissue lesion and the suppressed performance in Pb-exposed chicks. Analysis of liver and serum samples indicated 48% and 28% reduction in Pb accumulation, respectively. In conclusion, results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 effectively biosorb and expel dietary Pb from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

  2. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation.

  3. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  4. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  5. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  6. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  7. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  8. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Knapen, Frans; Urlings, Bert A P

    2003-04-01

    In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentration of lactic and acetic acid and lactobacilli. One and three week old broiler chickens were necropsied at short intervals after inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis. Counts of Salmonella from the crop, gizzard, duodenum, caecum and colon/rectum were obtained. This revealed a sharper decrease of Salmonella in the anterior parts of the gastro-intestinal tract in chickens fed with fermented feed than in chickens fed dry feed. It is therefore concluded that fermented feed improves the barrier formed by the crop and gizzard. The reduction of Salmonella is fully realised in the crop and gizzard. The lower intestinal compartment did not show a substantial effect on the reduction of Salmonella. The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

  9. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  10. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  11. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  12. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  13. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy.

  14. Cool perch availability improves the performance and welfare status of broiler chickens in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2012-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled perches would be preferred by commercial broilers exposed to a hot ambient environment, and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance and the well-being of birds, beyond those provided by normal perches. Four hundred and thirty-two 14-d-old male chickens from a commercial fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres) were housed in the following conditions: 1) cool perches, 2) normal perches, and 3) control pens with no perches. The results showed that there was greater use of cool perches than normal perches for broiler chickens during summer (F1, 4=125, P=0.0004). Cool perches increased BW gain (F2, 6=5.44, P=0.0449) and breast (F2, 24=3.31, P=0.0539) and thigh muscle yields (F2, 24=6.29, P=0.0063), while decreasing abdominal fat deposition (F2, 24=7.57, P=0.0028), cooking loss (pectoralis major, F2, 24=3.30, P=0.0542; biceps femoris, F2, 24=3.42, P=0.0493), percentage of panting birds (F2, 6=102, P<0.0001), and scores of footpad (F2, 6=122, P<0.0001) and hock (F2, 6=68.2, P<0.0001) burn, and abdominal plumage condition (F2, 6=52.0, P=0.0002), particularly toward the end of the rearing period. In contrast, normal perches hardly affected growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and behavioral patterns, and appeared to worsen the welfare status, including footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage condition, due to a lower occupancy rate. Cool perches offer a thermoregulatory and performance advantage to broilers exposed to a hot environment and appear to be a management strategy for improving the production and well-being of commercial broilers.

  15. Performance of broiler chickens given whey in the food and/or drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, F; Forbes, J M

    2005-08-01

    1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain and feed efficiencies significantly. Feeding whey also improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, but whey offered as a drinking fluid had an adverse effect on broiler performance. 3. When whey was offered both as drinking liquid and added to the food it had a deleterious effect. 4. When whey was offered from 4 or 6 weeks of age, it had a better effect than when offered from 2 weeks of age. 5. There was better performance when whey in the drinking water was diluted and/or offered on alternate days or half-days. 6. Broilers allowed to choose between wet and dry feed when water was freely available chose mostly dry feed; in the absence of drinking water they chose mostly wet food. Birds offered water and liquid whey avoided whey completely. 7. It is concluded that whey can be used in diets for broiler chickens by incorporating it in the food as long as drinking water is offered ad libitum. Whey may be offered as a drink if the food is mixed with 1.8 times its weight of water but it is better to dilute the whey with an equal volume of water whether it is added to food or given as drink. Good results can also be obtained when undiluted whey is offered alternately with water, either in half-day or full-day periods.

  16. Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

  17. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  18. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  19. [Avian Escherichia coli virulence factors associated with coli septicemia in broiler chickens].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Santoyo, R M; Moreno Sala, A; Almanza Marquez, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to detect phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity, 25 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from clinical cases of colisepticemia in broiler chickens, were examined to determine the following properties: colicinogenicity, colicin V production, type 1 fimbriae, hemolysin expression and motility. Colicinogenicity occurred in 72% of the strains, 56% of all strains produced colicin V, 84% were positive for type 1 fimbriae and 80% were positive for motility. None of the strains had hemolytic activity; however, all of them, expressed at least one of the other characteristics studied. These results suggest that the diversity of phenotypes detected partially explain the multifactorial nature of avian colisepticemia.

  20. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  1. Individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Hagler, W M; Swanson, S P; Phillips, T D; Creger, C R

    1986-07-01

    The individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were evaluated in young broiler chickens (Hubbard X Hubbard). The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial with treatments of 0 and 2.5 micrograms of aflatoxin/g of feed (ppm) and 0 and 16 micrograms of DON/g of feed. The broilers were maintained on these dietary treatments from hatching to 3 weeks of age in electrically heated batteries with feed and water available ad libitum. The aflatoxin treatment significantly (P less than .05) decreased body weight; weight gain; increased the relative weight of the spleen, liver, and kidney; induced hepatic hyperlipemia; decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase; and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The toxicity of DON was expressed through reduced growth rate, increased feed conversion; increased relative weight of the gizzard, anemia, decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum triglycerides. The interaction between aflatoxin and DON was characterized by reduced growth rates; increased feed conversion, increased relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, spleen, liver, and kidney, anemia, hepatic hyperlipemia, decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium. These data demonstrate that both aflatoxin and DON can limit broiler performance and adversely effect broiler health. The effects of the combination of aflatoxin and DON on broiler performance and health was more severe than the individual effects of these mycotoxins; however, the interaction was not severe enough to represent toxic synergy and can best be characterized as additive toxicity.

  2. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  5. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  6. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  7. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  9. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  10. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  11. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  12. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler chicken meat packages and on product within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  13. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  15. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  16. Effect of copper on antioxidant ability and nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Lei; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the interaction between Cu intake, inflammatory challenge and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was tested whether plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) could be a sensible parameter for dietary Cu. One hundred forty-four day old chickens were raised on a basal control diet without added copper (Group Cu-6.5, basal Cu content 6.5 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with Cu at 8 or 50 mg/kg (Groups Cu-14.5 and Cu-56.5, respectively) with four replicates of 12 animals for each treatment. Starting on day 21, chickens were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) once a day for 3 days. Before this challenge, Group Cu-14.5 had the lowest gain and the feed to gain ratio was the highest. After injection of LPS, however, chickens of Group Cu-14.5 had the best zoo-technical performance. For chickens of Group Cu-6.5, LPS injection resulted in elevated rectal temperature, and lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity, compared with the other groups. LPS injection increased plasma uric acid in Group Cu-6.5 significantly, but was without influence in Group Cu-56.5. At all Cu-levels, LPS injection increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. No significant difference in plasma Cp was found in chickens fed different dietary Cu. LPS injection significantly increased plasma Cp in Group Cu-56.5. The results suggest that varying dietary Cu levels seem to modulate the parameters involved in immunological responses and oxidant stress and that plasma Cp is not a reliable parameter for dietary Cu.

  17. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans, Broiler Chickens, and Pigs, France

    PubMed Central

    Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Kempf, Isabelle; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; Camou, Christine; Denis, Martine; de Valk, Henriette; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Mégraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    We describe isolates from human Campylobacter infection in the French population and the isolates' antimicrobial drug resistance patterns since 1986 and compare the trends with those of isolates from broiler chickens and pigs from 1999 to 2004. Among 5,685 human Campylobacter isolates, 76.2% were C. jejuni, 17.2% C. coli, and 5.0% C. fetus. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased from 8.2% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2004 (p<10-3), and resistance to ampicillin was high over time. Nalidixic acid resistance was greater for C. coli (21.3%) than for C. jejuni (14.9%, p<10-3). C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin in broilers decreased from 31.7% in 2002 to 9.0% in 2004 (p = 0.02). The patterns of resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones were similar between 1999 and 2004 in human and broiler isolates for C. jejuni. These results suggest a potential benefit of a regulation policy limiting use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals. PMID:17479889

  18. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  19. Effects of copper source and level on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arias, V J; Koutsos, E A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary copper sulfate (CuSO4) and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) were examined for their effects on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens. In 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), day-old broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet with no supplemental copper (Cu; negative control), a basal diet + 188 mg of Cu/kg of diet from TBCC or CuSO4, or a basal diet + subtherapeutic antibiotics (bacitracin and roxarsone; positive control). In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), CuSO4 and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 45 posthatch) compared with the negative control (P < 0.05 for each). In Experiment 2 (fresh litter), negative control and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 42 posthatch) compared with the positive control (P < 0.05 for each). At d 30 to 31 posthatch, intestinal histology was measured. In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), dietary TBCC, CuSO4, and positive control decreased the number of lamina propia lymphocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), or both, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). However, in Experiment 2 (fresh litter), TBCC and positive control increased the number of duodenum IEL compared with the negative control (P < 0.05), and negative control and TBCC increased the number of ileum IEL. These data demonstrate that broiler performance and intestinal physiology can be influenced by dietary Cu source and level as well as microbial environment (fresh vs. recycled litter).

  20. Non-reducible collagen cross-linking in cartilage from broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Leach, R M; Vailas, A C; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has shown that hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), a non-reducible cross-link that stabilizes the collagen fibril network, is significantly greater (over 10-fold) in dyschondroplastic cartilage than in normal growth-plate cartilage in the tibiotarsi of chickens with homocysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). In the present study, broiler chicks with a genetic disposition to TD, as well as normal broiler chicks on a copper-deficient diet alone or supplemented with copper and thiram, were raised for 3 to 4 weeks (Expts. 1 and 2). Their dyschondroplastic cartilage from the proximal tibiotarsus was collected and analyzed for HP as well as lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links. Normal growth plate cartilage was obtained from chicks on the copper-deficient diet supplemented with copper. In a third experiment, another set of broiler chicks was raised on a corn/soybean meal-based diet with or without homocysteine, and their articular and sternal cartilage were isolated for cross-link analysis. In the first two experiments, dyschondroplastic cartilage from all birds with induced TD had higher HP and LP concentrations than growth-plate cartilage from birds without TD, although the ratios of HP to LP varied. In the third experiment, the sternal and articular cartilage from birds with homocysteine-induced TD appeared normal, having similar HP concentrations in the same types of cartilage in birds without TD.

  1. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  2. Effects of inulin on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, C; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2010-06-01

    1. A 35 d feeding trial with 480 d-old male broiler chickens (Cobb) was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of inulin (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) in a maize-soybean meal based diet on growth performance, AME(N) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, starch, crude fat and fatty acids. A commercial product (Inulina 95) containing 9140 g/kg of inulin and a degree of polymerisation (DP) ranging from DP 1-10 to DP 51-60 was used. 2. The performance of birds (feed intake, BW gain and feed to gain ratio) was not affected by the different dietary inclusions of inulin. 3. Dietary inulin significantly improved the AID coefficient of crude protein and crude fat. Also, there was a significant effect of inulin on the digestibility of most amino acids (10 out of 15) and major fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids). The AID coefficient of starch and the AME(N) content of diets were not affected by inulin inclusion. 4. In conclusion, the current study showed that inulin supplementation improved the digestibility of protein and fat in a maize-soybean meal based diet, but had no effect on the performance of broiler chickens.

  3. Thermoregulation responses of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures. I. One week of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Zhang, H F; Jiao, H C; Zhao, T; Sui, S J; Gu, X H; Zhang, Z Y; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-08-01

    Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of RH (35, 60, and 85%) on thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens at different temperatures (35, 30, and 25 degrees C). The response to humidity in rectal temperature and plumage temperature at the back and breast within 24 h after exposure were recorded at 5 time points (1,4,8,16, and 24 h). Humidity affected the thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens by redistributing heat within the body at high, low, and thermoneutral temperatures. The redistribution of heat resulted in decreased rectal temperature and increased peripheral temperature, which were, respectively, beneficial and unfavorable at high and low temperatures. These results suggested that feedback effects of surface temperature on core temperature also exist in poultry, as already observed in mammals, and could be induced not only by changed ambient temperature but also by the changes in humidity at high temperature. The disturbance of thermal equilibrium could not be established solely by changes in RT, but rather core and surface temperatures had to be considered. The daily rhythms in rectal and surface temperatures were affected by humidity.

  4. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  5. Dietary and ontogenic regulation of fatty acid desaturase and elongase expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Gakhar, N; Gibson, R A; House, J D

    2013-08-01

    Effects of diet and ontogeny on the expression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases were examined in broiler chickens. In Study 1, 120 day-old male chicks received one of six diets with LA:ALA ranging from 46:4 to 16:34, for 33 days. Total n-6 PUFA decreased, and n-3 PUFA increased in response to a decrease in the dietary LA:ALA. FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 mRNAs were highest (P<0.05) in birds fed lower LA:ALA diets. In Study 2, 60 day-old male chicks were fed a basal diet, and liver samples were collected on day of hatch, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 35 post-hatch. Total n-6 and n-3 PUFA increased (P<0.01) from days 7 to days 21. FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL2 mRNAs generally increased (P<0.01) with age. These findings provide evidence for the dietary and developmental regulation of PUFA metabolism in broiler chickens.

  6. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers chicken flocks of Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Mansour; Gharibi, Darioush; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Talazadeh, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts. PMID:28144427

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  8. L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine uptake by broiler chicken intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Michelangeli, C; Gonzalez-Mujica, F

    2003-09-01

    1. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from 3-week-old broiler chickens. 2. Electron microscopy of the BBMV fraction showed single membrane vesicles of different sizes with no electron dense material inside. No other organelles were observed. The sucrase and maltase activities were enriched by factors of 16 and 18, respectively, in the BBMV fraction in comparison with the homogenate. On the other hand, the Na+/K+-ATPase sensitivity to ouabain was increased by a factor of 0.8. 3. The BBMV showed a maximum L-[14C]-arginine uptake (944.9 +/- 22.9 pmoles/mg protein) at 45 s and thereafter it declined slowly. In the presence of 0.5 mM L-canavanine, the L-[14C]-arginine uptake by BBMV was reduced by 43.6% at 45 s. 4. It is concluded that L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine Na+-dependent transport across the enterocyte apical membrane in a highly purified intestinal BBMV from broiler chickens.

  9. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  10. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  11. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  12. Characterization and reactivity of broiler chicken sera to selected recombinant Campylobacter jejuni chemotactic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E; Seal, Bruce S

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod bacterium, is the leading causative agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of raw or undercooked poultry are regarded as a major source for human infection. Because bacterial chemotaxis guides microorganisms to colonization and invasion in the host cells, proteins involved in chemotactic processes can be novel targets for vaccine development. In this communication, we report amplification, cloning and expression of the C. jejuni chemotactic proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 15 chemotactic protein genes were successfully expressed. These recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing, SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblot analysis of six-His and hemagglutinin tags. Twelve recombinant chemotactic proteins were further tested whether they were antigenic using sera from broiler chickens older than 4 weeks. The immunoblot results show that each chicken serum reacted to a variety of the recombinant proteins, but all sera reacted to the Cjj0473 gene product (annotated as a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), suggesting that anti-Campylobacter antibodies may be prevalent in the poultry population. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the Cjj0473 protein as a potential vaccine for broilers to improve human food safety.

  13. Effect of dietary lead on intestinal nutrient transporters mRNA expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine.

  14. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  15. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  16. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  17. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  18. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  19. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  20. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  1. Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Teichmann, Klaus; Doupovec, Barbara; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Lumpkins, Brett; Mathis, Greg

    2014-12-01

    The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged positive control group (PC); group 3: negative control supplemented with salinomycin 66 mg/kg, challenged group (Sal); and group 4: negative control supplemented with probiotics, challenged (Prob mix). On d 15, all birds (except group 1) were challenged with approximately 75,000, 25,000, and 75,000 of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocytes, respectively, that were mixed into the feed. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. On d 21 and 42, intestinal lesions and litter conditions were scored. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy to control coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

  2. Higher bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens with a novel in-feed pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Zermeño, Juan; Alcalá, Yazmín; Sumano, Héctor

    2017-02-23

    Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline. A third group of 300 broiler chickens (divided into 3 replicates), received a single IV dose of 48 mg/kg from a 2.4% solution of doxycycline HCl under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at designated times, serum was harvested, and doxycycline concentrations determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioavailability values were 156% and 227% on d 1 and 5 for doxy-FOLA and 13% and 23% for doxy-ref, on the same days. Mean residence time (MRT) and elimination half-life (T½β) were statistically different (P < 0.05) in doxy-FOLA group as compared to doxy-ref group (MRT: 26 h and 5.2 h; and T½β: 18 h vs 3 h, on the first day for doxy-FOLA and doxy-ref, respectively). Based on 3 levels of bacterial sensitivity of E. coli derived from a small survey carried out (i.e., 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL) and considering pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios required for this time-dependent antibacterial drug, it is possible to postulate that doxy-FOLA outstrips the reference preparation maintaining higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of doxycycline and consequently complying better with PK/PD ratios regarded as optimal for this drug. The advantages of using doxy-FOLA in poultry medicine include a more comprehensive use of the active principle

  3. Interrelations between the Microbiotas in the Litter and in the Intestines of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Michael D.; Yu, Zhongtang; Nelson, Michael C.; Moeller, Steven J.; Lilburn, Michael S.; Zerby, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestinal origin. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the ileal mucosal microbiota of fresh-litter chicks, while a group of bacteria yet to be classified within Clostridiales dominated in the ileal mucosal microbiota in the reused-litter chicks. The Litter condition (fresh versus reused) seemed to have a more profound impact on the ileal microbiota than on the cecal microbiota. The data suggest that the influence of fresh litter on ileal microbiota decreased as broilers grew, compared with temporal changes observed under reused-litter rearing conditions. PMID:20693454

  4. Evaluation of a highly soluble calcium source and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Walk, C L; Addo-Chidie, E K; Bedford, M R; Adeola, O

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a highly soluble Ca (HSC) source on performance, bone ash and mineralization, and apparent ileal digestibility of Ca, P, N, and energy in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Dietary Ca was supplied by the HSC source and monocalcium phosphate to provide 4 levels of Ca (0.45, 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90%). Available P (aP) was maintained at 0.32% in all the diets. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 2,500 U/kg of phytase as a 4 × 3 factorial. An additional diet was formulated using limestone to contain 0.90% Ca and 0.45% aP as a positive control (PC). Diets were fed to 7 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage from d 0 to 21 posthatch. Feed intake (FI) was linearly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced, and BW gain was quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) reduced as Ca from HSC increased from 0.45 to 0.90%. Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FI and BW gain and improved feed conversion ratio. Tibia ash and P weights were lower in birds fed 0.90% Ca from HSC compared with broilers fed 0.90% Ca from limestone. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and P weights in broilers fed 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90% HSC (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased tibia Ca weight. Reducing HSC from 0.90 to 0.45% or increasing phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) improved ileal P digestibility. Ileal Ca digestibility increased linearly only in broilers fed 0.45% Ca from HSC as phytase supplementation increased (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Nitrogen or energy digestibility were quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) influenced as HSC or phytase increased. In conclusion, feeding HSC with phytase allowed for reductions in dietary Ca while maintaining broiler performance and bone ash. In addition, P digestibility and P in the bones were increased in broilers fed reduced dietary Ca in the presence of phytase.

  5. Influence of penicillin on microbial diversity of the cecal microbiota in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pallavi; Karimi, Ahmad; Devendra, Kshitiz; Waldroup, Park W; Cho, Kwang Keun; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for growth promotion of chickens in poultry industry since 1940. Recently, concerns have been raised to the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock due to development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of penicillin supplementation in the feed on cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Two groups (n = 30) of chickens were fed corn-soybean meal diets with and without supplementation of penicillin at the concentration of 55 mg/kg (ANT vs. CON, respectively). At 18 d of age, the ANT group had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher mean BW than the CON group (668.6 vs. 570.0 g). Cecal samples of 5 randomly selected birds were pooled from each group and used for genomic DNA isolation and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene; 454 pyrosequencing of the amplicons resulted in 7,881 and 11,214 sequence reads for ANT and CON groups, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that penicillin supplementation in the ANT group resulted in an elevated proportion of phylum Firmicutes from 58.15 to 91.5% and a decreased proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes from 31.1 to 2.96% compared with the CON group. Recent studies conducted in humans, pigs, and mice have shown a similar shift in gut microbiota in obese individuals compared with the lean ones, indicating that this microbial shift could be responsible for the increase in energy harvest and BW. The results of this study suggest that the growth-promoting effect of penicillin supplementation in broilers may be mediated by a similar microbial process.

