Haukisalmi, Voitto; Hardman, Lotta M; Hardman, Michael; Rausch, Robert L; Henttonen, Heikki
Phylograms based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences show that the Anoplocephaloides variabilis (Douthitt, 1915)-like cestodes (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from voles (Microtus spp.) and Paranoplocephala krebsi Haukisalmi, Wickström, Hantula & Henttonen, 2001 from collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.) comprise a monophyletic group within the anoplocephaline cestodes. The patterns of phylogenetic, biological and/or biogeographical distinction suggest six or seven species of A. variabilis-like cestodes, including P. krebsi. However, at this time we decline to describe them as a series of new species as no straightforward morphological differences were found between the A. variabilis-like cestodes. A new genus, Microcephaloides n. g., is proposed for the cestodes earlier assigned to A. variabilis, A. cf. variabilis, A. tenoramuraiae Genov & Georgiev, 1988 and P. krebsi. A redescription is provided for the type-species, M. variabilis n. comb., from pocket gophers (Geomys spp. and Thomomys spp.). In addition to Anoplocephaloides Baer, 1927 (sensu stricto) and Microcephaloides, Paranoplocephaloides Gulyaev, 1996, Flabelloskrjabinia Spasskii, 1951 and Leporidotaenia Genov, Murai, Georgiev & Harris, 1990 are considered valid genera among cestodes previously assigned to Anoplocephaloides (sensu Rausch, 1976). The host spectrum and present phylogenetic data suggest that Microcephaloides has been primarily associated with voles (Microtus spp.) and its basal lineage now occurs in M. guentheri (Danford & Alston) in Turkey. Although the distribution and current host of the basal lineage suggest a western Palaearctic origin, subsequent diversification has probably occurred in eastern Beringia, because most of the more derived lineages occur partly or exclusively in Alaska.
Macko, Jozef K; Spakulová, Marta
Cinclotaenia sp., described originally by Georgiev & Genov (1985) from the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) in Bulgaria, has recently been identified from the same host in the Carpathian Mountains in the Slovak Republic. This tapeworm is considered to be a new species, which is named C. georgievi n. sp. It is characterised by: a scolex armed with 23-27 (predominantly 24-26) hooks in two rows; hooks 30.5-36 microm long, with a blade 10-13.5 microm long and resembling in shape the diorchoid hooks of hymenolepidids; irregularly alternating genital pores with simple genital atria; a slightly conical cirrus armed by small spines of up to 3 microm in length; 24-51 testes posterior to a bi-alate, branched ovary; a gravid uterus filled with egg packets; and eggs with filaments. C. georgievi n. sp. differs from the closely-related C. tarnogradskii (Dinnik, 1927) in the slightly higher number of rostellar hooks, which have longer blades, and a larger cirrus.
Kuhs, Werner F.; Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.
Laboratory experiments have shown that ice I crystallizing from water vapour  or undercooled liquid water  under atmospheric conditions initially forms a stacking disordered arrangement of high complexity; the stacking arrangement is different depending on the starting phase. Both cubic and hexagonal components are locally present and various names of this form of ice have been proposed recently: so-called ice Ic or 'ice Ic', ice Isd  or ice Ich. It is has been shown that ice Ich undergoes a progressive transformation of cubic into hexagonal stackings with time and/or increasing temperature . As a mechanisms for this annealing we had proposed the cooperative action of Bjerrrum defects and moving dislocations which become active on a time-scale of minutes at temperatures close to 240K . Here we show from electron-microscopic images that the presence of stacking faults is linked to numerous kinks on the prismatic faces of the trigonal ice crystals of ice Ich . We present details on the annealing kinetics in the temperature range between 170 and 240K and suggest that the kinks of ice Ich crystals may be responsible for the roughness deduced from some air-borne light-scattering experiments, an increased reactivity in particular at temperatures below ~ 200K as well as curvature-induced higher vapour pressures of ice Ich as compared to normal ice Ih.  W.F.Kuhs, C.Sippel, T.C.Hansen (2012) PNAS 109:21259-21264  T.Malkin, B.J.Murray, A.V.Brukhno, J.Anwar, C.G.Salzmann (2012) PNAS 109: 1041-1045  T.C.Hansen, C.Sippel, W.F.Kuhs (2014) Z.Krist. DOI 10.1515/zkri-2014-1780  W.F.Kuhs, G.Genov, D.K.Staykova, T.Hansen (2004) 6:4917-4920
Falenty, A.; Kuhs, W. F.