  6. Development of mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold testing devices in unrestrained birds (broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Hothersall, B; Caplen, G; Nicol, C J; Taylor, P M; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Weeks, C A; Murrell, J C

    2011-09-30

    Behavioural signs of pain are difficult to quantify and interpret in animals. Nociceptive threshold testing is therefore a useful method for examining the perception and processing of noxious stimuli underlying pain states. Devices were developed to measure response thresholds to quantified, ramped mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli applied to the leg or keel of unrestrained birds. Up to 9N mechanical force was delivered via a single round-ended 2mm pin using a pneumatic actuator at 0.4Ns(-1). Heat was applied through a small copper element at 0.8°Cs(-1) to a maximum of 50°C. The repeatability and reliability of threshold measures were validated using 10-12 broiler chickens (aged 49-66 days) per site and modality. Mechanical threshold, or skin and threshold temperature, were recorded over three sessions across a 36h period. Both stimulus types elicited clear, reproducible behavioural responses. Mechanical threshold means and 95% confidence intervals were 3.0 (2.8-3.2)N for keel and 2.0 (1.8-2.1)N for leg sites. Keel thermal tests gave a mean skin temperature of 39.3 (39.1-39.5)°C, and threshold of 46.8 (46.6-47.1)°C. Leg skin temperature was 35.7 (35.6-35.9)°C and threshold 42.5 (42.2-42.8)°C. Threshold measures were consistent within and across sessions and birds showed individual repeatability across tests within sessions. Individual birds' mechanical keel thresholds were also repeatable across sessions. The apparatus gave reliable, reproducible measurements of thresholds to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. The range recorded was comparable with previously published nociceptor thresholds in dissected chicken nerve filament fibres, and the method appears suitable for studying nociceptive processes in broiler chickens.

  7. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Bessegatto, Jose A; Alfieri, Amauri A; Weese, J Scott; Filho, João A B; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  8. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bessegatto, Jose A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Weese, J. Scott; Filho, João A. B.; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken. PMID

  9. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  10. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-12

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  11. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  12. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  13. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  14. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens.

  16. Metabolic study of enrofloxacin and metabolic profile modifications in broiler chicken tissues after drug administration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the identification and distribution of the metabolites from enrofloxacin (ENR) in liver, kidney and muscle tissues from broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment was studied. In addition, qualitative analyses of changes in the metabolic profile in those tissues after drug administration were also investigated. As a result, a total of 31 different metabolites from ENR were identified, which ciprofloxacin (CIP) and desethylene-ENR were the major metabolites. After four days of withdrawal period, most of the metabolites were excreted, but residues of ENR and CIP still persisted in tissues at a concentration under the permitted maximum residue limit (MRL). Non-medicated, medicated and post-treatment samples of chicken tissues were clearly clustered according to their metabolite profile by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, which indicates that endogenous metabolites have not returned to their original levels after the withdrawal period. A total of 22 relevant mass features contributing to this separation as potential markers of chicken samples were tentatively identified.

  17. Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Diarra, Moussa S; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both encapsulated and un-encapsulated carvacrol were approximately 200 μl/l against C. perfringens in BHI. In a broiler infection model with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsulated carvacrol at the dose of either 250 or 650 μg/g significantly reduced NE in the chicken intestine, which was close to the degree of lesions observed in bacitracin/salinomycin treated birds. Supplementation with either bacitracin/salinomycin or encapsulated carvacrol showed no significant impact on intestinal burden of Lactobacillus. However, the treatment with bacitracin/salinomycin or the low dose of encapsulated carvacrol reduced the level of C. perfringens in the ileum of birds at 35 days of age. These results suggest that our encapsulated carvacrol can be used to combat NE disease in chickens.

  18. Frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler chickens during industrial processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Franchin, P R; Ogliari, P J; Batista, C R V

    2007-04-01

    1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken. 2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71.3% were positive for Campylobacter. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcases rinsed in BPW and skin samples from carcases was 49 of 72 (68.0%) after defeathering, 50 of 72 (69.4%) after evisceration, 61 of 72 (84.7%) after chilling, and 46 of 72 (63.9%) after freezing. Campylobacter was positive for 21 of 23 (91.3%) samples in the chilling water and for 12 of 24 (50.0%) samples on the table surface. 3. The frequency of qualitative analysis for Campylobacter spp. was reduced in frozen chickens, but not during the slaughtering process. The use of drinking water alone as a decontaminant to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter spp. during slaughter is therefore not sufficient. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, chickens must be cooked properly before consuming.

  19. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  20. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a

  1. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  2. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  4. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  5. Sensorial quality and bone strength of female and male broiler chickens are influenced by weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Erdal, R; Richardson, I; Ljøkjel, K; Haug, A

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat. 2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight. 3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet. 4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference. 5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness.

  6. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  7. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  8. Immune Response of Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Gallipro®, a Bacillus subtilis Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Shawrang, Parvin; Shakorzadeh, Shirin

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. One hundred and sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were negative control, probiotic-treated group, challenged group, and challenged probiotic treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) the relative weights of spleen and bursa. Inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chickens increased the relative weight of spleen, but had no effect on the relative weight of bursa. There were no differences for the antibody titers of chickens between negative control and probiotic-treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses. Improvements in the antibody titers were observed by the addition of probiotic to diet of these chickens. The results showed that dietary inclusion of probiotic had no significant effect on immune parameters of chickens at non-contaminated environment, display a greater efficacy at environment contaminated with pathogen and can improve immune responses of infected chickens.

  9. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  10. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D.; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn–soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye–wheat–barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  11. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  12. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  14. Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Zhao, D H; Yang, X; Shi, W; Deng, H; Ma, J; Zhang, S; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    A Mycoplasma gallisepticum-Escherichia coli mixed infection model was developed in broiler chickens, which was applied to pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in the present experiment. The velogenic M. gallisepticum standard strain S6 was rejuvenated to establish the animal model, and the wild E. coli strain O78 was injected as supplementary inoculum to induce chronic respiratory disease in chickens. The disease model was evaluated based on its clinical signs, histopathological examination, bacteriological assay, and serum plate agglutination test. The pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in infected chickens was determined by intramuscular (i.m.) injection and oral administration (per os, p.o.) of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration-time curve of valnemulin was analyzed using the noncompartmental method. After the i.m. administration, the mean values of Cmax , Tmax , AUClast , MRT, CLβ /F, Vz /F, and t1⁄2β , were 27.94 μg/mL, 1.57 h, 171.63 μg·h/mL, 4.51 h, 0.06 L/h/kg, 0.56 L/kg, and 6.50 h, respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values after p.o. administration were 5.93 μg/mL, 7.14 h, 47.60 μg·h/mL, 9.80 h, 0.22 L/h/kg, 3.35 L/kg, and 10.60 h. The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls. More attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valnemulin treatment.

  15. Effect of inclusion level of linseed on the nutrient utilisation of diets for growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Ortiz, L T; Centeno, C; Treviño, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Diets containing linseed at inclusions of 0, 80, 120 and 160 g/kg were evaluated for digestibility of nutrients and AMEn content with male broiler chickens. 2. Increasing the concentration of linseed decreased the retention of nitrogen and the digestibility of amino acids, crude fat and fatty acids of diets. 3. Dietary AMEn (MJ/kg) was also affected by the rate of inclusion of linseed, values decreasing from 14.39 to 12.49. 4. In general, a linear regression model explained the relationship between dietary linseed content and nutritive parameters. However, the quadratic response found for the digestibility of several amino acids and fatty acids indicated a non-additive change in their digestibility. 5. Viscosity ofjejunal digesta was markedly increased by each increment of linseed in the diets. This is attributable to the presence of mucilage in linseed and it might explain many of the results obtained in this study.

  16. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline.

  17. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  18. Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Rathore, D S; Iqbal, M; Shi, X; Van Dyke, K

    2001-06-01

    Uric acid has been hypothesized as being one of the more important antioxidants in limiting the accumulation of glycosylated endproducts in birds. Study 1 was designed to quantitatively manipulate the plasma concentrations of uric acid using hemin and allopurinol while study 2 determined their effects on skin pentosidine, the shear force value of Pectoralis major muscle, plasma glucose, body weight and chemiluminescence monitored oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Hemin was hypothesized to raise uric acid concentrations thereby lowering oxidative stress whereas allopurinol was hypothesized to lower uric acid concentrations and raise measures of oxidative stress. In study 1 feeding allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight) to 8-week-old broiler chicks (n=50) for 10 days decreased plasma uric acid by 57%. However, hemin (10 mg/kg body weight) increased uric acid concentrations 20%. In study 2, 12-week-old broiler chicks (n=90) were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum (AL) diet or a diet restricted (DR) group. Each group was further divided into three treatments (control, allopurinol or hemin fed). Unexpectedly, hemin did not significantly effect uric acid concentrations but increased (P<0.05) measures of chemiluminescence dependent oxidative stress in both the DR and AL birds probably due to the ability of iron to generate oxygen radicals. Allopurinol lowered concentrations of uric acid and increased (P<0.05) the oxidative stress in the AL birds at week 22, reduced (P<0.05) body weight in both the AL and DR fed birds at 16 and 22 weeks of age, and markedly increased (P<0.001) shear force values of the pectoralis major muscle. Skin pentosidine levels increased (P<0.05) in AL birds fed allopurinol or hemin fed birds, but not in the diet restricted birds at 22 weeks. The significance of these studies is that concentrations of plasma uric acid can be related to measures of oxidative stress, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  19. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.

  20. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  1. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics.

  2. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in broiler chickens following different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowski, Hubert; Grabowski, Tomasz; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Barski, Dariusz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in broiler chickens following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) and oral (PO) administrations at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight. Plasma concentrations of OTC were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then conducted. The absorption half-life time was 1.23 ± 0.36 h, 1.19 ± 0.52 h, and 0.49 ± 0.38 h after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. The elimination half-life time was 27.41 ± 6.06 h, 10.23 ± 4.20 h, 7.83 ± 0.56 h, and 14.86 ± 9.23 h, and the mean residence time was 9.67 ± 1.7 h, 11.45 ± 1.76 h, 11.38 ± 0.59 h, and 10.37 ± 3.91 h after IV, IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. Bioavailability was 76.88 ± 12.90%, 92.20 ± 10.53% and 12.13 ± 4.56% after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively, which indicated that OTC is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens.

  4. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  5. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  6. Estimation of nutrient excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Murakami, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Furuya, Motohiro; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ohkubo, Takako; Osada, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan, using two approaches and the latest data available. In the top-down approach, we determined the nutrient amounts in the feeds and those in the products (i.e. the liveweight gain, eggs), and the national nutrient excretions were determined as the difference between these amounts. We then calculated the nutrient excretion factors by dividing the national excretions by the number of animals. In the bottom-up approach, we calculated the amounts of nutrients in the feed and product per head using productivity parameters (feed conversion ratio, etc.). The differences between these amounts were considered the nutrient excretion factors. The average nutrient excretion factors of broilers (g/day/head) estimated using the top-down and bottom-up approaches were: N, 1.40 and 1.87; P, 0.36, 0.50; K, 0.54, 0.77; Mg, 0.13, 0.18, respectively. The excretion factors obtained by the top-down approach can be used to calculate the national/regional excretions. The two approaches resulted in almost the same excretion factors for layers, and the average nutrient excretion factors of layers (g/day/head) estimated were: N, 2.20; P, 0.55; K, 0.68; Mg, 0.23. The estimated excretion factors for N (only) are smaller than the reported factors.

  7. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  8. Effect of clinoptilolite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, H; Keçeci, T; Birdane, Y O; Onder, F; Kurtoğlu, V

    2000-08-01

    Clinoptilolite (CLI, a natural zeolite) incorporated into the diet at 1.5 and 2.5 per cent were evaluated for their ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2.5 mg total aflatoxin (AF) kg(-1)diet on broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In total 360 broiler chicks were divided into six equal treatment groups (control, AF, CLI (1.5 per cent), AF plus CLI (1.5 per cent), CLI (2.5 per cent) and AF plus CLI (2.5 per cent)). When compared with the controls, AF treatment significantly decreased serum total protein, albumin, inorganic phosphorus, uric acid, total cholesterol and the values of haematocrit, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin, thrombocyte counts, percentage of monocyte counts; increased values of white blood cell and heterophil counts. The addition of CLI (1.5 per cent) and CLI (2.5 per cent) to the AF -containing diet reduced the adverse effects of AF and should be helpful in a solution to the aflatoxicosis problem in poultry.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of thermophilic Campylobacter from humans, swine, and chicken broilers

    PubMed Central

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Nadeau, Éric; Sirois, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of genetic determinants of resistance, in Campylobacter recovered from swine, poultry, and human populations in Quebec. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the tetO determinant, and mutations in gyrA were analyzed by sequencing and by mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR. Among C. coli isolates from pigs, the rates of resistance were high, at 59% for clindamycin, 61% for erythromycin, 67% for streptomycin, and 68% for tetracycline; isolates from chicken broilers were mainly resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline, with a rate of 50% for each; and 56% of the isolates from humans were resistant to tetracycline. The rates of resistance among C. jejuni isolates were low except for tetracycline (39% and 67% in humans and broilers, respectively). The tetO determinant was identified among both tetracycline-resistant and tetracycline-susceptible Campylobacter isolates from swine. Sequencing analysis showed that 64% and 100% of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates from swine and humans, respectively, had the mutation Thr-86→Ile, which is associated with quinolone resistance. The MAMA PCR gave identical results. Further analyses need to be done in order to detect other genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance. PMID:16639939

  10. Prediction of welfare outcomes for broiler chickens using Bayesian regression on continuous optical flow data.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen J; Cain, Russell; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2012-12-07

    Currently, assessment of broiler (meat) chicken welfare relies largely on labour-intensive or post-mortem measures of welfare. We here describe a method for continuously and robustly monitoring the welfare of living birds while husbandry changes are still possible. We detail the application of Bayesian modelling to motion data derived from the output of cameras placed in commercial broiler houses. We show that the forecasts produced by the model can be used to accurately assess certain key aspects of the future health and welfare of a flock. The difference between healthy flocks and less-healthy ones becomes predictable days or even weeks before clinical symptoms become apparent. Hockburn (damaged leg skin, usually only seen in birds of two weeks or older) can be well predicted in flocks of only 1-2 days of age, using this approach. Our model combines optical flow descriptors of bird motion with robust multivariate forecasting and provides a sparse, efficient model with sparsity-inducing priors to achieve maximum predictive power with the minimum number of key variables.

  11. Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W J; Klandorf, H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of allopurinol (AL) on xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity and uric acid (UA) levels in chickens. Thirty 5-week-old broilers were divided into three groups and fed 0 (control), 25 (AL25) or 50 (AL50) mg AL per kg of body mass for 5 weeks. Chicks were weighed twice weekly and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) and plasma purine levels were determined weekly in five birds per group. Chicks were sacrificed after 2 or 5 weeks, and samples from tissues were taken for analysis of XOR activity. Plasma UA concentrations were lower (P<0.001) and xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in AL25 and AL50 birds compared to controls, whereas no differences (P=0.904) were detected in allantoin concentrations. By week 5, body mass was reduced (P<0.001) to 84.0 and 65.1% of that in controls for AL25 and AL50 broilers, respectively, and LOA was 4.1 times greater (P<0.05) in AL25 compared to control birds. Liver XOR activity was increased by 1.1 and 1.2 times in AL25 and AL50 birds, but there was no change (P>0.05) in XOR activity in the pancreas and intestine. These results suggest that AL effect on XOR activity is tissue dependent.

  12. Molecular characterisation of Escherichia coli from dead broiler chickens with signs of colibacillosis and ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among APEC strains, with over 75% of APEC strains having ≥4 VFs, while over 75% of the meat strains had <4 VFs. The VFs iss, astA and iucD were frequently detected in APEC and meat strains, whereas cvi, papC, vat, tsh and irp2 occurred more significantly in APEC strains. Phylogenetic typing showed that 67% of the meat strains belonged to group B2. Phylogroup D was predominant (50%) in the APEC strains. Using double disc diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 10.6% of the APEC and 9.5% of the meat strains were determined to be ESBL positive. 4. Our findings show that the VFs papC, vat, irp2 and to a lesser extent tsh and cvi are significantly more prevalent in APEC strains. The results demonstrate that chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Ela, F I; Radi, A M; El-Banna, H A; El-Gendy, A A M; Tohamy, M A

    2014-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of difloxacin were investigated in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens following intravenous and oral administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. 2. After intravenous injection of difloxacin, the serum concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. The distribution and elimination half-lives (t0.5α) and (t0.5el), respectively, were 0.10 ± 0.016 h and 3.7 ± 0.08 h in healthy chickens compared with 0.05 ± 0.005 h and 6.42 ± 0.71 h in E. coli-infected birds. The volumes of distribution Vdss were 3.14 ± 0.11 and 9.25 ± 0.43 l/kg, with total body clearance (Cltot) of 0.65 ± 0.018 and 1.14 ± 0.1 ml/kg/h, respectively. 3. Following oral administration, difloxacin was absorbed with t0.5(ab) of 0.57 ± 0.06 and 0.77 ± 0.04 h and was eliminated with t0.5(el) of 4.7 ± 0.34 and 3.42 ± 0.19, respectively, in normal and infected chickens. The peak serum concentrations were 1.34 ± 0.09 and 1.05 ± 0.06 µg/ml and attained a Tmax of 2.27 ± 0.07 and 2.43 ± 0.06 h, respectively. The systemic bioavailability of difloxacin following oral administration was 86.2% in healthy chickens and 90.6% in E. coli-infected birds. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of difloxacin against the field strain of E. coli O78 in vitro were 0.02 µg and 0.04 µg/ml, respectively. 4. These results show that administration of a therapeutic dose of difloxacin is effective in the treatment of E. coli infection in chickens. The serum concentration of the drug was much higher than the MIC of the E. coli O78 strain in both healthy and infected chickens.

  14. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  15. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  16. Effects of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Cao, G T; Ferket, P R; Liu, T T; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Xiao, Y P; Chen, A G

    2012-09-01

    Four hundred and fifty 1-d-old male Lingnan Yellow broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora. The birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and offered the same antibiotic-free basal diets for 42 d. The treatments were as follows: no addition (control), 1 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB1), 2 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB2), 3 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB3), and 10 mg of colistine sulfate/kg of diet (antibiotic). Birds fed either CB2 or antibiotic had greater overall BW than those in the control group. During d 1 to 7, d 21 to 42, and d 1 to 42, birds fed either CB2 or CB3 or the antibiotic diet had greater ADG compared with those in the control group. No significant differences were observed in BW or ADG among the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic groups. Birds fed the CB2 or CB3 diet had greater concentrations of IgA and IgG in the serum from d 14 to 42 and greater IgM in the serum from d 21 to 42 than those in the control group. Birds fed the CB3 diet had a greater concentration of complement component 3 in the serum than those in the control group from d 7 to 42. Dietary C. butyricum decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli in cecal contents on d 14 and 42, and both CB2 and CB3 decreased (P < 0.05) cecal Salmonella and Clostridium perfringen from d 14 to 42 compared with the control. Broilers fed either CB2 or CB3 had greater cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts from d 21 to 42, and birds fed C. butyricum had greater cecal C. butyricum counts during the whole period compared with those in the control group. The results indicate that C. butyricum promotes growth performance and immune function and benefits the balance of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

  17. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  18. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, I.; Mitchell, M.A.; Hall, S.; Beard, P.M.; Gous, R.M.; De Koning, D.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality.The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment.There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen.Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology.It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative. PMID:26670305

  19. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.

  20. The effect of volatile oil mixtures on the performance and ilio-caecal microflora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E; Yibar, A; Yesilbag, D; Cetin, I; Cengiz, S S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of rosemary, oregano and fennel volatile oil (FVO) supplementation on the performance and ilio-caecal bacteriological flora of broiler chickens. A total of 800 male Ross-308 broiler chickens were divided equally into 8 groups; each contained 100 chickens. The study included a control treatment (NC) with no dietary additives that was supplemented with oils according to the following 7 treatments: 200 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg (PC), 100 mg oregano volatile oil (OVO)/kg, 100 mg rosemary volatile oil (RVO)/kg, 100 mg FVO/kg and an equal mixture of oregano+rosemary+fennel VO (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, VOM-1, VOM-2 and VOM-3, respectively). The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, dietary supplementation with α-tocopherol, oregano, rosemary and FVO and two different volatile oil mixtures (VOMs) (VOM-2; VOM-3) significantly increased the body weights (BWs) of broilers at 7, 14 and 21 d of age compared to the negative control (NC) (-) and VOM-1 groups. At 0-42 d, birds fed on VOM-3 were considerably heavier and also gained more weight than NC (-) and VOM-1 groups. The blend of VOs at 400 mg/kg significantly increased Lactobacillus spp. in faeces. The blends of oregano, rosemary and FVOs (VOM-3) at 400 mg/kg concentration and also VOM-3 group exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against coliform bacteria compared to the NC (-) group. In conclusion, the blend of oregano, rosemary and fennel VOs at higher concentrations (400 mg/kg concentration) in diets can be used to stimulate the growth and can improve the intestinal microbial balance (including a reduction of coliform bacteria and an increase in Lactobacillus spp. counts) of broiler chickens.

  1. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function.

  2. Virulence and Genomic Feature of Multidrug Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Ren, Ni; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Kuang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655). The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g., pTet) and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence. PMID:27790202

  3. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C.

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  4. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  5. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the α-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels.

  6. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals.

  7. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  8. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens.

  9. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  10. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  11. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in broiler chickens with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xun; Chai, Juan; Bi, Shi-Cheng; Li, Jun-Jun; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2012-08-01

    Medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans is associated with enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been found in pulmonary artery SMCs (PA-SMCs) in humans with idiopathic PAH, leading to the hypothesis that MMP-2 contributes to the proliferation and migration of vascular SMCs in the pathogenesis of PAH. Rapidly growing meat-type (broiler) chickens provide a model of spontaneous PAH. The present study was conducted to determine whether MMP-2 is involved in the medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in this model. Cultured PA-SMCs from normal birds were used to evaluate the effect of MMPs on cell proliferation. Gelatin zymography showed that endothelin (ET)-1-induced proliferation of PA-SMCs was concomitant with increased pro- and active MMP-2 production. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2 mRNA. However, PA-SMC proliferation was inhibited by the MMP inhibitors doxycycline and cis-9-octadecenoyl-N-hydroxylamide. In vivo experiments revealed a significant increase of MMP-2 expression in hypertrophied pulmonary arterioles of PAH broiler chickens, which was positively correlated with wall thickness and medial hypertrophy. MMP-2 may contribute to medial hypertrophy in pulmonary arterioles during PAH in broiler chickens by enhancing the proliferation of vascular SMCs.

  12. Effect of Vancomycin, Tylosin, and Chlortetracycline on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization of Broiler Chickens During Grow-Out.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-27

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods. Vancomycin promoted persistent and high-level colonization with human- and poultry-derived VRE to grow-out in comparison with controls, while treatment with chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. Colonization by the poultry isolate in control, chlortetracycline, and tylosin groups persisted throughout the grow-out period with low concentrations present at 6 weeks, whereas the human isolate decreased to an undetectable level by week 6. Vancomycin resulted in significant reductions in cecal acetic acid and butyric acid in comparison with controls, but chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. DGGE profiles contained two main clusters with all vancomycin profiles in a smaller cluster and all other profiles in a larger cluster. These results demonstrate that vancomycin, but not chlortetracycline or tylosin, disrupted the indigenous microbiota and SCFA patterns of broiler chickens and promoted colonization by VRE.

  13. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides from brown algae inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yan, G L; Guo, Y M; Yuan, J M; Liu, D; Zhang, B K

    2011-07-01

    The effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides (sAO) on growth performance, cecal microbiota, Salmonella translocation to internal organs, and mucosal immune responses to challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in broiler chickens were investigated. We designed an experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, in which 3 feed treatments with supplementation of sAO at 0 (controls), 0.04, or 0.2% were provided in the diet for birds not challenged or challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 5 randomly placed replicate pens for each treatment. At 8 to 12 d of age, one-half the poults were orally gavaged with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis and the nonchallenged groups were inoculated with sterile PBS. Body weight loss and mortality resulting from Salmonella infection were mitigated by the addition of sAO. Supplementation of sAO at 0.2% was the most effective concentration for reducing Salmonella colonization and increasing the number of lactic acid bacteria in the cecum of chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. Cecal Salmonella Enteritidis-specific IgA production was significantly increased by sAO at 0.2% at 5 d postchallenge compared with the other treatments and was maintained at higher levels at the 2 dosages of sAO at 10 d postchallenge. With Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, sAO at 0.04% showed an anti-inflammatory effect through upregulation of interleukin (IL)-10 expression in the cecal tonsils. The supplementation level of 0.2% showed dramatic immunostimulatory activity by inducing interferon-γ, IL-10, and IL-1β mRNA expression in cecal tonsils of nonchallenged birds. However, the high level of sAO induced a robust mucosal immune response in the absence of a challenge, and this may have led to a decline in BW. These findings suggest that dietary sAO can decrease Salmonella colonization and improve intestinal barrier function and performance of chickens.

  14. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-07-16

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.

  15. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  16. Effect of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller on growth performance, gut microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Siamak; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Zulkifli, Idrus; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller (OligoPKE) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of ninety 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of six pens (replicates) with five birds per pen. Dietary treatments were: (i) basal diet as control, (ii) basal diet plus 0.5% OligoPKE, and (iii) basal diet plus 1% OligoPKE. Birds growth traits (ADG, ADFI and G:F) were measured during the starter (1-21 day), finisher (22-35 day) and the entire experimental periods. Blood and cecal digesta samples were collected from chickens at 21 and 35 days of age (DOA). Microbial quantification of the digesta samples, white blood cells including heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil counts and immunoglobulin (IgA and IgM) were also determined. OligoPKE had no effect on ADG and ADFI throughout the study period, but chickens fed OligoPKE supplemented diet had better (P < 0.05) G:F during finisher and overall rearing periods. Supplementing OligoPKE did not significantly alter the birds' microbiota of the cecal digesta. At 21 DOA, blood IgA concentration increased significantly when birds fed 1% OligoPKE in diet recorded compared to the control treatment. Similar observations were also recorded in birds at 35 DOA. Hematological data showed that heterophil and basophil counts of chickens fed OligoPKE supplement were lower than those in control group at 21 DOA. Our findings suggested that OligoPKE improved immune responses in broiler chickens, especially at younger age when the immune system is not still fully developed.

  17. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  18. Intrapulmonary arteries respond to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kluess, H A; Stafford, J; Evanson, K W; Stone, A J; Worley, J; Wideman, R F

    2012-06-01

    This study examined factors contributing to increased vascular resistance and plexiform lesion formation in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). A diet supplemented with excess tryptophan (high-Trp diet), the precursor for serotonin, was used to accelerate the development of IPAH. Broilers fed the high-Trp diet had higher pulmonary arterial pressures than broilers fed the control diet, and plexiform lesion incidences tended to be higher (P = 0.11) in the high-Trp group than in the control group at 30 d of age. The intrapulmonary arteries were assessed for vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and for activities of key metabolic enzymes for serotonin and ATP. The pulmonary artery (defined as the first major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) and the primary pulmonary arterial rami (defined as the second major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) both exhibited vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and ATP. This is the first study to demonstrate purinergic-mediated vasoconstriction in intrapulmonary arteries from broilers. Arteriole responsiveness did not differ between broilers fed the control diet or the high-Trp diet. Therefore, the high-Trp diet enhanced the development of IPAH but did not affect the artery's sensitivity to serotonin or ATP. Monoamine oxidase activity, responsible for the breakdown of serotonin, was severely impaired in pulmonary arteries from broilers in the high-Trp group. Accordingly, serotonin may persist longer and elicit an amplified response in broilers fed the high-Trp diet.

  19. Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R

    2013-11-01

    Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in chickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) altered by either the type of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-γ, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised.

  20. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  1. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  2. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  3. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  4. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0. 01). In birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis.

  5. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  6. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in breast muscle cholesterol at 42 d of age: 57.2, 48.0, and 43.2 mg/100 g meat for birds supplemented for 0, 35, or 42 d, respectively. Feeding 10 vs 260 mg/kg copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  7. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-05

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  8. Antibiotic resistance and diversity of Salmonella enterica serovars associated with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This β-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), β-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health.

  9. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Adeola, O; Angel, R; Bikker, P; Delezie, E; Dozier, W A; Umar Faruk, M; Francesch, M; Kwakernaak, C; Narcy, A; Nyachoti, C M; Olukosi, O A; Preynat, A; Renouf, B; Saiz Del Barrio, A; Schedle, K; Siegert, W; Steenfeldt, S; van Krimpen, M M; Waititu, S M; Witzig, M

    2016-12-05

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine. Then they were fed the experimental diets for a minimum of 5 d before content of the posterior half of the ileum was collected. A minimum of 6 experimental replicates per diet was used in each station. All diets and digesta samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Diet, station, and their interaction significantly affected (P < 0.05) the prececal digestibility values of P and calcium of the diets. The prececal P digestibility of SBM was determined by linear regression and varied among stations from 19 to 51%, with significant differences among stations. In a subset of 4 stations, the prececal disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate)-P; InsP6-P) also was studied. The prececal InsP6-P disappearance correlated well with the prececal P digestibility. We hypothesized that factors influencing InsP6 hydrolysis were main contributors to the variation in prececal P digestibility among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended to the standardization of the pre-experimental period. We also suggest that comparisons of P digestibility measurements among studies are made only with great caution until the protocol is more refined.

  10. Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa, E F; Miller, B R; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Ewing, H P

    2001-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to compare the performance of broilers fed soybean meal (SBM) versus peanut meal (PNM) as protein sources. Ross x Ross 208 broiler chickens were placed in battery brooders (Experiments 1 to 3, four replicates of 8 chicks per treatment) and floor pens (Experiment 4, four replicates of 34 chicks per treatment). In Experiment 1, addition of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased 0 to 18 d BW gain (BWG; 0.374c vs. 0.495b vs. 0.508b vs. 0.508b kg, respectively) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.09c vs. 1.63b vs. vs. 1.54b vs. 1.54b g/g, respectively) compared to the corn-SBM-based control diet (BWG = 0.593a and FCR = 1.36a). In Experiment 2, diets were formulated with the same amino acid minimums, and as the percentage of PNM increased in the diets (0, 10, 20, and 32%), BWG decreased (0.560a vs. 0.532a vs. 0.521a vs. 0.458b kg, respectively) and FCR increased (1.72b vs. 1.71b vs. 1.79bc vs. 1.86c g/g, respectively). In Experiment 3, addition of Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased BWG (-Thr = 0.284c vs. +Thr = 0.397b kg) and decreased FCR (-Thr = 1.60b vs. +Thr = 1.54b g/g). The BWG and FCR were best for the corn-SBM-based control diet (0.499a kg and 1.38a g/g, respectively). In Experiment 4, during the growing period (18 to 42 d), significant interactions occurred between protein source (PNM vs. SBM) and protein level (16 and 20% vs. 24%) for BW and FCR but not for carcass, breast, or leg quarter yield or fat pad weights (P < 0.05) at 42 d of age. Technical (not economic) performance of birds fed PNM was similar to SBM at the highest protein levels fed. PNM could be used as a protein source for broilers under appropriate economic conditions.

  11. Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P < 0.05) BW gain. The BW gain was maximized at 63.5:36.5 (DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P < 0.05) until 75% of DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P < 0.05) beyond 50% HRP substitution, suggesting poor P availability at high HRP. In conclusion, growth was maximized by feeding about 36.5% HRP (205 mg of F/kg) and 63.5% DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly

  12. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  13. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.

  14. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  15. Use of yeast cell walls; beta-1, 3/1, 6-glucans; and mannoproteins in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; García, F; Esteve-Garcia, E; Brufau, J

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of yeast cell wall (YCW); beta-1, 3/1, 6-glucan (BG); and mannoprotein complex (MP) purified fractions in broilers. In experiment 1, there was a control diet and 5 experimental diets containing, respectively: 10 mg of avilamycin (AVI)/kg of feed, 500 mg of YCW/kg of feed, 95 mg of MP/kg of feed, 145 mg of BG/kg of feed, and 95 mg of MP plus 145 mg of BG/kg of feed. All birds were vaccinated via drinking water against Newcastle disease virus at 9 d of age. At 42 d, chickens fed AVI, YCW, MP + BG, and BG diets had similar BW not significantly different from chickens fed the control diet. The antibody response of Newcastle disease virus vaccine was not affected by any experimental treatment. Broilers fed MP + BG diet had greater thymus weights (P broiler growth rates was observed. Samples of the jejunum were collected at 21 d of age to determine villus height. Significantly higher villus height was observed in YCW, MP, and BG groups compared with that of the control group. The relative percentage of liver weight (P broilers fed YCW than in broilers fed the control diet, but no differences were observed in respect to chickens fed BG. Data of these studies suggested that the changes in thymus and liver relative weights and villus morphology of broilers were induced with the same intensity by the use of complete YCW, MP + BG, and BG supplements.

  16. Supplemental glycine and threonine effects on performance, intestinal mucosa development, and nutrient utilization of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Oliveira, C A L; Guerra, A F Q G

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Gly requirements in low-CP diets with different levels of digestible (dig) Thr, and their effects on performance, intestinal mucosal development, and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d age. A total of 240 twenty-one-day-old Cobb-Vantress male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized 4 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 4 levels of Gly+Ser (1.47, 1.57, 1.67, or 1.77%) and 2 levels of dig Thr (0.70 or 0.77%, corresponding to 100 or 110% of Thr requirements, respectively). Common diets were fed to broilers until 20 d of age. At d 35, an interaction (P ≤ 0.01) was observed between the Gly+Ser and dig Thr levels for G:F. Glycine supplementation resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in BW gain, G:F, intestinal mucin secretion, apparent digestibility of fat, and AME values of the experimental diets. Threonine levels greater than the levels required (0.77%) improved (P < 0.05) G:F and increased (P < 0.05) intestinal mucin secretion. However, intestinal morphometry and the number of goblet cells in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not affected by the treatments. The dietary Gly+Ser level necessary to optimize G:F in low-CP diets containing 0.77% Thr for broiler chickens during growth was estimated to be 1.54%; however, this requirement may be greater than 1.77% in diets with 0.70% Thr. Supplemental Gly may be essential to support maximum performance for broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d of age when they are fed diets based exclusively on vegetable ingredients and with low protein levels. Glycine can directly or indirectly influence the proper function of the intestinal mucosa and improve dietary energy utilization.

  17. Effects of Functional Oils on Coccidiosis and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, A. E.; Eyng, C.; Torrent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of functional oils (Essential, Oligo Basics Agroind. Ltda) on performance response of chickens challenged with coccidiosis and the determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), the coefficients of protein and ether extract digestibility and intestinal morphology of broilers fed with diets containing Essential. In Exp. 1, a completely randomized design (CRD) was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion with coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) challenged birds and two different inclusion rates of Essential (1.5 kg/ton and 2 kg/ton) with coccidiosis-challenged and non-challenged birds for each inclusion rate, using 10 replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. After 7 d of coccidiosis challenge, the livability was approximately 10% lower (p<0.05) for the control group. Intestinal lesion scores were lower (p<0.05) in the anterior intestine and the cecum for the chickens supplemented. Feed efficiency and growth rate were improved in birds supplemented with Essential (p<0.05) before the coccidiosis challenge and during the first 7 d post infection. In Exp. 2, a CRD was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion and one diet with inclusion of Essential (1.5 kg/ton), using nine replications and 33 chicks per pen. The diets with Essential yielded approximately 4% higher AME (p = 0.003) and AMEn (p = 0.001). Essential supplementation increased villus height in the jejunum on d 14 (p<0.05). Villus height:crypt depth ratio for the supplemented birds was larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum on d 7, larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum and ileum on d 14. In conclusion, these functional oils improved the energy utilization and the livability and decreased lesions caused by coccidiosis in supplemented birds. PMID:25050040

  18. Partitioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing.

    PubMed

    Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Northcutt, J K; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D; Smith, D P; Cox, N A

    2007-09-01

    Broiler chickens from the loading dock of a commercial processing plant were sampled to determine the incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and pathogenic bacteria. Feathers were removed by hand from ten 6-week-old chickens from each of seven different flocks and rinsed in 400 ml of 0.1% peptone water. Heads and feet were removed and rinsed, and the picked carcass was also rinsed, each in 200 ml. The ceca, colon, and crop were aseptically removed and stomached separately in 100 ml of peptone water. Campylobacter was present in six of the seven flocks. Salmonella was isolated from 50 of the 70 carcasses, with at least 2 positive carcasses in each flock, and five-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays were performed on positive samples. Significantly (P < 0.05) more coliforms and E. coli were found in the ceca than in the feathers, which in turn carried more than the other samples, but total external and internal counts were roughly equivalent. Counts of Campylobacter were higher in the ceca and colon than in the other samples. Salmonella was isolated in external samples from 46 of the 50 positive carcasses compared with 26 positive internal samples or 17 positives in the ceca alone. The total MPN of Salmonella was approximately equivalent in all samples, indicating that contamination was distributed through all external and internal sampling locations. Salmonella-positive samples did not carry higher counts of coliforms or E. coli, and there were no significant correlations between the indicators and pathogens in any sample. Campylobacter numbers in the ceca were correlated with Campylobacter numbers in the feathers and colon, but Salmonella numbers in those samples were not correlated. The pattern of bacterial contamination before processing is complex and highly variable.

  19. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  20. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  1. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  2. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained.

  3. Oral Bioavailability, Hydrolysis, and Comparative Toxicokinetics of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens and Pigs.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; De Mil, Thomas; Fraeyman, Sophie; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Vermeulen, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-10-07

    The goal of this study was to determine the absolute oral bioavailability, (presystemic) hydrolysis and toxicokinetic characteristics of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol in broiler chickens and pigs. Crossover animal trials were performed with intravenous and oral administration of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol to broilers and pigs. Plasma concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and data were processed via a tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic analysis. The results in broiler chickens showed that the absorbed fraction after oral deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol administration was 10.6, 18.2, and 42.2%, respectively. This fraction was completely hydrolyzed presystemically for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol to deoxynivalenol and to a lesser extent (75.4%) for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. In pigs, the absorbed fractions were 100% for deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were completely hydrolyzed presystemically. The disposition properties of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol demonstrate their toxicological relevance and consequently the possible need to establish a tolerable daily intake.

  4. Comparison of the anticoccidial effect of granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi with monensin in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Kaboutari Katadj, Jahangir; Bahadoran, Shahab; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Cheraghchi Bashi, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease of the poultry production industry. Due to increasing resistance to conventional anticoccidial agents, it is necessary to find new anticoccidial compounds. Herbal compounds such as those from Artemisia species are promising weapons in this regard since preliminary studies have shown its anticoccidial effects. To compare the anticoccidial effect of a granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi (GEAS) versus monensin in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 120 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided in four groups, each with three replicates (n=10). Group 1 was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment. At 21days of age, groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with a mixed suspension of 2×10(5) oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix. Group 2 was maintained as an infected positive control and received no treatment while groups 3 and 4 received GEAS (5mg/kg feed), and monensin (110mg/kg feed) from the first day until 42days of age as a feed additive, respectively. Five days after inoculation, the number of oocycts per gram (OPG) of feces for 7 successive days was measured. Also, mean body weight (MBW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly in all groups and replicates. The results showed that GEAS and monensin improved performance attributes (FI, MBW, WG, FCR) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased OPG in inoculated broiler chickens.

  5. Effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, B; Yavari, Z; Kordestani, A H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 176 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatments including control treatment (basal diet), 0.1% MCFA, 0.2% MCFA, and 0.3% MCFA treatments according to a completely randomised design. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates with 11 chicks for each replicate. In MCFA treatments, the amounts of MCFAs were added to basal diet as a substitution of soybean oil. There were not any significant differences in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio among the treatments in different stages of the experiment. However, MCFA treatments had a lower abdominal fat and a higher breast yield compared to control treatment. Blood glucose, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased, but blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the MCFA treatments compared to the control treatment. These results indicate that dietary MCFA has a positive effect on the health and productivity of broiler chickens.