, temporary gas outbursts are conceivable. Between 190K and 240K neither annealing of defective ice Ih nor the crystal regrowth is fast enough to effectively slow down outward diffusing gas molecules. In such a scenario slow decomposition is to be expected and therefore the impact on the surface will be very limited. Surprisingly we also have found "self preservation" in a narrow pressure range. The sealing effect is, however, less pronounced as the preservation mechanism differs from the higher temperature one. Therefore only large agglomerations of CO2 hydrates may be effectively saved from further decomposition.  J.S.Kargel Mars: A Warmer Wetter Planet, Springer Berlin, 2004.  R. Greve, R.A. Mahajan (2005), Icarus 176, 475-485  D.K. Staykova et al. (2003) J. Phys. Chem. B 107,10299-10311  G. Genov et al. (2004), Am. Miner. 89, 1228-1239  W.F. Kuhs et al. (2006) J.Phys.Chem. B 110 (26), 13283-13295  G. Genov PhD thesis, Georg-August Universität, Göttingen, 2004  W. F. Kuhs et al. (2004), Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4917-4920  A. Falenty et al. (2007) In: Physics and Chemistry of Ice (ed. W. F. Kuhs), RSC Publishing, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 171-179
Sippel, Christian; Koza, Michael M.; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.
flat low-indexed crystal faces.  T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743.  RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004) Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science 303, 516-520.  T Peter, C Marcolli, P Spichtinger, T Corti, MC Baker & T Koop (2006) When dry air is too humid. Science 314, 1399-1402.  JE Shilling, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray & AK Bertram (2006) Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys.Res.Lett. 33, 026671.  TC Hansen, MM Koza & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: I Modelling of stacking faults. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285104.  TC Hansen, MM Koza, P Lindner & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: II. Kinetic study. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285105.  WF Kuhs, G Genov, DK Staykova & AN Salamatin, T Hansen (2004) Ice perfection and the onset of anomalous preservation of gas hydrates. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 6, 4917-4920.  BJ Murray, DA Knopf & AK Bertram (2005) The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere. Nature 434, 292-205.
Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.
) Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science 303, 516-520.  T Peter, C Marcolli, P Spaichinger, T Corti, MC Baker & T Koop (2006) When dry air is too humid. Science 314, 1399-1402.  JE Shilling, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray & AK Bertram (2006) Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys.Res.Lett. 33, 026671.  TC Hansen, MM Koza & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: I Modelling of stacking faults. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285104.  TC Hansen, MM Koza, P Lindner & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: II. Kinetic study. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285105.  WF Kuhs, G Genov, DK Staykova & AN Salamatin (2004) Ice perfection and the onset of anomalous preservation of gas hydrates. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 6, 4917-4920.  BJ Murray, DA Knopf & AK Bertram (2005) The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere. Nature 434, 292-205.
Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.
coordinate transformations. If the coordinates they conjure up run backwards one gets negative refraction, if they exclude some region of space one makes anything inside invisible . In physics, general relativity has honed the theoretical tools for understanding curved space and curved-coordinate transformations. In transformation optics, general relativity has become a theoretical tool for solving practical engineering problems . What an unorthodox connection! This focus issue represents a snapshot of this rapidly developing research area. It is not restricted to optics or electromagnetism, though. Metamaterials for acoustics also exist and can be applied in ways similar to optical metamaterials. So transformation optics not only attracts an unusual mix of scientists, but also spans a range of applications in optics and beyond. Transformation optics has the potential to transform optics, for example by visualizing invisibility and making materials beyond materials—metamaterials. But before we transgress the boundaries to the hermeneutics of transformation optics , let the papers speak for themselves. References  Yao J, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Sun C, Bartal G, Stacy A M and Zhang X 2008 Science 321 930  Valentine J, Zhang S, Zentgraf T, Ulin-Avila E, Genov D A, Bartal G and Zhang X 2008 Nature 455 376  Schurig D, Mock J J, Justice B J, Cummer S A, Pendry J B, Starr A F and Smith D R 2006 Science 314 977  Leonhardt U and Philbin T G 2006 New J. Phys. 8 247  Sokal A D 1996 Social Text 14(46/47) 217 Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics Contents Transformation optics for the full dielectric electromagnetic cloak and metal-dielectric planar hyperlens D P Gaillot, C Croënne, F Zhang and D Lippens Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments Tomáš Tyc and Ulf Leonhardt Electromagnetic cloaking with canonical spiral inclusions K Guven, E Saenz, R Gonzalo, E Ozbay and S Tretyakov Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for