  6. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  7. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  8. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor O; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C (P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  9. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  10. Cool perches improve the growth performance and welfare status of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the interaction of stocking density and cool perch availability on broiler chickens raised at high ambient temperature (>30.8°C). Behavior, live performance, and the incidence of footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage damage were investigated over a 4-wk experimental period. A total of 1,152 one-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were subjected to a 2 (cool perches) × 3 (stocking densities) factorial arrangement of treatments. From 1 d of age, birds were provided with or without cool perches at each of 3 stocking densities (12, 16, or 20 birds/m(2); low, medium, or high stocking density, respectively) and corresponded to 48, 64, and 80 birds per pen. The perch design provided 380 cm of linear perching space in each treatment pen. The results showed that high stocking density decreased the growth (P < 0.05) and welfare (P < 0.01) of broilers. Cool perch availability increased BW gain and feed conversion efficiency of broilers (P < 0.05) regardless of stocking density. The birds' use of cool perches increased with age (P < 0.01) and decreased with higher stocking density (P < 0.05). The accessibility of cool perches changed birds' behavior patterns (P < 0.01) and reduced footpad or hock burns and damage to abdominal plumage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that cool perches have a favorable effect on the performance and welfare of broilers.

  11. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  12. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1–3, 2–4, 3–5, and 1–5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated. PMID:25324857

  13. Effects of feed additives on the development on the ileal bacterial community of the broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Hofacre, C; Smith, F; Lee, M D

    2008-05-01

    Intensifying concerns about the use of antimicrobials in meat and poultry production has enhanced interest in the application of prebiotics, probiotics and enzymes to enhance growth and prevent disease in food animals. Growth-promoting antibiotics enhance growth of animals by reducing the load of bacteria in the intestine, by reducing colonization by intestinal pathogens or by enhancing the growth and/or metabolism of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. Recently, molecular ecology, utilizing DNA-sequence heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene, has revealed a surprising diversity of uncharacterized bacteria inhabiting this ecosystem. We used this approach to determine the effect of growth-promoting antibiotics on the development and composition of the ileal bacterial community. Pairwise comparisons, correspondence analysis and community diversity indices revealed significant differences among the treatments (bacitracin/virginiamycin or monensin) and controls. Antibiotics reduced the diversity of the ileal bacterial community and induced communities rich in Clostridia throughout the life of the broiler chicken. These results indicate that some bacterial species, such as lactobacilli, were suppressed and also suggest that many intestinal Clostridia may be non-pathogenic. Future studies should focus on characterizing the important bacterial species needed to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and identifying those commensals that stimulate and enhance development of intestinal function.

  14. Cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens are induced by Escherichia coli Vacuolating Factor (ECVF).

    PubMed

    Quel, N G; Aragão, A Z B; Salvadori, M R; Farias, A S; Joazeiro, P P; Santos, L M B; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Yano, T

    2013-03-23

    Escherichia coli Vacuolating Factor (ECVF) is a heat-labile, vacuolating cytotoxin produced by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolated from avian cellulitis lesions. In this report, we intend to demonstrate that purified ECVF induces the inflammatory process of cellulitis. Our group is the first to demonstrate the effect of ECVF in a histological analysis by in situ inoculation of broiler chickens with purified ECVF. The animals were inoculated with the APEC AC53 and with purified ECVF subcutaneously on their ventral surface (in the sternum region). The histological analysis showed different grades of an acute inflammatory response in the epidermis, dermis and panniculus. An increase in mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also demonstrated in the inflamed tissue. When ECVF was systemically administered, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were observed in the serum. These results suggest that ECVF plays a key role in the inflammatory process associated with cellulitis that is mainly mediated by TNF-α. In addition, this inflammation can be downregulated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  15. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1-3, 2-4, 3-5, and 1-5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated.

  16. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens.

  17. L-carnitine supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation and improves cardiopulmonary function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Khajali, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance and cardiopulmonary function of broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m above sea level). A total of 96 day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned into two dietary treatments containing 0 (control group) and 200 mg/kg L-carnitine. The experimental diets were fed for a period of 42 days consisting of the starting (days 1 to 21) and growing periods (days 21 to 42). Nutrient requirements of chickens met the NRC (1994) recommendations. The results showed that dietary L-carnitine had no significant influence on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. L-carnitine reduced plasma concentration of malondialdehyde, packed cell volume (PCV) and abdominal fat deposition compared to the control (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) in birds receiving L-carnitine when compared to the control. Supplementation of L-carnitine increased plasma nitric oxide and immune responsiveness, which manifested in an increased toe-web thickness index measured at 24 h following the injection of phytohaemagglutinin P. In conclusion, supplementation of L-carnitine had beneficial effects on preventing lipid peroxidation and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens raised at high altitude.

  18. Growth performance, digestibility, and gut development of broiler chickens on diets with inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Ivarsson, E; Jönsson, L; Holm, L; Lundh, T; Lindberg, J E

    2011-04-01

    A total of 256 broiler chickens (1 d old) were used in a 32-d growth trial to study the effects of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage and root inclusion on growth performance, digestibility, and gut development. The chicory forage originated from 2 harvests (June and September) and was included at 60 and 120 g/kg. The chicory root was included alone at 60 g/kg or together with chicory forage, from both harvests, in equal amounts (60 g/kg). The cereal-based control diet and 7 experimental diets were fed to each of 4 pens of chickens (8 chickens/pen). A higher BW gain and lower feed conversion ratio were found at 13 d of age in chickens fed the 60 g/kg chicory forage diet (P ≤ 0.05), whereas performance did not differ between the control and 60 g/kg chicory root diets. In contrast, a lower performance and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and AME as well as a thinner cecal mucosa layer were found for the 120 g/kg chicory forage diet (P ≤ 0.05). No diet effects on organ parameters or on pH of cecum digesta were detected. The soluble nonstarch polysaccharides fractions of chicory forage did not have any major negative effects on performance and gut development, and chicory forage from the September harvest was seen to have a higher nutritional value than that from the June harvest. Thus, results from the current study suggest that chicory forage is a potentially useful fiber-rich feed ingredient with high palatability for broiler chickens.

  19. Early warning of footpad dermatitis and hockburn in broiler chicken flocks using optical flow, bodyweight and water consumption.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, M S; Roberts, S J; Cain, R J; Nickson, T; Donnelly, C A

    2017-02-27

    Footpad dermatitis and hockburn are serious welfare and economic issues for the production of broiler (meat) chickens. The authors here describe the use of an inexpensive camera system that monitors the movements of broiler flocks throughout their lives and suggest that it is possible to predict, even in young birds, the cross-sectional prevalence at slaughter of footpad dermatitis and hockburn before external signs are visible. The skew and kurtosis calculated from the authors' camera-based optical flow system had considerably more power to predict these outcomes in the 50 flocks reported here than water consumption, bodyweight or mortality and therefore have the potential to inform improved flock management through giving farmers early warning of welfare issues. Further trials are underway to establish the generality of the results.

  20. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs’ maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes. PMID:27846314

  1. Effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Xingyu; Yin, Dafei; Wang, Maofei; Yin, Xiaonan; Lei, Zhao; Guo, Yuming

    2016-09-23

    This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B. subtilis; and the control. The experimental period comprised 11 d, during which performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and glucose transporter transcription of the chickens were evaluated. The results indicated that 1,500 U/kg α-amylase improved the digestibility of energy and decreased the feed conversion rate compared to α-1,6 isoamylase (P < 0.05). Supplemental 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase decreased ileal digestibility of amylopectin and total starch (P < 0.05) compared to 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase, α-amylase A, α-amylase B, and the control (P < 0.05). Supplemental α-1,6 isoamylase decreased (P < 0.05) insulin content. Supplemental 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-1,6 isoamylase increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of the liver. In addition, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A, 480 U/kg α-amylase B, and α-1,6 isoamylase decreased the V:C in the duodenum and ileum. α-amylase A increased sucrase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), whereas 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase reduced maltase activity in the duodenum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-amylase B decreased (P < 0.05) sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) mRNA expression in the duodenum and jejunum. However, 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUCT2) in the duodenum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that exogenous amylase affects the digestibility of starch by affecting disaccharidase activity in the

  2. Effect of soaking, germination, and enzyme treatment of whole barley on nutritional value and digestive tract parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Newman, R K; Newman, C W

    1997-09-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soaking at 0 degrees C, soaking at room temperature, germination, or enzyme treatment of whole barley on feeding value and digestive tract parameters of 2- to 4-week old broiler chickens given diets with 700g/kg whole barley. 2. Soaking or germination decreased the soluble and total beta-glucan content (P < 0.05) and, except for soaking at 0 degrees C, the acid extract viscosity of the grain also decreased (P < 0.05). Germination and soaking in the presence of enzymes produced the lowest beta-glucan content and viscosity. 3. Except for soaking in cold water, the soaking, germination and enzyme treatments increased weight gain and decreased food:gain ratio (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the digestibility of protein, fat, and ash, and the digestible energy content, increased (P < 0.05) after enzyme treatment or germination. 4. Chickens fed on enzyme-treated or germinated barley diets had intestinal contents with a greater proportion of dry matter and lower viscosity than chickens fed on untreated barley (P < 0.05). Consequently, the cages and chickens were cleaner (P < 0.05) and the weight of digestive organs as proportion of live weight was lower. 5. Particle size analysis of excreta revealed that whole barley was efficiently ground by the gizzards of 16-d-old chickens, and very few whole kernels were found.

  3. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  5. The effect of level of straw bale provision on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailie, C L; O'Connell, N E

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of the number of straw bales (SBs) provided on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens. Houses containing ~23 000 broiler chickens were assigned to one of two treatments: (1) access to 30 SBs per house, '30SB' or (2) access to 45 SB per house, '45SB'. This equated to bale densities of 1 bale/44 m2 and 1 bale/29 m2 of floor space within houses, respectively. Treatments were applied in one of two houses on a commercial farm, and were replicated over six production cycles. Both houses had windows and were also artificially lit. Behaviour was observed in weeks 3 to5 of the cycle. This involved observations of general behaviour and activity, gait scores (0: perfect to 5: unable to walk) and latency to lie (measured in seconds from when a bird had been encouraged to stand). Production performance and environmental parameters were also measured. SB density had no significant effect on activity levels (P>0.05) or walking ability (P>0.05). However, the average latency to lie was greater in 30SB birds compared with 45SB birds (P<0.05). The incidence of hock burn and podo dermatitis, average BW at slaughter and levels of mortality and culling were unaffected by SB density (P>0.05). The results from this study suggest that increasing SB levels from 1 bale/44 m2 to 1 bale/29 m2 floor space does not lead to significant improvements in the welfare of commercial broiler chickens in windowed houses.

  6. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens.

  7. Comparison of serum biochemical parameters between two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    PubMed

    Dong, J-Q; Zhang, H; Jiang, X-F; Wang, S-Z; Du, Z-Q; Wang, Z-P; Leng, L; Cao, Z-P; Li, Y-M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2015-07-01

    In humans, obesity is associated with increased or decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators. However, the relationship is not as well understood in chickens. Due to long-term intense selection for fast growth rate, modern broilers have the problem of excessive fat deposition, exhibiting biochemical or metabolic changes. In the current study, the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) were used to identify differences in serum biochemical parameters between the 2 lines. A total of 18 serum biochemical indicators were investigated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th generation populations of NEAUHLF, and the genetic parameters of these serum biochemical indicators were estimated. After analyzing the data from these 3 generations together, the results showed that the levels of 16 of the tested serum biochemical parameters were significantly different between the lean and fat birds. In the fat birds, serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate transaminase (AST):alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, and creatinine were very significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas LDL-C, albumin:globulin, glucose, AST, ALT, and free fatty acids concentrations in serum were very significantly lower than those in the lean birds (P < 0.01). Of these 16 serum biochemical parameters, 5 (LDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, total bile acid, albumin, and albumin:globulin) had high heritabilities (0.58 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.89), 6 (HDL-C, total protein, globulin, AST:ALT, GGT, and creatinine) had moderate heritabilities (0.29 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.48), and the remaining 5 had low heritabilities (h2 < 0.20). Serum HDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, and glucose had higher positive genetic correlation coefficients (rg) with abdominal fat traits (0.30 ≤ rg ≤ 0.80), whereas serum globulin, AST, and uric acid

  8. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  9. Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Idowu, A A; Niameh, O T

    2011-08-01

    Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineral content and walking ability of broiler chicken fed dietary inclusion of various unconventional calcium sources were studied using 160-day-old broilers. Four isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets balanced for Ca and P were formulated such that oyster shell, snail shell, wood ash and limestone were used as main non-phytate (Ca from other sources apart from plant) calcium sources. Each dietary treatment consisted of 40 birds replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. A single diet was fed to the broilers throughout the duration of the study which lasted for 8 weeks. Broilers fed diet containing oyster shell as calcium sources recorded the highest (p < 0.05) feed intake of 5863.30 g, while those fed diet containing limestone consumed the least intake (p < 0.05) of 5432.56 g. Occurrence of lameness and evidences of gaits were highest (p < 0.05) for broilers fed diet containing wood ash. Lowest (p < 0.05) Ca and ash retention were recorded for broiler fed diet containing wood ash as Ca sources. Similar tibia ash values were recorded for broilers fed oyster shell, snail shell and limestone. Wood ash inclusion resulted in a low Ca availability hence its inclusion in feeds for broilers should be discouraged.

  10. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in various geographical regions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Lee, Lucy F; Fadly, Aly M

    2010-10-01

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. All isolates were propagated in chicken embryo fibroblasts obtained from a specific pathogen free breeder flock. PCR analysis of all 12 isolates resulted in the amplification of the 291-bp REV long-terminal repeat region (LTR); none of the isolates exhibited a different pattern or shift from the expected PCR product of REV LTR. The subtype of the REV isolates was determined by IFA using REV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 11B118.22, 11C237.8, and 11D182. Results from sub-typing indicated that all nine isolates from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens belonged to subtype 3, and are antigenically related to the chick syncytial virus (CSV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 3 REV. In contrast, the three isolates from contaminated vaccines were classified as subtype 2, and were antigenically related to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 2 REV. Three isolates representing REV isolated from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens were cloned and further evaluated by DNA sequence analysis of the envelope gene. Results from DNA sequence analysis confirmed those from sub-typing and indicated that the three REV isolates representing those from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens are closely related to CSV of REV, with an amino acid homology of 98% or greater as compared with SNV with an amino acid homology of 95% or less. Data from this study clearly indicate that subtype 3 is the most common subtype of REV circulating in three different avian species, namely broiler breeders, turkeys and prairie chickens, located in three different geographical regions in the United

  11. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  14. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  15. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that all Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken

  16. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  17. Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Bailey, C A; Cartwright, A L

    2003-10-01

    High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) on intestinal viscosity, measures of growth, and feed conversion in broiler chickens fed to 20 d of age. Growth and feed conversion ratio were not affected by inclusion of as much as 7.5% of the germ fraction into poultry diets, while inclusion of the hull fraction reduced growth at all concentrations. The hull fraction increased intestinal viscosity at all inclusion levels fed, although feed conversion was not affected until the inclusion rate exceeded 5.0%. The germ fraction significantly increased intestinal viscosity at 7.5 and 10% inclusion rates. When germ fraction was fed, relative organ weights remained constant through all concentrations except for the ventriculus and duodenum at 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels. Relative pancreas weight was significantly increased at the 10% level of the hull fraction. Increases in intestinal viscosity corresponded with growth depression. These results suggest that residual gum was responsible for some deleterious effects seen when guar meal was fed. The germ fraction was a superior ingredient when compared with the hull fraction. The guar meal germ fraction constituting as much as 7.5% of the diet supported growth and feed conversion measures similar to those observed with a typical corn-soybean poultry ration.

  18. Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora leaf extract against Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaingu, Fredrick; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Lele; Tao, Jianping; Waihenya, Rebecca; Kutima, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora crude leaf extract was tested in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria tenella. Sixty 22-day-old birds were divided into six groups of ten birds each. Three treatment groups A, B, and C were fed with the extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/day, respectively) mixed in feed for 10 days, and three control groups: group D (drug control) administered 300 mg/l of sulfachloropyrazine sodium soluble powder in drinking water for 5 days, group E (infected/non-medicated positive control), and group F (uninfected/non-medicated negative control). Except for group F, all groups were orally inoculated with 75,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The effects of the extract on E. tenella infection were evaluated by severity of bloody diarrhea, body weight (BW) gain, oocyst output, and lesion score. No bird in the treated groups died of coccidiosis, and severity of bloody diarrhea was milder than in the positive control group. BW gains in the treated groups were significantly higher than in group E (p < 0.05). The lesion scores of the treated groups were significantly lower than that of group E. Oocyst output in groups A, B, and C were 11.23, 8.24, and 6.82 × 10(6), respectively. As compared with the negative control group (12.84 × 10(6)), the reductions in oocyst production were 12.54, 35.83, and 46.88%, respectively. Oocyst output significantly reduced with an increase in Aloe dosage. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe secundiflora extract presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for the control of avian coccidiosis.

  19. Methionine+cystine requirement of broiler chickens fed low-density diets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Usama; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the M+C requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (Hubbard x Hubbard) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during summer months (July-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged 26-37C (Exp. 1) and 23-36C (Exp. 2). M+C deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2750 kcal per kg ME, 20.1% CP (Exp. 1), and 2780 kcal per kg ME, 17.0% CP (Exp. 2). Diets were supplemented with DL-methionine to provide total M+C level ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 % (six increments) and 0.54 to 0.79% (six increments), respectively in experiment 1 and 2. Requirements (0.95 of the maximum quadratic response) were found to be 0.77 and 0.75% total M+C, respectively for gain and feed efficiency, during 4-21 days; and 0.67% total M+C for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on the digestible M+C basis, the estimates were 0.67 and 0.65% respectively for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.60% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.

  20. [Food value of spiruline algae for growth of the broiler-type chicken].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    Five trials were carried out during the growth (0-8 weeks) of the broiler type chicken. The weight increase was always depressed when spiruline algae replaced traditional protein sources (soybean meal, fish meal, ...) in a complete and well balanced diet (trials 1 and 2). The delay in growth was small and non significant for 5 p. 100 or less of spirulines in the diet. However, for the highest levels of spirulines the delay in growth was more pronounced, especially during the starting period (0-4 weeks): live weight gain was reduced from 16 and 26 per cent for the spirulines levels of 20 and 30 p. 100. Different methods (live weight gain, balance technique, body analysis) were used for the determination of the protein and energy efficiencies. Spirulines were fed at different levels, either added to a protein free diet (trial 3), or included with other protein sources in complete diets (trial 4). Both protein and energy efficiencies were reduced when the spiruline level increased. Thus, the protein efficiency of the spirulines was found to be similar to that of the other traditional protein sources (soybean, fish,...) for a level lower than 10 p. 100. In contrast, it was reduced (--20 p. 100) when more than 20 p. 100 of algae were included in the diet. The average metabolizable energy was 2,487 kcal per kilogram when 20 and 30 p. 100 of algae were added in the protein free diet. In the complete diets, this value was found to be smaller or greater according to the level of spirulines, 30 p. 100 reduced and 5 p. 100 increased the energy value. The poor digestibility of some glucidic fraction in the algae seems responsible for the low energy value and for the reduced growth performance. The addition of a glycolytic enzyme to the diet failed to improve the performance (trial 5).

  1. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens’ egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  2. Physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in broiler chickens of a new recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, L; Miranda-Calderon, J E; Garcia-Gutierrez, P; Sumano, H

    2015-04-01

    Enrofloxacin, a key antimicrobial agent in commercial avian medicine, has limited bioavailability (60%). This prompted its chemical manipulation to yield a new solvate-recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate entity (enroC ). Its chemical structure was characterized by means of mass spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermal analysis. Comparative oral pharmacokinetics (PK) of reference enrofloxacin (enroR ) and enroC in broiler chickens after oral administration revealed noticeable improvements in key parameters and PK/PD ratios. Maximum serum concentration values were 2.61 ± 0.21 and 5.9 ± 0.42 μg/mL for enroR and enroC , respectively; mean residence time was increased from 5.50 ± 0.26 h to 6.20 ± 0.71 h and the relative bioavailability of enroC was 336%. Considering Cmax /MIC and AUC/MIC ratios and the MIC values for a wild-type Escherichia coli O78/H12 (0.25 μg/mL), optimal ratios will only be achieved by enroC (Cmax /MIC = 23.6 and AUC/MIC = 197.7 for enroC ; vs. Cmax /MIC = 10.4 and AUC/MIC = 78.1 for enroR ). Furthermore, enroC may provide in most cases mutant prevention concentrations (Cmax /MIC ≥ 16). Ready solubility of powder enroC in drinking water at concentrations regularly used (0.01%) to provide an additional advantage of enroC in the field. Further development of enroC is warranted before it can be recommended for clinical use in veterinary medicine.

  3. The effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Geier, M S; Torok, V A; Guo, P; Allison, G E; Boulianne, M; Janardhana, V; Bean, A G D; Hughes, R J

    2011-10-01

    The influence of in-feed lactoferrin (Lf) on bird production, intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune system and gut microarchitecture was assessed in male Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Birds were given one of four diets from day of hatch: Control (basal diet with no additives), ZnB (basal diet + 50 mg/kg zinc bacitracin), Lf 250 mg/kg (basal diet + 250 mg/kg Lf) and Lf 500 mg/kg (basal diet + 500 mg/kg Lf); n = 24 birds/treatment. An apparent metabolisable energy study was performed between d 25-32. Lf did not affect growth rate or feed conversion in the period 0-21 d of age, nor performance or energy metabolism during the 7 d metabolism experiment which commenced at 25 d of age.The profiles of caecal microbial communities were significantly different in birds given ZnB compared with birds given a diet with no additives, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg Lf. Birds given 250 mg/kg Lf also had a different microbial profile compared with birds given 500 mg/kg Lf. In comparison to control birds, Lf treated birds showed some differences in the T cell proportions in caecal tonsil and spleen. No differences in ileal villus height, crypt depth or goblet cell proportions were observed amongst dietary treatments. Whilst Lf had little effect on the measured parameters, the use of an integrated approach to study the influence of novel feed additives may facilitate a greater understanding of the relationships between nutrition, gut health and bird performance.

  4. Duplex PCR Methods for the Molecular Detection of Escherichia fergusonii Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Karen; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Vaillancourt, Rolland; Malouin, François; Topp, Edward; Delaquis, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia fergusonii is an emerging pathogen that has been isolated from a wide range of infections in animals and humans. Primers targeting specific genes, including yliE (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein of the cellulose synthase and regulator of cellulose synthase island), EFER_1569 (encoding a hypothetical protein, putative transcriptional activator for multiple antibiotic resistance), and EFER_3126 (encoding a putative triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A [CoA]), were designed for the detection of E. fergusonii by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Primers were screened by in silico PCR against 489 bacterial genomic sequences and by both PCR methods on 55 reference and field strains. Both methods were specific and sensitive for E. fergusonii, showing amplification only for this bacterium. Conventional PCR required a minimum bacterial concentration of approximately 102 CFU/ml, while real-time PCR required a minimum of 0.3 pg of DNA for consistent detection. Standard curves showed an efficiency of 98.5%, with an R2 value of 0.99 for the real-time PCR assay. Cecal and cloacal contents from 580 chickens were sampled from broiler farms located in the Fraser Valley (British Columbia, Canada). Presumptive E. fergusonii isolates were recovered by enrichment and plating on differential and selective media. Of 301 total presumptive isolates, 140 (46.5%) were identified as E. fergusonii by biochemical profiling with the API 20E system and 268 (89.0%) using PCR methods. E. fergusonii detection directly from cecal and cloacal samples without preenrichment was achieved with both PCR methods. Hence, the PCR methods developed in this work significantly improve the detection of E. fergusonii. PMID:24441160

  5. Lame broiler chickens respond to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with objective changes in gait function: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Caplen, G; Colborne, G R; Hothersall, B; Nicol, C J; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Weeks, C A; Murrell, J C

    2013-06-01

    Leg health of intensively reared broiler chickens is a significant problem, yet little is known regarding the nature of lameness-associated pain. Kinematic changes in gait have been reported in naturally lame broilers following subcutaneous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration, compared to a placebo group. In the current study, an extensive range of gait parameters were defined using a commercial motion-capturing system to record three-dimensional temporospatial information from walking broilers pre- and post-treatment. Data analysis, performed using multi-level models, revealed gait modifications in broilers receiving NSAID, but not in those receiving saline. The effect of walking velocity was accounted for retrospectively. An increase in velocity following NSAID treatment (carprofen: P<0.001; meloxicam: P=0.044) indicated improved walking ability. For several measures, the polarity of the treatment effect depended upon walking speed. At slow speeds certain parameters become more like those of non-lame broilers, which may have been indicative of improved stability: stride length and duration (both NSAIDs), transverse back displacement (meloxicam), and vertical leg displacement (carprofen). However, these same parameters also revealed that NSAID treatment caused imbalance at faster speeds, which may have signified an excessive dosage. Although doses employed were not conclusively effective, evidence was provided that factors besides body conformation influenced mobility in the test cohort. The study showed that the model would be useful in future studies to increase our understanding of pain associated with specific lameness types in broiler chickens.

  6. Comparison of Cumulative Drip Sampling to Whole Carcass Rinses for Estimation of Campylobacter spp. and Quality Indicator Organisms from Processed Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The whole carcass rinse (WCR) procedure is routinely used as a sampling method for determining the presence and number of quality-indicator organisms and pathogens associated with broiler chicken carcasses in processing facilities. Collection of a cumulative drip sample by placing co...

  7. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  8. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  9. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  10. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  11. The Bacteriomes of Ileal Mucosa and Cecal Content of Broiler Chickens and Turkeys as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shan; Lilburn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) bacteriome of poultry is important in host nutrition and health, but its diversity and composition remain poorly characterized. In this study we phylogenetically characterized the bacteriome in the cecal contents and ileal mucosa of chickens and turkeys using metagenomics empowered by pyrosequencing technique. >95% coverage of bacterial diversity was achieved except for the turkey ileal mucosa. Collectively, 3,401 and 125 operational taxonomy units (OTU, defined at a 0.03 phylogenetic distance) in chicken, and 1,687 and 16 OTUs in turkey were identified from the cecal content and the ileal mucosa, respectively. Besides those previously reported, 39 and 50 additional genera of bacteria were identified in the chicken and turkey cecal bacteriome, respectively. Although the GI bacteriomes of the same region in both species exhibited greater similarity than the bacteriomes of different regions within each species, broiler chickens and turkeys harbor a distinct intestinal bacteriome. Such difference may suggest different dietary interventions for bacteriome modulation for enhanced nutrient utilization and gut health. The results may also be useful in developing prebiotics, probiotics, and analytical tools (e.g., phylochips). We also determined the variation in the number of OTUs and variability between two independent pyrosequencing runs and two data processing pipelines. PMID:28115936

  12. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-γ were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production.

  13. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicken by Successive Application of Group II and Group III Phages

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Alter, Thomas; Janzcyk, Pawel; Stingl, Kerstin; Knüver, Marie Theres; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteriophage treatment is a promising tool to reduce Campylobacter in chickens. Several studies have been published where group II or group III phages were successfully applied. However, these two groups of phages are different regarding their host ranges and host cell receptors. Therefore, a concerted activity of group II and group III phages might enhance the efficacy of a treatment and decrease the number of resistant bacteria. Results In this study we have compared the lytic properties of some group II and group III phages and analysed the suitability of various phages for a reduction of C. jejuni in broiler chickens. We show that group II and group III phages exhibit different kinetics of infection. Two group III and one group II phage were selected for animal experiments and administered in different combinations to three groups of chickens, each containing ten birds. While group III phage CP14 alone reduced Campylobacter counts by more than 1 log10 unit, the concomitant administration of a second group III phage (CP81) did not yield any reduction, probably due to the development of resistance induced by this phage. One group of chickens received phage CP14 and, 24 hours later, group II phage CP68. In this group of animals, Campylobacter counts were reduced by more than 3 log10 units. Conclusion The experiments illustrated that Campylobacter phage cocktails have to be carefully composed to achieve the best results. PMID:25490713

  14. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status.

  15. Oxidative stability and sensory quality of meat from broiler chickens fed a bacterial meal produced on natural gas.

    PubMed

    Øverland, M; Borge, G I; Vogt, G; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial meal (BPM) produced from bacteria grown on natural gas is a feed source containing approximately 70% CP and 10% lipids with predominantly C16:0 and C16:1 fatty acids. The effect of increasing dietary levels (0, 40, 80, or 120 g/kg) of BPM on fatty acid composition, the profile of volatiles by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sensory quality of frozen-stored broiler chicken thigh meat was examined. Increasing levels of BPM increased (linear, P < 0.0001) the content of saturated fatty acids, tended (linear, P = 0.05) to increase the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and tended (linear, P = 0.08) to decrease the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the meat. Feeding BPM reduced (linear, P ≤ 0.03) levels of the volatile lipid oxidation products butanal, hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in the meat during frozen storage but had no significant effects on the sensory quality parameters related to odor and flavor. The presence of antioxidants in BPM may have reduced lipid oxidation in the meat. To conclude, adding BPM to diets reduced the formation of volatile lipid oxidation products during frozen storage of the broiler thigh meat. Dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was a more sensitive method in detecting early lipid oxidation compared with TBA reactive substances and sensory quality analyses in broiler thigh meat.

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolated from broiler chickens of West Azarbaijan province by PCR of vlhA gene

    PubMed Central

    Ghaniei, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a pathogen responsible for respiratory and locomotor disorders and causes major economic losses in poultry industry. Early and accurate diagnosis of MS infection plays a major role in control of the infection. This study was conducted to characterize Iranian field isolates of MS isolated from broiler chickens of West Azarbaijan province (Northwest of Iran), and differentiate them from vaccine strain MS-H. Two encoding genes, 16S rRNA and vlhA were employed. PCR results using primers related to 16s rRNA and vlhA genes were analyzed and compared. Out of 21 field samples, eight samples (38.0%) were positive using both sets of primers. Amplified products of vlhA gene were sequenced for MS strain identification. The results showed that Iranian field isolates of MS had high nucleotide and amino acid similarity. Iranian field isolates were distinct from vaccine strain MS-H. Results presented in this study showed that characterization of field isolates of MS by sequencing of vlhA gene and is beneficial for strain typing and differentiating them from vaccine strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing vlhA gene of MS isolates from broiler chickens in the West Azarbaijan province. PMID:27872715

  17. Effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in monochloramine on lipid oxidation and halogenated residual compound formation.

    PubMed

    Axtell, Stephen P; Russell, Scott M; Berman, Elliot

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in tap water (TAP) or TAP containing 50 ppm of monochloramine (MON) with respect to chloroform formation, total chlorine content, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, and fatty acid profiles. Ten broiler chicken carcasses were chilled in TAP or MON for 6 h. After exposure, the carcasses were removed and cut in half along the median plane into right and left halves. After roasting the left halves, samples of the breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. The uncooked right halves of each carcass were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days and then roasted. After roasting these right halves, samples of breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected from each carcass half, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. There were no statistical differences between TAP- and MON-treated fresh or stored products with regard to chloroform levels, total chlorine content, TBA values, or fatty acid profiles.

  18. Effect of inulin on growth performance, intestinal tract sizes, mineral retention and tibial bone mineralisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2009-05-01

    1. A 5-week feeding trial with 240 one-day-old male broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the responses of performance, intestinal tract measurements, relative apparent retention of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu), and tibial bone measurements and mineral content (ash and Ca) to dietary graded levels of inulin. Treatments consisted of a maize-soybean meal control diet without or with supplemental antibiotic (flavomycin, 40 mg/kg diet) and 4 diets containing inulin at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg. 2. Growth performance of birds and morphological measurements of intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca) showed no response to dietary levels of inulin as compared with the control diet and the control diet with flavomycin. 3. Dietary inulin improved the relative apparent retention of Ca, Zn and Cu (up to 18.4, 35.5 and 466%, respectively), did no affect that of Mg and impaired the retention of Fe. Differences among inulin treatments and control with flavomycin were significant only for Mg content. 4. Dietary inulin increased the concentration of ash and Ca in the tibiae. This effect was not reflected in the tibial bone morphology (weight, length and width). In conclusion, the results from the current study suggest that feeding inulin to broiler chickens may have a beneficial effect on bone quality.

  19. Nickel chloride-induced apoptosis via mitochondria- and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent pathways in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ni, a metal with industrial and commercial uses, poses a serious hazard to human and animal health. In the present study, we used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR to investigate the mechanisms of NiCl2-induced apoptosis in kidney cells. After treating 280 broiler chickens with 0, 300, 600 or 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days, we found that two caspase-dependent pathways were involved in the induced renal tubular cell apoptosis. In the mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, cyt-c, HtrA2/Omi, Smac/Diablo, apaf-1, PARP, and caspase-9, 3, 6 and 7 were all increased, while. XIAP transcription was decreased. Concurrently, in the Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, Fas, FasL, caspase-8, caspase-10 and Bid levels were all increased. These results indicate that dietary NiCl2 at 300+ mg/kg induces renal tubular cell apoptosis in broiler chickens, involving both mitochondrial and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. Our results provide novel insight into Ni and Ni-compound toxicology evaluated in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27806327

  20. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  1. The effect of insoluble fiber and intermittent feeding on gizzard development, gut motility, and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sacranie, A; Svihus, B; Denstadli, V; Moen, B; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the following hypothesis: exposing broiler chickens to coarse insoluble fiber in the diet will result in enhanced gizzard function and performance, improved adaptability to an intermittent feeding program, and an increase in the occurrence of reverse peristalsis. In experiment 1, 102 Ross 308 broiler chickens were either intermittently or ad libitum fed a basal diet, the basal diet diluted with 15% coarse hulls (consisting of equal weights of hulls from oats and barley), or the basal diet diluted with 15% of the same hulls finely ground in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 17 individually caged birds per treatment. Birds fed ad libitum had access to feed continuously for 18 h/d, whereas those on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age. From 18 d of age, the restrictive-feeding program consisted of four 1-h meals and one 2-h meal per day. In experiment 2, 156 broiler chickens in 12 pen cages with wood shaving-lined floors were exposed to 1 of 4 treatment groups with 3 pens/treatment: intermittent or ad libitum feeding of a basal diet and intermittent or ad libitum feeding of a coarse hull diet, as described above. At 31 and 32 d of age, birds in experiment 1 were inoculated with chromium EDTA via the cloaca. There was no interaction between diet and feeding regimen. The addition of hulls increased gizzard weight and content and lowered (P < 0.001) gizzard pH, but it had no effect on the ability of the birds to handle intermittent feeding. Despite the dilution with coarse hulls, weight gain and the gain:feed ratio were not affected, which could partly be explained by an increased (P < 0.001) starch digestibility. Dietary reflux was confirmed by the presence of chromium in all intestinal tract sections. Broilers exhibited reverse peristaltic contractions of sufficient magnitude to propel the marker from the cloaca to the gizzard.

  2. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  3. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  4. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  5. Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens induced by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shourong; Shen, Yiru; Zhao, Zhenhua; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Zou, Jianmin; Guo, Yuming

    2014-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) still has an unacceptably high incidence rate in both humans and animals although there have been many studies on AS. To continue our previous pathological and biochemical investigation on the underlying mechanisms of AS incidence in broiler chickens, cutting-edge technologies including RNA-seq and metabolimics were used by directly comparing AS chickens and healthy controls. The RNA-seq analysis in the liver identified 390 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 212 genes were up-regulated and 178 genes were down-regulated in the AS group compared to the control. For the down-regulated DEGs, further gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway and steroid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched. For up-regulated DEGs, the cholesterol metabolic process has the lowest p value (0.000966) of fold enrichment while the cholesterol biosynthetic process has the highest fold enrichment (46.67). The metabolomic analysis of serum revealed statistically significant changes in the concentrations of LysoPC(20 : 4), LysoPC(16 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 1), LysoPC(18 : 2), PC(14 : 1/20 : 1), PC(20 : 4/18 : 0), PC(14 : 1/22 : 1), dihydroxyacetone, indoleacrylic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, l-valine, and l-tryptophan. The integrative analysis of transcriptome and metabolome indicated that two biological pathways of tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism may contribute to the induction of AS in broilers. These findings have provided novel insights into our understanding of molecular mechanisms of AS incidence in broilers.

  6. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  7. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW gain (BWG), and feed intake. Birds fed the PC diet showed significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in both femur and tibia bones (P < 0.0001) than those fed the NC diet. Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P < 0.05), whereas FOS decreased femur BMD and BMC (P < 0.05). Phosphorus utilization was significantly higher for the NC diet (P < 0.0001). Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). Fructooligosaccharides, especially at the level of 0.5%, increased P retention. In conclusion, phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality.

  8. The effect of different dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Elias, M C; Catalan, A A S; Castro, M L S; Nunes, A P; Roll, V F B

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of canola meal in broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and duodenal morphometry. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment. A completely randomized design with 5 levels of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%) as a substitute for soybean meal was used with 8 replicates of 8 birds each. The basal diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal to meet nutrient requirements of broiler chickens. The levels of canola meal were evaluated with a polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Weight gain and average BW showed a quadratic response (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively), decreasing with the addition of 40% canola meal. The apparent nutrient digestibility of DM (P < 0.0001), CP (P < 0.0001), and nitrogen-free extract (P < 0.0001) decreased linearly with increased levels of canola meal. A quadratic effect was observed for villus height (P = 0.003), decreasing up to a 20% inclusion of canola meal in the diet and increasing beyond that level. In conclusion, canola meal can be added up to 16.7% in diets for broilers without affecting the key variables of growth performance. It can be added up to 20% with no negative effect on the CP digestibility, but there was a linear decrease in the digestibility of DM and nitrogen-free extract with increased inclusion of canola meal. Additionally, a quadratic response to canola was observed for villus height with a maximum at 23.6% canola meal.

  9. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  10. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  11. Efficacy of HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to attenuated live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against a Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K

    2016-05-01

    The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

  12. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P < 0.05) the body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  13. Effect of Boswellia serrata Resin Supplementation on Basic Chemical and Mineral Element Composition in the Muscles and Liver of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasiry, A R M; Kiczorowska, B; Samolińska, W

    2017-02-16

    Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with resin rich in bioactive components, such as different boswellic acids, could improve productivity, chemical composition, and nutritive value of produced meat. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different levels of Boswellia serrata (BSR) supplementation in broiler chicken diet on the basic chemical composition and the Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu contents in the breast and drumstick muscles and liver. The analyses involved 200 Ross 308 chickens. The broiler chickens were fed with diets containing 0 (BSR0), 1.5 (BSR1.5), 2 (BSR2), and 2.5% (BSR2.5) of B. serrata resin. The supplementation of broiler chicken diets with 2.5% (BSR2.5) decreased linearly the ether extract in breast and drumstick muscles and the calorific value in drumstick muscles (P < 0.05). An increased level of Ca in the breast and drumstick muscles (control vs. BSR diets, linear, P < 0.05) and in the liver (control vs. BSR diets, quadratic, P < 0.05) as well as Mg in the drumstick muscles and liver (control vs. BSR diets, linear, P < 0.05) was noted in the BSR2 and BSR2.5 chicken groups. The BSR supplementation reduced Cu (in the breast and drumstick muscles and liver) (P < 0.05) and Zn retention (in the drumstick muscles) (C vs. BSR, linear, P < 0.05). B. serrata resin can be considered a good feed additive with a positive impact on the dietary value of poultry meat.

  14. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    PubMed

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens.

  15. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  16. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, L; Urlings, H A P; Wagenaar, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantified by calculating a reproduction ratio (R0) and a transmission rate parameter (beta). R0 and beta in the FLF-treated groups were reduced, but a typical infectious chicken fed with FLF, could on average still infect more than one new infectious case. FLF can therefore reduce the transmission of Salmonella in chicken flocks, but it will not prevent the occurrence of major outbreaks.

  17. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed Central

    Heres, L.; Urlings, H. A. P.; Wagenaar, J. A.; de Jong, M. C. M.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantified by calculating a reproduction ratio (R0) and a transmission rate parameter (beta). R0 and beta in the FLF-treated groups were reduced, but a typical infectious chicken fed with FLF, could on average still infect more than one new infectious case. FLF can therefore reduce the transmission of Salmonella in chicken flocks, but it will not prevent the occurrence of major outbreaks. PMID:14979596

  18. Heat shock protein response in phosphorus-deficient heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Edens, F W; Hill, C H; Wang, S

    1992-12-01

    1. During acute in vivo heat stress, a normal heat shock protein (HSP) response was not inducible in chickens deficient in inorganic phosphorus (P(i)-deficient). 2. Small quantities of HSP 70 and HSP 90 were induced, but little or no HSP 23 was induced in P(i)-deficient chickens compared to P(i)-adequate chickens. 3. Increased susceptibility of P(i)-deficient chickens to acute heat stress was attributed to their inability to produce an adequate HSP response.

  19. Ammonia volatilization after surface application of laying-hen and broiler-chicken manures.

    PubMed

    Miola, Ezequiel C C; Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Aita, Celso; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) losses after field application of animal manure are affected by manure characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH losses from poultry manures obtained from varied handling and storage systems commonly found in eastern Canada and to relate NH emissions to manure characteristics. We measured NH volatilization using wind tunnels for 22 d after soil-surface application of seven solid poultry manures originating from farms varying in production type (laying hens and broiler chickens) and in storage duration and conditions. Cumulative emissions (2.7-7.0 g NH-N m) accounted for 13.6 to 35.0% of the total N applied and 51 to 84% (mean, 70%) of the sum of ammoniacal N, urea N, and uric acid N applied (TAUA). On average, 20% of these losses occurred during the first 4.5 h after application for manures that were not dried in the barn shortly after excretion. Production type and storage durations could not explain differences in NH volatilization between manures. Volatilization losses were linearly related to manure dry matter and to manure-derived NH-N, but sources of N changed with time after application. During the first 7 d, variations in total ammoniacal N applied (TANA) among manures explained most of the variations in cumulative NH losses ( = 0.85 after 26 h and 0.92 after 7 d). After a simulated rainfall (5 mm) on Day 7 that stimulated the decomposition of uric acid in manures, TAUA rather than TANA was related to cumulative emissions ( = 0.77 after 14 and 22 d). Our results indicate that reliable estimates of NH volatilization after land spreading of poultry manures should be based not only on TANA but also on NH-N derived from the decomposition of uric acid, that volatilization losses reported in the literature (including the present study) averaged 50% of TAUA, and that estimates for a given situation also need to account for local environmental conditions.

  20. Effects of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus output, production traits and mechanical stability of the tibia in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vetési, M; Mézes, M; Baskay, G; Gelencsér, E

    1998-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed using 4 x 60 day-old chickens (Ross 208 cockerels) raised up to 42 days of age to determine whether exogenous phytase addition increases phosphorus utilisation by broiler chickens, and to assess its effects on some production traits as well as on the ash content and mechanical stability of the tibia. The chickens' feed consisted of maize, wheat, soybean meal, fish meal, yeast, and fat powder. The basic feed was supplemented with inorganic phosphorus in groups A and B. In groups C and D, the amount of the inorganic phosphorus supplement (DCP) was decreased by 50%, at the same calcium/phosphorus ratio. The 50% reduction of inorganic phosphorus supplementation represents a 20% decrease of total phosphorus. To the diets of groups B and D a phytase enzyme preparation (Phytase Novo CT) was added. The calculated exogenous phytase activity was 600 FYT/kg feed. The decrease of inorganic phosphorus did not cause significant differences in the daily weight gain but lowered the feed conversion rate by 10%. Calcium and phosphorus excretion decreased by 18% and 15%, and the breaking strength of the tibia was also lower. Phytase supplementation of the feed at a lower rate of inorganic phosphorus supplementation did not cause changes in the body weight gain but improved the feed conversion rate by 5.6%. Phosphorus and calcium output decreased by 21% and 11%, respectively, but chemical composition and mechanical stability of the tibia were unaltered.

  1. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). Methods In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. Results The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. Conclusions In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally

  2. Bacillus subtilis PB6 improves intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Thangavel, Gokila; Kurian, Hannah; Mani, Ravichandran; Mukkalil, Rajalekshmi; Chirakkal, Haridasan

    2013-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 replicates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12 birds in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were an uninfected control, an infected control, and an infected group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 at 500 g/t of feed, containing 5 × 10(11) cfu/kg. Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broiler birds via oral inoculation of 30,000 oocysts of mixed strains of Eimeria species on d 14 followed by C. perfringens (10(8) cfu/mL) on d 19 through 21 of trial. The birds were analyzed for BW gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal lesion score, intestinal C. perfringens counts, and villus histomorphometry. The infected control group showed markedly thickened mucosa, hemorrhages, intestinal lesions, and ballooning of intestine. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 reduced the FCR (P < 0.05) and intestinal C. perfringens counts significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the infected control group. It was also observed that B. subtilis PB6 improved villi length by 10.88 and 30.46% (P < 0.05) compared with uninfected and infected control groups, respectively. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the villi length to crypt

  3. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  4. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  5. Effects of feed supplementation with glycine chelate and iron sulfate on selected parameters of cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kalinowski, Marcin; Laskowska, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Because little is known about the impact of chelated (Fe-Gly, Fe-Gly+F) and inorganic (FeSO4, FeSO4+F) iron products on immune response parameters in broiler chickens, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of inorganic and organic forms of iron on selected parameters of the cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens by assessing the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), and MHC Class II lymphocytes, as well as the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL-2 concentration in the peripheral blood. The experiments were conducted using 50day-old Ross 308 roosters. The test material was peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. The results obtained indicate that the use of iron chelates in the diet of broiler chickens may stimulate cellular defense mechanisms. As a result of the experiment an increase was observed in the percentage of Th1, mainly T CD4(+) and T CD8(+). It was also noted that application of chelated iron can increase production of T CD8(+) cytotoxic cells and IL-2, which promotes the body's natural response to developing inflammation. There were no changes in T CD4(+), T CD8(+), T CD25(+) or MHC II lymphocyte subpopulations in the chickens following application of the inorganic form of iron.

  6. Effect of fermented feed on the susceptibility for Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in broiler chickens with and without concurrent inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens; Engel, Bas; Van Knapen, Frans; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Urlings, Bert A P

    2003-10-15

    Fermented liquid feed (FLF) protects broiler chickens against colonisation with Salmonella. While Campylobacter causes more disease cases in humans than Salmonella, the effect of FLF on Campylobacter was assessed. The fermented liquid feed is a moistened feed with a high number of lactobacilli, a high concentration of lactic acid, and a pH of 4. In three experiments Campylobacter was orally applied to individually housed 9-day-old broiler chickens. A significant reduction of susceptibility, as determined by cloacal swabs, was observed. At any moment where an animal has not started to shed Campylobacter yet, the probability to start shedding Campylobacter in a subsequent small time interval was nine times as high for the control chickens than for the animals that were fed FLF. FLF did not consistently change the Campylobacter colonisation level in the caeca. It was concluded that FLF could reduce the probability of introduction of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. In an experiment where some chickens were simultaneously inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter, no interaction on susceptibility or caecal colonisation level was observed.

  7. Ileal MUC2 gene expression and microbial population, but not growth performance and immune response, are influenced by in ovo injection of probiotics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Majidi-Mosleh, A; Sadeghi, A A; Mousavi, S N; Chamani, M; Zarei, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of intra-amniotic injection of different probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici) on the intestinal MUC2 gene expression, microbial population, growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. 2. In a completely randomised design, different probiotic strains were injected into the amniotic fluid of the 480 live embryos (d 18 of incubation), with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. Ileal MUC2 gene expression, microbial profile, growth performance and immune response were determined. 3. Injection of probiotic strains, especially B. subtilis, had significant effect on expression of the MUC2 on d 21 of incubation and d 3 post-hatch, but not on d 19 of incubation. 4. Injection of the probiotic strains decreased significantly the Escherichia coli population and increased the lactic acid bacteria population during the first week post-hatch. 5. Inoculation of probiotics had no significant effect on antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, antibody titres against sheep red blood cell and cell-mediated immune response of chickens compared to control. 6. In ovo injection of the probiotic strains had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. 7. It was concluded that injection of probiotic bacteria especially B. subtilis into the amniotic fluid has a beneficial effect on ileal MUC2 gene expression and bacteria population during the first week post-hatch, but has no effect on growth performance and immune response in broiler chickens.

  8. Effects of Feeding of Two Potentially Probiotic Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Performance and Faecal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Paula; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Méndez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Isabel; Fuciños, Clara; Guerra, Nelson P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two probiotic preparations, containing live lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 4043) and their products of fermentation (organic acids and bacteriocins), as a replacement for antibiotics in stimulating health and growth of broiler chickens. The effects of the supplementation of both preparations (with proven probiotic effect in weaned piglets) and an antibiotic (avilamycin) on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed consumption efficiency (FCE), relative intestinal weight, and intestinal microbiota counts were studied in 1-day posthatch chickens. The experiments were conducted with medium-growth Sasso X44 chickens housed in cages and with nutritional stressed Ross 308 broiler distributed in pens. Consumption of the different diets did not affect significantly the final coliform counts in Sasso X44 chickens. However, counts of lactic acid bacteria and mesophilic microorganisms were higher in the animals receiving the two probiotic preparations (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, although no differences in BWG were observed between treatments, Ross 308 broilers receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation exhibited the lowest FCE values and were considered the most efficient at converting feed into live weight. PMID:22666137

  9. Measurement of true ileal digestibility and total tract retention of phosphorus in corn and canola meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2014-02-01

    The study reported herein was conducted to determine and compare the nonphytate P, digestible P, and retainable P contents of corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each of ingredient to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 8 cages each (6 birds per cage). A total of 192 broilers (Ross 308), 21 d old, were assigned to the 8 test diets. Ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients of P were determined by the indicator and total collection methods, respectively, and linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility and true P retention coefficients. The apparent ileal digestibility of P in corn was influenced (quadratic, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary nonphytate P concentrations, whereas P retention was unaffected (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets based on canola meal was similar (P > 0.05) at different P concentrations. Phosphorus retention in broilers fed diets based on canola meal (linear, P < 0.01) decreased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility and true P retention coefficients of corn were determined to be 0.676 and 0.632, respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 0.469 and 0.486, respectively. In both ingredients, the determined true ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients were not different (P > 0.05). Total P, nonphytate P, true digestible P, and true retainable P contents of corn were determined to be 2.5, 0.8, 1.7, and 1.6 g/kg (as received), respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 9.7, 2.8, 4.6, and 4.7 g/kg (as received), respectively. The present data demonstrated that the regression method can be successfully used to measure true P digestibility of low and high P feed ingredients and that both true ileal digestibility and retention coefficients are

  10. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  11. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  12. Effects of different formulations of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z P; Wang, T; Ahmad, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhong, X

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E (VE)) and microencapsulated VE (MVE) on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens. A total of 360 d-old broiler chicks were procured and randomly allocated into three groups with 6 replicates. Each replicate had 20 chickens. Chickens were fed with basal diets (CON group) or experimental diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg VE (VE group) or 20 mg/kg MVE (MVE group) for 42 d. The results showed that the MVE group had higher body weight gain (BWG) than the CON and VE groups, and higher gain/feed ratio (G/F ratio) than the CON group during the period of 22-42 d. During the whole experiment, a higher increase in BWG was found in the MVE group than the CON group. Chickens fed on diets supplemented with the VE or MVE had lower abdominal fat percentage, higher pH and antioxidant enzyme activity than the CON group in the breast meat. There was an increased tendency in the hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity of the VE and MVE groups than the CON group. The hepatic mitochondrial total antioxidant capacity and GSH-Px enzyme activity in the MVE group were higher than the CON group. Hepatic 2,2-dipheny-ʟ-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of the MVE group was higher than the CON group. These results suggested that the dietary addition of VE or MVE could improve breast meat quality in broilers. MVE supplementation may improve growth performance, hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging capacity in chickens. In addition, dietary supplementation of MVE gave better broiler growth performance than VE.

  13. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  14. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents.

  15. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

  16. Differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ma, Wenqiang; Guo, Feng; Ni, Yingdong; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are vital for embryonic development and their bioactivity is regulated by the intracellular metabolism involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD). Here we sought to reveal the differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Eggs of fast-growing breed contained significantly higher (P<0.05) corticosterone in the yolk and albumen, compared with that of a slow-growing breed. 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 were expressed in relatively higher abundance in the liver, kidney and intestine, following similar tissue-specific ontogenic patterns. In the liver, expression of both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was upregulated (P<0.05) towards hatching, yet 20-HSD displayed distinct pattern showing a significant decrease (P<0.05) on posthatch day 1 (D1). Hepatic mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was significantly higher in fast-growing chicken embryos at all the embryonic stages investigated and so was the hepatic protein content on embryonic day of 14 (E14) for 11β-HSD1 and on E14 and D1 for 11β-HSD2. 20-HSD mRNA was higher in fast-growing chicken embryos only on E14. Our data provide the first evidence that egg deposition of corticosterone, as well as the hepatic expression of glucocorticoid metabolic enzymes, differs between fast-growing and slow-growing chickens, which may account, to some extent, for the breed disparities in embryonic development.

  17. Age- and sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric and geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bone in Ross broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Małgorzata; Komosa, Marcin; Kalinowski, Łukasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    For the first time computed tomography has been used to analyze densitometric and geometric parameters in proximal metaphyses and the mid-diaphyses of tibiotarsal bones in broiler chickens in posthatching development as influenced by age and sex. The research was conducted on 60 tibial bones of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) (10 males and 10 females in each age group). Statistical analysis has been conducted with the use of one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Calculations have been performed separately for each sex, with age as a differentiation variable and separately for each of the developmental stages, with sex as a differentiation factor. Pearson's correlation coefficient have been calculated. Also, relative bone density has been determined. It was observed that volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the diaphyses was two times higher (app. 550 cm3) than in the proximal metaphyses (app. 230 cm ) of the tibiae in broiler chickens. In the proximal metaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones, densitometric and geometrical parameters increased with age of the birds. Densitometric parameters (vBMD, BMC) in 6-week-old males displayed (slightly) higher values than in females. It is worth emphasising that in both sexes bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the tibial proximal metaphyses than in the diaphyses. At the mid-diaphysis, most of the densitometric and geometrical parameters, i.e. bone mineral content (BMC), Strength-Strain Index (SSI), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endosteal circumference (ENDO_C), cortical area(CRT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A) and bone area (TOT_A), tended to grow with the birds' age. vBMD (volumetric bone mineral density in situ) is the only parameter that did not grow with age. It was also observed that in males in 4 wk, vBMD in the proximal metaphyses displayed the lowest values during posthatching development (217.47 cm3). Also between 2 and 4 wk of the development, vBMD in the diaphyses decreased from 637.64 cm3

  18. Effect of a radiant energy-treated lysozyme antimicrobial blend on the control of clostridial necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guopeng; Mathis, Greg F; Hofacre, Charles L; Yaghmaee, Parastoo; Holley, Richard A; Duranc, Tim D

    2010-12-01

    A cage study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of Entegard REV, a lysozyme-based antimicrobial blend, on the performance of broiler chickens and necrotic enteritis (NE) disease reduction of birds that were challenged with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens. In the experiment, challenge by the infectious agents without medication resulted in impaired feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversions and caused high incidence of gross NE lesions and NE mortality rate. Entegard REV included in feed at 200 g/metric ton (MT) was very effective in reducing negative health effects in the birds after NE challenge, and its ability to control the disease was not statistically different from a commonly used antibiotic growth promotant, bacitracin methylene disalicilate, at 55 g/MT.

  19. In Vitro Adsorption and in Vivo Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Doxycycline and Frequently Used Mycotoxin Binders in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Fraeyman, Sophie; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-05-06

    Mycotoxin binders are readily mixed in feeds to prevent uptake of mycotoxins by the animal. Concerns were raised for nonspecific binding with orally administered veterinary drugs by the European Food Safety Authority in 2010. This paper describes the screening for in vitro adsorption of doxycycline-a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic-to six different binders that were able to bind >75% of the doxycycline. Next, an in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction study of doxycycline with two of the binders, which demonstrated significant in vitro binding, was performed in broiler chickens using an oral bolus model. It was shown that two montmorillonite-based binders were able to lower the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of doxycycline by >60% compared to the control group. These results may indicate a possible risk for reduced efficacy of doxycycline when used concomitantly with montmorillonite-based mycotoxin binders.

  20. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  1. Dysregulated expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in pulmonary artery remodeling in ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Fei; Zhuang, Yu; Xiao, Qingyang; Cao, Huabin; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Tiancheng; Lin, Huayuan; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-01-10

    Ascites syndrome (AS), also known as pulmonary artery hypertension, remains a challenging disease that severely affects both humans and broiler chickens. Pulmonary artery remodeling presents a key step in the development of AS. In this study, we obtained pulmonary artery tissues from broilers with and without AS to perform miRNA sequencing analysis, miRNA-mRNA association analysis and pathological examinations. 29 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found both in known and novel miRNAs with 18 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated miRNAs. Their predicted potential targets were involved in a wide range of functional clusters as indicated via GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analyses. The upregulation of miR-155, miR-23b-3p, miR-146b-5p and miR-146b-3p were found closely associated with the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery remodeling in AS progression. The association analysis for the miRNAs-mRNAs showed that these 29 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs regulate 162 differentially expressed target genes. Among them, 20 miRNAs correlated with 18 predicted target genes that appear to be involved in pulmonary artery remodeling, mainly in three broad physiological processes: the hypoxia sensing response (HIF1α, NHE1, STAT5 and STAT3), endothelial permeability dysfunction (CD44, TRAF2, CDK2AP1, LZTFL1, JAZF1, PEBP1, LRP1B, RPS14 and THBS2) and inflammation (MEOX2, STAT5, STAT3, IRF8, MAP3K8, IL-1BETA and TNFRSF1B). Pathological pulmonary artery remodeling in the AS broilers was consistently observed in the present study. Taken together, the current analysis further illuminates the molecular mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling underlying AS progression.

  2. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  3. Effect of replacement of maize with earth ball (Icacinia manni) meal on the performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Umoren, U E; Isika, M A; Asanga, E P; Ezeigwe, P N

    2007-07-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the replacement value of earth ball for maize in broiler diets. A feeding trial was conducted for eight weeks using 220 unsexed Anak 2000 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design to assess the effect of replacement of maize with Icacinia manni meal at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% on the performance. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, containing 24% crude protein and 3095 Kcal kg-' ME in the starter ration and 21% crude protein and 3204 Kcal kg-' ME in the finisher mash. The birds were randomly distributed into 5 treatments with two replicates containing 22 birds each making a total of 44 birds per treatment. Results showed that in the starter phase, dietary treatments had significantly (p<0.05) least feed intake, body weight gain in the 45 and 60% Icacinia manni meal diets, but not significantly (p>0.05) different in mortality and feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (p<0.05) were also observed in feed intake and body weight gain in the finisher phase. Birds on 0 and 15% Icacinia manni meal diets consumed more feed and were heavier (p<0.05) than those on 30, 45 and 60% Icacinia meal diets. Mortality and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different (p>0.05) at the finisher phase. Birds on 0 and 15% Icacinia meal inclusion exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight, kidney, liver, lung, shank, intestine, neck and gizzard weights. The study concludes that Icacinia manni meal could replace maize up to 15% in broiler diets without deleterious effect on performance, which holds great potential as feed ingredient in poultry nutrition.

  4. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  5. The effect of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary metabolisable energy, nutrient retention and endogenous losses in precision fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R; Oduguwa, O; Acamovic, T; Allymehr, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-two Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a precision feeding assay to investigate the effect of exogenous phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) on dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME), dry matter digestibility (DMD) coefficient, nitrogen (NR), amino acid and mineral retentions. The excretion of endogenous losses measured as sialic acid (SA) was also determined. Four dietary treatments (control (C), C + 250 FTU (phytase units per kg feed), C + 500 FTU, and C + 2500 FTU) were studied with each treatment replicated eight times in randomised complete block design. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception of available P content (2.3 g/kg non-phytate P). Over the 48-h collection period, the phytase fed birds retained 29.3 mg more Na and 2.3 mg more Zn (p < 0.05) than the control fed birds, with the relationship between phytase dose and Na and Zn retention being best described by a linear function (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, for Na and Zn, respectively). Phytase supplementation did not have an effect on dietary AME, DMD and NR. However, increasing the dose of phytase led to a linear increase in dietary amino acid retention (p < 0.05). Dietary phytase decreased total sialic acid excretion in a linear fashion (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementary phytase increases the retention (reduces the excretion) of dietary Zn and Na in broiler chickens. The beneficial effects of the addition of exogenous phytases to poultry diets seems to be mediated through improved dietary nutrients absorption and reduced endogenous losses.

  6. Genetic characterization of novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 isolates from outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in broiler chickens in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanke; Wan, Wenyan; Gao, Dongsheng; Li, Yongtao; Yang, Xia; Liu, Hongying; Yao, Huixia; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) associated with infections of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) have emerged in broiler chickens in several Chinese provinces. To identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for the recent HHS outbreaks in China, the complete genome sequences of five isolates from outbreaks of HHS in broiler chickens in five provinces were determined. The results demonstrated that a novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) genotype was epidemic in China. To investigate the molecular characteristics of these Chinese FAdV-4 isolates, their genome contents were compared with those of reported pathogenic and non-pathogenic FAdV-4 strains. The comparative analysis revealed that the novel Chinese FAdV-4 isolates contain various genomic deletions and multiple distinct amino-acid mutations in their major structural genes. Two additional putative genetic virulence markers in the fiber 2 gene were identified. These findings confirmed some of the genetic differences between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic FAdV-4 isolates. The data presented in this report will enhance the current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of FAdV-4 isolates in China and will provide additional insight into the critical factors that determine the pathogenicity of FAdV-4 strains. Finally, the emergence of this novel and highly pathogenic FAdV-4 genotype emphasizes that preventive measures against FAdV-4 infections on poultry farms should be implemented in China. PMID:27876783

  7. Integration of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indices of valnemulin in broiler chickens after a single intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Yu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Xia; Deng, Hui; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Fang, Bing-Hu; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus was studied ex vivo in broiler chickens after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of valnemulin against S. aureus strains ATCC 25923 in broth and serum were 0.12 and 1 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of valnemulin against all susceptible S. aureus strains isolated from chickens in the test population were 0.06 and 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. Protein binding, which greatly influences the efficacy of valnemulin, was assayed by equilibrium dialysate in vitro. A high binding fraction of 86.2% was found, which seems in good agreement with the difference of bacterial susceptibility tests observed in broth and serum. The surrogate index of AUC0-24/MIC required for the lowest bacteriostatic effect, and 2 log10CFU reduction in bacterial count were 24.4 h and 38.0 h, respectively. The required daily dose of valnemulin for a bacteriostatic activity was calculated to be 15 mg/kg BW based on the MIC90 of 0.12 µg/mL. Considering the slow disposition process of valnemulin and an AUC0-24 h value of more than 10-fold obtained from diseased animals, a suggested dose of 3 mg/kg BW is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in infected broilers. Due to the time-dependent antibacterial characteristics of valnemulin, the recommended daily dose should be split into two or three sub-doses to achieve the highest effectiveness while diminishing the risk of development of bacterial resistance.

  8. Prevalence rates of health and welfare conditions in broiler chickens change with weather in a temperate climate

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Hajat, Shakoor

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact assessment and adaptation research in agriculture has focused primarily on crop production, with less known about the potential impacts on livestock. We investigated how the prevalence of health and welfare conditions in broiler (meat) chickens changes with weather (temperature, rainfall, air frost) in a temperate climate. Cases of 16 conditions were recorded at approved slaughterhouses in Great Britain. National prevalence rates and distribution mapping were based on data from more than 2.4 billion individuals, collected between January 2011 and December 2013. Analysis of temporal distribution and associations with national weather were based on monthly data from more than 6.8 billion individuals, collected between January 2003 and December 2013. Ascites, bruising/fractures, hepatitis and abnormal colour/fever were most common, at annual average rates of 29.95, 28.00, 23.76 and 22.29 per 10 000, respectively. Ascites and abnormal colour/fever demonstrated clear annual cycles, with higher rates in winter than in summer. Ascites prevalence correlated strongly with maximum temperature at 0 and −1 month lags. Abnormal colour/fever correlated strongly with temperature at 0 lag. Maximum temperatures of approximately 8°C and approximately 19°C marked the turning points of curve in a U-shaped relationship with mortality during transportation and lairage. Future climate change research on broilers should focus on preslaughter mortality. PMID:27703686

  9. Toxic effect of NiCl2 on development of the bursa of Fabricius in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuang; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with objective of evaluating the toxic effects of nickel chloride (NiCl2) on development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days by using the methods of experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that dietary NiCl2 in 300 mg/kg and over induced toxic suppression in the bursal development, which was characterized by decreasing lymphocytes histopathologically and relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index, and increasing percentages of apoptotic cells. Concurrently, the mRNA expression levels of bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 and caspase-9 were increased and the bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were decreased. The toxic suppression of bursal development finally impaired humoral immunity duo to the reduction of B lymphocyte population and B lymphocyte activity in the broiler chicken. This study provides new evidences for further studying the effect mechanism of Ni and Ni compoundson B-cell or bursa of Fabricius. PMID:26683707

  10. Histological alterations in the intestinal epithelium caused by the inclusion of full-fat sunflower kernels in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Arija, I; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Canales, R; Pizarro, M; Castaño, M

    2000-09-01

    Changes in small intestinal morphology (jejunum) were examined at 28 d of age in chicks fed with full-fat sunflower kernels (FFSK)-based diets. Jejunal mucosa of chicks (six chicks per treatment) were embedded in Epon-812 for examination by a conventional electron microscope procedure. A portion of the tissues was also sectioned and embedded in paraffin for examination by light microscopy. Brush border, goblet cells, and intraepithelial lymphocytes, on the one hand, and fibroblast and mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages) were observed in the enterocytes and lamina propria, respectively. The results showed that the birds fed 150 g kg(-1) of FFSK showed a shortening and thickening of the villi, hyperplasia and vacuolar degeneration of enterocytes, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet cells. Likewise, an increment of intraepithelial lymphoid cells and hypercellularity of the lamina propria was observed. In addition, electron microscopy showed large vacuoles in the enterocytes, which could be dilations of agranular and granular endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi. There were many dark granules within the vacuoles that could be triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (portomicrons). These lesions could have been due to the presence of chlorogenic acid or to the greater concentration of oil in the FFSK diet. Our observations demonstrated that addition of 150 g kg(-1) FFSK to broiler chicken diets caused alterations in jejunal mucosa that could explain the decrease in fat digestibility observed in a previous experiment in which we incorporated FFSK into broiler diets.

  11. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals.

  12. A clinical case of chicken infectious anemia disease and virus DNA detection in naturally infected broilers in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bougiouklis, P A; Sofia, M; Brellou, G; Georgopoulou, I; Billinis, C; Vlemmas, I

    2007-06-01

    In this study, chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) DNA was detected from 12-day-old broilers. Clinical history showed that the clinical features were diarrhea, blue wing disease, depression, and death. Necropsy findings were pale liver, severe atrophy of bursa of Fabricius and thymus, and discoloration of the bone marrow as well as hemorrhages subcutaneously and a few in skeletal muscles. The majority of the necropsied broilers had developed gangrenous dermatitis. Histopathology showed hypoplasia of bone marrow and depletion of lymphocytes in spleen, bursa, and subcapsular thymic cortex. Karyorrhexis of lymphocytes was scattered in the thymic cortex and most pronounced in the bursal follicles. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were mainly located in lymphocytes of thymus, with a few in hemopoietic cells of bone marrow. CIAV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction from bursa, thymus, and bone marrow. A virus strain was detected and genetically characterized in 639 base pairs of VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Greek isolate was clustered together with isolates from Alabama, China, Slovenia, and Bangladesh.

  13. Influence of dietary phytic acid and source of microbial phytase on ileal endogenous amino acid flows in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2008-11-01

    The effects of phytic acid and 2 sources of exogenous phytase (bacterial vs. fungal) on the flow of endogenous amino acids at the terminal ileum of broilers were assessed using the enzyme-hydrolyzed casein method. Phytic acid (as the sodium salt) was included in a purified diet at 8.5 and 14.5 g/kg, and each diet was fed without or with a fungal (Aspergillus niger-derived) or a bacterial (Escherichia coli-derived) microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg of diet. Increasing the concentration of phytic acid in the diet from 8.5 to 14.5 g/kg increased (P < 0.001) the flow of all measured amino acids by an average of 68%, with a range from 17% for proline to 145% for phenylalanine. The flow of endogenous aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine were increased by more than the mean, indicating changes in the composition of endogenous protein in response to the presence of higher concentrations of phytic acid. Supplementation of both phytases reduced (P < 0.001) the flow of endogenous amino acids, but the reduction (P = 0.06) was greater for the bacterial phytase compared with the fungal phytase. These data suggest that a substantial part of the amino acid and energy responses observed following phytase supplementation in broiler chickens stems from reduced endogenous amino acid flows and that the capacity of different phytases to counteract the antinutritive properties of phytic acid vary.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for use as a feed supplement to promote weight gain in broilers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A T V; Nguyen, D V; Tran, M T; Nguyen, L T; Nguyen, A H; Phan, T-N

    2015-06-01

    Spore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts to develop a heat-stable feed supplement that promotes weight gain in broilers. Seven Bacillus strains having more than 90% sporulation were screened from the isolates and identified to be closely related with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Of the seven strains, B. subtilis CH16 was selected to develop a feed supplement for broilers, because it formed 100% heat-stable spores, grew rapidly at 42°C and quickly formed a biofilm. In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), the group fed CH16 (3 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) pellet) showed higher average daily gain (ADG = 61·16) and lower food conversion ratio (FCR = 1·696) than did the group fed B. licheniformis CH22 (ADG = 57·10 and FCR = 1·792), the group fed B. subtilis HU58 (ADG = 51·90 and FCR = 1·868), BioPlus group (ADG = 59·32 and FCR = 1·807) and the control group (ADG = 56·02 and FCR = 1·880). In conclusion, CH16 spores significantly increased ADG by 9·17% and reduced FCR by 9·79% in broilers. The result supports the use of B. subtilis CH16 of chicken intestinal origin as a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Significance and impact of the study: This study reports screening of Bacillus strains isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for development of a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Of the seven Bacillus isolates with high sporulation efficiency (≥90%), Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain showed the best growth and biofilm formation at body temperature of broilers (42°C). In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), CH16 spores induced a 9·17% increase in daily weight gain (ADG) and a 9·79% reduction in FCR while the commercial BioPlus(®) YC induced only a 5·89% increase in ADG and a 3·88% reduction in FCR.

  15. The effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P

    2010-01-01

    One hundred twenty-six 19-d-old male broiler chickens were used to determine the effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The birds were weighed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments at d 19 (3 treatments x 7 replicates x 6 birds). The treatments comprised a control group in which saline was injected at d 21, an LPS-treated group in which LPS (3 mg/kg of BW) was injected at d 21, and finally a berberine and LPS-treated group in which berberine (15 mg/kg of BW) was orally administered from d 19 to d 24 with LPS injection (3 mg/kg of BW) at d 21. Injection of LPS alone decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion compared with the control and the berberine-administered group. Relative liver weight was increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection compared with the control and the berberine-treated group. Total counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection. The heterophil concentration of the LPS-treated group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of both the control and the berberine-administered group 24 h postinjection. Broilers in the LPS-treated group had greater (P < 0.05) total serum protein compared with birds in the control and the berberine-administered group both 24 and 72 h postinjection. In addition, the plasma interleukin-6 level of the LPS-treated group was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) at 24 h compared with that of the control and the berberine-administered group. Our results indicate that LPS injection initiated a series of physiological changes typical of an acute phase response in broiler chickens. These effects were largely mitigated by oral administration of berberine.

  16. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  17. Innate immune response to yeast-derived carbohydrates in broiler chickens fed organic diets and challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Yitbarek, A; Echeverry, H; Brady, J; Hernandez-Doria, J; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Sharif, S; Guenter, W; House, J D; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2012-05-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is a reemerging disease of economic importance in areas of the world where antibiotic growth promoters have been banned. The effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation in organic diets of broilers challenged with C. perfringens on performance, gut morphology, and innate immunity was investigated. Three hundred Ross-308 broilers were fed antibiotic-free certified organic starter and grower diets. On d 14, birds were orally challenged with 1 mL of C. perfringens culture at 3 × 10(10) cfu/bird. Treatments consisted of a control no-challenge (CO; 0 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet), control challenge (COC, 0 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet), and MOS challenge (2 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet). Challenge of birds resulted in decreased feed intake and BW gain (P = 0.048 and P = 0.026, respectively). Even though supplementation of diet with MOS improved feed intake (P = 0.985), BW gain and G:F were not improved compared with those of the CO group (P = 0.026 and P = <0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference among treatments in jejunal and ileal villus height, crypt depth, and goblet cells/mm(2) (P > 0.05). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that, in the ileum, the MOS diet resulted in an upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)2b, TLR4, interleukin (IL)-12p35, and interferon (IFN)-γ compared with CO (P = 0.003, P = 0.018, and P = 0.024, respectively). In the cecal tonsil, challenging birds with C. perfringens resulted in an upregulation of TLR2b compared with CO (P = 0.036), and MOS resulted in an upregulation of TLR4 (P = 0.018). In conclusion, feeding a MOS-supplemented diet to C. perfringens-challenged broiler chickens did not improve performance and gut morphology-associated responses. However, MOS was capable of altering TLR and cytokine profiles, where dual TLR2 and TLR4 pathways were associated with MOS supplementation with subsequent upregulation of ileal IL-12p35 and IFN

  18. Comparison of Two LED Light Bulbs to a Dimmable CFL and their Effects on Broiler Chicken Growth, Stress, and Fear.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    The poultry industry is currently undergoing a shift to alternative lighting sources as incandescent lights become less available. While LED and CFL bulbs both have associated increased energy savings, they may affect the bird's growth and well-being differently as they output different light spectrums. To determine how different LED bulbs and a CFL bulb affected broiler performance, behavior, stress, and overall well-being, we conducted an experiment using Cobb broiler chickens (N=360). A NextGen LED bulb (NextGen), a Once Innovations LED bulb (Once), and a dimmable CFL (CFL) were used, all of which had different spectral outputs. Growth and feed conversion, several stress measures, fear tests, organ characteristics, and animal welfare assessment parameters were collected to determine how each light type affected animal well-being. LED treatments had shorter (P<0.05) latency to right during tonic immobility testing when compared to the CFL treatment; however, no other differences (P>0.05) were seen in the other fear tests. The Once treatment resulted in lower composite physical asymmetry, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and basal plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). Differences were observed in some organ measures; notably in the eye dimensions of the Once treatment. The Once treatment also had lower (P<0.05) plumage, hock, and footpad scores when compared to CFL treatment, while the Nextgen treatment had lower (P<0.05) plumage and hock scores than the CFL treatment but no difference between the two was seen in foot pad scores. Weight at the end of the growout was not affected by bulb type, however, both LED treatments had increased feed conversion (P<0.05). These results indicate that LEDs can result in better well-being and feed conversion when compared to CFLs. It is also notable that the LEDs did not have the same effects and this is likely due to the spectrum of light each creates. LEDs were shown to improve production

  19. Involvement of endothelial progenitor cells in the formation of plexiform lesions in broiler chickens: possible role of local immune/inflammatory response*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xun; Juan, Fan-guo; Shah, Ali Q.

    2017-01-01

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), which are often accompanied by perivascular infiltrates of mononuclear cells, represent the hallmark lesions of pulmonary arteries in humans suffering from severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been recently implicated in the formation of PLs in human patients. PLs rarely develop in rodent animal models of PAH but can develop spontaneously in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of EPCs in the PLs in broilers. The immune mechanisms involved in EPC dysfunction were also evaluated. Lungs were collected from commercial broilers at 1 to 4 weeks of age. The right/total ventricle ratios indicated normal pulmonary arterial pressures for all sampled birds. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expressions of EPC markers (CD133 and VEGFR-2) and proangiogenic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the lung samples. An EPC/lymphocyte co-culture system was used to investigate the functional changes of EPCs under the challenge of immune cells. PLs with different cellular composition were detected in the lungs of broilers regardless of age, and they were commonly surrounded by moderate to dense perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of CD133+ and VEGFR-2+ cells in PLs. These structures also exhibited a strong expression of HGF. Lymphocyte co-culture enhanced EPC apoptosis and completely blocked HGF-stimulated EPC survival and in vitro tube formation. Taken together, this work provides evidence for the involvement of EPCs in the development of PLs in broilers. It is suggested that the local immune cell infiltrate might serve as a contributor to EPC dysfunction by inducing EPC death and limiting their response to angiogenic stimuli. Broiler chickens may be valuable for investigating reversibility of plexogenic arteriopathy using gene-modified inflammation-resistant EPCs. PMID:28070997

  20. Involvement of endothelial progenitor cells in the formation of plexiform lesions in broiler chickens: possible role of local immune/inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xun; Juan, Fan-Guo; Shah, Ali Q

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), which are often accompanied by perivascular infiltrates of mononuclear cells, represent the hallmark lesions of pulmonary arteries in humans suffering from severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been recently implicated in the formation of PLs in human patients. PLs rarely develop in rodent animal models of PAH but can develop spontaneously in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of EPCs in the PLs in broilers. The immune mechanisms involved in EPC dysfunction were also evaluated. Lungs were collected from commercial broilers at 1 to 4 weeks of age. The right/total ventricle ratios indicated normal pulmonary arterial pressures for all sampled birds. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expressions of EPC markers (CD133 and VEGFR-2) and proangiogenic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the lung samples. An EPC/lymphocyte co-culture system was used to investigate the functional changes of EPCs under the challenge of immune cells. PLs with different cellular composition were detected in the lungs of broilers regardless of age, and they were commonly surrounded by moderate to dense perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of CD133(+) and VEGFR-2(+) cells in PLs. These structures also exhibited a strong expression of HGF. Lymphocyte co-culture enhanced EPC apoptosis and completely blocked HGF-stimulated EPC survival and in vitro tube formation. Taken together, this work provides evidence for the involvement of EPCs in the development of PLs in broilers. It is suggested that the local immune cell infiltrate might serve as a contributor to EPC dysfunction by inducing EPC death and limiting their response to angiogenic stimuli. Broiler chickens may be valuable for investigating reversibility of plexogenic arteriopathy using gene-modified inflammation-resistant EPCs.

  1. Effect of dietary antibiotic, probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters, on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ashayerizadeh, A; Dabiri, N; Ashayerizadeh, O; Mirzadeh, K H; Roshanfekr, H; Mamooee, M

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted for comparison the effects of antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprobiotic and prebiotic (primalac plus Biolex-MB) as dietary growth promoter on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Three hundred day old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 30 floor pens and reared for 42 day. A basal diet was formulated covering the recommendations of NRC (1994) for starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) periods and considered as control diet. Four tested diets were formulated by supplemented the basal control diet with antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprimalac plus Biolex-MB, respectively. Six replicates were used for each treatment. The results of present study showed that all growth promoters used was improved growth indices of Ross 308 broilers. The highest significant (p<0.05) values of carcass and thigh were recorded for broilers fed diet supplemented with flavomycin. The highest (p>0.05) value of breast was recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with primalac, meanwhile the lower value were showed for birds fed either diet or diet supplemented with Biolex-MB. The percent of carcass and cuts followed the same trend. Hematological parameter including cholesterol was recorded the highest (p>0.05) values groups fed the diets either control or supplemented with flavomycin, meanwhile the lower value was showed for bird fed diet supplemented primalac plus Biolex-MB. Triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) were recorded the highest concentration for bird fed both control and diet supplemented with flavomycin groups while least concentration was found for bird fed diet supplemented with primalac. The results of present study revealed that probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters can use as alternatives non-antibiotic feed additives to their free

  2. The effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune responses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yue; Regassa, Alemu; Kim, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Woo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organ weight, intestinal morphology, and immunological status in broilers (n=180) challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Birds were randomly assigned into a 3×2 factorial arrangement that included 1) 3 dietary treatments from d one to 21: positive control (PC), wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet contained antibiotics (virginiamycin and monensin); negative control (NC), as PC without antibiotics; and NC+FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% FOS, and 2) 2 intraperitoneal injections: 2 mg/kg Salmonella Enteritidis LPS or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on d 21. Growth performance and relative lymphoid organ weight were not significantly different among the treatments. Villus height, crypt depth, and total mucosa thickness were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the ileum of broiler chickens fed NC+FOS when compared to PC and NC. Birds in NC+FOS treatment had reduced heterophil but increased monocyte count when compared to NC (P<0.05). Significant diet×challenge interaction was observed on natural IgY levels (P<0.0001), and a significant dietary effect was observed on specific IgY levels in chickens fed NC+FOS (P=0.003). Supplementation of FOS also increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, -10, and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA in the ileum of the birds. In summary, Salmonella Enteritidis LPS challenge established significant differences in the immune responses in broiler chickens. FOS supplementation increased ileal mucosa thickness and elevated the expressions of certain cytokine genes. It also led to the alteration of leukocyte compositions and serum IgY levels in response to LPS challenge, suggesting FOS supplementation may be effective to induce protective outcomes in gut health and immunity of broiler chickens.

  3. Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Gomez, J; Chagneau, A M

    1995-09-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted, using both adult cockerels from a layer strain and 3-week-old broiler chickens. In the first experiment, one of the 2 diets investigated was composed mainly of maize and soyabean meals, the other one containing the latter ingredients diluted with 475 g/kg mature pea seeds. For these 2 diets, the apparent metabolisable energy values corrected to 0 nitrogen retention (AMEn) were derived, together with the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, amino acids, total lipids, starch, individual oligosaccharides, and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Excretions of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also determined. 2. In the first experiment, the mean apparent digestibilities of starch, lipids, total amino acids, NSP, sucrose and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides in adult cockerels were 0.946, 0.785, 0.835, 0.045, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. In broiler chickens, they were 0.938, 0.675, 0.830, -0.016, 0.988 and 0.867, respectively. The bird type effects were significant (P < 0.05) for the digestibilities of starch, lipids, NSP (for the maize-soyabean meal diet, only) and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. Broiler chickens excreted a mean of 11.032 g organic acids/kg diet against 4.190 in adult cockerels (P < 0.001). These digestibility measurements enabled the contribution made by each dietary component to the AMEn value of the diets to be calculated. AMEn values were lower in broiler chickens than in adult cockerels, with on average 0.8 MJ/kg dry matter difference resulting from bird type. This difference was accounted for by differences between bird types in energy supplied by lipids (34.0%), starch (7.5%), alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (8.7%), NSP (14.2%), and in energy losses from lactic acid excretion (16.4% of the difference in AMEn between bird types). 3. In the second experiment 2 diets were studied, consisting of a basal and the basal diluted with 30 g/kg lactose (a fermentable sugar in chickens) and 12 g/kg of a water

  4. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  5. Broiler chickens can benefit from machine learning: support vector machine analysis of observational epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Philip J; Nefedov, Alexey V; Muchnik, Ilya B; Morgan, Kenton L

    2012-08-07

    Machine-learning algorithms pervade our daily lives. In epidemiology, supervised machine learning has the potential for classification, diagnosis and risk factor identification. Here, we report the use of support vector machine learning to identify the features associated with hock burn on commercial broiler farms, using routinely collected farm management data. These data lend themselves to analysis using machine-learning techniques. Hock burn, dermatitis of the skin over the hock, is an important indicator of broiler health and welfare. Remarkably, this classifier can predict the occurrence of high hock burn prevalence with accuracy of 0.78 on unseen data, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also compare the results with those obtained by standard multi-variable logistic regression and suggest that this technique provides new insights into the data. This novel application of a machine-learning algorithm, embedded in poultry management systems could offer significant improvements in broiler health and welfare worldwide.

  6. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2016-10-10

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype.

  7. Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; González, Ernesto Avila; Hernández, Alma Rocha; Pino, José Manuel

    2002-02-01

    Several dried waste materials from different origins were used as a substrate to grow Tenebrio molitor L. Nutrient/amino acid values differed depending on both larval size/weight and substrate. These larvae were experimentally used as a broiler feedstuff. Seven-day-old chicks of a commercially available strain with an average weight of 126 g were randomly distributed into nine six-broiler groups. Three levels of Tenebrio molitor larvae (0, 5, and 10% dry weight) were used in a 19% protein content sorghum-soybean meal basal diet, to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency. Results after 15 d showed no significant differences among treatments. These data indicate that Tenebrio molitor has the potential to be used as protein source for raising broilers.

  8. Protective role of biogenic selenium nanoparticles in immunological and oxidative stress generated by enrofloxacin in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Shirsat, Shubhangi; Kadam, Ambadas; Mane, Rajaram S; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V; Zate, Manohar K; Naushad, Mu; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-06-07

    Presently most bacteria are becoming antibiotic resistant. Due to this there is a deficiency of potent antibiotics, therefore we have to preserve and improve the efficiency of existing antibiotics by mitigating the side effects. Enrofloxacin (EFX) is an important antimicrobial used in veterinary practice but it is known to exert immune suppression antioxidant stress. In the present study, we report on: (a) the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs), and (b) their protective effect in reducing adverse effects of EFX on broiler chicken. A potent bacterial strain, isolated from farm soil, has been identified as Pantoea agglomerans (GenBank: KU500622). It tolerates a high concentration of selenium dioxide (9 mM) and produces Se NPs under aerobic conditions. The obtained Se NPs are amorphous in structure and spherical in shape with sizes of less than 100 nm. The activity of cellular, humoral immune response and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, has significantly been decreased as a result of EFX treatment. We investigated that Se NP supplementation greatly restores these values towards the control, and to even higher than those of the control. Adverse effects of EFX are prevented by simultaneous exposure to Se NPs (0.6 mg per kg of feed) in the diet of poultry chicken.

  9. A Note on Fatty Acids Profile of Meat from Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Inorganic or Organic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    del Puerto, Marta; Cabrera, M. Cristina

    2017-01-01

    This investigation evaluated, in broiler chickens Pectoralis and Gastrocnemius muscles, the effect of the dietary supplementation with sodium selenite (0.3 ppm) versus selenomethionine (0.3 ppm), on the fatty acids composition, lipids indices, and enzymes indexes for desaturase, elongase, and thioesterase. The selenium reduced, in both muscles, the content of atherogenic fatty acids, C14:0 and C16:0, while it increased the C18:1 level. On the other hand, selenium increased, in both muscles, the content of C18:3n3 and EPA, but not DPA and DHA. No selenium effect was detected for PUFA/SFA, n-6, n-3, n-6/n-3, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. As for the enzyme indexes, a selenium effect is only detected for thioesterase. Taken together, the results highlight the potential effect of dietary selenium, mainly selenomethionine, in the modulation of the composition of fatty acids in chicken meat, in particular, reducing the content of atherogenic fatty acids and increasing the health promoting n-3 PUFA. PMID:28194404

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  11. Detecting thresholds for bitter, umami, and sweet tastants in broiler chicken using a 2-choice test method.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Reicher, Naama; Niv, Masha Y; Uni, Zehava

    2017-03-02

    The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption. Our results showed that assignment of the taste solutions and a water control to 2 bottles on random sides of the pen can be reliably used for broiler chicks, even though 47% of the chicks groups demonstrated a consistently preferred side. The detection thresholds for quinine (bitter), L-monosodium glutamate (MSG) (umami), and sucrose (sweet) were determined to be 0.3 mM, 300 mM, and 1 M, respectively. The threshold results for quinine were similar to those for humans and rodents, but the chicks were found to be less sensitive to sucrose and MSG. The described method is useful for studying detection thresholds for tastants that have the potential to affect feed and water consumption in chickens.

  12. Influence of dietary peas and organic acids and probiotic supplementation on performance and caecal microbial ecology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Højberg, O; Smulikowska, S; Engberg, R M; Mieczkowska, A

    2010-04-01

    1. The effect of dietary pea and addition of organic acid blend (OA) or probiotic (Pro) on performance and caecal microbial ecology of broiler chickens was studied. 2. A growth trial was conducted with 160 Ross 308 female broilers from d 1 to 35 of age. There were 8 treatment groups based on either control (S) or white pea (P). Both S and P were supplemented with OA (Galliacid - fumaric acid, calcium formate, calcium propionate and potassium sorbate coated with plant triglycerides, Vetagro) and or with Pro (LABYuc-Probio - lactic acid bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yucca schidigeri extract, Mifarmex GmbH). 3. Inclusion of peas in the diet increased feed intake and decreased gain:feed ratio in comparison to the control diet. Neither probiotic nor OA supplementations affected broiler performance. 4. The caecal microbiota was characterised in 37-d-old birds by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Total bacterial counts in caecal contents were slightly higher for birds fed the pea diets, but were not affected by OA or Pro supplements. 5. Neither pea nor Pro affected the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus counts in caecal contents, whereas OA supplementation slightly increased the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus counts. The composition of the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus population was altered by inclusion of peas as revealed by the T-RFLP patterns. 6. The DNA fingerprint further suggested that the caecal microbiota was dominated by the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus alactolyticus. 7. In ileal contents, the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was decreased only by Pro supplementation. In caecal contents, the SCFA concentration was higher for birds fed on the pea diets, and increased significantly with Pro supplementation 8. In conclusion, the results indicate that the use of pea and probiotics in broiler feed may stimulate the caecal commensal microbiota (growth

  13. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics ...

  14. Quantification of residual enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in feathers of broiler chickens by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence after oral administration of the drugs

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Griselda; Marin, Gustavo H.; Errecalde, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are drugs used in poultry feeding. In general, feathers that are incorporated in the food chain as a protein source for animal feed, have residues of these drugs. In order to study the pharmacokinetic of ENR/CIP residues in feathers of broiler chickens, to calculate the waiting times for these drugs, before human consumption, we developed the present research. Feathers of broiler chickens were enriched with ENR/CIP. After adding acetone, the mix was agitated and centrifuged and supernatant evaporated under nitrogen. The dry residue was suspended in a tetrahydrofuran solution and the supernatant was injected into the chromatographic system for analysis. Animals showed high levels of ENR/CIP in their feathers after administration of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin dissolved in drinking water for 5 days. Both compounds were detected in feathers during 9 days. The analytical method developed in this paper to determine ENR and CIP in feathers of broiler chicken showed good linearity, selectivity, accuracy and precision in the analysis conditions. This technique could have important applications in the studies on residues of ENR/CIP in feathers, since the effect of this component in animal diets has not been considered yet. PMID:26955603

  15. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  16. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments

  17. Dietary fat alters the response of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y to subsequent energy intake in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao J; Xu, Shao H; Liu, Lei; Song, Zhi G; Jiao, Hong C; Lin, Hai

    2017-02-15

    Dietary fat affects appetite and appetite-related peptides in birds and mammals; however, the effect of dietary fat on appetite is still unclear in chickens faced with different energy statuses. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fat on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptides in chickens subjected to two feeding states or two diets. In Experiment 1, chickens were fed a high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet for 35 days, and then subjected to fed (HF-fed, LF-fed) or fasted (HF-fasted, LF-fasted) conditions for 24 h. In Experiment 2, chickens that were fed a HF or LF diet for 35 days were fasted for 24 h and then re-fed with HF (HF-RHF, LF-RHF) or LF (HF-RLF, LF-RLF) diet for 3 h. The results showed that chickens fed a HF diet for 35 days had increased body fat deposition despite decreasing food intake even when the diet was altered during the re-feeding period (P<0.05). LF diet (35 days) promoted agouti-related peptide (AgRP) expression compared with HF diet (P<0.05) under both fed and fasted conditions. LF-RHF chickens had lower neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression compared with LF-RLF chickens; conversely, HF-RHF chickens had higher NPY expression than HF-RLF chickens (P<0.05). These results demonstrate: (1) that HF diet decreases food intake even when the subsequent diet is altered; (2) the orexigenic effect of hypothalamic AgRP; and (3) that dietary fat alters the response of hypothalamic NPY to subsequent energy intake. These findings provide a novel view of the metabolic perturbations associated with long-term dietary fat over-ingestion in chickens.

  18. Abundance of pathogens in the gut and litter of broiler chickens as affected by bacitracin and litter management.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shan; Gutek, Amanda; Lilburn, Michael; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-10-25

    Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. are food-borne enteric pathogens that are commonly associated with poultry. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplemental bacitracin and litter management (fresh vs. reused) on the abundance of these pathogens in commercial broiler chickens. Specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to quantify C. perfringens, virulent C. perfringens that carried the genes encoding α-toxin (cpa) and NetB-toxin (netB), Salmonella, and Campylobacter in samples of ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litter. Campylobacter was not detected in any of the samples collected. The abundance of Salmonella was not affected by either bacitracin or litter condition. Generic C. perfringens was detected in the ileal mucosa at very low level at 10 days of age but was much higher at 35 days. Chickens reared on reused litter tended to have a lower abundance of generic C. perfringens compared with those reared on fresh litter. In the ileal mucosa, no cpa or netB was detected at day 10 but was detected at day 35 in the chickens that were not fed supplemental bacitracin. Chicks fed supplemental bacitracin had reduced abundance of generic C. perfringens as well as the cpa and netB genes in the ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litters. A strong positive correlation was found between the abundance of all three measurements of C. perfringens. The abundance of Salmonella spp. and C. perfringens was also shown to be correlated. This is the first study that has examined the effect of dietary bacitracin and litter conditions on the prevalence of these three common enteric pathogens. Unless contaminated from previous flocks, reused litter may not necessarily contain significantly greater abundances of C. perfringens or Salmonella.

  19. Further studies on carry-over effects of dietary crude protein and triiodothyronine (T3) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rosebrough, R W; McMurtry, J P; Vasilatos-Younken, R

    1998-01-01

    Indian River male broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 d of age were fed on diets containing either 120 or 210 g crude protein and 0 or 1 mg triiodothyronine (T3)/kg diet to study in vitro lipogenesis (IVL). In addition, a carry-over period (180 g crude protein/kg diet from 28 to 40 d of age) was used to test the persistence of prior treatment effects. The higher protein level increased, but T3 decreased (P < 0.01) growth and feed consumption at 28 d of age. The lower protein level increased (P < 0.05) and T3 decreased IVL in 28-d-old chickens. These effects were only sustained for 6 d following the switch to a common diet at 28 d. IVL at 40 d of age was not affected by either crude protein or T3 fed during the 7-28 d period. The higher protein level increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 during the period from 7 to 28 d; however, this effect lasted for only 6 d following the switch to a common diet. Plasma growth hormone (GH) at 28 d of age was inversely related to dietary protein level. Changing to a common level of crude protein did not change plasma GH values at 12 d, indicating that the nutritional state of the young chicken may affect GH at a later period of life. Metabolic changes noted in this study were rapid and maintained for a short period of time following the feeding of a common diet.

  20. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated.

  1. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea.

  2. Evaluation of a selected lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; Delgado-Machuca, Jaime de Jesus; Macedo-Barragan, Rafael J; Garcia-Márquez, Luis J; Morales-Barrera, Jesus E; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11(®)) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups: control + S. Enteritidis or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, haematology and caecal content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization. In Experiment 2, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four groups: negative control; probiotic; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, chickens in all groups were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). In both trials of Experiment 1, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in colony-forming units/gram of S. Enteritidis in caecal content and a reduction in the incidence of S. Enteritidis enriched caecal samples were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens. In addition, significant heterophilia and lymphopaenia were observed in control + S. Enteritidis chickens. In Experiment 2, a decrease in numbers of S. Enteritidis in caeca were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens when compared to control + S. Enteritidis. Also, an increase in serum FITC-d concentration was detected in control + S. Enteritidis. These results suggest that early infection with S. Enteritidis can increase intestinal permeability, but the adverse effects can be prevented by the administration of the probiotic tested.

  3. In vivo contribution of deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside to deoxynivalenol exposure in broiler chickens and pigs: oral bioavailability, hydrolysis and toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; van Bergen, Thomas; Schauvliege, Stijn; De Boevre, Marthe; De Saeger, Sarah; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Berthiller, Franz; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachová, Alexandra; Adam, Gerhard; Vermeulen, An; Croubels, Siska

    2017-02-01

    Crossover animal trials were performed with intravenous and oral administration of deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON3G) and deoxynivalenol (DON) to broiler chickens and pigs. Systemic plasma concentrations of DON, DON3G and de-epoxy-DON were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to unravel phase II metabolism of DON. Additionally for pigs, portal plasma was analysed to study presystemic hydrolysis and metabolism. Data were processed via tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic models. The results in broiler chickens indicate that DON3G is not hydrolysed to DON in vivo. Furthermore, the absolute oral bioavailability of DON3G in broiler chickens was low (3.79 ± 2.68 %) and comparable to that of DON (5.56 ± 2.05 %). After PO DON3G administration to pigs, only DON was detected in plasma, indicating a complete presystemic hydrolysis of the absorbed fraction of DON3G. However, the absorbed fraction of DON3G, recovered as DON, was approximately 5 times lower than after PO DON administration, 16.1 ± 5.4 compared with 81.3 ± 17.4 %. Analysis of phase II metabolites revealed that biotransformation of DON and DON3G in pigs mainly consists of glucuronidation, whereas in chickens predominantly conjugation with sulphate occurred. The extent of phase II metabolism is notably higher for chickens than for pigs, which might explain the differences in sensitivity of these species to DON. Although in vitro studies demonstrate a decreased toxicity of DON3G compared with DON, the species-dependent toxicokinetic data and in vivo hydrolysis to DON illustrate the toxicological relevance and consequently the need for further research to establish a tolerable daily intake.

  4. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-14

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems.

  5. Growth, livability, feed consumption, and carcass composition of the Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chicken versus the 2012 high-yielding Cobb 500 broiler.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; Kiepper, B H; Ritz, C W; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-12-01

    A flock of the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), a 1955 meat-type chicken control strain, was raised alongside a flock of 2012 Cobb 500 fast feathering high-yielding broilers to determine selection changes over the past 57 yr. All birds were reared under management practices appropriate for the Cobb 500. Birds were weighed weekly and processed at 6, 8, and 10 wk. Whole carcass, carcass parts, and organs were weighed. Modern broilers outweighed ACRB at every age, ranging from 3.7 to 4.7 times the size of the ACRB. All parts and organs were compared as a percentage of live fasted BW. The ACRB had significantly heavier feet, wings, internal organs, and feathers. The modern Cobb broiler had double the breast and larger leg muscles and had a significantly greater fat pad. Despite the larger muscle mass, the supply organs, the heart and lungs, were significantly smaller in the Cobb broiler than the ACRB as a percentage of BW. Relative size of supply and other vital organs should be given consideration for genetic selection of the future broiler. Comparisons of ACRB weights and organ percentages with past published data indicates that the ACRB remains a consistent control strain.

  6. Molecular quantitation of H9N2 avian influenza virus in various organs of broiler chickens using TaqMan real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Najmeh; Dadras, Habibollah; Mohammadi, Ali

    2009-01-16

    During the past decade, H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) has caused considerable economic loss due to decreased production, increased mortality and the cost of vaccination in Iranian poultry industry. Because of widespread occurrence of this disease and the virus potential to mutate to highly-pathogenic (HP) form and transmission to humans, it is, therefore, imperative to understand the pathogenesis and properties of these viruses. In this study, a two step TaqMan real time PCR assay was performed for the quantitation of A/chicken/Iran/772/1998(H(9)N(2)) virus in various organs of broiler chickens at different days post inoculation (DPI). Forty 5-week-old commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with the virus. Five chickens were randomly selected on days 1, 3, 6 and 9 PI. Their trachea, lungs, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, blood and faeces were collected for virus detection. A PCR test was performed and the positive samples were used for quantitative real time PCR assay. The result of RT-PCR assay showed the presence of the virus in trachea (40%, 33%), lungs (20%, 66.6%) and spleen (20%, 50%) of infected chickens on days 3 and 6 PI, respectively. The virus was also detected in the kidneys of inoculated chickens on 3 (40%), 6 (60%) and 9 (100%) DPI. In faecal samples the virus was only detected on day 6 PI (83.3%). The molecular quantitation of AIV showed that the AIV titre in the trachea, lungs and spleen of chickens at 3 DPI is lower than the AIV titre at 6 DPI in these organs. The highest titre was observed in the faeces. The AIV titre in all organs of the birds which died at 6 DPI was higher than those of the same organs in the other experimental birds.

  7. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  8. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on broiler chicken performance from 28 to 49 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in modern broiler housing have substantially reduced air leakage, making proper operation of ventilation systems critical to maintaining a suitable environment. Fuel prices have increased in recent years, leading to reduced minimum ventilation in order to conserve fuel which increases ...

  9. Inhibition of Growth of Salmonella by Native Flora of Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Some bacteria in the cecal microflora of broilers can inhibit colonization of chicks by Salmonella. Beneficial cecal bacteria may reduce Salmonella colonization by competing for nutrients and attachment sites or by producing metabolites that inhibit Salmonella growth. The purpose of th...

  10. Effect of varying light intensity on blood physiological reactions of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) from 22 to 56 d of age at 50% RH on blood acid-ba